INSTALLING AN IDE HARD DISK

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					                                INSTALLING AN IDE HARD DISK

Introduction
There are a number of different hard disks and computer cases into which the disk can be fitted. Therefore
these instruction should be used as a general guide rather than an exact step by step instruction sheet.

IDE and EIDE interfaces
An IDE or EIDE interface can support two suitable devices such as hard disks, CD-ROM drives and large
capacity floppy drives (e.g. LS120 and ZIP). EIDE is a fast version of IDE and for simplicity the term IDE will
be used to mean either EIDE or IDE in the rest of this document.

Modern motherboards have two IDE interfaces and hence can support four IDE devices. Older motherboards
(generally pre-Pentium) have one IDE interface and a second interface is provided on the sound card to
connect a CD-ROM drive.

Hard disks tend to be connected to the primary IDE interface and other drive types are connected to the
secondary interface. This is good practice as connecting a CD-ROM or other removable disk drive on the
same interface as a hard disk will significantly reduce the performance of the hard disk.



Fitting a new hard disk
A new hard disk can either be added as an additional drive to increase the computer’s storage capacity or as
a replacement to an existing faulty drive. The new drive should be connected to the primary IDE interface
(unless this is a third hard drive in which case the drive will have to be connected to the secondary IDE
interface).

The computer’s outer case will need to be removed to fit the new drive. The outer case is fixed by screws or a
lock fastened to the back edge of the case. Before working inside the computer make sure that any static
charge is discharged from your body. You can do this by touching the computer’s metal frame while the
computer is plugged into the mains – make sure the power is switched off at the mains socket.




                                                                With the case open you should be able to see
                                                                the hard drive in the computer. It is usually
                                                                fitted in a cage below or to the left (as viewed
                                                                from the front) of the floppy drive. This cage
                                                                often holds all the 3.5” drives including hard
                                                                and floppy drives.



                                                                Before disconnecting any cables make a
                                                                note of where the cables are attached and
                                                                which way round they are fitted.




                                                                Figure 1. 3.5” drive cage with a hard disk




                                 Guide to installing an IDE hard disk. Page 1
                                Figure 2. A hard disk drive with cables attached

Each hard disk will be held into the cage by 2 – 4 screws and have two cables attached to it. One cable is the
IDE signal ribbon cable and the other is the power cable (Figure 2).
Drive information
The setting up parameters are printed on the drive. For example, on the drive shown in Figure 2 most of the
writing visible on top of the drive concerns the setting up parameters of the drive. You may need to contact the
supplier or manufacturer of the drive to obtain this information if it is not printed on the drive. They will need
the model or serial number of the drive to identify it correctly.

The most useful parameters to note are the jumper positions and the drive settings (number of heads,
cylinders, and sectors).

Fitting a second hard disk as slave
Setting jumpers
The jumpers on the original drive (or the drive you want to be the main C: drive) need to be changed to master
with slave.
The jumpers on the new drive (or the drive you wish to set as your D: drive) need to be set to slave.
Connecting leads
Follow the ribbon cable from the current drive. On this cable there should be a spare free connector. Connect
the new drive to the cable via this connector.

Make sure that the ribbon cable is connected so that the marked edge of the cable is next to pin 1. Pin 1 is
usually the edge of the connector closest to the power socket. Also there is a small 1 printed on the circuit
board next to where the pin 1 edge of the connector joins the circuit board on the base of the hard drive.

There should be an unused power lead inside the case and this can be connected to the drive. A power lead
splitter will need to be used if there is not a free power lead. These can be purchased from one of our sales
departments.


Fitting a replacement hard drive
Setting jumpers.
The jumpers need to be set to the same setting as those of the drive that is being replaced.


Connecting leads
The same leads need to be connected to the new drive as were connected to the old drive. As mentioned
above, make sure that the marked edge of the ribbon cable is towards the pin 1 edge of the connector.



                                  Guide to installing an IDE hard disk. Page 2
Putting everything back together
There should be enough free space in the 3.5” drive cage for the new drive. The drives should be fastened
into the 3.5” drive cage with four M3 screws.

It may be necessary to remove some cards (for example, sound and video cards) to give easier access.
These cards can be put back once the drives are in place. It is a case of trial and error to find the easiest way
to get the drives back in place. It is important not to force any part into place as this could cause serious
damage to the computer.

Once all the internal parts are in place the outer case can be fitted.


Setting up the system
The system BIOS
As the system boots, one of the first messages that appears says to press a key to enter setup. Usually the
key is either DEL, F1 or F2. When you see this message, press the appropriate key. You will then enter the
BIOS CMOS setup screens.

In new machines there is usually an o   ption to either set the hard disk parameters to auto and/or autodetect
the hard drives. Set the hard disk to auto in the Standard CMOS Setup screen if possible. Failing this use the
autodetect option. If you are unable to autodetect the new drive, you can manually insert the parameters that
were printed on the drive. You only need to insert the number of cylinders, heads, and sectors. Consult the
motherboard manual for instructions on how to autodetect or manually set the hard disk parameters. Make
sure that LBA mode is enabled if the new drive is larger than 500Mb (0.5Gb)

Save and exit the setup screens.



Fdisk
Start the computer with a boot disk in the floppy drive. Use the Windows 95 CD-ROM setup boot disk if you
are running Windows 95. Use the first DOS installation disk if you are running DOS and Windows 3.x (press
F3 twice to exit the DOS installation program - it is best not to run this program at this stage).

At the A:> prompt type fdisk and press enter.

FAT32 version of fdisk – a message will appear telling you that this version of fdisk will support large disk
sizes. Select Y if you wish to create a FAT32 partition (is not limited to 2.1Gb per partition – but will only be
seen by Windows 95 and 98), and N if you require a FAT16 partition. FAT16 version of fdisk will not give this
message.

Use one of the two procedures described below to create a new partition.
        Procedure 1 - the drive is replacing the current drive and is the only drive in the system.
        A menu containing four options will appear. Use option 3 to remove any partitions present on the new
        drive. Then use option 1 to first create a primary DOS partition using the maximum available space.
        Fdisk can be used to create a number of partitions on the drive but you should seek advice before
        doing this.

        Procedure 2 - the drive is the second drive or more than one hard drives is fitted.
        If an additional drive is being added, make sure you do not remove partitions from the old
        drive as this will delete everything on that drive. A menu containing five options will appear. Use
        option five to select the drive on which you wish to create a new partition (drive 1 should be the
        primary master and drive 2 the primary slave – use option 4 to check that you have selected the
        correct drive). Use option 3 to remove any partitions present on the new drive. Then use option 1 to
        first create a primary DOS partition, using the maximum available space. Fdisk can be used to create
        a number of partitions on the drive but you should seek advice before doing this.

Use Esc to exit fdisk and return to the A:> prompt once a logical drive has been created. At this point switch
the computer off and leave it off for a few seconds.

                                   Guide to installing an IDE hard disk. Page 3
Format
Restart the computer – again with the boot disk in the drive. Use the format command to format the new drive.
Make sure you do not format your old drive as this will cause the deletion of everything on that drive.
Formatting a modern large drive can take 10-30 minutes.

        If the new drive is a replacement for the main C: drive and has been set as the master or master with
        slave, type format c: /s /u and press enter.

        If the new drive is an additional drive D:, has been set to slave, and the master drive has only one
        partition, type format d: /u and press enter.

                                 e
The new drive should then be r ady to use. If the new drive is the master C: drive, an operating system will
then need to be installed on it. Consult the documentation that came with the operating system for instructions
on its installation.



Trouble shooting
The hard disk is not detected by the BIOS autodetection, fdisk or the system gives errors trying to detect the
drives on start up.
1. Check the cables are in place and the right way round. Check the jumper settings are correct.
2. Try installing the new drive on its own. If the system then detects the drive the jumper settings were
    probably incorrect.
3. Can you hear the new drive spinning when the system powers up. If not try using another power
    connector.


The drive capacity is shown in DOS or Windows as being smaller than it is.
1. The original DOS limit for hard disk drives was a little over 500Mb. Older machines, for example many
   486s will only work with larger drives if special software is installed. This software can usually be obtained
   from the drive supplier or manufacturer.
2. DOS and Windows 3.x, and early versions of Windows 95 are limited to maximum partition sizes of just
   over 2.1Gb. If the drive is larger than this you will have to create another partition to be able to use all the
   available hard disk space.
3. Your motherboard may have a limit to the size of hard disk it will support. Contact the computer or
   motherboard supplier or manufacturer to find if such a limit exists for your motherboard.


The system gives an invalid drive error message when trying to access the new drive.
1. Format the drive again.
2. Try accessing the drive from DOS. If you can access the drive in DOS and not in windows it is probably a
   software setup error. If you cannot access the drive in DOS it is probably a hardware error. Check your
   cables.


The system gives an insert bootable disk error message on start up.
1. Restart the system with the boot disk in the floppy drive. At the A:> prompt type sys c: and press return.

If you are still unable to get the new drive to work contact the supplier.




                                    Guide to installing an IDE hard disk. Page 4

				
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