# CLASS 2-1 SHIP STABILITY by etssetcf

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```									SECTION 1 – BASIC PRINCIPLES
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

1.1    DENSITY, MASS AND VOLUME
1.1.1 Density
1.1.2 Relative Density
1.1.3 Density of water in which a ship typically floats

1.2    LAWS OF FLOTATION
1.2.1 Archimedes’ principle
1.2.2 Law of flotation
1.2.3 Draught and freeboard
1.2.4 Reserve buoyancy

1.3    SIMPLE BOX-SHAPED VESSEL CALCULATIONS
1.3.1 To calculate the displacement of a box-shaped vessel
1.3.2 Summary

SECTION 2 – FORM COEFFICIENTS
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

2.1    COEFFICIENT OF FINENESS OF THE WATERPLANE AREA (CW)

2.2    BLOCK COEFFICIENT (CB)     B

2.3    MIDSHIPS AREA COEFFICIENT (CM)

2.4    LONGITUDINAL PRISMATIC COEFFICIENT (CP)

SECTION 3 – TONNES PER CENTIMETRE IMMERSION (TPC)
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

3.1    TONNES PER CENTIMETRE IMMERSION (TPC)

3.2    TPC FORMULA

3.3    FACTORS AFFECTING TPC

INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

4.2    FRESH WATER ALLOWANCE (FWA)
4.2.1 The ‘ship as a hydrometer’
4.2.2   Derivation of the FWA formula

4.3   DOCK WATER ALLOWANCE (DWA)

4.4.1 The need for applying DWA/FWA to ensure maximum cargo is loaded
4.4.2 Procedure for conducting Load Line calculations

SECTION 5 – CENTRE OF GRAVITY (G) AND CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (B)
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

5.1   CENTRE OF GRAVITY (G)

5.2   SINGLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS
5.2.1 Effect of shifting a weight already on board
5.2.3 Effect of discharging a weight

5.3   MULTIPLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS

5.4   CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (B)

SECTION 6 – INTRODUCTION TO TRANSVERSE STATICAL STABILITY
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

6.1   TRANSVERSE STATICAL STABILITY

6.2   RIGHTING LEVER (GZ)

6.3   MOMENT OF STATICAL STABILITY (RIGHTING MOMENT)

6.4   INITIAL TRANVERSE METACENTRE (M)

6.5   METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GM)

6.6   CALCULATING THE MOMENT OF STATICAL STABILITY AT SMALL ANGLES OF
HEEL

SECTION 7 – CONDITIONS OF STABILITY
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

7.1   STABLE CONDITION

7.2   NEUTRAL CONDITION

7.3   UNSTABLE CONDITION AND ANGLE OF LOLL
SECTION 8 – INITIAL TRANSVERSE METACENTRE
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

8.1    INITIAL TRANSVERSE METACENTRE EXPLAINED
8.1.2 Calculating KM for box-shaped vessels
8.1.2.1 Moment of inertia (second moment of area) of the water-plane area
8.2    METACENTRIC DIAGRAMS
8.2.1 Producing a metacentric diagram
8.2.2 To determine the final KG required to complete loading with a required GM

8.3    FACTORS AFFECTING KM
8.3.1 Beam
8.3.2 Draught

SECTION 9 – FREE SURFACE EFFECT
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

9.1    FREE SURFACE EFFECT AND THE LOSS OF TRANSVERSE STATICAL
STABILITY

9.2    FREE SURFACE DATA
9.2.1 Calculating the effect of free surface in a rectangular shaped tank
9.2.2 Free surface moments
9.2.3 Representation of free surface data in tank sounding/ullage tables
9.2.3.1 Method 1 – Free surface moments for an assumed density value
9.2.3.2 Method 2 – Moments of inertia (m4) are tabulated
9.2.3.3 Summary

9.3    FACTORS INFLUENCING FREE SURFACE EFFECT
9.3.2 Tank length
9.3.3 Density
9.3.4 Ship displacement

9.4    IMPORTANT POINTS TO NOTE REGARDING FREE SURFACE MOMENTS

SECTION 10 – CURVES OF STATICAL STABIILITY (GZ CURVES)
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

10.1   CALCULATING GZ VALUES
10.1.1 KN values
10.1.2 Procedure for calculating GZ values

10.2   PROCEDURE FOR CONSTRUCTING THE CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY

10.3   BASIC INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THE CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY

10.4   CURVES OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR STIFF AND TENDER SHIPS
10.4.1 Stiff ships
10.4.2 Tender ships
SECTION 11 – LIST
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

11.1    CALCULATING THE LIST CAUSED BY A TRANSVERSE SHIFT OF WEIGHT (THE
LIST TRIANGLE)

11.2    CALCULATING LIST CAUSED BY A TRANSVERSE AND VERTICAL SHIFT OF
WEIGHT – SHIP INITIALLY UPRIGHT

11.3    CALCULATING THE LIST DUE TO A SINGLE WEIGHT BEING LOADED OR
DISCHARGED

11.4    SHIFTING A WEIGHT ALREADY ON BOARD TO BRING A LISTED SHIP UPRIGHT

11.5    MULTIPLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS – SHIP INITIALLY UPRIGHT

11.6    MULTIPLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS – SHIP INITIALLY LISTED

11.8    LIST AND FREE SURFACE EFFECT

SECTION 12 – INTRODUCTION TO TRIM
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

12.1    TERMS RELATING TO SHIP LENGTH
12.1.1 Forward Perpendicular (FP)
12.1.2 After Perpendicular (AP)
12.1.3 Length between perpendiculars (LBP)
12.1.4 Length overall (LOA)
12.1.5 Amidships

12.2    DRAUGHT MARKS AND READING THE DRAUGHT

12.3    TRIM

12.4    CHANGE OF TRIM

12.5    MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY ONE CENTIMETRE (MCTC)

12.6    FORMULA FOR CALCULATING MCTC

12.7    LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF or F)

12.8    CALCULATING THE FINAL DRAUGHTS WHEN A WEIGHT IS SHIFTED
12.8.1 Ship with LCF amidships
12.8.2 Ship with LCF not amidships

12.10   MULTIPLE WEIGHT PROBLEMS
12.11   WEIGHT TO SHIFT TO REDUCE THE TRIM BY A SPECIFIED AMOUNT

12.12   WEIGHT TO LOAD TO BRING A SHIP TO AN EVEN KEEL
12.13    WEIGHT TO TRANSFER TO REDUCE THE DEEPEST DRAUGHT BY A
SPECIFIED AMOUNT

SECTION 13 – SUSPENDED WEIGHTS
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

13.1     EFFECT ON KG OF LIFTING A WEIGHT USING SHIP’S GEAR

13.3     TO CALCULATE THE MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE KG REQUIRED PRIOR TO
LIMIT IS NOT EXCEEDED

SECTION 14 – ASSESSING COMPLIANCE OF A SHIP’S LOADED CONDITION WITH IMO
CRITERIA
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

14.1     SIMPSON’S RULES FOR CALCULATING AREAS UNDER CURVES
14.1.1 Simpson’s first rule
14.1.2 Extension of the first rule
14.1.3 Simpson’s second rule
14.1.4 Extension of the second rule

14.2     DYNAMICAL STABILITY – THE RELEVANCE OF THE AREA UNDER THE CURVE
OF STATICAL STABILITY
14.2.1 Dynamical stability defined
14.2.2 The distinction between ‘dynamical stability’ and ‘transverse statical stability’

14.3     MINIMUM INTACT STABILITY CRITERIA FOR CARGO SHIPS
14.3.1 Recommended general criteria for cargo ships (IMO)
14.3.2 Intact stability criteria for cargo ships (M.S. (Load Line) Regulations
1998 as per MSN 1752(M))

14.4     ASSESSING COMPLIANCE OF A SHIP’S LOADED CONDITION
14.4.1 Checking compliance when the angle of progressive flooding (θf) is greater
than 40º
14.4.2 Checking compliance when the angle of progressive flooding (θf) is
less than 40º

14.5     MINIMUM INTACT STABILITY CRITERIA FOR PASSENGER SHIPS
14.5.1 Additional IMO criteria for passenger ships
14.5.2 Intact stability criteria for passenger ships (M.S. (Passenger Ship
Construction: Ships of Classes I, II and II(A)) Regulations 1998

14.6 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GZ AND GM AT SMALL ANGLES OF HEEL
14.7 THE UNRELIABILITY IN PRACTICE OF USING STATICAL STABILITY CURVE DATA
FOR ASSESSING A SHIP’S STABILITY AT SEA
14.7.1 Light displacement and KG assumptions
14.7.2 Calculation inaccuracies
14.7.3 Effects of free trim
14.7.4 Dynamic effects of ship’s motion at sea
14.7.4.1   Changes in stability caused by heaving, rolling and pitching
14.7.4.2   The effect of steady wind moments or asymmetric icing
14.7.4.3   Stability loss on a wave crest
14.7.4.4   Parametric resonance
14.7.4.5   Dynamic movement of water on deck
14.7.4.6   Broaching
14.7.5     Summary

SECTION 15 – CURVES OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR VARYING CONDITIONS
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

15.1   CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A SHIP IN A STABLE CONDITION

15.2   CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A SHIP IN A NEUTRAL CONDITION

15.3   CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A SHIP IN AN UNSTABLE CONDITION
(ANGLE OF LOLL)

15.4   CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A LISTED SHIP

15.5   PROCEDURES FOR CORRECTING AN ANGLE OF LOLL AND LIST

SECTION 16 – WALL-SIDED FORMULA
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

16.1   THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN STABILITY AT SMALL AND LARGE ANGLES OF
HEEL – THE WALL-SIDED FORMULA
16.1.1 Stability at small angles of heel (initial stability)
16.1.2 Stability at large angles of heel for wall-sided inclinations

16.2   ANGLE OF LOLL
16.2.1 Calculating the angle of loll using the wall-sided formula
16.2.2 Calculating the effective GM at the angle of loll

16.3   CALCULATING THE ANGLE OF LIST CAUSED BY A TRANSVERSE SHIFT OF
WEIGHT WHEN GM IS ZERO

SECTION 17 – FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHAPE OF THE CURVE OF STATICAL
STABILITY
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

17.1   EFFECT OF A CHANGE OF KG
17.1.1 Causes of a change in KG
17.1.2 Calculating the increase/decrease in GZ as a result of a change of KG
17.1.3 Effect on the curve of statical stability of a change of KG

17.2   EFFECT OF A TRANSVERSE SHIFT OF WEIGHT (LIST)
17.2.1 Causes of a list
17.2.2 Calculating the decrease in GZ as a result of a transverse shift of weight
17.2.3 Effect on the curve of statical stability of list

17.3   EFFECT OF A CHANGE IN FREEBOARD
17.3.1 Causes of a change in freeboard
17.3.2 Effect of a change in freeboard for constant beam, draught and KG
17.3.3 Effect on the curve of statical stability of increase in freeboard

17.4   COMPARISON OF STABILITY OF A SHIP IN THE LIGHT AND FULLY LOADED
CONDITIONS

17.5   EFFECT OF BEAM
17.5.1 Effect of increasing beam for constant draught and freeboard
17.5.2 Effect on the curve of statical stability of an increase in beam
17.5.3 Ship conversion – practical application of increasing effective beam

17.6   EFFECT OF STERN TRIM
17.6.1 Comparison of even keel and stern trimmed stability characteristics
17.6.2 Effect on the curve of statical stability of a trim by the stern

SECTION 18 – THE INTERNATIONAL GRAIN CODE
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

18.1   THE EFFECT OF A SHIFT OF SOLID BULK CARGO ON THE CURVE OF
STATICAL STABILITY
18.1.1 Angle of repose
18.1.2 Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an angle of repose less than or equal to
30º
18.1.3 Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an angle of repose from 30º to 35º
18.1.4 Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an angle of repose greater than 35º
18.1.5 The importance of trimming level the bulk cargo surface
18.1.6 The effect on the curve of statical stability of a shift of solid bulk cargo

18.2   ASSUMPTIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL GRAIN CODE WITH RESPECT TO
ANTICIPATED SHIFT OF GRAIN CARGO
18.2.1 General principles of the International Grain Code
18.2.2 Specific assumptions

18.3.1 Document of authorisation to carry grain cargoes

18.4   INTACT STABILITY CRITERIA FOR SHIPS CARRYING GRAIN ISSUED WITH A
DOCUMENT OF AUTHORISATION

18.5   DERIVATION OF THE HEELING ARM

18.6   COMPENSATION FOR THE VERTICAL COMPONENT OF SHIFT OF GRAIN

18.7   PROCEDURE TO VERIFY COMPLIANCE OF A SHIP’S LOADED CONDITION
WITH MINIMUM INTERNATIONAL GRAIN CODE CRITERIA

18.8   METHODS OF IMPROVING STABILITY WHEN THE MINIMUM INTERNATIONAL
GRAIN CODE CRITERIA IS NOT SATISFIED
18.8.1 Ballasting
18.8.2 Saucers
18.8.3   Bundling of bulk grain
18.8.4   Overstowing arrangements
18.8.5   Strapping or lashing
18.8.6   Securing with wire mesh

18.9    OPTIONAL STABILITY REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET BY SHIPS WITHOUT
DOCUMENTS OF AUTHORISATION CARRYING PARTIAL CARGOES OF BULK
GRAIN

18.10   SIMPLIFIED STABILITY DATA FOR SHIPS CARRYING GRAIN BUILT ON OR
AFTER 1ST JANUARY 1994 (ON OR AFTER DATE THAT THE INTERNATIONAL
GRAIN CODE TAKES EFFECT)
18.10.1 Presentation of simplified grain data
18.10.2 Using simplified grain data

SECTION 19 – INCLINING EXPERIMENT
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

19.1    STABILITY INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED TO THE MASTER

19.2    THE INCLINING EXPERIMENT
19.2.1 Purpose
19.2.2 Calculation of KG in the inclined condition
19.2.2.1        Derivation of the inclining experiment formula
19.2.2.2        Calculation of the ship’s actual light KG and displacement
19.2.3 Preparations for the inclining test
19.2.4 Precautions to be taken by the surveyor to ensure accuracy of the calculation
19.2.5 The occasions when an inclining experiment and lightweight survey must be
conducted

SECTION 20 – TRIM USING HYDROSTATIC DATA
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

20.1    TRUE MEAN DRAUGHT
20.1.1 True mean draught when LCF is amidships
20.1.2 True mean draught when LCF is not amidships
20.1.3 Calculating the True Mean Draught

20.2    TRIM CALCULATIONS USING HYDROSTATIC DATA – TAKING MOMENTS

20.3    TRIM CALCULATIONS USING HYDROSTATIC DATA – TRIM                                  BY
CONSIDERATION OF THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF THE LCB AND LCG
20.3.1 Calculating the final draught – ship initially on an even keel
20.3.2 Calculating the final draught – ship initially trimmed

20.4    VARIOUS EXAMINATION STYLE PROBLEMS INVOLVING TRIM
20.4.1 Maximum cargo to load in each space for the ship to complete at the
maximum draught
20.4.2 Maximum cargo to load in each space for the ship to complete at the load
displacement with a desired trim
20.4.3 Where to load a single weight to keep the aft draught constant
20.4.4 Calculating the weight to load to reduce the deepest draught by a given
amount

20.5   CHANGE IN DRAUGHT AND TRIM DUE TO CHANGE IN WATER DENSITY
20.5.1 Cause of a change of trim due to change of water density
20.5.2 Calculating the final draughts
20.5.3 Alternative formula for calculating the change of trim
20.5.4 Considering change of trim due to change of density when conducting trim
problems

SECTION 21 – DRY-DOCKING
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

21.1   SEQUENCE OF EVENTS DURING DRY-DOCKING

21.2   CALCULATING THE P FORCE
21.2.1 Calculation of P force at any stage during dry-docking
21.2.2 Calculation of P force during the critical period when dry-docking

21.3   LOSS OF STABILITY WHEN DRY-DOCKING
21.3.1 Loss of GM as a result of a rise in G (increase in KG)
21.3.2 Loss of GM as a result of a fall in M (decrease in KM)

21.4   TYPICAL DRY-DOCKING PROBLEMS

21.5   PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS DURING DRY-DOCKING
21.5.1 The requirement to limit the P force
21.5.2 Limiting the loss of GM

SECTION 22 – BILGING
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

22.1   THE EFFECTS OF BILGING AN EMPTY AMIDSHIPS COMPARTMENT
22.1.1 Calculating the KM of a box-shaped vessel
22.1.2 Lost buoyancy (constant displacement) method
22.1.4 Method to use for bilging calculations

22.2   THE EFFECTS OF BILGING AN EMPTY AMIDSHIPS COMPARTMENT WITH A
WATERTIGHT FLAT (DOUBLE BOTTOM)
22.2.1 Floodwater confined below a watertight flat below the original waterline
22.2.2 Final waterline above the watertight flat

22.3   BILGING A COMPARTMENT WHEN PERMEABILITY IS LESS THAN 100%
22.3.1 Bilging a compartment when permeability is less than 100% - permeability
value given
22.3.2 Calculating the permeability for a compartment

22.4   CALCULATING THE DRAUGHTS WHEN AN END COMPARTMENT BECOMES
BILGED
22.4.1 Bilging an extreme end compartment with 100% permeability
22.4.2 Bilging an extreme end compartment with a watertight flat – 100%
permeability

22.5   CALCULATING THE LIST WHEN AN AMIDSHIPS SIDE COMPARTMENT IS
BILGED – PERMEABILITY 100%
22.5.1 Moment of inertia
22.5.2 Moments of inertia of rectangular water plane areas
22.5.3 The parallel axes theorem
22.5.4 Calculating the moment of inertia of a water plane area of a box-shaped
vessel with a bilged side compartment
22.5.5 Calculating the angle of list resulting from an amidships side compartment
becoming bilged

22.6   REVIEW OFR PRINCIPLES OF BILGING TO BE APPLIED TO CALCULATIONS

SECTION 23 – ANGLE OF HEEL WHEN TURNING
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

23.1   TERMS RELATING TO A SHIP’S TURNING CIRCLE
23.1.2 Transfer
23.1.3 Tactical diameter
23.1.5 Yaw

23.2   FORCES THAT CAUSE THE SHIP TO HEEL DURING TURNING

23.3   CALCULATING THE ANGLE OF HEEL WHEN TURNING

23.4   CALCULATING THE MAXIMUM DRAUGHT (INCREASE IN DRAUGHT) DUE TO
LIST/HEEL

SECTION 24 – WIND HEELING, ICE ACCRETION AND ROLLING
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

24.1   WIND HEELING
24.1.1 Wind heeling considerations for container ships (MCA)
24.1.1.1       Wind heeling criteria for container ships (MCA)
24.1.1.2       Method to verify compliance with the regulations
24.1.2 Wind heeling considerations for all ships (IMO)
24.1.2.1       Units of wind pressure adopted by IMO
24.1.2.2       Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion) (IMO)

24.2   ICING ALLOWANCES

24.3   ‘STILL WATER’ ROLLING
24.3.1 Unrestricted rolling in still water
24.3.3 Formula for rolling period
24.3.4 Determining the GM by means of rolling period tests
24.3.5 Resisted rolling in still water
24.4   ROLLING IN WAVES
24.4.1 Wave theory
24.4.2 Ship rolling in waves
24.4.3 Synchronism

24.5   METHODS ADOPTED TO MINIMISE A SHIP’S ROLLING MOTION AT SEA
24.5.1 Passive Systems
24.5.1.1       Bilge keels
24.5.1.2       Passive stabilising tanks
24.5.2 Active systems
24.5.2.1       Active tanks
24.5.2.2       Active stabilising fins

SECTION 25 – STABILITY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SPECIFIC SHIP TYPES
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

25.1   OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS
25.1.2 Allowances for entrapment of water in pipe cargoes
25.1.3 Freeboard limitation aft
25.1.4 The effect of stern trim and reserve forward buoyancy on stability
25.1.5 ‘Fixed trim’ and ‘free trim’ basis KN curves
25.1.6 Intact stability criteria for supply vessels
25.1.7 Stabiliser tanks

25.2   DOUBLE HULL TANKERS
25.2.1 Stability concerns
25.2.2 Damaged stability considerations
25.2.3 Approaches to preventing double hull tanker lolling
25.2.4 Maintenance

25.3   BULK CARRIERS
25.3.1 Bulk carrier concerns
25.3.2 New legislation aimed at improving bulk carrier safety
25.3.3 December 2002 SOLAS amendments

25.4   PASSENGER SHIP SUBDIVISION AND DAMAGED STABILITY REQUIREMENTS
25.4.1 Approaches to subdivision in general
25.4.2 Probabilistic approach to subdivision
25.4.3 Deterministic approach to subdivision
25.4.4 Comparison of the two approaches to ship subdivision
25.4.5 Deterministic rules for passenger ships
25.4.6 Subdivision load lines for passenger ships
25.4.7 Passenger ship stability in the damaged condition

25.5   RO-RO PASSENGER SHIPS
25.5.1 Stability problems associated with the design and operation of Ro-Ro
passenger ships
25.5.2 Methods of improving ro-ro ship stability
25.5.3 Damaged stability requirements for ro-ro passenger ships
SECTION 26 – CALCULATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF FREEBOARD
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

26.1   DEFINITIONS
26.1.1          Length (L)
26.1.2          Perpendiculars (FP, AP)
26.1.3          Amidships
26.1.5          Moulded depth
26.1.7          Block coefficient (Cb)
26.1.8          Freeboard
26.1.9          Freeboard deck
26.1.10 Superstructure
26.1.11 Flush deck ship
26.1.12 Weathertight

26.2   SHIP’S SIDE MARKINGS
26.2.1       Deck line (Regulation 4)
26.2.2       Load line mark and accompanying load lines (Regulations 5 to 8)

26.3   CONDITIONS OF ASSIGNMENT OF FREEBOARD APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS
26.3.1 Structural strength
26.3.2 Information to be supplied to the master
26.3.3 Structural conditions of assignment

26.4   TYPE ‘A’ SHIPS AND THEIR ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS OF ASSIGNMENT
26.4.1 Type ‘A’ ship – definition (Regulation 27)
26.4.2 Special structural conditions of assignment for type’A’ ships (Regulation 26)

26.5   THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPE ‘A’ SHIPS AND TYPE ‘B’ SHIPS EXPLAINED

26.6   B-60 AND B-100 TABULAR FREEBOARDS
26.6.1 B-60 and B-100 tabular freeboards explained
26.6.2 Additional conditions of assignment for type ‘B-60’ freeboard (Regulation 27)
26.6.3 Additional conditions of assignment for type ‘B-100’ freeboard (Regulation 27)

26.7   CALCULATION PROCEDURE FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF A                              TYPE    ‘A’
FREEBOARD
26.7.1 Obtain the tabular freeboard (Regulation 28)
26.7.2 Correction for block coefficient (Regulation 30)
26.7.3 Correction for depth (Regulation 31)
26.7.4 Correction for position of deck line (Regulation 32)
26.7.5 Correction for superstructure and trunks (Regulations 33 to 37)
26.7.6 Correction for sheer profile (Regulation 38)
26.7.7 Correction for bow height (Regulation 39)

26.8   CALCULATION PROCEDURE FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF A TYPE ‘B’
FREEBOARD
26.8.1 Obtain the tabular freeboard (Regulation 28)
26.8.2 Correction to tabular freeboard for type ‘B’ ships having wooden hatch covers
(Regulation 27)
26.8.3 Correction to tabular freeboard for type ‘B’ ships under 100 metres in length
(Regulation 29)

26.9   TIMBER FREEBOARDS (Chapter IV)
26.9.1 Special construction requirements applicable to ships assigned timber
freeboards (Regulation 43)
26.9.2 Stowage requirements (Regulation 44)
26.9.3 Calculation of the Summer timber freeboard (Regulation 45)
26.9.4 Minimum IMO stability criteria for ships carrying timber deck cargoes
26.9.5 Minimum MCA (UK ships) stability criteria for ships carrying timber deck
cargoes

26.10   LOAD LINE CERTIFICATION AND SURVEYS
26.10.1 Surveys

SECTION 27 – SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS IN SHIPS
INTRODUCTION
Learning Objectives

27.1    SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMEMNTS IN STILL WATER CONDITIONS

27.2    SIMPLE SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAMS FOR BOX-SHAPED
VESSELS
27.2.1 Producing the curve of loads
27.2.2 Producing the curve of shear forces
27.2.3 Producing the curve of bending moments
27.2.4 A harder example illustrating key points of interest

27.3    SEA WAVE BENDING

27.4.1 Calculation conventions
27.4.2 Stress calculating programs - system requirements and data representation