LESSON PLAN COVER SHEET SUBJECT: Firearms UNIT: Basic Training INSTRUCTOR: Kevin Huffman PHONE: TIME ALLOTTED: INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS: Lesson plan Handouts Overhead Projector Smith & Wesson Revolver Automatic pistol Pump shotgun STUDENT MATERIALS: Pen and paper PREREQUISITE EXPERIENCE OF THE LEARNER: None required GOAL: 1. To familiarize the student with the basic nomenclature and functions of the revolver, semi-automatic pistol, and pump shotgun. 2. To familiarize the student with the basic shooting principles required to accurately and effectively operate a pistol and shotgun. 3. To familiarize the student with common shooting problems and how to correct them. 4. To familiarize the student with maintenance procedures for firearms. 5. To familiarize the student with firearms safety procedures. DATE PREPARED: 10-1-98 DATE REVISED: PREPARED BY: Kevin Huffman REVISED BY: INSTRUCTOR LESSON PLAN SUBJECT: Firearms UNIT: Basic Training LESSON OBJECTIVES: 1. The student will be able to identify the different parts of a revolver. 2. The student will be able to identify the different parts of an automatic pistol. 3. The student will be able to identify the different parts of a pump shotgun. 4. The student will be able to list the basic principles of effective shooting. 5. The student will be able to list the most common shooting deficiencies. 6. The student will be able to explain methods of correcting shooting deficiencies. 7. The student will be able to demonstrate disassembly and cleaning of various firearms. 8. The student will be able to demonstrate clearing different weapons malfunctions. 9. The student will be able to identify basic firearms safety procedures. 10. The student will be able to list range safety rules. 11. The student will be able to explain the Wise County Sheriff’s Firearms Policy. 12. The student will be able to explain the Texas Penal Code Use of Force. 13. The student will be able to demonstrate a proficiency with firearms on the gun range using live ammunition. INSTRUCTOR’S LESSON PLAN I. PREPARATION This course is designed to familiarize you with the various types of firearms, their parts, and functions. You will also learn basic shooting principles, common shooting errors and how to correct them, firearms liability issues, as well as firearms safety procedures. Upon successful completion of the classroom instruction, you will demonstrate your ability to effectively operate a handgun and shotgun on the firing range. II. PRESENTATION KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS I. REVOLVER A. BARREL: Pinned/screwed NOMENCLATURE 1. LANDS: the high part of the slots cut into the inside of the barrel. 2. GROOVES: the low part of the slots cut into the inside of the barrel. 3. FORCING CONE: conical portion at the beginning end of the barrel where the bullet enters, which sets up the bullet for entering the barrel. 4. MUZZLE: the end of the barrel where the bullet exits. 5. BARREL LUG/SHROUD: aa. LUG: device that supports the fore end of the ejection rod. bb. SHROUD: portion of the barrel that partially encloses the ejector rod. B. FRONT SIGHT: located on top of barrel near muzzle. C. FRAME: basic body of a handgun that houses the internal parts. D. TOP STRAP: upper part of frame to which the rear sight is attached. E. REAR SIGHT: located on rear portion of top strap. 1. ADJUSTABLE: can move horizontally and laterally to change point of impact on target. 2. FIXED: usually slots cut into top strap of gun. KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS F. HAMMER: portion that usually contains firing pin or strikes the firing pin when firing the weapon. 1. FIRING PIN: located on the hammer or in the frame which strikes the cartridge primer. 2. SAFETY BLOCK: usually a steel bar which stops the hammer from striking the firing pin unless the trigger is pulled. 3. SPUR: rear section of the hammer which is used to draw the hammer back by using the shooter’s thumb. G. CYLINDER LATCH: located to the rear of the cylinder which unlocks the cylinder so it can be opened. H. CYLINDER: contains a number of chambers in which the cartridges are placed. 1. CHAMBERS: actually house the cartridges. 2. CRANE/YOKE: holds the cylinder and allows it to swing out of the frame for loading or unloading. 3. EJECTOR ROD: located at the front of the cylinder which extracts the cartridges from the chambers. I. TRIGGER GUARD: part of the frame that encloses the trigger. J. TRIGGER: when pulled, it enables the hammer to rise and fall to strike the firing pin. 1. COMBAT TRIGGER: smooth finish & slightly larger than standard trigger. 2. TARGET TRIGGER: widest trigger with grooves for maximum finger placement. K. STOCKS/GRIPS: portion of weapon grasped with the hand. L. SIDE PLATE: can be removed to allow repair to inner parts of weapon. M. BACK STRAP: rearward part of grip. N. BUTT: lower part of grip. KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS II. AUTOMATIC A. SLIDE: houses the firing pin, extractor, and NOMENCLATURE ejector. B. DISASSEMBLY LATCH: allows the slide to be removed from the frame for maintenance. C. SLIDE STOP: causes the slide to lock open on an empty magazine. D. MAGAZINE RELEASE: allows the magazine to be removed when depressed. E. MAGAZINE: houses the cartridges and feeds them into the chamber for firing. F. TYPES OF SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS 1. SINGLE ACTION: fired by first cocking the hammer and pressing the trigger. There is also a half-cock position. 2. DOUBLE ACTION: hammer is cocked and released by pressing the trigger on the first shot. Subsequent shots are in single action mode. Most have a de-cocker/safety for lowering the hammer. 3. DOUBLE ACTION ONLY: fired by pressing the trigger. Hammer returns to double action mode after each shot. III. REVOLVER A. PREPARATION MAINTENANCE 1. Unload the weapon 2. Inspect chambers and barrel to be empty 3. Wipe excess oil from all surfaces B. INSPECTION 1. Check for loose screws and tighten. 2. Check cylinder assembly. a. cylinder rotates freely in frame b. cylinder opens and closes freely c. cylinder does not open when hammer is cocked & hammer does not cock when cylinder open. d. 2 pins flush/below star e. check under star for powder/oil f. check ease of extraction by working rod 3. Check double action trigger pull/hammer 4. Check push-off with hammer cocked 5. Check ejector rod for looseness 6. Check for cylinder/crane tightness 7. Check hammer nose & hole for chips/burs 8. Check for fly-by or skip KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS C. CLEANING 1. Assemble a cleaning kit to include: a. cleaning rod b. bore brushes c. bore solvent d. cleaning jags e. patches f. nylon toothbrush g. stainless steel brush h. lubricant i. gun cloth 2. Steps for cleaning a revolver a. Unload and remove ammo. b. Use rod and bore brush (dry) to clean bore with one continuous motion. c. Put bore solvent on brush and clean barrel and cylinders. d. Use a toothbrush and solvent to brush front and back of cylinder, forcing cone, top strap, and star. e. Use clean rag to wipe down pistol. f. Use rod and patch holder to remove solvent from barrel and chambers. g. Lightly oil moving parts of pistol. IV. SEMI-AUTOMATIC MAINTENANCE A. PREPARATION & INSPECTION 1. Remove magazine and clear chamber 2. Function check magazines 3. Inspect magazines for cracks/loose floor plate 4. Check trigger operation in single and double action mode. 5. Cock hammer and check de-cocking lever. 6. Check muzzle, chamber, and barrel hood. 7. Check slide and frame for cracks. 8. Check extractor for chips. 9. Check sights for looseness. 10. Check inside frame for cracks (disassembly). 11. Check ejector 12. Check firing pin 13. Check safety 14. Check magazine disconnect (if present). KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS B. CLEANING 1. Remove magazine and empty chamber. 2. Follow manufacturer’s guidelines for disassembly. 3. Clean in same manner as revolver. 4. Lightly lubricate according to manufacturer’s specifications. 5. Re-assemble as specified by manufacturer. V. SEMI-AUTOMATIC SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS A. CARRY CONDITIONS 1. Single action: Condition One-Cocked & Locked. 2. Double action: De-cocked and safety off. 3. Double action only: fully loaded safety off. B. MODIFICATIONS 1. DO NOT bypass magazine disconnect. 2. DO NOT add trigger shoes. 3. DO NOT allow someone to work on pistol that is not a factory trained armorer! C. HOME CONSIDERATIONS 1. Keep pistol out of sight 2. Safest method of storage is to separate ammo from weapon. 3. Use a lock box or cabinet 4. Educate family members 5. DO NOT keep pistol close to bed in firing mode. D. ACCIDENTAL DISCHARGES Four steps must occur for the gun to discharge: 1. The weapon must be functional & working 2. It must be loaded 3. It must be pointed at something 4. The trigger must be pressed!! NOTE: Some pistols do not have a firing pin block and may discharge when dropped. KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS E. HOT RANGE CONCEPT 1. All weapons on range will be loaded on command. 2. Once loaded, you must be on the firing line and under command to withdraw the weapon from its holster. 3. It is the shooters responsibility to keep magazines full. 4. Magazine in weapon may be recharged by withdrawing it from gun while in the holster, then replacing. 5. Muzzle must always be pointed down range when unholstered on the firing line. F. COLD RANGE CONCEPT 1. All weapons on the range are empty, magazine removed, and slide open. 2. Weapons are only loaded on firing line and under command. 3. Once finished with firing commands, weapons are unloaded before leaving firing line. VI. STOPPAGES: Anything that interrupts the firing cycle. A. FAILURE TO FEED: When round fails to chamber completely. 1. Magazine not seated completely 2. Bad ammunition 3. Damaged magazine, follower, spring, lips. 4. Dirty weapon or improperly lubricated. B. FAILURE TO FIRE: Firing mechanism functions but weapon does not fire. 1. No round in chamber 2. Bad round in chamber 3. Slide out of battery 4. Damaged weapon: Firing pin or hammer spring. C. FAIL TO EXTRACT: Weapon fires but case stays in chamber. 1. Debris under extractor (maintenance) 2. Bad ammunition (case rim too small) 3. Broken extractor KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS D. FAIL TO EJECT: Weapon fires but case is caught between bolt face and chamber (stovepipe) 1. Shooter Induced a. Limp wrist b. Arms not locked 2. Bad Ammunition: No power to operate slide 3. Broken extractor 4. Dirty weapon: improperly lubricated VI. STOPPAGE CLASSIFICATIONS A. PHASE I: Non-mechanical stoppages that can be quickly cleared: No round in chamber, bad round, magazine not seated, stovepipe. 1. Failure to feed 2. Failure to fire 3. Failure to eject B. PHASE II: Non-mechanical stoppages that can be cleared, but require more time. 1. Double feed 2. Two failures to feed 3. Fail to extract C. PHASE III: Mechanical failures that require an armorer to correct. 1. Breakage 2. Wear VII. CLEARING A STOPPAGE A. PHASE I ( 1.5 to 3 seconds) 1. TAP the magazine with the off hand. 2. RACK the slide as chambering a round. 3. BANG Press the trigger B. PHASE II ( use if PHASE I drill does not Work. 8-12 seconds) 1. RIP magazine out & let it fall. 2. RACK the slide 2+ times to clear malfunction. 3. RELOAD new magazine and chamber round. C. PHASE III Stoppage with slide stuck forward 1. Release magazine 2. Use web of weapon hand to drive “through” the grip, forcing the slide to move. 3. Once cleared, reload. KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS VIII. PUMP SHOTGUN Repeating shotguns operated by a working slide are NOMENCLATURE called slide action or pump shotguns. Operating cycle Consists of moving the slide rearward to open action, extract and eject a fired shell, and cock the hammer, and return the slide forward to chamber a new shell and close the action. A. BARREL: 1. smoothbore 2. Length: minimum 18” 3. Coke: amount of constriction at muzzle B. BREECH BLOCK C. BUTT PLATE D. EJECTION PORT E. FORE-END F. FRONT SIGHT G. LOADING PORT H. MAGAZINE I. MUZZLE J. SAFETY K. SLIDE RELEASE L. RECEIVER M. STOCK N. TRIGGER O. TRIGGER GUARD KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS IX. SHOTGUN MAINTENANCE A. CLEANING 1. Unload weapon of all ammo. 2. Remove barrel retaining nut 3. Lift barrel out of receiver 4. Dry brush barrel several times 5. Use solvent to brush barrel again 6. Clean exterior, bolt, and bolt face with nylon brush 7. Check extractor and firing pin 8. Wipe down weapon with dry cloth 9. Wipe inside barrel with dry patch 10. Re assemble shotgun. X. SHOOTING PRINCIPLES: Stance, grip, sight picture, trigger control. A. STANCE: Basically a shooting platform. Always use whatever is comfortable for individual shooter. 1. ISOSCELES: Straight forward, square to target. Body is slightly crouched with both arms forward and locked at elbows at eye level. Recoil is controlled by grip strength. 2. WEAVER: Entire body blades away from target at 45 degree angle. Weapon arm is forward and the elbow is bent downward. Support arm elbow is bent straight to the ground. Recoil is controlled by pushing with weapon hand and pulling with support hand. 3. MODIFIED: Lower body is bladed at angle away from target. Upper body faces toward target. Weapon arm straight and support arm is flexed. B. GRIP: Weapon should be placed in the hand so a straight line is formed with the barrel of the weapon and the forearm. The webbing of the hand should be fully under the tang of the back-strap. The support hand should be placed with its fingers wrapped around the knuckles of the weapon hand and the thumbs locked. C. SIGHT PICTURE: Should be level on top and equal distance on sides, placed on target point of impact. Focus should be on the front sight. KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS D. TRIGGER CONTROL: The cornerstone of shooting fundamentals. A steady pressure exerted on the trigger straight to the rear to release the hammer and fire the weapon and immediately allowing the trigger to return so the weapon can be fired again. The finger should continually maintain contact with the trigger. 1. It is the most common problem with shooters 2. If not done correctly, you will not hit what you aim at. 3. Has to be done properly, even when hurried. 4. Trigger jerk and anticipation of recoil are most common problems. 5. Once mastered, it must be practiced to the point where it is a subconscious act. 6. Can be practiced with Ball & Dummy exercises. 7. A shooter’s target will tell whether proper trigger control is being used. 8. To check for trigger control, shoot from 15-20 yards. 9. The trigger must cause the hammer to fall without disturbing the proper sight alignment! KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS XI. SHOOTING DEFICIENCIES A. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBLEM SHOOTER 1. Poor vision a. some people just do not see well, and for one reason or another, they have not had eyes examined. b. Master eye confusion: switching eyes randomly. Weapon hand, weak eye shooter. c. Possible solutions: have eyes checked and corrected. Identify master eye. 2. Weakness of hands 3. Weak wrist, fingers 4. Handicaps 5. Fear/apprehension of firearms 6. Anxiety of failure 7. Fundamental areas a. trigger jerks, pushes, pulls (finger placement) b. sighting errors (misalignment, don’t use front sight). c. improper grip d. body position e. draw problems f. loading problems: drop rounds, magazine problems, spent case hung under star. g. anticipating recoil B. PROBLEM AREAS OF WEAPON 1. Revolver a. trigger pressure b. ejector rod c. cylinder problems d. set screw 2. Semi-automatic pistol a. feeding problems b. weapon maintenance c. shooter error d. ammunition KEY TOPIC POINTS ELABORATION ON KEY POINTS XII. LIABILITY ISSUES XIII. RANGE SAFETY A. Safety rules in themselves never prevented an accident. It is the practice of safety rules to the point where they become automatic that prevents accidents. B. SHOOTERS MUST KNOW AT ALL TIMES: 1. How the weapon works 2. Whether it is loaded or not 3. Where it is pointing 4. Where their target is 5. What their target is 6. Where the bullet will go 7. Where the bullet will stop C. W.C.S.O. RANGE RULES D. FIRING LINE COMMANDS 1. I.P.S.C. Model a. “Shooters ready?” b. Pause c. “Standby” d. Command to fire “Shoot” e. Whistle blow means: “STOP SHOOTING”
"BASIC FIREARMS COURSE"