CLASS 2-1 SHIP STABILITY

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CLASS 2-1 SHIP STABILITY Powered By Docstoc
					SECTION 1 – BASIC PRINCIPLES
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

1.1    DENSITY, MASS AND VOLUME
       1.1.1 Density
       1.1.2 Relative Density
       1.1.3 Density of water in which a ship typically floats

1.2    LAWS OF FLOTATION
       1.2.1 Archimedes’ principle
       1.2.2 Law of flotation
       1.2.3 Draught and freeboard
       1.2.4 Reserve buoyancy

1.3    SIMPLE BOX-SHAPED VESSEL CALCULATIONS
       1.3.1 To calculate the displacement of a box-shaped vessel
       1.3.2 Summary




SECTION 2 – FORM COEFFICIENTS
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

2.1    COEFFICIENT OF FINENESS OF THE WATERPLANE AREA (CW)

2.2    BLOCK COEFFICIENT (CB)     B




2.3    MIDSHIPS AREA COEFFICIENT (CM)

2.4    LONGITUDINAL PRISMATIC COEFFICIENT (CP)




SECTION 3 – TONNES PER CENTIMETRE IMMERSION (TPC)
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

3.1    TONNES PER CENTIMETRE IMMERSION (TPC)

3.2    TPC FORMULA

3.3    FACTORS AFFECTING TPC

3.4    LOAD/DISCHARGE PROBLEMS




SECTION 4 – LOAD LINES
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

4.1    LOAD LINE DIMENSIONS

4.2    FRESH WATER ALLOWANCE (FWA)
       4.2.1 The ‘ship as a hydrometer’
      4.2.2   Derivation of the FWA formula

4.3   DOCK WATER ALLOWANCE (DWA)

4.4   LOAD LINE CALCULATIONS
      4.4.1 The need for applying DWA/FWA to ensure maximum cargo is loaded
      4.4.2 Procedure for conducting Load Line calculations




SECTION 5 – CENTRE OF GRAVITY (G) AND CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (B)
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

5.1   CENTRE OF GRAVITY (G)

5.2   SINGLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS
      5.2.1 Effect of shifting a weight already on board
      5.2.2 Effect of loading a weight
      5.2.3 Effect of discharging a weight

5.3   MULTIPLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS

5.4   CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (B)




SECTION 6 – INTRODUCTION TO TRANSVERSE STATICAL STABILITY
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

6.1   TRANSVERSE STATICAL STABILITY

6.2   RIGHTING LEVER (GZ)

6.3   MOMENT OF STATICAL STABILITY (RIGHTING MOMENT)

6.4   INITIAL TRANVERSE METACENTRE (M)

6.5   METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GM)

6.6   CALCULATING THE MOMENT OF STATICAL STABILITY AT SMALL ANGLES OF
      HEEL




SECTION 7 – CONDITIONS OF STABILITY
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

7.1   STABLE CONDITION

7.2   NEUTRAL CONDITION

7.3   UNSTABLE CONDITION AND ANGLE OF LOLL
SECTION 8 – INITIAL TRANSVERSE METACENTRE
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

8.1    INITIAL TRANSVERSE METACENTRE EXPLAINED
       8.1.1 Metacentric Radius
       8.1.2 Calculating KM for box-shaped vessels
               8.1.2.1 Moment of inertia (second moment of area) of the water-plane area
8.2    METACENTRIC DIAGRAMS
       8.2.1 Producing a metacentric diagram
       8.2.2 To determine the final KG required to complete loading with a required GM

8.3    FACTORS AFFECTING KM
       8.3.1 Beam
       8.3.2 Draught



SECTION 9 – FREE SURFACE EFFECT
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

9.1    FREE SURFACE EFFECT AND THE LOSS OF TRANSVERSE STATICAL
       STABILITY

9.2    FREE SURFACE DATA
       9.2.1 Calculating the effect of free surface in a rectangular shaped tank
       9.2.2 Free surface moments
       9.2.3 Representation of free surface data in tank sounding/ullage tables
             9.2.3.1 Method 1 – Free surface moments for an assumed density value
             9.2.3.2 Method 2 – Moments of inertia (m4) are tabulated
             9.2.3.3 Summary

9.3    FACTORS INFLUENCING FREE SURFACE EFFECT
       9.3.1 Tank breadth
       9.3.2 Tank length
       9.3.3 Density
       9.3.4 Ship displacement

9.4    IMPORTANT POINTS TO NOTE REGARDING FREE SURFACE MOMENTS




SECTION 10 – CURVES OF STATICAL STABIILITY (GZ CURVES)
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

10.1   CALCULATING GZ VALUES
       10.1.1 KN values
       10.1.2 Procedure for calculating GZ values

10.2   PROCEDURE FOR CONSTRUCTING THE CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY

10.3   BASIC INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THE CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY

10.4   CURVES OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR STIFF AND TENDER SHIPS
       10.4.1 Stiff ships
       10.4.2 Tender ships
SECTION 11 – LIST
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

11.1    CALCULATING THE LIST CAUSED BY A TRANSVERSE SHIFT OF WEIGHT (THE
        LIST TRIANGLE)

11.2    CALCULATING LIST CAUSED BY A TRANSVERSE AND VERTICAL SHIFT OF
        WEIGHT – SHIP INITIALLY UPRIGHT

11.3    CALCULATING THE LIST DUE TO A SINGLE WEIGHT BEING LOADED OR
        DISCHARGED

11.4    SHIFTING A WEIGHT ALREADY ON BOARD TO BRING A LISTED SHIP UPRIGHT

11.5    MULTIPLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS – SHIP INITIALLY UPRIGHT

11.6    MULTIPLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS – SHIP INITIALLY LISTED

11.7    LOADING WEIGHTS ABOUT THE CENTRE LINE TO COMPLETE UPRIGHT

11.8    LIST AND FREE SURFACE EFFECT




SECTION 12 – INTRODUCTION TO TRIM
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

12.1    TERMS RELATING TO SHIP LENGTH
        12.1.1 Forward Perpendicular (FP)
        12.1.2 After Perpendicular (AP)
        12.1.3 Length between perpendiculars (LBP)
        12.1.4 Length overall (LOA)
        12.1.5 Amidships

12.2    DRAUGHT MARKS AND READING THE DRAUGHT

12.3    TRIM

12.4    CHANGE OF TRIM

12.5    MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY ONE CENTIMETRE (MCTC)

12.6    FORMULA FOR CALCULATING MCTC

12.7    LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF or F)

12.8    CALCULATING THE FINAL DRAUGHTS WHEN A WEIGHT IS SHIFTED
        12.8.1 Ship with LCF amidships
        12.8.2 Ship with LCF not amidships

12.9    THE EFFECT OF LOADING AND DISCHARGING WEIGHTS

12.10   MULTIPLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS
12.11   WEIGHT TO SHIFT TO REDUCE THE TRIM BY A SPECIFIED AMOUNT

12.12   WEIGHT TO LOAD TO BRING A SHIP TO AN EVEN KEEL
12.13    WEIGHT TO TRANSFER TO REDUCE THE DEEPEST DRAUGHT BY A
         SPECIFIED AMOUNT




SECTION 13 – SUSPENDED WEIGHTS
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

13.1     EFFECT ON KG OF LIFTING A WEIGHT USING SHIP’S GEAR

13.2     LOADING A WEIGHT USING SHIP’S LIFTING GEAR

13.3     TO CALCULATE THE MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE KG REQUIRED PRIOR TO
         LOADING OR DISCHARGING A WEIGHT TO ENSURE THAT A CERTAIN LIST
         LIMIT IS NOT EXCEEDED




SECTION 14 – ASSESSING COMPLIANCE OF A SHIP’S LOADED CONDITION WITH IMO
CRITERIA
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

14.1     SIMPSON’S RULES FOR CALCULATING AREAS UNDER CURVES
         14.1.1 Simpson’s first rule
         14.1.2 Extension of the first rule
         14.1.3 Simpson’s second rule
         14.1.4 Extension of the second rule

14.2     DYNAMICAL STABILITY – THE RELEVANCE OF THE AREA UNDER THE CURVE
         OF STATICAL STABILITY
         14.2.1 Dynamical stability defined
         14.2.2 The distinction between ‘dynamical stability’ and ‘transverse statical stability’

14.3     MINIMUM INTACT STABILITY CRITERIA FOR CARGO SHIPS
         14.3.1 Recommended general criteria for cargo ships (IMO)
         14.3.2 Intact stability criteria for cargo ships (M.S. (Load Line) Regulations
                1998 as per MSN 1752(M))

14.4     ASSESSING COMPLIANCE OF A SHIP’S LOADED CONDITION
         14.4.1 Checking compliance when the angle of progressive flooding (θf) is greater
                than 40º
         14.4.2 Checking compliance when the angle of progressive flooding (θf) is
                less than 40º

14.5     MINIMUM INTACT STABILITY CRITERIA FOR PASSENGER SHIPS
        14.5.1 Additional IMO criteria for passenger ships
        14.5.2 Intact stability criteria for passenger ships (M.S. (Passenger Ship
               Construction: Ships of Classes I, II and II(A)) Regulations 1998

14.6 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GZ AND GM AT SMALL ANGLES OF HEEL
14.7 THE UNRELIABILITY IN PRACTICE OF USING STATICAL STABILITY CURVE DATA
     FOR ASSESSING A SHIP’S STABILITY AT SEA
     14.7.1 Light displacement and KG assumptions
     14.7.2 Calculation inaccuracies
     14.7.3 Effects of free trim
     14.7.4 Dynamic effects of ship’s motion at sea
             14.7.4.1   Changes in stability caused by heaving, rolling and pitching
             14.7.4.2   The effect of steady wind moments or asymmetric icing
             14.7.4.3   Stability loss on a wave crest
             14.7.4.4   Parametric resonance
             14.7.4.5   Dynamic movement of water on deck
             14.7.4.6   Broaching
             14.7.5     Summary




SECTION 15 – CURVES OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR VARYING CONDITIONS
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

15.1   CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A SHIP IN A STABLE CONDITION

15.2   CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A SHIP IN A NEUTRAL CONDITION

15.3   CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A SHIP IN AN UNSTABLE CONDITION
       (ANGLE OF LOLL)

15.4   CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A LISTED SHIP

15.5   PROCEDURES FOR CORRECTING AN ANGLE OF LOLL AND LIST




SECTION 16 – WALL-SIDED FORMULA
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

16.1   THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN STABILITY AT SMALL AND LARGE ANGLES OF
       HEEL – THE WALL-SIDED FORMULA
       16.1.1 Stability at small angles of heel (initial stability)
       16.1.2 Stability at large angles of heel for wall-sided inclinations

16.2   ANGLE OF LOLL
       16.2.1 Calculating the angle of loll using the wall-sided formula
       16.2.2 Calculating the effective GM at the angle of loll

16.3   CALCULATING THE ANGLE OF LIST CAUSED BY A TRANSVERSE SHIFT OF
       WEIGHT WHEN GM IS ZERO




SECTION 17 – FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHAPE OF THE CURVE OF STATICAL
STABILITY
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

17.1   EFFECT OF A CHANGE OF KG
       17.1.1 Causes of a change in KG
       17.1.2 Calculating the increase/decrease in GZ as a result of a change of KG
       17.1.3 Effect on the curve of statical stability of a change of KG

17.2   EFFECT OF A TRANSVERSE SHIFT OF WEIGHT (LIST)
       17.2.1 Causes of a list
       17.2.2 Calculating the decrease in GZ as a result of a transverse shift of weight
       17.2.3 Effect on the curve of statical stability of list

17.3   EFFECT OF A CHANGE IN FREEBOARD
       17.3.1 Causes of a change in freeboard
       17.3.2 Effect of a change in freeboard for constant beam, draught and KG
       17.3.3 Effect on the curve of statical stability of increase in freeboard

17.4   COMPARISON OF STABILITY OF A SHIP IN THE LIGHT AND FULLY LOADED
       CONDITIONS

17.5   EFFECT OF BEAM
       17.5.1 Effect of increasing beam for constant draught and freeboard
       17.5.2 Effect on the curve of statical stability of an increase in beam
       17.5.3 Ship conversion – practical application of increasing effective beam

17.6   EFFECT OF STERN TRIM
       17.6.1 Comparison of even keel and stern trimmed stability characteristics
       17.6.2 Effect on the curve of statical stability of a trim by the stern




SECTION 18 – THE INTERNATIONAL GRAIN CODE
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

18.1   THE EFFECT OF A SHIFT OF SOLID BULK CARGO ON THE CURVE OF
       STATICAL STABILITY
       18.1.1 Angle of repose
       18.1.2 Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an angle of repose less than or equal to
              30º
       18.1.3 Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an angle of repose from 30º to 35º
       18.1.4 Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an angle of repose greater than 35º
       18.1.5 The importance of trimming level the bulk cargo surface
       18.1.6 The effect on the curve of statical stability of a shift of solid bulk cargo

18.2   ASSUMPTIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL GRAIN CODE WITH RESPECT TO
       ANTICIPATED SHIFT OF GRAIN CARGO
       18.2.1 General principles of the International Grain Code
       18.2.2 Specific assumptions

18.3   GRAIN LOADING INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED
       18.3.1 Document of authorisation to carry grain cargoes
       18.3.2 Information regarding ship’s stability and grain loading

18.4   INTACT STABILITY CRITERIA FOR SHIPS CARRYING GRAIN ISSUED WITH A
       DOCUMENT OF AUTHORISATION

18.5   DERIVATION OF THE HEELING ARM

18.6   COMPENSATION FOR THE VERTICAL COMPONENT OF SHIFT OF GRAIN

18.7   PROCEDURE TO VERIFY COMPLIANCE OF A SHIP’S LOADED CONDITION
       WITH MINIMUM INTERNATIONAL GRAIN CODE CRITERIA

18.8   METHODS OF IMPROVING STABILITY WHEN THE MINIMUM INTERNATIONAL
       GRAIN CODE CRITERIA IS NOT SATISFIED
       18.8.1 Ballasting
       18.8.2 Saucers
        18.8.3   Bundling of bulk grain
        18.8.4   Overstowing arrangements
        18.8.5   Strapping or lashing
        18.8.6   Securing with wire mesh

18.9    OPTIONAL STABILITY REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET BY SHIPS WITHOUT
        DOCUMENTS OF AUTHORISATION CARRYING PARTIAL CARGOES OF BULK
        GRAIN

18.10   SIMPLIFIED STABILITY DATA FOR SHIPS CARRYING GRAIN BUILT ON OR
        AFTER 1ST JANUARY 1994 (ON OR AFTER DATE THAT THE INTERNATIONAL
        GRAIN CODE TAKES EFFECT)
        18.10.1 Presentation of simplified grain data
        18.10.2 Using simplified grain data




SECTION 19 – INCLINING EXPERIMENT
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

19.1    STABILITY INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED TO THE MASTER

19.2    THE INCLINING EXPERIMENT
        19.2.1 Purpose
        19.2.2 Calculation of KG in the inclined condition
               19.2.2.1        Derivation of the inclining experiment formula
               19.2.2.2        Calculation of the ship’s actual light KG and displacement
        19.2.3 Preparations for the inclining test
        19.2.4 Precautions to be taken by the surveyor to ensure accuracy of the calculation
        19.2.5 The occasions when an inclining experiment and lightweight survey must be
               conducted




SECTION 20 – TRIM USING HYDROSTATIC DATA
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

20.1    TRUE MEAN DRAUGHT
        20.1.1 True mean draught when LCF is amidships
        20.1.2 True mean draught when LCF is not amidships
        20.1.3 Calculating the True Mean Draught

20.2    TRIM CALCULATIONS USING HYDROSTATIC DATA – TAKING MOMENTS
        ABOUT THE MEAN LCF

20.3    TRIM CALCULATIONS USING HYDROSTATIC DATA – TRIM                                  BY
        CONSIDERATION OF THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF THE LCB AND LCG
        20.3.1 Calculating the final draught – ship initially on an even keel
        20.3.2 Calculating the final draught – ship initially trimmed

20.4    VARIOUS EXAMINATION STYLE PROBLEMS INVOLVING TRIM
        20.4.1 Maximum cargo to load in each space for the ship to complete at the
               maximum draught
        20.4.2 Maximum cargo to load in each space for the ship to complete at the load
               displacement with a desired trim
        20.4.3 Where to load a single weight to keep the aft draught constant
       20.4.4 Calculating the weight to load to reduce the deepest draught by a given
              amount

20.5   CHANGE IN DRAUGHT AND TRIM DUE TO CHANGE IN WATER DENSITY
       20.5.1 Cause of a change of trim due to change of water density
       20.5.2 Calculating the final draughts
       20.5.3 Alternative formula for calculating the change of trim
       20.5.4 Considering change of trim due to change of density when conducting trim
              problems



SECTION 21 – DRY-DOCKING
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

21.1   SEQUENCE OF EVENTS DURING DRY-DOCKING

21.2   CALCULATING THE P FORCE
       21.2.1 Calculation of P force at any stage during dry-docking
       21.2.2 Calculation of P force during the critical period when dry-docking

21.3   LOSS OF STABILITY WHEN DRY-DOCKING
       21.3.1 Loss of GM as a result of a rise in G (increase in KG)
       21.3.2 Loss of GM as a result of a fall in M (decrease in KM)

21.4   TYPICAL DRY-DOCKING PROBLEMS

21.5   PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS DURING DRY-DOCKING
       21.5.1 The requirement to limit the P force
       21.5.2 Limiting the loss of GM




SECTION 22 – BILGING
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

22.1   THE EFFECTS OF BILGING AN EMPTY AMIDSHIPS COMPARTMENT
       22.1.1 Calculating the KM of a box-shaped vessel
       22.1.2 Lost buoyancy (constant displacement) method
       22.1.3 Added weight method
       22.1.4 Method to use for bilging calculations

22.2   THE EFFECTS OF BILGING AN EMPTY AMIDSHIPS COMPARTMENT WITH A
       WATERTIGHT FLAT (DOUBLE BOTTOM)
       22.2.1 Floodwater confined below a watertight flat below the original waterline
       22.2.2 Final waterline above the watertight flat

22.3   BILGING A COMPARTMENT WHEN PERMEABILITY IS LESS THAN 100%
       22.3.1 Bilging a compartment when permeability is less than 100% - permeability
              value given
       22.3.2 Calculating the permeability for a compartment

22.4   CALCULATING THE DRAUGHTS WHEN AN END COMPARTMENT BECOMES
       BILGED
       22.4.1 Bilging an extreme end compartment with 100% permeability
       22.4.2 Bilging an extreme end compartment with a watertight flat – 100%
              permeability

22.5   CALCULATING THE LIST WHEN AN AMIDSHIPS SIDE COMPARTMENT IS
       BILGED – PERMEABILITY 100%
       22.5.1 Moment of inertia
       22.5.2 Moments of inertia of rectangular water plane areas
       22.5.3 The parallel axes theorem
       22.5.4 Calculating the moment of inertia of a water plane area of a box-shaped
              vessel with a bilged side compartment
       22.5.5 Calculating the angle of list resulting from an amidships side compartment
              becoming bilged

22.6   REVIEW OFR PRINCIPLES OF BILGING TO BE APPLIED TO CALCULATIONS




SECTION 23 – ANGLE OF HEEL WHEN TURNING
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

23.1   TERMS RELATING TO A SHIP’S TURNING CIRCLE
       23.1.1 Advance
       23.1.2 Transfer
       23.1.3 Tactical diameter
       23.1.4 Steady turning circle radius
       23.1.5 Yaw

23.2   FORCES THAT CAUSE THE SHIP TO HEEL DURING TURNING

23.3   CALCULATING THE ANGLE OF HEEL WHEN TURNING

23.4   CALCULATING THE MAXIMUM DRAUGHT (INCREASE IN DRAUGHT) DUE TO
       LIST/HEEL




SECTION 24 – WIND HEELING, ICE ACCRETION AND ROLLING
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

24.1   WIND HEELING
       24.1.1 Wind heeling considerations for container ships (MCA)
              24.1.1.1       Wind heeling criteria for container ships (MCA)
              24.1.1.2       Method to verify compliance with the regulations
       24.1.2 Wind heeling considerations for all ships (IMO)
              24.1.2.1       Units of wind pressure adopted by IMO
              24.1.2.2       Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion) (IMO)

24.2   ICING ALLOWANCES

24.3   ‘STILL WATER’ ROLLING
       24.3.1 Unrestricted rolling in still water
       24.3.2 Radius of gyration
       24.3.3 Formula for rolling period
       24.3.4 Determining the GM by means of rolling period tests
       24.3.5 Resisted rolling in still water
24.4   ROLLING IN WAVES
       24.4.1 Wave theory
       24.4.2 Ship rolling in waves
       24.4.3 Synchronism

24.5   METHODS ADOPTED TO MINIMISE A SHIP’S ROLLING MOTION AT SEA
       24.5.1 Passive Systems
              24.5.1.1       Bilge keels
              24.5.1.2       Passive stabilising tanks
       24.5.2 Active systems
              24.5.2.1       Active tanks
              24.5.2.2       Active stabilising fins




SECTION 25 – STABILITY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SPECIFIC SHIP TYPES
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

25.1   OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS
       25.1.1 Loading/discharging operations at sea
       25.1.2 Allowances for entrapment of water in pipe cargoes
       25.1.3 Freeboard limitation aft
       25.1.4 The effect of stern trim and reserve forward buoyancy on stability
       25.1.5 ‘Fixed trim’ and ‘free trim’ basis KN curves
       25.1.6 Intact stability criteria for supply vessels
       25.1.7 Stabiliser tanks

25.2   DOUBLE HULL TANKERS
       25.2.1 Stability concerns
       25.2.2 Damaged stability considerations
       25.2.3 Approaches to preventing double hull tanker lolling
       25.2.4 Maintenance

25.3   BULK CARRIERS
       25.3.1 Bulk carrier concerns
       25.3.2 New legislation aimed at improving bulk carrier safety
       25.3.3 December 2002 SOLAS amendments

25.4   PASSENGER SHIP SUBDIVISION AND DAMAGED STABILITY REQUIREMENTS
       25.4.1 Approaches to subdivision in general
       25.4.2 Probabilistic approach to subdivision
       25.4.3 Deterministic approach to subdivision
       25.4.4 Comparison of the two approaches to ship subdivision
       25.4.5 Deterministic rules for passenger ships
       25.4.6 Subdivision load lines for passenger ships
       25.4.7 Passenger ship stability in the damaged condition

25.5   RO-RO PASSENGER SHIPS
       25.5.1 Stability problems associated with the design and operation of Ro-Ro
              passenger ships
       25.5.2 Methods of improving ro-ro ship stability
       25.5.3 Damaged stability requirements for ro-ro passenger ships
SECTION 26 – CALCULATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF FREEBOARD
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

26.1   DEFINITIONS
       26.1.1          Length (L)
       26.1.2          Perpendiculars (FP, AP)
       26.1.3          Amidships
       26.1.4          Breadth (B)
       26.1.5          Moulded depth
       26.1.6          Depth for freeboard (D)
       26.1.7          Block coefficient (Cb)
       26.1.8          Freeboard
       26.1.9          Freeboard deck
       26.1.10 Superstructure
       26.1.11 Flush deck ship
       26.1.12 Weathertight

26.2   SHIP’S SIDE MARKINGS
       26.2.1       Deck line (Regulation 4)
       26.2.2       Load line mark and accompanying load lines (Regulations 5 to 8)

26.3   CONDITIONS OF ASSIGNMENT OF FREEBOARD APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS
       26.3.1 Structural strength
       26.3.2 Information to be supplied to the master
       26.3.3 Structural conditions of assignment

26.4   TYPE ‘A’ SHIPS AND THEIR ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS OF ASSIGNMENT
       26.4.1 Type ‘A’ ship – definition (Regulation 27)
       26.4.2 Special structural conditions of assignment for type’A’ ships (Regulation 26)

26.5   THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPE ‘A’ SHIPS AND TYPE ‘B’ SHIPS EXPLAINED

26.6   B-60 AND B-100 TABULAR FREEBOARDS
       26.6.1 B-60 and B-100 tabular freeboards explained
       26.6.2 Additional conditions of assignment for type ‘B-60’ freeboard (Regulation 27)
       26.6.3 Additional conditions of assignment for type ‘B-100’ freeboard (Regulation 27)

26.7   CALCULATION PROCEDURE FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF A                              TYPE    ‘A’
       FREEBOARD
       26.7.1 Obtain the tabular freeboard (Regulation 28)
       26.7.2 Correction for block coefficient (Regulation 30)
       26.7.3 Correction for depth (Regulation 31)
       26.7.4 Correction for position of deck line (Regulation 32)
       26.7.5 Correction for superstructure and trunks (Regulations 33 to 37)
       26.7.6 Correction for sheer profile (Regulation 38)
       26.7.7 Correction for bow height (Regulation 39)

26.8   CALCULATION PROCEDURE FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF A TYPE ‘B’
       FREEBOARD
       26.8.1 Obtain the tabular freeboard (Regulation 28)
       26.8.2 Correction to tabular freeboard for type ‘B’ ships having wooden hatch covers
              (Regulation 27)
       26.8.3 Correction to tabular freeboard for type ‘B’ ships under 100 metres in length
              (Regulation 29)

26.9   TIMBER FREEBOARDS (Chapter IV)
       26.9.1 Special construction requirements applicable to ships assigned timber
              freeboards (Regulation 43)
       26.9.2 Stowage requirements (Regulation 44)
        26.9.3 Calculation of the Summer timber freeboard (Regulation 45)
        26.9.4 Minimum IMO stability criteria for ships carrying timber deck cargoes
        26.9.5 Minimum MCA (UK ships) stability criteria for ships carrying timber deck
               cargoes

26.10   LOAD LINE CERTIFICATION AND SURVEYS
        26.10.1 Surveys
        26.10.2 Load line survey preparation




SECTION 27 – SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS IN SHIPS
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

27.1    SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMEMNTS IN STILL WATER CONDITIONS

27.2    SIMPLE SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAMS FOR BOX-SHAPED
        VESSELS
        27.2.1 Producing the curve of loads
        27.2.2 Producing the curve of shear forces
        27.2.3 Producing the curve of bending moments
        27.2.4 A harder example illustrating key points of interest

27.3    SEA WAVE BENDING

27.4    STRESS LOADING PROGRAMME REPRESENTATIONS
        27.4.1 Calculation conventions
        27.4.2 Stress calculating programs - system requirements and data representation




SECTION 28 – PRACTICAL SHIP LOADING PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
      Learning Objectives

28.1    INTRODUCTION TO LOADING SHEET DATA
        28.1  Hold cargo information sheet
        28.2  Tank sounding sheet
        28.3  Loading sheet

28.2    PRACTICAL SHIP LOAD PROBLEMS

				
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Description: CLASS 2-1 SHIP STABILITY