Study Guide—Enzymes_ Catalysts and the Digestive System

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					Pre-IB Unit 2 Study Guide—Enzymes, Catalysts, and the Digestive System
Test covers:   Readings – Chapters 2, 3, 49.1, 49.2
               All notes and class discussions
               All assignments (in class and homework)

Major concepts (start you studying here, but study all the material from the unit)

   Enzyme structure: polypeptides made from linking together amino acids by condensation
    reactions. Review the structure of amino acids and polypeptides. Explain how enzymes fold
    into a globular shape including 4 types of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary,
   How enzymes work: substrate, active site, activation energy, catabolic and anabolic
    reactions, importance of enzyme folding.
   Enzyme denaturation: Define and explain the term denature. Name two things that can cause
    an enzyme to denature.
   Understand the induced fit versus lock and key models of enzyme function.
   Investigating Catalysts Lab: Define catalyst. Compare and contrast organic and inorganic
    catalysts, including how they are affected by heat. Know the conclusions you drew from
    each part of the lab and why each control was necessary.
   Explain what the following organs of the digestive system do and be able to label on a
    diagram: salivary glands, oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large
    intestine, rectum, anus, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. Know the path that food takes as it
    travels through the digestive system including where each type of macromolecule is digested,
    what enzymes are involved, and where nutrients, minerals, and water are absorbed.
   Define chemical and mechanical digestion and give examples of each.
   Explain the roles of insulin and glucagon in controlling blood sugar.
        o Insulin lowers blood sugar; you should have high insulin levels after eating.
        o Glucagon raises blood sugar; you should have high glucagon levels when you haven’t
            eaten in a while
   Mechanical and Chemical Digestion of Protein and Lipid Labs: Explain what conditions are
    necessary for digestion of these macromolecules.
   For any experiment, be able to identify controls, constants, dependent and independent
    variables. Also, be able to propose a controlled experiment to answer a research question
    regarding enzymes or digestion.

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