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					                                   FITNESS FOR AUSTRALIAN
                                       FOOTBALL UMPIRING

          > WARM-UP PRINCIPLES

          A thorough warm-up should be a planned component of every training
          session. Detailed below are guidelines and principles that are useful in
          helping plan warm up sessions. You should link the warm-up principles to the
          skills and running drills you will performing in your training session.

          > PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF WARM-UP EXERCISE

          •   Increased muscle temperature – A warm muscle is much more flexible
              than a cold one. Increasing muscle temperature can increase range of
              motion by up to 20%.
          •   Increased ventilation and respiration – Increasing breathing and gas
              exchange rate provides the body with a ready supply of oxygen to meet
              its upcoming demands.
          •   Redirection of blood to working muscles – Warm-ups push blood from
              those areas of the body less-necessary for exercise (such as digestive
              organs) into the working muscles. Increased blood flow results in a higher
              temperature, more efficient delivery of fuel and removal of metabolic
              wastes.
          •   Increased perspiration – The body’s primary cooling mechanism is
              engaged for the upcoming workout.


          > PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF WARM-UP EXERCISE

          A thorough warm-up work has profound psychological benefits that are often
          ignored. The warm-up session shifts the umpire mentally from a resting to a
          working state. It is during this time that the concerns of daily life should fade
          into the background as focus shifts to the upcoming training. A lack of focus
          and attention during intense exercise, can result in severe injury.

          > WARM-UP TRAINING, INJURY PREVENTION, AND DOMS

          Although there is little experimental evidence showing that warm-ups have a
          role in injury prevention, the experiences of coaches and athletes provide
          ample anecdotal support. As previously mentioned, the increased
          psychological attention and focus resulting from a proper warm up can help
          prevent workout injuries. A flexible muscle is less likely to be strained or torn
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          during the workout.

          > DOMS (DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS)

          DOMS is the stiffness, pain, and loss of muscle function that occurs 24 – 48
          hours after the workout. It is most pronounced in those who are
          unaccustomed to training, after workouts that involve substantial eccentric
          work or novel exercises, or when following changes in training parameters
          such as intensity or repetition range. Whether or not warming up can actually
          reduce or prevent DOMS has yet to be substantiated using experimental
          studies.


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                                   FITNESS FOR AUSTRALIAN
                                       FOOTBALL UMPIRING

          > HOW MUCH WARM-UP

          The correct duration of warm-up activity is that which accomplishes the
          physiological effects listed above without resulting in fatigue that will interfere
          with the upcoming training session.

          In simpler terms, your warm-up should increase your heart rate, breathing
          rate, body temperature, and mental focus. You should break a good sweat,
          feel loose, and be ready to go. If you still feel stiff or tight, you haven’t done
          enough, and if you are exhausted, you’ve done too much. Typically, ten
          minutes is optimal. However, warm-ups should be tailored to fit the individual
          and the situation.

          Use the following guidelines to determine the appropriate duration:

          •   Older people typically require more warm-up than younger people. As
              people age, tissue loses elasticity, arthritis becomes more common, and
              previous injuries resurface.
          •   Colder ambient temperatures necessitate longer warm-ups. If it is winter,
              or you train in a cold environment, spend a bit more time getting ready.
          •   The more advanced the umpire, the longer the warm-up should be. This
              is true because more highly trained people typically exercise at higher
              relative intensities and it takes longer to build up to more intense
              workloads.

          > WHAT TYPE OF ACTIVITY?

          The traditional general warm-up routine consists of five to ten minutes of low
          intensity cardio. This is typically done on by jogging or completing basic drills
          at a low intensity. Although such warm-ups are sometimes physiologically
          adequate, they do not meet the psychological demands of training, nor do
          they represent the most efficient use of the athlete’s time.

          > SPECIFICITY

          Optimal warm-ups must closely resemble the target activity on several levels.
          They must match the workout in terms of intensity and with regard to the
          muscle groups and movement patterns. Obviously the warm-ups cannot be at
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          the same intensity as the workout because this would result in too much
          fatigue. However, more intense workout sessions require a longer and more
          intense warm-up period. This brings the athlete to the proper mental and
          physical state of readiness. It prepares the body for the upcoming stresses
          and provides the appropriate amount of psyching up necessary for top effort
          during training.

          Also important is attention to rehab/prehab concerns. Warm-ups must be
          specific to the individual’s body and should take into account previous,
          current, or potential injuries.




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                                  FITNESS FOR AUSTRALIAN
                                      FOOTBALL UMPIRING

          > USEFUL TRAINING AS A WARM UP

          Useful training should be accomplished during the warm-up in order for
          maximum workout efficiency. In other words, the warm-up exercises should
          not be done merely for the sake of bringing up the heart rate and body
          temperature. Using basic running drills, handball drills that require agility and
          flexibility can be used during the warm-up session.
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