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					                                                                                                                 Sowing Guide 2010




Faba bean variety sowing guide 2010
By Jim Egan, Larn Mc Murray and                at www.grdc.com.au/director/events/                    There can often be strong grazier
Rohan Kimber SARDI, Jeff Paull University      grdcpublications/pba or http://                       demand for feed beans in dry conditions.
of Adelaide and Wayne Hawthorne Pulse          www.pulseaus.com.au/pdf/PBA%20
Australia                                      Kareema%20Website%20Final.pdf                              Varieties and disease management
                                                                                                            Disease resistance levels in Nura and


T
         here are no new faba bean             Varieties and market preferences                           Farah allow growers to be more reactive
         varieties for SA growers in 2010        The Middle East human consumption                        to ascochyta blight than in other varieties
         however a new broad bean variety,     market prefers Australian faba beans,                      and disease management strategies can
PBA Kareema, has been released to              ahead of competition from France and                       be based on monitoring levels in high
replace Aquadulce.                             the UK.                                                    risk situations.
  Variety selection in faba beans for            To access the export human food                            With Fiesta, growers must maintain
the major SA bean production regions           markets, the Australian product must be                    ascochyta blight disease control until
continues to be between Nura and Farah.        of high quality, including freedom from                    after flowering is finished to ensure seed
  Overall, Farah has slightly higher           mechanical damage, weathering,                                       staining is not an issue.
yields than Nura in SA but Nura in most        disease staining and storage                                           In regions prone to chocolate
circumstances has better chocolate spot        problems. Old crop beans                                             spot infections all varieties
and rust resistance than Farah.                darken with storage and age and                                      require a protective spray before
  However there were some instances            become unsuitable for the export                                     canopy closure when the beans
in 2009 where the variety reaction to          market after about 9 months.                                         are at the early flowering stage.
chocolate spot in the two varieties was          Our varieties Farah, Nura and                                      Follow up sprays will be required
similar.                                       Fiesta, are well accepted, and the                                   in Nura, Farah and Fiesta in
  Disease management strategies for            market signals are that the small                 Jim Egan           prolonged wet conditions,
chocolate spot control should essentially      faba beans like the old Fiord and                                    particularly if dense canopies are
be the same for both Nura and Farah.           Ascot varieties are no longer wanted in                    produced or if disease is present in the
   Nura is about a week later flowering        the Middle East.                                           lower canopy.
than Farah, is more sensitive to high            Co-mingling of these smaller seeded                        Variety management packages (VMP) for
rates of Spinnaker ® but more tolerant         varieties with the now accepted Fiesta                     Farah and Nura beans and more detailed
of simazine and metribuzin than Farah          /Farah size will downgrade the overall                     information on disease management in
and not as tall growing under some             quality.                                                   faba beans can be accessed from the Pulse
conditions, including later sowing.              Product that does not meet export                        Australia website, at www.pulseaus.com.au
  Nura is also generally more responsive       human food standard or is surplus to                         Cercospora leaf spot continues to be
to early sowing dates than other varieties     demand is consumed domestically in                         more widely reported in faba beans.
due to it later flowering time, but is less    stockfeed rations, often at lower prices.                    Caused by infection with the fungus
suited to later sowings. Nura’s shorter        Sound beans are also finding a place in                    Cercospora zonata, this disease is soil
height can cause harvest difficulties and      many integrated cropping and grazing                       borne and typically occurs in paddocks
grain loss in low rainfall districts and       enterprises as a means of finishing lambs                  with a bean history, particularly if close in
seasons. Both varieties produce highly         on farm.                                                   the rotation (less than 4-6 years), or when
marketable seed.                                                                                          in close proximity to these paddocks.
  PBA Kareema was released in SA in 2009                                                                    Correct identification is essential
and is licensed to Keith Seeds. It is suited    Table 1. Faba bean variety sowing guide 2010.             to distinguish it from ascochyta blight,
to all current broad bean growing areas               Rainfall zone (average annual rainfall)             chocolate spot or herbicide damage, all of
in the south-east of SA and southern                                                                      which can show similar plant symptoms.
                                                      Low            Medium                High
Victoria.                                                                                                   Incorrect diagnosis can lead to
  PBA Kareema combines improved                   < 375 mm         375-500 mm           > 500 mm          inappropriate or unwarranted fungicide
seed quality (freedom from “evergreen”               Farah             Nura                Nura           use. Early control (5-8 weeks) with
seeds and larger, more uniform seeds)               Fiesta *           Farah              Farah           carbendazim or tebuconazole is most
with improved resistance to ascochyta                                                                     effective in preventing yield loss. All
                                                     Nura             Fiesta *                            current faba bean varieties are susceptible,
blight while maintaining the yield and
adaptation characteristics of Aquadulce.        * Fiesta needs a higher level of disease monitoring       thus preventative control measures are
Refer to PBA Kareema variety brochure           and protection in most years.                             best practice.


                                                                                                                       2010   SARDI Sowing Guide < 39
       Sowing Guide 2010




                                                Table 2. Agronomic and disease characteristics of faba bean varieties. (National disease ratings as supplied by
Notes on faba bean varieties                    Pulse Breeding Australia (PBA)).

  NuraA                                         Variety       Maturity     Seed colour      Seed size        Height     Ascochyta     Chocolate       Rust
  Nura is a medium-sized faba bean                                                           (g/100)                      blight        spot
with moderate resistance to ascochyta           Aquadulce       Late       Light brown       110-150          Tall          MS           MS            MS
blight and rust, and intermediate                                            to brown
resistance (MR-MS) to chocolate spot.           Ascot           Early      Light brown        35-55          Short           R            VS            S
It is susceptible to Cercospora leaf spot,                                   to brown
similar to Farah and Fiesta. Nura is
                                                Cairo           Early      Light brown        55-75         Medium-         VS            VS          MR-R
generally shorter in height than Fiesta
                                                                             to brown                         tall
and Farah, making it less likely to lodge
but more difficult to harvest in lower          Doza            Early          Buff           35-55         Medium          VS            S             R
rainfall districts or with late sowing.         Farah         Early-Mid    Light brown        55-75         Medium         MR-R           S             S
  Nura’s long-term yields are slightly lower                                 to brown
than Farah in most areas, however highest
                                                Fiesta        Early-Mid    Light brown        55-75         Medium        MS-MR           S             S
relative yields are achieved when sown
                                                                             to brown
early. It has good seed appearance, light
buff in colour, with minimal seed staining      Fiord           Early      Light brown        35-55          Short          MS            VS            S
and discolouration. Nura flowers about 7                                     to brown
days later than Farah, but matures about        Manafest         Mid       Light brown        88-100        Medium          VS           MS            MS
the same time.                                  Nura          Early-Mid     Light buff        50-70          Short         MR-R        MS-MR           MR
  Its major advantage to growers is a
likely reduction in fungicide sprays, with      PBA             Late       Light brown       130-170          Tall         MR-R          MS            MR
ascochyta blight and rust protection only       Kareema                      to brown
required in high risk situations. Seed is       R = resistant; MR = moderately resistant; MS = moderately susceptible; S = susceptible; VS = very
available from AWB Seeds and an end             susceptible.
point royalty applies.                          All common varieties (Nura, Farah, Fiesta and Fiord) are rated as Susceptible to Cercospora leaf spot.

  DozaA
  Doza is a small to medium sized              Fiesta and Nura in most areas of southern                 staining.
faba bean released for the subtropical         Australia, but its major advantage is the                   Manafest has reasonable resistance to
environments of northern NSW and               increased likelihood of achieving market                  chocolate spot and rust. Manafest is able
southern Queensland. Doza has superior         standards for freedom from seed staining.                 to tolerate soil conditions which lead to
rust resistance to all current varieties,      Farah is licensed to PlantTech Pty Ltd and                iron and manganese deficiency in other
reasonable resistance to chocolate spot,       an end point royalty applies.                             faba bean varieties.
but it is susceptible to ascochyta blight                                                                  It has excellent early vigour and very
and therefore not likely to have a role in       Fiesta                                                  early branching, but is later flowering
southern Australia.                              Fiesta is early to mid flowering. It has                than Farah and is similar to Nura. Seed
   Doza has good resistance to stem            buff coloured seed, larger than Fiord.                    is larger than Farah, and light brown
collapse from frost, an important trait in     Fiesta has good seedling vigour and                       in colour. A replacement variety for
its target environment. Doza has only          is of medium height. It is classed as                     Manafest with ascochyta blight resistance
had limited yield testing in SA but is lower   susceptible to chocolate spot , but is less               is likely to be available within a few years.
yielding than Farah and Fiesta. Seed           susceptible than Fiord.
size in the SA trials has generally been         Fiesta is more susceptible to ascochyta                 Broad bean varieties
much smaller than local varieties, and         blight than Farah and Nura and a
only slightly larger than the small-seeded     proactive disease management strategy                       PBA KareemaA (Gilb/57/6-1)
Fiord. Doza is being commercialised by         is recommended to ensure market                             PBA Kareema is a line selected from
Viterra and an end point royalty applies.      standards for clean seed are met. Fiesta is               Aquadulce with similar adaptation to this
                                               no longer protected by PBR, and no end                    variety but with larger and more uniform
  FarahA                                       point royalty applies.                                    seed size, with no “evergreens”. It it is
  Farah is a direct selection from Fiesta,                                                               well adapted to the very high rainfall,
and it is identical in most respects to          Manafest                                                broad bean districts in the lower south-
Fiesta, except for its moderate resistance       Manafest is a medium sized faba bean                    east of SA.
to ascochyta seed staining and more            released without PBR for high rainfall                      It has significantly improved resistance
uniform seed size and colour. Although         areas. It is now largely not grown because                to ascochyta blight (MR-R), better rust
the risk of suffering ascochyta blight seed    its major weakness is its susceptibility                  resistance (MR) and is slightly less
staining is reduced with Farah, the risk       to ascochyta blight and difficulties in                   susceptible to chocolate spot.
is still present if ascochyta blight is not    controlling ascochyta blight from very                      The yield of PBA Kareema has been
properly managed.                              early in the season and continuing                        similar to, or slightly greater than,
  Farah’s yields are slightly higher than      through to late season to avoid seed                      Aquadulce in trials in the south-east of


40 > SARDI Sowing Guide   2010
Looking after broadacre crops in Southern
Australia begins with PreDicta B.

Before seeding, your PreDicta B-accredited
agronomist can access tests for soil-borne
pathogens that pose a significant risk to your
crops.

Knowing before you sow takes a lot of the
guesswork out of planning your cropping
program.

PreDicta B measures the most common root
diseases that can interfere with root function
and reduce a plant’s ability to access water and
nutrients.

Developed for cropping regions in southern
Australia, PreDicta B tests for:

•   Take-all
•   Rhizoctonia barepatch
•   Cereal cyst nematode
•   Pratylenchus (P. neglectus and P. thornei)
                  P.
•   Crown Rot
•   Blackspot of peas
•   Stem nematode

PreDicta B is accessed through accredited agronomists and consultants, who’ll work to interpret
results and outline the best options for your cropping program.

Samples are processed from late January to mid May before sowing.

Not intended for `in-crop’ diagnosis of disease.

For more information contact your local agronomist or visit www.sardi.sa.gov.au



PreDicta B. A service provided by SARDI’s Plant and Soil Health
          Sowing Guide 2010




 Table 3. Predicted yield of faba bean varieties in SA by region, as % Farah (SARDI NVT and PBA data, 2000-2008). Number of observations in italics.
 Variety        Lower Eyre Peninsula      Upper Eyre Peninsula           Mid North              Yorke Peninsula             Murray Mallee                   South East
 Cairo             97           6            99           4            95            24          97            7            97            3            97                21
 Doza              94           3                                      92            8           93            4                                       93                9
 Farah            100           9           100           8           100            32         100           11           100            5            100               38
 Fiesta           100           10           99           10           99            36          98           12            98            5            99                46
 Fiord             96           10           93           10           94            36          94           12            91            5            92                39
 Manafest          87           10           90           9            85            34          86           10            89            4            88                46
 Nura             103           10           96           10           93            36          93           12            90            5            94                43
 Farah’s          2.01                      1.5                       2.14                      2.38                       1.39                        2.45
 yield (t/ha)

SA over the past 8 years. It is licensed                   areas with at least 500 mm average annual                   more tolerant of iron and manganese
to Keith Seeds and an end point royalty                    rainfall, such as the lower south-east of SA.               deficiencies.
applies.                                                   It is considered moderately susceptible to                   Aquadulce’s large seed size makes it a
                                                           chocolate spot because it can succumb                       specialty bean with different marketing
 Aquadulce                                                 under high disease pressure.                                opportunities to faba beans. It commands
 Aquadulce is a tall, late flowering and                     It is more tolerant of waterlogging                       a price premium over faba beans,
maturing broad bean variety, suited to                     than Fiord, it nodulates better and is                      depending on seed size.




42 > SARDI Sowing Guide     2010

				
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