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StGdMan Stole Mother

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StGdMan Stole Mother

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PAT RI C I A K E L LY   STUDYGUIDE   ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION
                                                               Previous      page    main    pic:    Below:     scenes    from    South         Africa




                                           Writer/Director Cathy Henkel Producers Jeff Canin and Cathy Henkel Editor James Bradley Production Manager Aliison Kelly




                                            Film supported and financed by Film Finance Corporation Australia, ABC TV, NSW Film and TV Office, Films Transit Interna-
    ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




                                                                          tional, Consolidated Properties , ABC Enterprises, 74 mins




2
                                                           Middle:     South     Africa    Above     L-R:   Zulu   dancing;      G l o r y ’s   children
                                 L-R:    kids    dancing;       Cathy      Henkel      in     Hope    Road




SYNOPSIS                                      a shocking and confronting reality in all so-    advice from trained counsellors before
                                              cieties. It can and does happen anywhere.        working with the video.



H
          OPE ROAD IS A QUIET JACA-           The video contains occasional profanities
          RANDA LINED STREET in a             and brief descriptions of Laura’s rape and       THE TITLE
          white middle-class suburb in        that of toddler twins. However, the focus
Johannesburg, South Africa. Two days          is on the effect of the crime on victims         Discussing the role and choice of a title for
before Christmas in 1988, a 59-year-old       and their families and how they attempt          this documentary is a good way to begin
woman is sexually assaulted and savagely      to gain justice and find a way to survive.       discussion of the issues related to rape.
beaten in her home by a young white           View this video to decide its appropriate-
teenager. Fourteen years on, the woman        ness for your audience.                          •   Ask students to predict what this title
has still not recovered from this assault.                                                         might mean before they watch the
The police bungled the investigation, the     CURRICULUM LINKS                                     video. After watching, check back to
neighbours disputed her version of events                                                          see how well they think the title cap-
and her son blamed her for letting the        Suitable for senior secondary students               tures the film’s spirit and intention.
perpetrator into her house. The teenager,     and tertiary students as well as com-
identified from a school photograph, was      munity groups, and any one working in            KEY WORDS
never charged and remains a free man.         areas involving assault, rape, victims of
The woman’s daughter is film-maker            trauma.                                          Students need to understand these words
Cathy Henkel, and the film is her search                                                       before discussing or doing the activities.
for some form of justice and for whatever     Useful for Law, Justice Studies, Human           We may assume students understand
it takes to help her mother heal and move     Services, Psychology, Media Studies, Cul-        their meanings in this context, when they
on from this trauma. The journey takes her    tural Studies, English, Religious Education,     actually have a vague or confused under-
back to Johannesburg, city of her birth, to   Studies of Society and the Environment or        standing of them.
confront the past and the present climate     Human Society and Environment.
of violence. The police reopen the case,                                                       Rape, perpetrator, victim, bungle, dispute,
but they run into numerous obstacles and      BEFORE VIEWING                                   recover, suspect, validate, prevalence,
the film-maker has to take matters into her                                                    counsel, preventative, flashback, debili-
own hands. What she discovers, and the        Because rape and sexual assault affect           tating, Apartheid, validate, healing, Indig-
answers she brings back for her mother,       so many people from all social strata, it is     enous, reconciliation, apology, docket.
form the climax of this compelling and        important to discuss and agree on issues
ultimately uplifting film.                    such as respectful listening and talking;        This study guide addresses some of the
                                              issues of disclosure and non-disclosure          issues raised by this documentary under
Warning: This video is about rape. This is    and confidentiality. If you are unsure, seek     four main themes: Rape—the crime; Vic-
                                                                                                                                               ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




                                                                                                                                                                                 3
                               L-R:    Zulu     dancing;      Cathy      and    her    m o t h e r,   Laura
                                                  Below:      Cathy     and     police    reservist       Myra      Carel;      Cathy       and   her   brother      Michael




                                           tims and their families: the impacts; Rape    16,744 from 15,759 in 2000.                       that her neighbours refused to believe that
                                           and Justice; Healing and Reconciliation.                                                        ‘such a nice boy’ was a rapist.
                                                                                         These figures are likely to be significantly
                                                       THEME ONE:                        less than the true incidence of sexual            The complex intersections of rape,
                                                     RAPE—THE CRIME                      assault, as many women do not report              culture and the effects of poverty in
                                                                                         sexual assaults to the police. For instance,      an Australian Indigenous context:
                                           One reason why this crime remains so          the Women’s Safety Survey conducted in            Aboriginal women and children are forty-
                                           hidden is the extremely small percentage      1996 by the Australian Bureau of Statistics       five times more likely to be victims of
                                           of successful prosecutions in these cases,    (ABS) found that nine out of ten victims of       domestic violence than non-Aboriginal
                                           as well as the feelings of guilt and shame    sexual assault did not report the assault to      women, and eight times more likely to
                                           associated with this type of crime. Many      the police. In the light of this finding, the     be murdered … the epidemic of violence
                                           women fear they will be blamed or not         real figure of sexual assault in Australia        against Aboriginal women has emerged
                                           believed when they report this crime and      is more likely to be in excess of 100,000         as a national crisis. 2
                                           if they do, they will undergo a traumatic     incidents per year.
                                           experience in the justice system with lit-                                                      These are not simple issues. Consult
                                           tle chance of success. So sexual assault      2. RACE AND RAPE                                  Indigenous Education units for advice
                                           remains the most hidden and fastest grow-                                                       and guidance in any matters relating to
                                           ing crime worldwide. I hope in this film to   Any discussion of sexual assault in Aus-          Indigenous culture.
                                           expose this situation through my mother’s     tralia must confront the issue of race or
                                           case and to suggest some reasons why          ethnicity. This is a sensitive issue but it is    3. IN SOUTH AFRICA
                                           this is occurring. I hope that the answers    important because of:
                                           will resonate beyond the South African                                                          There are also well-established links
                                           example and shed light on this complex        Stereotypes about ethnicity and rape:             between poverty and rape. The situa-
                                           problem for people around the world.          Many stereotypes exist about who rapists          tion is complicated by a mixture of pov-
                                                                        Cathy Henkel     are. It is always too convenient to think of      erty, AIDS and cultural attitudes towards
                                                                                         it as a crime committed by ‘others’. The          women. In South Africa—according to
                                           1. IN AUSTRALIA                               media tends to report the cases that target       Charlene Smith, South African Woman
                                                                                         particular groups or highlight the ethnicity      of The Year,
                                           According to the Federal Government’s         of perpetrators, as in the gang rapes in
                                           Office of the Status of Women (OSW), the      Sydney by a group of Lebanese Austral-            if you are a woman, you are very likely to
                                           incidence of sexual assault in Australia is   ian youths. However, as the Sun Herald            be raped. As I have been. Some of those I
                                           unacceptably high. In 2001, the number        article cited explains, rape occurs in all        counsel have been raped on five occasions,
                                           of reported sexual assaults had risen to      ethnic groups.1 Part of Laura’s battle was        very many have HIV as a consequence.
    ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




4
                                                      Above:      N e i g h b o u r,   Cecily   Singer;      Deputy       Justice         Minister    of   South    Africa
                                                 Below:     Scenes      from     South      Africa




About seventy per cent of those I counsel         people are unemployed, and the women             4. RAPE AND WAR
are children. Forty percent of all rape is        have to go looking for work far away, often
against children under the age of twelve.         the children are left at home in the care of     Rape continues to be used as a weapon in
We have a myth that if you rape a virgin          men, or strangers.                               war. Notorious examples in the twentieth
(usually a very small child, including babies,                                                     century include the Second World War,
or an elderly woman) you can rid yourself of      They are vulnerable. In one case a little        in which women and girls were forced
HIV—and so the rape statistics keep grow-         girl was being given food in return for sex,     to be prostitutes by the Nazis, and the
ing. In Cape Town you are forty times more        and she didn’t want to go home empty-            euphemistically named ‘comfort women’
likely to be raped than in any European           handed to her mother, who had AIDS and           who were taken from various Asian na-
city. Nationwide, the SA Law Commission           was sick. 4                                      tions for sexual use by the Japanese
estimates that there are 1.6 million rapes                                                         Army. There was reported use of rape by
a year in this country of forty-one million       Cathy’s brother Michael is an important          American troops in Vietnam in the 1960s
people. There is a rape every twenty-six          role model in this documentary. Laura            and 1970s.5 More recently, between 1992-
seconds and seventy-five per cent of it is        says,                                            1995, the infamous Rape Camps set up
gang rape. Because of high HIV prevalence,                                                         in the former Yugoslavia were designed
forty per cent of those raped will become         I realized that so often in the case of sexual   to use rape as a means of personal and
HIV+ without preventative treatment, which        assault, men are at a loss as to how to          cultural destruction. As researcher Maria
is not freely available. 3                        respond and what they can do to help …           Olujic explains:
                                                  he finally accepted that other men may
MEN’S ATTITUDES                                   relate to his predicament and that what I        I already alluded to the women’s barricades
                                                  was doing with the film would be helpful         of silence which are their strategy for their
Dr Rachel Jewkes, a senior scientist with         to his relationship with his mother.             own survival and protection, but at the same
the South African Medical Research Coun-                                                           time they are reinforcing traditional gender
cil, claims that the basis of the problem is      For those working with young males, this         ideology. In addition, sexual coercion and
men’s attitude towards women:                     web site for male college students from          gender-based violence, mostly done to
                                                  the State University of New York has some        women, but also to some men and children,
In South Africa you have a culture where          sensible advice given in a thoughtful style.     is a public ritual of torture which points not
men believe that they are sexually entitled       It could make a good basis for discussing        only to complete humiliation of the individual,
to women. You don’t get rape in a situa-          attitudes and behaviours.                        but of the family, community, and an entire
tion where you don’t have massive gender                                                           nation. Furthermore, public violence (i.e.,
inequalities.                                     http://ub-counseling.buffalo.edu/                public rituals of torture) is an affirmation of
                                                  coercion.shtml                                   not only male bonding but also of power
In a place like Orange Farm, where most                                                            and dominance.6
                                                                                                                                                     ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




                                                                                                                                                                                       5
    Above:       Cathy     interviews            government         officials;       interviewing          a   private       investigator
                                                                                        L-R:   The    full   crew;     Cathy      Henkel




                                           As has been recently reported in the me-            and use your research to explain               Cathy play in bringing about the
                                           dia, African women and girls are being              why someone would say this and                 resolution?
                                           raped in current conflicts.                         what motivations they could have.          •   What skills and attributes did she dem-
                                                                                         •     Explain why Michael’s comments led             onstrate in the documentary in order
                                                THEME TWO: VICTIMS AND                         to such a rift between him and his             to reconcile her brother and mother?
                                               THEIR FAMILIES—THE IMPACTS                      mother.
                                                                                                                                          ACTIVITIES
                                           This documentary offers a rare opportunity    Common responses to rape include, (see
                                           to see the effects of rape on one family      diagram 01)                                      •   Choose an incident from the video
                                           over a long period of time. Here are some                                                          that illustrates one of these thirteen
                                           comments from the film                        Adapted from http://www.familyrefugece               powerful emotions. Research some
                                                                                         nter.com/comreact.html                               appropriate ways of working through
                                           ‘If her face was like that, what happened                                                          these emotions. Use the table above
                                           to her soul?’ (Cecily)                        DISCUSSION                                           to help you.
                                                                                                                                          •   Present your findings to the group in
                                           ‘One didn’t know who to blame or how          •     How many of these emotions can you             the form of an oral report or a role-
                                           it happened.’ (a neighbour and former               identify in the stories featured in this       play.
                                           friend)                                             documentary?                               •   Write a personal response to Cathy
                                                                                         •     What can we do and say to sup-                 about the impact of her documentary
                                           ‘Yes, I did hear she asked for it, I did.’          port someone who has been                      on you.
                                           (Cecily)                                            raped or sexually assaulted? http:
                                                                                               //www.geocities.com/HotSprings/                      THEME THREE:
                                           ‘In Laura’s case, she brought it upon her-          2656/dozhelp.html is a site that of-                RAPE AND JUSTICE
                                           self. She shouldn’t have invited him in to          fers a dozen ways to help your loved
                                           her house at night.’ (Michael)                      one. These are particularly relevant to    Cathy was advised in 1988 to ‘drop the
                                                                                               Laura’s experience. For example:           case’. She said she ‘had no idea how
                                           ‘I just wanted to die.’ (Laura)                     Validate the survivor’s feel-              important justice was’.
                                                                                               ings: their anger, pain, and fear .
                                           ACTIVITIES                                          These are natural, healthy responses.      Laura: I would like to see him found and
                                                                                               They need to feel them, express            confronted. I think he should know the
                                           •   Use the evidence from the video to              them, and be heard.                        deep and lasting damage he did to me. I
                                               answer Cecily’s question.                 •     How was the rift between Michael           need to know if his life has been affected
                                           •   Choose one of these comments                    and Laura resolved? What role did          or if he is sorry for what he did … I need
    ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




6
                                                             ABOVE:Cathy         and     Glory       outside      government          buildings        in   Pretoria
        L-R:   Cathy   and    private         investigator;           Cathy        and    Glory   outside   govt.   buildings




EMOTION            EXPRESSED AS                                              EVIDENT IN THIS DOCU- AN APPROPRIATE RESPONSE
                                                                             MENTARY               TO THIS WOULD BE …
EMOTIONAL          I feel numb. Why am I so calm? Why can’t I cry?
SHOCK
DISBELIEF          Did it really happen? Why me?
EMBARRASS-         What will people think? No, I can’t tell my family.
MENT
SHAME              I feel so dirty, like there is something wrong with
                   me now. I want to wash my hands all day long.
GUILT              I feel as if I did something to make this happen to
                   me. If only I had …
DEPRESSION         How am I going to go on? I feel so tired and
                   hopeless.
POWERLESS-         Will I ever feel in control again?
NESS
DISORIENTATION     I can’t sit still. I’m having trouble getting through
                   the day. I’m just overwhelmed!
RE-TRIGGERING      I keep having flashbacks. I wish they would stop.
DENIAL             Wasn’t it ‘just’ a rape?
FEAR               I’m afraid of so many things. Will I get pregnant
                   or get VD? Am I safe? Can people tell what’s
                   happened to me? Will I ever want to be intimate
                   again? Will I ever get over this? I’m afraid I’m go-
                   ing crazy. I have nightmares that terrify me.
ANXIETY            I’m a nervous wreck! I have trouble breathing.
                   (Anxiety is often expressed in physical symptoms
                   like difficulty in breathing, muscle tension, sleep
                   trouble, change in appetite, nausea, stomach
                   aches, nightmares.)
ANGER              I want to KILL him
                                                                                                                                ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




                                                                                                                                                                  7
                Middle:      diagram          01   Above       L-R:        Cathy    and    Glory;   woman    singing
                                                                       Below:      Protest       outside     courthouse         in   Johannesburg




                                           to believe there is some form of justice       sought justice in South Africa.                     foresee with Charlene’s suggestions?
                                           operating in this world.                                                                           Use your discussions and research to
                                                                                          •   Does Laura’s comment (above) help               comment on her list and improve them
                                           Glory Legodi is a South African woman,             explain why justice is so important             in an Australian context.
                                           whose two toddlers were raped and sodo-            to the rape victims, their families and    •    Identify three different ways that
                                           mized by a man she trusted. He was re-             friends?                                        people have sought justice in this
                                           leased on bail, free to offend again.          •   How do Cathy and Glory work to-                 documentary, either for themselves
                                                                                              gether to support each other and to             or their loved ones. Which means
                                           Playwright Bongani Linda’s girlfriend              work for justice and change in South            seem to be the most effective for
                                           committed suicide after failing to deal            Africa?                                         them as people? What reasons can
                                           with the aftermath of a gang rape. He          •   What did Cathy do to bring about                you give from research or the evi-
                                           confronted and killed one of the suspects          some form of justice for her mother?            dence in the film to explain this?
                                           and while in jail, wrote a play that he now        What kinds of risks did she take?
                                           uses with mainly male groups in schools            What motivated her to go to such           PROGRESS TOWARDS JUSTICE
                                           and prisons to help educate them about             lengths to find the rapist?
                                           rape and its effects.                          •   Cathy felt she didn’t achieve much by      INTERNATIONALLY
                                                                                              going to South Africa again but Laura
                                           Charlene Smith is a rape survivor and              said, ‘The very fact that someone was      h t t p : / / w w w. a m n e s t y. o r g . a u /
                                           campaigner who believes that a solution            prepared to believe me and to listen       whatshappening/icc/icc7.html
                                           to combating sexual violence lies in:              for the first time got me going again’.
                                                                                          •   What evidence is there in the docu-        This is a short fact sheet from Amnesty In-
                                           -   the way mothers bring up sons;                 mentary that Laura has got going           ternational Australia about new directions
                                           -   greater community responsibility for           again? Look at her actions, body           for protecting women against crimes of
                                               members’ actions;                              language, behaviours.                      violence, particularly in war.
                                           -   better policing;
                                           -   harsher sentences;                         ACTIVITIES                                     Over half a century after the adoption
                                           -   reform of (the) criminal justice sys-                                                     of the Universal Declaration of Human
                                               tem.7                                      •   Summarize the barriers to justice          Rights, discrimination and violence against
                                                                                              that led to Cathy dropping the case        women continues to be an everyday reality
                                           DISCUSSION                                         against her mother’s rapist in 1988.       worldwide. The vulnerability of women to
                                                                                              What changes made it possible to           human rights violations is compounded
                                           Use these examples to discuss and evalu-           reopen the case in 2001-2?                 in situations of armed conflict. The Rome
                                           ate the various ways that people have          •   What are some possible problems you        Statute of the International Criminal Court
    ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




8
                                                   ABOVE:      Cathy     Henkel;         Glory   Legodi;      Glory     outside         govt.    building          in    Pretoria
                                          L-R:      Billboard;       Laura;       men     with     placards




(Statute) has incorporated a gender per-             Laura and Cecily                                      the first interview to the second,
spective to ensure that women who are                Laura and Michael                                     years later. What has changed? How
victims of the gravest crimes under inter-           Laura and Cathy                                       does this affect her and Laura?
national law have access to justice and              Laura and her grandchildren
that women play a role in the International          Black and white South Africans                    Cecily: Laura showed me a picture from
Criminal Court (ICC).                                Michael and the South African Police              a school magazine. It’s somebody I hap-
                                                                                                       pened to know. He was at school with my
IN AUSTRALIA                                         DISCUSSION                                        children, but apparently it turned out not
                                                                                                       to be him.
In response to these unacceptably high               There is a saying that ‘time heals all
statistics, the Commonwealth Government              wounds’. Does it? Laura said,                     Laura: When I showed Cecily the phots
announced funding of $16.5 million for a                                                               and pointed to the boy she actually said to
National Initiative to Combat Sexual As-             People don’t forget when traumatic events         my face that I must be mistaken because
sault in the 2001-02 Federal Budget. The             hit their lives. There are still people looking   he looked such a nice boy and she knew
Initiative aims to foster the development of         for resolution to atrocities that occurred        him. People don’t realize how devastating
an Australian culture that will not tolerate vio-    during the Second World War sixty years           it is to be disbelieved when you are so
lence, and will implement measures aimed             ago. These experiences and the impact             adamant as I was about my attacker.
at eliminating sexual assault.                       they have on our lives don’t have a ‘use-
                                                     by’ date.                                         •   How is this rift eventually resolved?
IN SOUTH AFRICA                                                                                        •   Use research and discussion to an-
                                                     ACTIVITIES                                            swer how Cecily, or any good friend,
A Sexual Offences Unit based in Johannes-                                                                  should react in a way that helps the
burg was set up in 2001. When Cathy was              •   Choose one incident in this docu-                 rape victim.
working on her mother’s case they had 1800               mentary to debate this statement in
active cases they were pursuing.                         relation to rape victims.                              THE FILM-MAKER
                                                     •   View the scene in which Laura’s
   THEME FOUR: HEALING AND                               friend Cecily describes how she re-           This documentary is also Cathy Henkel’s
       RECONCILIATION                                    sponded to being shown the school             story. Her love for her mother gave her the
                                                         photo of the boy that Laura identified        courage to do what her mother could not.
There is a powerful theme of healing and                 as her rapist. Compare the language
reconciliation in the film between:                      and the emotions of the two women             When I proposed the idea of going back to
                                                         as they describe the same incident.           Johannesburg in 2002 to find my mother’s
Laura and her son, Michael                           •   Compare Cecily’s responses from               attacker and attempt to get some justice, I
                                                                                                                                                     ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




                                                                                                                                                                                       9
                                                    L-R:    Protests;       Cathy       and    Glory
                                                                Below:       Cathy        Henkel;      Cathy     Henkel;         A    scene      in   Alexandra




                                        took a giant gamble. This could either help       ing workload of the police. The unit had                role-play the interview.
                                        her to recover from this horrendous event,        1800 other sexual assault cases they were          •    Write down three unanswered ques-
                                        or it could open old wounds and make it           investigating, and understandably, many                 tions you would like to ask the film-
                                        worse. I decided to take the chance. The          of these had to take precedence over my                 maker via an email discussion.
                                        film charts my journey through the new            mother’s case.                                     •    Identify the factors that Cathy might
                                        police investigation as well as my personal                                                               have taken into account in taking the
                                        attempts to track down the man who stole          As the police investigation bogged down                 ‘giant gamble’ in the first paragraph
                                        my mother’s face.                                 and the sexual assault unit continued to be             of her story above.
                                                                                          over-taxed by the huge number of cases             •    Use this analysis to role play a dis-
                                        The story takes place in the city of my birth,    they were investigating, I realized that if I           cussion in which two people play dif-
                                        Johannesburg, at a time when South Af-            wanted closure in my mother’s case, I would             ferent roles, one trying to persuade
                                        rica is struggling to heal past wrongs and        have to take action myself. With the help of            her NOT to go back to South Africa
                                        combat the current epidemic of violence.          a private investigator, and the name on the             and one supporting her decision.
                                        A new unit had been established in Johan-         school photograph, I found out where the                Use evidence from research and
                                        nesburg to deal specifically with sexual as-      suspect lived and worked. Confronting him               from the video in your arguments.
                                        sault, and the head of this unit authorized       was one of the most terrifying things I have            Those not taking part in the role play
                                        the new investigation. My mother’s iden-          ever done and his response, the outcome                 must take the role of critical friends
                                        tification of the suspect from the school         of the police investigation and the impact              and give feedback on the arguments
                                        photograph was sufficient evidence for            of my search on my mother’s recovery form               given and on the way the advice was
                                        him, and he assigned the case to one              the final chapter of the film.                          given. What methods of giving ad-
                                        of his most experienced police officers.                                                                  vice might be helpful, and what is
                                        It quickly became clear, however, that            DISCUSSION                                              unhelpful in such situations?
                                        there were major obstacles. All the files
                                        and documents relating to my mother’s             •    Identify from the documentary some            FILM-MAKING AND THE FILM-
                                        case had vanished without a trace. There               of the evidence for positive changes          MAKER : MUSIC
                                        were no fingerprints, no DNA samples,                  in attitude at the government and
                                        and no records of the investigation. The               community levels in South Africa.             Cathy is not only a daughter seeking justice,
                                        investigating officer who had handled the                                                            she is a film-maker who has used her talent
                                        case at the time refused to cooperate and         ACTIVITIES                                         to create a powerful documentary that goes
                                        was unable to provide satisfying answers                                                             beyond her own family’s tragedy.
                                        in relation to the missing files and why          •    Identify the critical points in Cathy’s
                                        the suspect had not been apprehended.                  story.                                        Music plays important roles in this docu-
                                        I also had to acknowledge the overwhelm-          •    Rewrite her story as an interview and         mentary. The musical narrative begins and
 ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




10
                                                                              L-R:       The   film   crew;     women       in       South    Africa
                                              Below:       A   scene      in   Alexandra




ends with Laura playing the piano. Christ-    hannesburg while I was there and he and           personally. The ABC switchboard was also
mas carols also feature at the beginning      his partner Andrea Watson contributed             hit with calls the day after the broadcast.
and the end of the documentary.               some of the music. The suspense music             That is why this time I would like to think
                                              was written by local musician Andrew              about dealing with audience responses ap-
DISCUSSION                                    Richards, and the Chopin was played by            propriately prior to the broadcast.
                                              Deirdre Paillas and Laura Henkel.
•     How does the music embody the                                                             ACTIVITIES
      changes that have taken place at        FILM-MAKING: ETHICS
      the personal and political level dur-                                                     •   Students have been asked to advise
      ing the passage of time since Laura     DISCUSSION                                            the film-maker on ways to prepare
      left South Africa?                                                                            for the anticipated responses to this
•     Discuss the symbolism of Christmas      Professional ethics and how they affect               documentary. This table may help
      carols in this musical narrative.       film-makers may not be an issue that                  them to begin to consider who is
•     Discuss the possibilities and poten-    many students have considered. Accord-                likely to respond.
      tial difficulties Cathy Henkel may      ing to Cathy Henkel, there is an important        •   Ask students to work in small groups
      have faced in choosing appropriate      ethical responsibility on the part of the film-       to fill in information about the needs
      music for this film. Do you think her   maker to try to anticipate and then deal with         of each identified group and how
      choices are effective?                  the audience response to a film.                      best to meet those needs.
•     What roles does the South African                                                         •   Compare their suggestions with
      music play in complementing and         In the case of the previous film I co-pro-            Cathy’s proposed responses (see
      advancing the stories in the film?      duced for the ABC, Losing Layla, we were              diagram 2)
                                              not adequately prepared for the public
Cathy Henkel says:                            response following the broadcast. The                   PROPOSED RESPONSE
                                              very basic web site set up was completely
The music in this film is a complex and       inadequate in dealing with the audience’s         WEB SITE AND DVD
unexpected mix of African choral music,       need to speak to someone, get a response
Chopin and specially written suspense         and share their stories. The forum after the      Hatchling Productions is currently devel-
music. The African music was sourced          broadcast crashed due to overload of audi-        oping interactive and online programmes
from churches in Tzaneen and Alexandra,       ence questions and responses. The web             related to the themes of the film. These
and the protest music from a youth theatre    site received over half a million hits in         include a web site and DVD exploring the
group based in Tembisa on the outskirts       the week of the broadcast, and Vanessa            Australian and global extent of sexual
of Johannesburg. Melbourne-based South        Gorman and I received HUNDREDS of                 assault, the hidden impacts of the crime,
African singer Valanga Khosa, was in Jo-      letters and emails that we had to reply to        deterrents to gaining justice and the re-
                                                                                                                                              ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




    IDENTIFIED GROUPS         NEEDS                                                 SUGGESTED RESPONSES
    Victims
    Families
    Support groups
    Opposition groups
    Men who want to help
    Perpetrators                                                                                                                              11
    Anyone else???

                                                                                                                            DIAGRAM 02
                                                  L-R:    Filming;      Cathy     and      police   officers     Ferdi    Ungerer        and   Arnold     Boonstra




                                        sponse of men and men’s groups to this         •    Date rape is an increasing danger            of Refugees and Displaced Per-
                                        issue. The web site and DVD will be ready           in our society. http://www.silent-no-        sons in Croatia’, Anthropology of
                                        and launched prior to the ABC screening             more.org/daterape.html                       East Europe Review Vol. 13, No. 1
                                        of the film in early 2004.                          This is a useful site for some quick         Spring, 1995 Special Issue: Refu-
                                                                                            tips on avoiding date rape. Here is a        gee Women of the Balkans http://
                                        OTHER RESOURCES                                     question based on one tip:                   condor.depaul.edu/~rrotenbe/aeer/
                                                                                            Question: Why should you avoid               aeer13_1/Olujic.html She offers a
                                        Because of the seriousness of this prob-            parties with excessive amounts of            detailed and well researched account
                                        lem, you will find it easy to find web based        alcohol or drug use?                         of what happened to women in Bos-
                                        resources on any of the aspects of rape in          Answer: Studies show that seventy-           nia-Herzegovina. accessed 17/9/03
                                        this guide. There are numerous Australian           five per cent of date rapists, and       7
                                                                                                                                         from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/
                                        and international sites relating to rape and        fifty-five per cent of the victims,          world/africa/1909220.stm accessed
                                        rape prevention. The crime is a violent one         have been drinking or using drugs.           17/9/03
                                        and many of the sites are graphic in their
                                        descriptions and advice. It is important to    Study guide prepared by Patricia Kelly, a     This study guide was produced by
                                        check any site before recommending it to       Brisbane-based academic and writer.           ATOM. For more information about
                                        your particular group. Seek advice from                                                      ATOM study guides, The Speakers’
                                        counsellors or rape crisis centres if you      ENDNOTES                                      Bureau or ScreenHub (the daily online
                                        are unsure.                                    1
                                                                                         Crisis centre says gang rape a prob-        film and television newsletter) visit our
                                                                                         lem across all races, Eamonn Duff           web site: www.metromagazine.com.au
                                        OTHER RESOURCES                                  July 21 2002 The SunHerald http:            or email: damned@netspace.net.au
                                                                                         //www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/
                                        •   There are many sites offering advice         07/20/1026898931412.html                    Photos by Aliison Kelly and Jeff Canin.
                                            and help                                   2
                                                                                         Fromhttp://www.womensenews.org/
                                            If you have been raped, or think you         article.cfm/dyn/aid/1126
                                            might have been raped, see Get             3
                                                                                         from      http://www.scu.edu.au/
                                            Help: Australia and NZ. For how to           research/clpc/human_rights/
                                            help a friend, and how to fight rape,        Plenary6.html
                                            see What You Can Do. For ideas             4
                                                                                         From http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/
                                                                                                                                     The Man Who Stole My Mother’s Face is
                                            on how to keep yourself safe from            world/africa/1909220.stm
                                                                                                                                     distributed exclusively on video by ABC
                                            rape, see Avoiding Rape: Safety Tips.      5
                                                                                         Bergman 1974: 69 , cited in Olujic,
                                                                                                                                     Video Program Sales. Tel 1300 650 587
                                            These links are from the following           Op cit; Ref 6.
                                                                                                                                     www.abc.net.au/progamsales
                                            site: http://katesfeminist.info/rape/      6
                                                                                         Maria B. Olujic, ‘Women, Rape,
                                            info/australia.html                          and War: The Continued Trauma
 ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION




12
                                                                                  L-R:     Angel;    Cathy    Henkel      and      Glory

								
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