Water Treatment in Saudi Arabia

Document Sample
Water Treatment in Saudi Arabia Powered By Docstoc
					Water shortage

  The Solution to the Problem of Water Shortage and Water Pollution in the
                    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Analysis

                               Dr. Gene Benter

                                                                      Page 1
Water shortage

                                   Table of Contents

                                                       Page Number

Introduction                                                2

       Research Question                                    5

       Research Thesis                                      5

       Research Importance                                  5

Methodology                                                 6

Review of Literature                                        6

       Introduction                                         6

       Water Pollution                                      6

       Water Shortage                                       9

       Water Treatment                                      10

       Conclusion                                           11

Research Findings                                           12

       Introduction                                         12

       Water Pollution in Saudi Arabia                      13

       Water Shortage in Saudi Arabia                       14

Conclusion and Recommendation                               16

Bibliography                                                18

                                                                     Page 2
Water shortage

1.     Introduction

       Water is a source of life and for most poets water is life. This is the significance of water

in every human life form on this planet. Yet, many people are yet to realize its importance and

the problem it may cause once water is gone. At presence, very few people are thinking of the

significance of water in this world. Very few people are considerate in the use of water and its

preservation. Two thirds of the world is water and two thirds of our body is also made up water.

Water is so abundant that it is taken for granted. Everywhere there is water and it comes from

different sources. There is water underneath the earth, on the surface of the earth, and above the

earth being cradled by the clouds. Water springs out from the well, flows to and from different

channels, and pours down when the process of evaporation is completed. The cycle of water

remains mysterious and it comes according to seasons.

       The truth is no man can ever produce water, it cannot be manufactured nor can it be

recreated once it is gone. Most people on this planet are particularly concern about fresh water

for daily use and drinking water needed the body needs. Little did they care about that the vast

water supply they have now may someday gone due to their wrongdoings and abuses inflicted on

the sources of water. Pollution is an issue against the sources of water. It totally damages water

and causing too much destruction on its source.

       Technology is one instrument that continuously devastating sources of water. Chemical

plants are in every civilization and the toxic wastes they emit contaminate the sources of water.

Oil, diesel, and gasoline smoke rising to the sky in huge density stop the process of evaporation

and condensation. Rapid urbanization leads to the increasing hectares of mountains and

rainforest converted to subdivisions and new residential towns for people to live and inter-act.

Each year, thousands of acres of rainforest disappear from the face of the earth. The natural

                                                                                             Page 3
Water shortage

environment is the source of water and once they are gone so also with water. What then is the

fate of all living creatures on earth once water is gone?

        Water shortage is already a warning that water scarcity is starting to be felt. In places

where they have the technology, they resort to water treatment and desalination in order to cope

up with the demands of water. In the United Arab Emirates, they transform sea water into fresh

water so that the people could have supply of water for washing and cleaning. The USA has the

world biggest water treatment plant because they already have very small natural environment


        Middle East countries have used to water shortage. They have very limited water supply

ever since but in order to build a modern civilization, they have to find ways and means to

benefit from sea water. They did. The population in the UAE increased a hundred fold and the

rapid development of technology has brought about thousands of foreign direct investors to flock

into the country and established their business. Water consumption increases but there is not

enough water. Faiz Al-Mazrouei, (2007) reported that four of the six GCC countries, including

Qatar, are rated among the 10 most water scarce countries in the world. Kuwait (10 cu

m/person/yr), the UAE (58 cu m), Qatar (94 cu m) and Saudi Arabia (118 cu m) rank first, third,

fifth and eighth respectively in the world in terms of lowest domestic water availability per

capita. The situation in the other two GCC countries, Bahrain and Oman, also is also

uncomfortable. These countries over-utilize 2.8 and 1.5 times, respectively, their annually

renewable water resources, the book cautions. All the GCC countries have made substantial

progress in their respective campaigns for water resources management over the last decade,

especially in the area of development of non-conventional water resources. (Al-Mazrouei, 2007,

p. 1)

                                                                                          Page 4
Water shortage

         Specifically, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has insufficient supply of water to provide for

the whole population. The kingdom is also experiencing population growth and countrywide

development. The demand for water supply is inevitable. Hence, the scarcity of water in the

Kingdom has brought about various procedures in order to come up with potable and fresh water

supply to meet the increasing volume for the need for water.

1.1      Research Question

         The main question presented on this research touches on “What are the solutions Saudi

Arabia employ in order to address the problem on water pollution and water shortage?” In order

to supply the needed facts, the following sub questions will find out the answer to the problem of

this study.

      1.1.1   What are water pollution and its causes in Saudi Arabia?

      1.1.2   What factors contributed to the shortage of water in Saudi Arabia?

      1.1.3   In what ways, the government of Saudi Arabia addresses its problem on water

              pollution and water shortages?

1.2      Research Thesis

         This research paper espoused the thesis that the Government of Saudi Arabia has

employed modern technologies to address the issues on water pollution and water shortages to

satisfy the demands of the increasing need for water in the entire Kingdom.

1.3      Research Importance

         The importance of this research is both academics and practical. The details of the study

will contribute a great deal in understanding the concept of water pollution and the reasons

behind water shortages. It also presents the causes of water pollution and its prevention to avoid

                                                                                           Page 5
Water shortage

more destruction of water sources. Lastly, this research opens up another venue for field

researches regarding water solution and water desalination.

11.    Methodology

       Unlike other research, this research is descriptive and quantitative hence, the methods

being employed is gathering information from every written and published books, journals,

magazines, and articles from the internet. There are three main sources of ideas where the

research delves more closely. These are articles from journals, internet web sites, and popular

authors of books on water pollution and water problem solutions. The author of the research

study amplifies the ideas of the authors and form a theoretical framework of study based on the

understanding of the topics. The analysis of the problem is presented in the Research Findings.

III. Literature Review

       III. 1 Introduction

       This chapter is an elaboration of the concept of water pollution, water shortage, and water

treatment gathered from the minds of various authors who made intensive exposition on the issue

of water in the world today.

       III. 2. Water Pollution

       Daniel H. Pink (2006) came with his understanding of water pollution as any physical,

biological, or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes

water unsuitable for desired uses can be considered pollution. His description of water pollution

covers the entire uses of water on this planet. In the preceding statement he added to his

description of water pollution the concept of the natural sources of water contamination, such as

arsenic springs, oil seeps, and sedimentation from desert erosion, but most environmental

                                                                                           Page 6
Water shortage

scientists restrict their focus on water pollution to factors caused by human actions and that

detract from conditions and uses that humans consider desirable. (Pink, 2006, p. 3)

       It is lamentable to think that water as a source of life is now subjected to contamination

and human irresponsibility. According to Larry West (2006) water pollution is coming from

several sources, including chemical pollutants from industry, run off of chemicals used in

agriculture, or debris from geological process, but the greatest source of pollution is organic

waste. Although chemical pollutants may become diluted, they can also radically alter the

ecosystem to allow the overproduction of certain forms of algae and bacteria that pollute the

water with respect to its use by humans. (West, 2006, p 12) Since 1967, water pollution

manifestation, according to authors like G. Tchobanoglous, F.L. Burton, and H.D. Stensel,

(2003) has already been observed in different bodies of water and most water pollutants are

eventually carried by rivers into the oceans. In some areas of the world the influence can be

traced hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models. Toxic

materials including many organic materials, metals such as zinc, silver, cadmium, thallium,

acids, and alkalis, non-metallic elements such as arsenic or selenium are general pollutants that

are resistant to biological processes.

       The tremendous of effect of water pollution to the human population is indescribable and

scary. Pollution is often by way of rivers, drains and outflow pipes." It causes an outflow of

sewage into our ocean waters. This is not only affecting the community but also the marine life

and other sea creatures living in the ocean." (West, 2006, p 13) The World Health Organization

(2007) reports that 1.1 billion people lack access to an improved drinking water supply, 88% of

the 4 billion annual cases of diarrheal disease are attributed to unsafe water and inadequate

sanitation and hygiene, and 1.8 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year. The WHO

                                                                                          Page 7
Water shortage

estimates that 94% of these diarrheal cases are preventable through modifications to the

environment, including access to safe water. Simple techniques for treating water at home, such

as chlorination, filters, and solar disinfection, and storing it in safe containers could save a huge

number of lives each year.

       According to F. Helfferich, (2002), the water pollution in this age includes human sewage

and domestic waste water, factory outflows of acids and poisonous metals, engine oil from

roadside drains and garages, farm chemicals washed off the land by rain, building-site rubble,

nuclear waste from power plants, and oil from wells, refineries, and tankers. He added that

today's waste is from factory or factory run products that shouldn't be polluting the water instead

should contribute to its preservation. (Helfferich, 2002, p 12)

       As reported by Wilhelmina Schultz (2008) with all this going into our today’s water

many people get sick because of the waste human put into the ocean waters. Pollution is also

responsible for new diseases among seals. Without even swallowing plastics, it could trap

seabirds, turtles, and other creatures that could lead to their death. People drinking water from

polluted water will ultimately encounter illness. Deadly infectious diseases like cholera and

typhoid are usual phenomena and oftentimes cause human and animal death at early days."

(Schultz, 2008, p. 12)

       Based on the US Government circular (2006) in California, for the past five years there

has been a major problem with the drinking water being contaminated. The reason for its

contamination is the primary component used to make rocket fuel, for planes and fighter jets.

This substance has been found in over three hundred of California's drinking water sources in 12

counties. USG Circ., 2006, p 12)

                                                                                              Page 8
Water shortage

         III. 3. Water Shortage

        Incapability of governments to supply the demands for water and satisfy the needs for

water is usually attributed to water shortage. N.M. Albuquerque (2000) reiterates that growing

international water crisis is forcing governments to rethink how they value, use, and manage

water, especially because economic development hinges on water availability. Drinking water

supplies, agriculture, energy production and generation, mining and industry all require large

quantities of water. In the future, these sectors will be competing for increasingly limited

freshwater resources, making water supply availability a major economic driver in the 21st

century. Freshwater withdrawals already exceed precipitation in many parts of the U.S., with the

worst shortfalls often in areas with the fastest population. (Albuquerque, 2000, p )

        What can be done to help solve the water shortage dilemma? The answer is not simple

and will involve usage of all water sources - more than just freshwater supplies as has been the

primary focus in the past. Innovative treatments will have to be used - treatments using advanced

membrane separation technologies, as well as treatment of nontraditional water sources such as

wastewater, brackish groundwater, seawater and extracted mine water. (Albuquerque, NM, 2008,

p. 2)

        Nurit Klio (2001) said the year 2025 forecasts state that two thirds of the world

population will be without safe drinking water and basic sanitation services. Construction of

wastewater treatment plants and reduction of groundwater over drafting appear to be obvious

solutions to the worldwide problem; however, a deeper look reveals more fundamental issues in

play. Wastewater treatment is highly capital intensive, restricting access to this technology in

some regions; furthermore the rapid increase in population of many countries makes this a race

that is difficult to win. As if those factors are not daunting enough, one must consider the

                                                                                          Page 9
Water shortage

enormous costs and skill sets involved to maintain wastewater treatment plants even if they are

successfully developed. (Klio, 2001, 23)

         III. 4 Water Treatment

        The effect of water pollution has caused several problems in human society even in the

animal colonies. Water shortage has been the ill effect of most cases of water problems. To

resolve the situation, the general perception is to treat water instead of addressing the cause of

water problem in the world. Viewed by Leonore Clescer, Arnold Greenberg, and Andrew Eaton

(2006), ever since water pollutions became a menace to society water treatment came into the

worldwide scenario. They describe the sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment as

the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff and

domestic. It includes physical, chemical and biological processes to remove physical, chemical

and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream and a solid waste or

sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. This material is often

inadvertently contaminated with many toxic organic and inorganic compounds. (Clescer, et al,

2006, p 23 – 25)

        Due to alarming issues on water pollution, water treatment became an instant solution rather than

preventing the causes of water pollution and protecting the sources of water. One person offered a natural

way of treating water from contamination. C. E. Harland (2004) increased water conservation and

water use efficiency remains the most cost effective priority for supplying water. While

comparing ocean water desalination to wastewater reclamation for drinking water shows

desalination as the first option, using reclamation for irrigation and industrial use provides

multiple benefits. Urban runoff and storm water capture also provide multiple benefits in

treating, restoring and recharging groundwater. (Harland, 2004, p 23 - 24)

                                                                                                 Page 10
Water shortage

       From the article of Peter H. Gleick, Haasz Dana, Christine Henges-Jeck, Veena

Srinivasan, Gary Wolff, Katherine Kao Cushing, and Amardip Man. (2008) as of 2006,

waterborne diseases are estimated to cause 1.8 million deaths each year. These deaths are

attributable to inadequate public sanitation systems and it is clear that proper sewerage or other

options as small-scale water treatment need to be installed. In order for the decrease of

waterborne diseases to have long term effects, water treatment programs implemented by

research and development groups in developing countries must be sustainable by its own

residents. This can ensure the efficiency of such programs after the departure of the research

team as monitoring is difficult because of the remoteness of many locations. (Gleick, et al, 2008,

web page 2)

       Based on the reports of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Washington, DC (2007) the growing public awareness and concern for controlling water

pollution led Congress to carry out a major re-write of water pollution law in 1972. The Federal

Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, commonly known as the Clean Water Act

(CWA), established the basic mechanisms for controlling point source pollution. The law

mandated the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and enforce

wastewater standards for industry and municipal sewage treatment plants. The Act also

continued requirements that EPA and states issue water quality standards for surface water

bodies. (EPA, 2007, web page 3)

       The issue of water pollution, shortage and treatment also is a matter of concern in the

entire Middle East and North American region. Mounir Belloumi’s (2006) wrote as an

introduction to his paper that MENA leads the world in desalination technology investments.

MENA countries are increasingly producing water for municipal and industrial use by removing

                                                                                          Page 11
Water shortage

salt from sea or brackish water. The region has 60 percent of the world’s capacity and has been

using this technology to supply more than half of all municipal water needs since 1990,

producing 2,377 million m3/year. Additional investment in this technology is planned in the

countries of the Gulf and elsewhere. Several countries outside the Gulf have also invested in this

technology and contribute to the technical innovations. (Belloumi’s, 2006, Web page 2),

       III. 5 Conclusion

       The main causes of water pollution and water shortage can be attributed to environmental

destruction and technological waste being poured out into the main stream of the earth’s

resources. The increasing number of the world inhabitants either humans or non humans must

have contributory to the menace of the water system but the majority causes that disturbed the

system of water are human inventions and consumption. Water treatment is short lived solution

to the problem because as time passed water sources are also getting fewer and fewer.

IV. Findings of the Study

       IV. 1 Causes of Water Pollution in Saudi Arabia

       Population centers in Saudi Arabia are mainly located along the eastern and western

coasts and densely populated interior oases such as Hofuf and Buraydah. In some extended areas,

primarily the Rub' al-Khali and the Arabian Desert, there is no population whatsoever, although

the petroleum industry is constructing a few planned communities there. Saudi Arabia has no

permanent year-round rivers or lakes; however, its coastline extends for 2640 km or 1640 miles

and, on the Red Sea side, offers world-class coral reefs, including those in the Gulf of Aqaba.

The coastal area on the Red Sea with its coral reefs has a rich marine life.

                                                                                          Page 12
Water shortage

       Water pollution in Saudi Arabia is caused mainly by chemical waste and fast industrial

development that cannot avoid to flood the environment with waste that are detrimental to the

very source of water in the Kingdom. Saudi Arabia has several major industrial zones located in

the Easter Province, Central province, and the Eastern part of the country.

       In addition to Saudi Arabia residents using more water than is returned in rain, water is

also being polluted by the negligence of the people. Most of the pesticides and fertilizers used in

agriculture, sewer overflows, and the oil and grease from roads, eventually run off into the water

systems. Other sources of excess nutrients include lawn fertilizers, pet and farm animal waste,

decaying plant material, failing septic tanks, and inefficient sewage treatment plants. Industrial

plants and municipal wastewater treatment plants can also contribute to the amount of toxic

substances entering streams and rivers and ultimately lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters.

       IV. 2 Shortage of water in Saudi Arabia

       Farming needs to be done by using drip-sprinklers and other micro-irrigation systems, by

changing cropping patterns and growing methods to get more crops per drop, and by adopting

high-yielding and early-maturing crop varieties.

       Twenty Percent of Fresh Water is used by Industry. As water becomes scarce, demand

for water in cities and by industry is satisfied by taking water from a country’s agriculture, with

imported grain offsetting the shortfall. Conservation programs aimed individuals are not applied

to industry.

       Ten percent of fresh water is used for residential purposes. Residential use accounts for

10 percent of fresh water use and about three-fourths of the urban water demand. Each day in the

U.S., more than 4.8 billion gallons of drinking water is flushed down toilets.

                                                                                              Page 13
Water shortage

       Showers account for about 20 percent of total indoor water use. The EPA says that by

replacing standard 4.5-gallon-per-minute showerheads with 2.5-gallon-per-minute heads, which

cost less than $5 each, a family of four can save approximately 20,000 gallons of water per year.

Outdoor residential water use varies greatly, but on average, nationally, lawn care accounts for

about 32 percent of the total residential outdoor use. Other outdoor uses include washing

automobiles, maintaining swimming pools, and cleaning sidewalks and driveways.

       The number one cause of the shortage of fresh water not only in Saudi Arabia but also in

the entire world is global warming. Some scientists say that global warming is the single greatest

cause of the fresh water shortage in the world. A rise in average temperature in mountainous

regions can alter the precipitation mix between rainfall and snowfall, with more rain and less

snow. This change means more flooding and more runoff during the rainy season, but also less

water held as snow and ice in the mountains for use in the dry season. These mountain gla ciers

or “reservoirs in the sky” are all melting. The snow/ice mass in the Himalayas, the third largest

in the world, after the two polar ice caps is now beginning to shrink at an accelerating rate. Every

major river in Asia originates in that snow/ice mass and this affects the entire MENA region.

       IV.3 Solution of Saudi Government to water problem in the Kingdom

       Saudi Arabia is home to 30 percent of the world’s desalination capacity; production of

desalinated water in Saudi Arabia was 1,070 million m3 /year in 2004. Large quantities of

recycled water for irrigation, landscaping and industrial purposes are available in the Eastern

Province after several projects were constructed in Dammam and Qatif. The projects, has a

capacity to reclaim 350,000 cubic meters of sewage a day. A special technology has been

employed to eliminate the foul odor emitted during the process at the secondary recycling plant

                                                                                            Page 14
Water shortage

in Dammam, which is being expanded at a cost of SR68 million to reclaim 62,000 cubic meters

per day. There are the two plants in Qatif built at a cost of SR137 million.

       Apart from lessening the environment hazards, the recycled water meets the agricultural

and industrial needs and eases the pressure on the ground water reserves. Modern technology

allows wastewater treatment systems to consistently produce safe water supplies at competitive

costs. The degree of treatment depends on the intended use, and public health protection is the

paramount criterion for judging the level of treatment needed as implemented very strictly in the

entire kingdom.

       Saudi Arabia Water Minister and Electricity Abdullah Al-Hussayen, in an interview with

Arab Post in November 16, 2006, said that he would like to "push conservation to the ultimate"

and become “an example to the world in how we cut our per capita consumption”. The minister

continued that the cost to the consumer of water will continue to be subsidized even after

privatization so it is in the best interest to cut water consumption because it will cut the subsidy

in the process. The minister was unwilling to speculate on the possible level of subsidy. The rate

of use of the groundwater in Saudi Arabia is greater than the rate of recharge; estimates vary

from a ratio of 18 to one to as high as 99 to 1. Al-Hussayen said that there was plenty of ground

water if it was properly managed. He cited as an example Alwasia aquifer that supplied Riyadh.

"It has been supplying Riyadh with 200,000 cubic meters a day," he said, adding that the drop in

the water level was only six meters during that period. "So there is plenty of ground water if

properly managed. You can go a long way with what we have." He concluded.

       Other solutions the Saudi government issued are better public and community control of

water utilities; repairing old water systems, using less water for agriculture by using drip

                                                                                            Page 15
Water shortage

irrigation, stopping polluting the water, increasing water conservation and focusing resources on

watershed management.

       The Saudi Arabian government hopes to implement the needed changes. It plans to

eliminate subsidies that create artificially low prices of water, and raise water prices to the point

where they will reduce pumping to a sustainable level. Low-income urban consumers can be

protected with "lifeline rates" that provide for basic needs at an affordable price. The second

required change, the government is proposing, is to stabilize population, without these changes,

“there may not be a humane solution to the emerging world water shortage.” The Saudi water

minister said.

V. Conclusion and Recommendation

       The issues on water conservation and preservation are worldwide concern because its

effect will affect every living entity on this planet and not only Saudi Arabia. Some people might

wonder how a desert country is still involve in on water pollution and water shortage while the

few resources of water the country enjoys is very limited. The fact is, Saudi Arabia is part of

MENA and also populated with humans and animals, tendering plants and fruit crops, and

demand water just the same with the rest of world. That is why, from the context of Saudi

Arabia, the very limited water supply that it has, water salination and water treatment are the

only processes the country has to rely to provide enough supply of water to its population.

       As water shortage is also a problem in the entire Kingdom, the government of Saudi

Arabia has prepared contingency plans and long term strategies so that the whole country is freed

from water worries and serious drought. Precautionary measures are install in every region of the

country and the people are consistent reminded and urge to conserve and preserve the country’s

limited water reserves.

                                                                                             Page 16
Water shortage

       It is strongly and highly recommended that Saudi government should commence tree

planting and reforestation activities to provide the country with future sources of water. The

citizen should be encouraged to start planting inside their background and patiently cultivate

more plants compatible with the type of grounds they have to keep growing. Continues reminder

to save and protect the country’s natural resources pay enormously in the proper time. The

citizen should also be made aware about water conservation.

       Another recommendation is to apply cheaper ways to increase water productivity, such as

improving water conservation and efficiency. Water reuse can help to expand traditional

approaches by matching the quality of water supplies to needs, and substituting nontraditional

water for freshwater where appropriate. As an example, waste water, sea water or brackish

groundwater could be used by electric power plants for cooling and processing instead of

freshwater; switching to renewable energy technologies that do not need water for cooling, such

as wind and solar electric; and introducing technologies to condense evaporation from cooling

towers and capture and reuse the water.

                                                                                       Page 17
Water shortage

V1. Bibliography

A. Reference written documents

Albuquerque, NM, 2008, “Worldwide water shortage loom in the horizon” Terra Daily, News
about planet Earth, April, Webpage 2)

Arab Post, (2006), Water shortage in Jeddah; Saudi Arabia Water Minister and Electricity
Abdullah Al-Hussayen, in an interview with the Arab Post, November 16, (Webpage 1)

Al-Mazrouei, Faiz (2007) New Water Reclamation Project in Saudi Arabia, Arab News, KSA:
Riyadh, February, Headliner

Belloumi, Mounir (2006), unpublished essay on “Desalination as an Option to Resolve Problems
of Water Shortage in MENA Region”, University of Sousse, Webpage 2

Beychok, Milton R. (1997) Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants, 1st
Edition ed.) John Wiley & Sons, Illinois, Chicago US, p. 12

Clescer, Leonore, Greenberg, Arnold and Andrew Eaton (2006), The Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater (20th ed.) American Public Health Association,
Washington, DC, pp. 23 - 25

Gleick, Peter H., Haasz Dana, Christine Henges-Jeck, Veena Srinivasan, Gary Wolff, Katherine
Kao Cushing, and Amardip Man. (2008) "Waste not, want not: The potential for urban water
conservation in California.", March, Webpage 9.

Harland, C.E. (2004) Ion exchange: Theory and Practice, The Royal Society of Chemistry,
Cambridge, p. 23 – 24

Helfferich, F. (2002), Ion Exchange, McGraw Hill Publishing House, New York, p. 12

Klio, Nurit, (2001) Water Resources and Conflict in the Middle East, Routledge, Oxfordshire,
England p. 23

Nair, Arvind (2006) about a fresh release book in the Gulf entitled, New Book warns of Water
Scarcity in the Gulf, Gulf News, Dec. 4, Headline (Webpage 1)

Pink, Daniel H. (2006), "Investing in Tomorrow's Liquid Gold", in the Yahoo Blog, April, p. 3.

Schultz, Wilhelmina (2008) of the "Household Water Treatment Guide", Centre for Affordable Water
and Sanitation Technology, UK, March Issue, p.12

West, Larry (2006), About Magazine, No 23 March issue, p. 12

                                                                                         Page 18
Water shortage

Tchobanoglous, G. Burton, F.L. and H.D. Stensel, (2003) Water Pollution and Wastewater
Engineering (Treatment Disposal Reuse) / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (4th Edition ed.). McGraw-Hill
Book Company, United Kingdom, p. 12

US Government circular (2006) "Safe Water System", US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Fact Sheet, June – July, Web page p. 2

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Washington, DC (2007) "The National
Water Quality Inventory: Report to Congress for the 2002 reporting Cycle – A Profile." October
Fact Sheet No EPA 841-F-07-003 (Web Site)

The World Health Organization (2007) “Combating Waterborne Diseases at the Household
Level”, Part 1, Web page 8

B. Reference Web sites

EPA Office of Water
EPA Wetland, Oceans, Watersheds
Information on the world’s freshwater resources
International Water Management Institute
Water Environment Federation
Watershed Education for Teachers
Watershed Management Council
Water Use in the United States
What's An Estuary? Now You Know Campaign
World Commission on Dams
World's Water
United Nations Environment Programme, Freshwater
U.S. Federal Government Water Related Agencies

                                                                                         Page 19

Shared By: