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									Ch.9 Learning Study Guide Questions
   1. According to the information-processing model of memory, acquisition is to
       retention as ____ is to _____.
            a. Recall; recognition
            b. Rehearsal; relearning
            c. Interference; repression
            d. Encoding; storage
   2. The three-stage processing model suggests that information from long-term
       memory can be _____ into _____ memory.
            a. Encoded; sensory
            b. Retrieved; sensory
            c. Encoded; short-term
            d. Retrieved; short-term
   3. Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is
       known as:
            a. Implicit memory
            b. Long-term potentiation
            c. Automatic processing
            d. Stat-dependent memory
            e. Chunking
   4. While reading a novel at a rate of nearly 500 words per minute, Megan
       effortlessly understands the meaning of almost ever word. This ability highlights
       the importance of:
            a. Flashbulb memory
            b. Automatic processing
            c. The spacing effect
            d. Iconic memory
   5. Hasher and Zack observed that people recall the frequency of specific words in a
       list just as accurately whether or not they are forewarned of the recall task prior to
       seeing the list. This finding provides evidence for:
            a. Implicit memory
            b. The serial position effect
            c. The spacing effect
            d. Automatic processing
            e. State-dependent memory
   6. Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the
       study of human memory?
            a. Pavlov
            b. James
            c. Loftus
            d. Freud
            e. Ebbinghaus
   7. Ebbinghaus’s retention curve best illustrates the value of”
            a. Chunking
            b. Imagery
            c. Priming
        d. Rehearsal
        e. Implicit memory
8. Taped information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not
    remembered. This illustrates that the retention of information often requires:
        a. Proactive interference
        b. State-dependent memory
        c. Chunking
        d. Effortful processing
        e. Priming
9. On the telephone, Melvin rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Pilar to bring
    home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Pilar attempts to write
    down the items. She is most likely to forget the items:
        a. At the beginning of the list
        b. At the end of the list
        c. In the middle of the list
        d. At the beginning and in the middle of the list
10. Proactive and retroactive interference contributes most strongly to the:
        a. Next-in-line effect
        b. Self-reference effect
        c. Serial position effect
        d. Spacing effect
11. Most people misrecall the sentence; “The angry rioter threw the rock at the
    window” as “The angry rioter threw the rock through the window.” This best
    illustrates the importance of:
        a. Iconic memory
        b. Retroactive interference
        c. Source amnesia
        d. Semantic encoding
        e. Mood-congruent memory
12. Wie Dong was asked to memorize a long list of words that included “ship, effort,
    professor, and inquire.” He later recalled these words as “boat, work, teacher, and
    question.” This suggests that the four original words had been encoded”
        a. Acoustically
        b. Visually
        c. Semantically
        d. Automatically
13. After Jackie was presented with the letters “g, c, k, p, and d” she recalled them as
    “g, c, j, t and d.” Her recall errors best illustrates the importance of:
        a. Acoustic encoding
        b. Implicit memory
        c. Automatic processing
        d. Iconic memory
14. One reason why adults typically recall little of their first 2 or 3 years of life is that
    during infancy they were unable to verbally label most of their experiences. This
    best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires:
        a. Automatic processing
        b. Implicit memory
        c. Acoustic encoding
        d. Source amnesia
        e. Semantic encoding
15. The self-reference effect best illustrates the value of:
        a. Semantic encoding
        b. Source amnesia
        c. The method of loci
        d. Flashbulb memory
        e. Repression
16. Memory aids that involve the use of vivid imagery or clever ways of organizing
    materials are called:
        a. Semantic techniques
        b. Iconic traces
        c. Organizational cues
        d. Mnemonic devices
17. Mnemonic devices such as the “peg-word” system make effective use of:
        a. Flashbulb memory
        b. Visual imagery
        c. State-dependent memory
        d. The serial position effect
        e. Implicit memory
18. The use of acronyms to improve one’s memory of unfamiliar materials best
    illustrates the value of:
        a. Imagery
        b. Chunking
        c. The spacing effect
        d. The serial position effect
        e. The method of loci
19. By presenting research participants with three rows of three letters each for only a
    fraction of a second, Sperling demonstrated that people have _____ memory.
        a. Echoic
        b. Flashbulb
        c. State-dependent
        d. Iconic
        e. Implicit
20. Short-term memory is slightly better:
        a. For auditory information than for visual information
        b. For random letters than for random digits
        c. In children than in adults
        d. In females than in males
21. The human capacity for storing long-term memories is:
        a. Essentially unlimited
        b. Roughly equal to 7 units of information
        c. Typically much greater than in young children than in adults
        d. Greatly reduced after people reach the age of 65
22. Research on sea snails suggests that memory formation is facilitated by
        a. RNA molecules
        b. Serotonin
        c. Alcohol
        d. Chunking
        e. Priming
23. The temporary release of serotonin has been found to ___ memory formation, and
    the temporary release of stress hormones has been found to ___ memory
        a. Disrupt; facilitate
        b. Facilitate; disrupt
        c. Disrupt; disrupt
        d. Facilitate; facilitate
24. Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious
    recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates ____
        a. Implicit
        b. Short-term
        c. Sensory
        d. Flashbulb
        e. State-dependent
25. Damage to the hippocampus would most likely interfere with a person’s ability to
        a. To ride a bike
        b. To read mirror-image writing
        c. The procedures for solving a jigsaw puzzle
        d. The names of the fifty United States
26. Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure ______; matching concepts with their
    definitions measures ________.
        a. Recognition; relearning
        b. Recall; recognition
        c. Recall; relearning
        d. Relearning; recall
27. Which measure of memory did Ebbinghaus use in order to assess the impact of
    rehearsal on retention?
        a. Recall
        b. Recognition
        c. Relearning
        d. Reconstruction
28. Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as:
        a. Automatic processing
        b. Repression
        c. Chunking
        d. Relearning
        e. Priming
29. Reading a romantic novel caused Consuela to recall some old experiences with a
    high school boyfriend. The effect of the novel on Consuela’s memory retrieval is
    an illustration of:
        a. Priming
        b. Chunking
        c. Source amnesia
        d. Automatic processing
        e. The spacing effect
30. Compared to formally depressed people, those who are currently depressed are
    more likely to recall their parents as rejecting and punitive. This best illustrates:
        a. Retroactive interference
        b. Source amnesia
        c. Repression
        d. The self-reference effect
        e. Mood-congruent memory
31. Although Art has looked at his watch thousands of times, he is unable to recall
    whether the watch features Arabic or Roman numerals. This is most likely due to
    the failure in:
        a. Encoding
        b. Storage
        c. Retrieval
        d. Iconic memory
        e. Implicit memory
32. Professor Masalova has so many vivid memories of former students that she has
    difficulty remembering the names of new students. The professor’s difficulty best
        a. Retroactive interference
        b. Mood-congruent memory
        c. Proactive interference
        d. The spacing effect
        e. Source amnesia
33. Motivated forgetting provides an example of forgetting caused by a failure in:
        a. Automatic processing
        b. Encoding
        c. Storage
        d. Retrieval
34. When recalling a pleasant experience, we may picture ourselves in the scene. At
    the time of the experience we were not looking at ourselves, so our recollection
        a. Memory construction
        b. Mood-congruent memory
        c. Automatic processing
        d. Iconic memory
        e. The spacing effect
35. An attorney’s use of misleading questions may distort a court witness’s recall of a
    previously observed crime. This best illustrates:
        a. State-dependent memory
        b. The misinformation effect
        c. Proactive interference
        d. The next-in-line effect
        e. The serial position effect
36. After repeatedly hearing false, detailed accusations that he had sexually abused
    his daughter, Mr. Busker began to mistakenly recollect that such events had
    actually occurred. This best illustrates the dangers of:
        a. Source amnesia
        b. Proactive interference
        c. Implicit memory
        d. Mood-congruent memory
        e. The self-reference effect
37. On indication that an individual is falsely remembering a word is the lack of
    increased brain activity in the:
        a. Hippocampus
        b. Cerebellum
        c. Hypothalamus
        d. Left temporal lobe
38. When we fall in love, we tend to overestimate how much we liked our partner
    when we first began dating. This best illustrates the dynamics of:
        a. Automatic processing
        b. The spacing effect
        c. Proactive interference
        d. The serial position effect
        e. Memory construction
39. Those who experience a so-called “false memory syndrome” are most likely to
        a. A sense of anxiety regarding the reliability of their own memories
        b. Feelings of personal power and self-importance
        c. An excessive preoccupation with their false memory
        d. A history or real sexual and physical abuse
40. Answering practice test questions about textbook material you have studies is a
    useful strategy for:
        a. Automatically processing complex information
        b. Facilitating the development of implicit memory
        c. Activating your state-dependent memory
        d. Becoming aware of what you still need to learn

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