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FIRE DOORS - QUICK OVERVIEW & UCL GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

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					                                                                                                                      UCL Fire Technical Note No: 013



    Fire Safety
  Technical Guide


                                         FIRE DOORS - QUICK OVERVIEW &
                                          UCL GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
1.0.      Fire Door Key:

   Key:                             Description:                                  Key:                              Description:

              A Fire Door with 30 minutes Integrity & 30                                       A Fire Door with 60 minutes Integrity & 60
              minutes Insulation properties (also shown as                                     minutes Insulation properties (also shown
  FD30                                                                            FD60
              FD30/30) and complete with Intumescent                                           as FD60/60) and complete with Intumescent
              Seals                                                                            Seals

              Smoke Seals – use brushes as better wearing                                      Self-Closing Device complying with BS
   (S)                                                                             SC
              that rubber strips.                                                              6459: Door Closers

                                                                                FD30(S)
              Vision Panel - required (NB: If in a fire door                                   FD30(S)SC&VP = Fire Door 30/60, Smoke
   VP                                                                             SC
              must be FRG 30/60)                                                               Seals, Self Closing & Vision Panel required
                                                                                 & VP

 FRG 30       Fire Resisting            Glazing       (30/60      minutes                      Push Bar – Emergency opening device
                                                                                   PB
  / 60        Resistance)                                                                      complying with BS EN 1125: 1997



1.1.      Fire Door Signs - All fire doors MUST be signed using one of the following standard signs,
          which should meet 80 mm x 80 mm Ridged Plastic with 4 x screw holes in size

  Sign, Colour &
                                                                  Description, Uses and Conventions
    Pictogram



                           1. (S13) FDKS - positioned at eye level, on both faces of each leaf of self-closing fire doors.




                           2. (S14) FDKL - Used on fire doors without ‘Self-Closing’ devices, i.e. cleaner’s cupboard, some
                           types of stores and plant rooms / service ducts - only fix to outer door face, at eye level.



                           3. Used on doors connected to 'magnetic door hold open devices', this releases the doors on
                           activation of the fire alarm system. Signs to be placed on the visible open leaf at eye level when
                           the door is held open; this is to avoid the obstructing of the fire doors when released
                           automatically.




FIRE DOORS (GENERAL)

2.0.      Fire resisting, means that the construction is designated as capable of resisting the
          passage of flame and smoke, and providing insulation as defined in under the prescribed
          conditions of test appropriate to such construction in accordance with the current British
          Standard 476.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Date Last Amended: 15 Feb 07                                                                             1.
   Issued by the - Fire Officer, UCL, Estates & Facilities, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT - This guide is to be regarded as a general statement of
   requirements and is in addition to relevant British Standards or any other instructions received from the Local Fire or Building Control Authorities.
                                                                                 UCL Fire Technical Note No: 013
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.1.     Where Fire Doors are (Generally) Required:

         (1).        All doors to staircases from corridors or rooms, cross corridor partition doors, all
                     doors to Laboratories, Workshops, Storerooms, Plant Rooms, Service Ducts,
                     Kitchens & Tea Points; and to defined fire compartments.

         (2).        Certain circulation areas, which extend the escape route from the stair to a final exit
                     or to a place of safety, entrances & lobbies; all doors leading onto external fire
                     escapes (except the top door) and doors between basement and upper floors etc.

         (3).        Corridors that are protected from adjoining accommodation by fire resisting
                     construction – principally: corridors in dead-end conditions (that is where escape is
                     only available in one direction) all doors leading off the corridor including offices.

2.2.     UCL Design Requirements for Fire Doors:

         (1).        Generally - All fire doors on circulation routes should open in the direction of
                     escape and should not be double swing, but rebated to ensure intumescent and
                     smoke seals work correctly. The exception is doors forming a mid-corridor smoke
                     break; these may be double swing but must have smoke seals/brushes.

         (2).        Vision Panels – Generally, all doors (regardless of being Fire Doors) should have
                     Vision Panels (VP) provided. Except, where there is a need for privacy such as
                     WCs or sleeping accommodation or a specific need such as etc. Particularly doors
                     to Laboratories, Kitchens and areas where hazardous items such as chemicals or
                     glassware pass through the doors regularly, the provision of Vision Panels reduce
                     the possibility of an accident occurring by doors be opened onto these hazardous
                     items. All doors on circulation routes, corridors or stair enclosures MUST have
                     Vision Panels that comply with Disability Access requirements (see approved
                     Document Part M, The Building Regulations), they should also be fire resisting
                     where necessary. Doors in Circulation Space – The Work Place Health Safety
                     & Welfare Regulations 1992 (Regulation 18) requires that all doors on Main
                     Traffic Routes (including lobbies to the stairs etc) must be provided with Vision
                     Panel. See Page 5

         (3).        Smoke Seals – In addition to Intumescent strips, which are standard on new fire
                     doors and form part of the upgrading of older fire doors, certain doors MUST be
                     fitted with ‘Cold Smoke Seals or Brushes’. In general, all fire doors leading onto
                     stair enclosures, protected corridors (Dead-End Conditions) and cross corridor
                     partition doors, protected lobbies and doors to all sleeping accommodation are to
                     be provided with smoke seals. UCL requires that smoke seals fitted to all new
                     doors are the BRUSH TYPE and not rubber strip type, as these strips are not as
                     durable and long lasting in maintenance terms, as brushes.

2.3.     Self-Closing - Where self-closing devices are specified, then standard overhead units
         are to be used meeting the latest edition BS 6459: Door Closers. Door closers and
         accessories should comply fully with the latest edition BS EN 1154 - Building hardware -
         Controlled door closing devices, including its Annex A. Please note that the strength and
         features of the control must be correct for the size of door to which it is to be fitted, bearing
         in mind:

         (1).        the door is subject to other factors such as air pressure; draughts, heavy traffic use:
                     abusive treatment; use by elderly, infirm or disabled;

         (2).        whether the door is to be latched or unlatched in its closing movement;

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Date Last Amended: 15 Feb 07                                                                             2.
   Issued by the - Fire Officer, UCL, Estates & Facilities, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT - This guide is to be regarded as a general statement of
   requirements and is in addition to relevant British Standards or any other instructions received from the Local Fire or Building Control Authorities.
                                                                                 UCL Fire Technical Note No: 013
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

         (3).        whether smoke or other seals are to be fitted to the door set.

         (4).        Perko fitting are not normally acceptable on standard doors (UCL fire Officer should
                     be consulted if no other option).

2.4.     All Fire-Resisting Doors Should Be:

         (1).        Close fitting to the frame with a maximum gap of 5 mm, but 3 mm is the accepted
                     working gap and hung by a minimum of 1½ pairs of all metal hinges with a melting
                     point of not less than 800°C (both nylon and nylon bushed hinges are
                     unacceptable).

         (2).        Fitted with an effective self-closing device (not normally a Perko Type) capable of
                     closing the door tight against the stop, overcoming the resistance of any latch or
                     lock provided.




__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Date Last Amended: 15 Feb 07                                                                             3.
   Issued by the - Fire Officer, UCL, Estates & Facilities, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT - This guide is to be regarded as a general statement of
   requirements and is in addition to relevant British Standards or any other instructions received from the Local Fire or Building Control Authorities.
                                                                                 UCL Fire Technical Note No: 013
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.5.     Door Frames:

The selection and installation of door frames is as important as the door itself. Where purpose
built frames are installed they should be matched with the recommended door as the fire
resistance of one may depend on design features of the other. In special instances a purpose built
door may be installed in an existing frame, advice should be sought from the door manufacturer.

Whichever method is adopted the following guidance should be considered:

   •     Any gaps between the rear of the frame and the wall must be infilled with mineral wool,
         plaster or intumescent paste.
   •     When intumescent material on a frame faces the same on the door edge; they must be of
          the same type.
   •     Door frames will not be accepted if they are less than 30mm thick for FD30 doors and
          44mm thick (hardwood) for FD60 doors unless accompanied by a relevant test certificate.
   •     Steel door frames are subject to distortion when heated and will only be accepted if a
          relevant test certificate can be provided.

2.6.     Intumescent Materials:

Door edges are the part of a door-set most susceptible to penetration by fire. The pressure of a
developed fire, drives hot gases between the door and frame leading to loss of integrity.
Traditionally this weakness was countered using a large door-stop. But this method relied on a
very close fitting door with a gap of less than 3mm between door and frame. The modern solution
to this problem relies on the use of intumescent materials applied or set into the edge of doors or
door frames opposite the door edge. Intumescent materials expand at around 100°C to several
times their original size and fill the gap between the door and the frame. An intumescent strip can
be fitted either in the frame or in the door edge itself and must follow the centre line of the door
edge; on no account must an intumescent strip be fitted to the door stop as the door will be forced
open when the strip expands.

Several points should be considered in their use:
   • They are applied along the top edge and sides, intumescent material is not required along
      the bottom edge.
   •     There are several types of intumescent material and it is important to use the correct type
          as specified by the manufacturer or the door-set.           The differing types are not
          interchangeable.
   •     Where a door is required to have intumescent strips and flexible seals this is best achieved
          by using a single strip combining both functions.
   •     On fire doors up to 30 minutes fire resistance, it is acceptable to interrupt the intumescent
         strip for hinges or latches.
   •     On fire doors exceeding 30 minutes fire resistance, where double intumescent strips are
          required, one of the strips must be continuous the other may be interrupted.
   •     The long standing requirement to provide oversize doorstops on fire doors is no longer
         applicable to doors with edges fitted with intumescent protection. A 12mm planted stop
         fixed with nails is acceptable in this case.
   •     Intumescent materials must not be reduced in size during installation by planing or sawing.
          In particular, installers should be aware that some are fitted beneath veneers or door trims.


__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Date Last Amended: 15 Feb 07                                                                             4.
   Issued by the - Fire Officer, UCL, Estates & Facilities, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT - This guide is to be regarded as a general statement of
   requirements and is in addition to relevant British Standards or any other instructions received from the Local Fire or Building Control Authorities.
                                                                                 UCL Fire Technical Note No: 013
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

GLAZING IN FIRE DOORS

3.0.     If a Vision Panels or glazing is required in a fire door or partition then the glazing has to be
         Fire Resisting Glazing of 30 / 60 minutes integrity (FRG30/60) meeting BS 476: Part 22 -
         1987 - Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods for determination of the fire
         resistance of non-load bearing elements of construction

3.1.     Glass Types meeting FRG30:


                                                                                          Pyro Clear Glass:
                Georgian Wired:
                                                                                          5 mm FIVESTAR
                6 mm Polished Plate Georgian Wired
                                                                                          6 mm PYROSWISS
                (PPGW)
                                                                                          6 mm PYROSHIELD



         Note 1:        It is very important to be able identify Pyro FR Glazing by the use of an ‘Acid
                        Etching’ with the trade name in the corner of the pane and marked with BS 476
                        Part 22.

         Note 2:        If the Acid Etched Trade Name or BS 476: Part 22 information is NOT visible then
                        the GLAZING WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED AS FRG30 – AND MUST BE
                        REPLACED!

         Note 3:        ‘Safety’ glazing that is marked with BS 6206: 1981 / BS 6262 Series is NOT FIRE
                        RESISTING GLAZING – and is often is mistaken for FRG30 and is not
                        acceptable!

3.2.     Glazing to FRG30 in design, imbedded in intumescent paste rebates etc

3.3.     Fanlights above fire doors are to be sealed so they cannot be opened and the construction
         to meet either FRG30 or FR30, as required.




__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Date Last Amended: 15 Feb 07                                                                             5.
   Issued by the - Fire Officer, UCL, Estates & Facilities, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT - This guide is to be regarded as a general statement of
   requirements and is in addition to relevant British Standards or any other instructions received from the Local Fire or Building Control Authorities.
                                                                                                                                        UCL Fire Technical Note No: 013
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




VISION PANEL DIMENSIONS (SEE APPROVED DOCUMENT M)




End




 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Date Last Amended: 15 Feb 07                                                                                                                                      6.
 Issued by the - Fire Officer, UCL, Estates & Facilities, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT - This guide is to be regarded as a general statement of requirements and is in addition to relevant British Standards or any other instructions
                                                                                      received from the Local Fire or Building Control Authorities.

				
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