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StGdMan Stole Mother
1 PAT RI C I A K E L LY STUDYGUIDE ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION Previous page main pic: Below: scenes from South Africa Writer/Director Cathy Henkel Producers Jeff Canin and Cathy Henkel Editor James Bradley Production Manager Aliison Kelly Film supported and financed by Film Finance Corporation Australia, ABC TV, NSW Film and TV Office, Films Transit Interna- ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION tional, Consolidated Properties , ABC Enterprises, 74 mins 2 Middle: South Africa Above L-R: Zulu dancing; G l o r y ’s children L-R: kids dancing; Cathy Henkel in Hope Road SYNOPSIS a shocking and confronting reality in all so- advice from trained counsellors before cieties. It can and does happen anywhere. working with the video. H OPE ROAD IS A QUIET JACA- The video contains occasional profanities RANDA LINED STREET in a and brief descriptions of Laura’s rape and THE TITLE white middle-class suburb in that of toddler twins. However, the focus Johannesburg, South Africa. Two days is on the effect of the crime on victims Discussing the role and choice of a title for before Christmas in 1988, a 59-year-old and their families and how they attempt this documentary is a good way to begin woman is sexually assaulted and savagely to gain justice and find a way to survive. discussion of the issues related to rape. beaten in her home by a young white View this video to decide its appropriate- teenager. Fourteen years on, the woman ness for your audience. • Ask students to predict what this title has still not recovered from this assault. might mean before they watch the The police bungled the investigation, the CURRICULUM LINKS video. After watching, check back to neighbours disputed her version of events see how well they think the title cap- and her son blamed her for letting the Suitable for senior secondary students tures the film’s spirit and intention. perpetrator into her house. The teenager, and tertiary students as well as com- identified from a school photograph, was munity groups, and any one working in KEY WORDS never charged and remains a free man. areas involving assault, rape, victims of The woman’s daughter is film-maker trauma. Students need to understand these words Cathy Henkel, and the film is her search before discussing or doing the activities. for some form of justice and for whatever Useful for Law, Justice Studies, Human We may assume students understand it takes to help her mother heal and move Services, Psychology, Media Studies, Cul- their meanings in this context, when they on from this trauma. The journey takes her tural Studies, English, Religious Education, actually have a vague or confused under- back to Johannesburg, city of her birth, to Studies of Society and the Environment or standing of them. confront the past and the present climate Human Society and Environment. of violence. The police reopen the case, Rape, perpetrator, victim, bungle, dispute, but they run into numerous obstacles and BEFORE VIEWING recover, suspect, validate, prevalence, the film-maker has to take matters into her counsel, preventative, flashback, debili- own hands. What she discovers, and the Because rape and sexual assault affect tating, Apartheid, validate, healing, Indig- answers she brings back for her mother, so many people from all social strata, it is enous, reconciliation, apology, docket. form the climax of this compelling and important to discuss and agree on issues ultimately uplifting film. such as respectful listening and talking; This study guide addresses some of the issues of disclosure and non-disclosure issues raised by this documentary under Warning: This video is about rape. This is and confidentiality. If you are unsure, seek four main themes: Rape—the crime; Vic- ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION 3 L-R: Zulu dancing; Cathy and her m o t h e r, Laura Below: Cathy and police reservist Myra Carel; Cathy and her brother Michael tims and their families: the impacts; Rape 16,744 from 15,759 in 2000. that her neighbours refused to believe that and Justice; Healing and Reconciliation. ‘such a nice boy’ was a rapist. These figures are likely to be significantly THEME ONE: less than the true incidence of sexual The complex intersections of rape, RAPE—THE CRIME assault, as many women do not report culture and the effects of poverty in sexual assaults to the police. For instance, an Australian Indigenous context: One reason why this crime remains so the Women’s Safety Survey conducted in Aboriginal women and children are forty- hidden is the extremely small percentage 1996 by the Australian Bureau of Statistics five times more likely to be victims of of successful prosecutions in these cases, (ABS) found that nine out of ten victims of domestic violence than non-Aboriginal as well as the feelings of guilt and shame sexual assault did not report the assault to women, and eight times more likely to associated with this type of crime. Many the police. In the light of this finding, the be murdered … the epidemic of violence women fear they will be blamed or not real figure of sexual assault in Australia against Aboriginal women has emerged believed when they report this crime and is more likely to be in excess of 100,000 as a national crisis. 2 if they do, they will undergo a traumatic incidents per year. experience in the justice system with lit- These are not simple issues. Consult tle chance of success. So sexual assault 2. RACE AND RAPE Indigenous Education units for advice remains the most hidden and fastest grow- and guidance in any matters relating to ing crime worldwide. I hope in this film to Any discussion of sexual assault in Aus- Indigenous culture. expose this situation through my mother’s tralia must confront the issue of race or case and to suggest some reasons why ethnicity. This is a sensitive issue but it is 3. IN SOUTH AFRICA this is occurring. I hope that the answers important because of: will resonate beyond the South African There are also well-established links example and shed light on this complex Stereotypes about ethnicity and rape: between poverty and rape. The situa- problem for people around the world. Many stereotypes exist about who rapists tion is complicated by a mixture of pov- Cathy Henkel are. It is always too convenient to think of erty, AIDS and cultural attitudes towards it as a crime committed by ‘others’. The women. In South Africa—according to 1. IN AUSTRALIA media tends to report the cases that target Charlene Smith, South African Woman particular groups or highlight the ethnicity of The Year, According to the Federal Government’s of perpetrators, as in the gang rapes in Office of the Status of Women (OSW), the Sydney by a group of Lebanese Austral- if you are a woman, you are very likely to incidence of sexual assault in Australia is ian youths. However, as the Sun Herald be raped. As I have been. Some of those I unacceptably high. In 2001, the number article cited explains, rape occurs in all counsel have been raped on five occasions, of reported sexual assaults had risen to ethnic groups.1 Part of Laura’s battle was very many have HIV as a consequence. ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION 4 Above: N e i g h b o u r, Cecily Singer; Deputy Justice Minister of South Africa Below: Scenes from South Africa About seventy per cent of those I counsel people are unemployed, and the women 4. RAPE AND WAR are children. Forty percent of all rape is have to go looking for work far away, often against children under the age of twelve. the children are left at home in the care of Rape continues to be used as a weapon in We have a myth that if you rape a virgin men, or strangers. war. Notorious examples in the twentieth (usually a very small child, including babies, century include the Second World War, or an elderly woman) you can rid yourself of They are vulnerable. In one case a little in which women and girls were forced HIV—and so the rape statistics keep grow- girl was being given food in return for sex, to be prostitutes by the Nazis, and the ing. In Cape Town you are forty times more and she didn’t want to go home empty- euphemistically named ‘comfort women’ likely to be raped than in any European handed to her mother, who had AIDS and who were taken from various Asian na- city. Nationwide, the SA Law Commission was sick. 4 tions for sexual use by the Japanese estimates that there are 1.6 million rapes Army. There was reported use of rape by a year in this country of forty-one million Cathy’s brother Michael is an important American troops in Vietnam in the 1960s people. There is a rape every twenty-six role model in this documentary. Laura and 1970s.5 More recently, between 1992- seconds and seventy-five per cent of it is says, 1995, the infamous Rape Camps set up gang rape. Because of high HIV prevalence, in the former Yugoslavia were designed forty per cent of those raped will become I realized that so often in the case of sexual to use rape as a means of personal and HIV+ without preventative treatment, which assault, men are at a loss as to how to cultural destruction. As researcher Maria is not freely available. 3 respond and what they can do to help … Olujic explains: he finally accepted that other men may MEN’S ATTITUDES relate to his predicament and that what I I already alluded to the women’s barricades was doing with the film would be helpful of silence which are their strategy for their Dr Rachel Jewkes, a senior scientist with to his relationship with his mother. own survival and protection, but at the same the South African Medical Research Coun- time they are reinforcing traditional gender cil, claims that the basis of the problem is For those working with young males, this ideology. In addition, sexual coercion and men’s attitude towards women: web site for male college students from gender-based violence, mostly done to the State University of New York has some women, but also to some men and children, In South Africa you have a culture where sensible advice given in a thoughtful style. is a public ritual of torture which points not men believe that they are sexually entitled It could make a good basis for discussing only to complete humiliation of the individual, to women. You don’t get rape in a situa- attitudes and behaviours. but of the family, community, and an entire tion where you don’t have massive gender nation. Furthermore, public violence (i.e., inequalities. http://ub-counseling.buffalo.edu/ public rituals of torture) is an affirmation of coercion.shtml not only male bonding but also of power In a place like Orange Farm, where most and dominance.6 ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION 5 Above: Cathy interviews government officials; interviewing a private investigator L-R: The full crew; Cathy Henkel As has been recently reported in the me- and use your research to explain Cathy play in bringing about the dia, African women and girls are being why someone would say this and resolution? raped in current conflicts. what motivations they could have. • What skills and attributes did she dem- • Explain why Michael’s comments led onstrate in the documentary in order THEME TWO: VICTIMS AND to such a rift between him and his to reconcile her brother and mother? THEIR FAMILIES—THE IMPACTS mother. ACTIVITIES This documentary offers a rare opportunity Common responses to rape include, (see to see the effects of rape on one family diagram 01) • Choose an incident from the video over a long period of time. Here are some that illustrates one of these thirteen comments from the film Adapted from http://www.familyrefugece powerful emotions. Research some nter.com/comreact.html appropriate ways of working through ‘If her face was like that, what happened these emotions. Use the table above to her soul?’ (Cecily) DISCUSSION to help you. • Present your findings to the group in ‘One didn’t know who to blame or how • How many of these emotions can you the form of an oral report or a role- it happened.’ (a neighbour and former identify in the stories featured in this play. friend) documentary? • Write a personal response to Cathy • What can we do and say to sup- about the impact of her documentary ‘Yes, I did hear she asked for it, I did.’ port someone who has been on you. (Cecily) raped or sexually assaulted? http: //www.geocities.com/HotSprings/ THEME THREE: ‘In Laura’s case, she brought it upon her- 2656/dozhelp.html is a site that of- RAPE AND JUSTICE self. She shouldn’t have invited him in to fers a dozen ways to help your loved her house at night.’ (Michael) one. These are particularly relevant to Cathy was advised in 1988 to ‘drop the Laura’s experience. For example: case’. She said she ‘had no idea how ‘I just wanted to die.’ (Laura) Validate the survivor’s feel- important justice was’. ings: their anger, pain, and fear . ACTIVITIES These are natural, healthy responses. Laura: I would like to see him found and They need to feel them, express confronted. I think he should know the • Use the evidence from the video to them, and be heard. deep and lasting damage he did to me. I answer Cecily’s question. • How was the rift between Michael need to know if his life has been affected • Choose one of these comments and Laura resolved? What role did or if he is sorry for what he did … I need ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION 6 ABOVE:Cathy and Glory outside government buildings in Pretoria L-R: Cathy and private investigator; Cathy and Glory outside govt. buildings EMOTION EXPRESSED AS EVIDENT IN THIS DOCU- AN APPROPRIATE RESPONSE MENTARY TO THIS WOULD BE … EMOTIONAL I feel numb. Why am I so calm? Why can’t I cry? SHOCK DISBELIEF Did it really happen? Why me? EMBARRASS- What will people think? No, I can’t tell my family. MENT SHAME I feel so dirty, like there is something wrong with me now. I want to wash my hands all day long. GUILT I feel as if I did something to make this happen to me. If only I had … DEPRESSION How am I going to go on? I feel so tired and hopeless. POWERLESS- Will I ever feel in control again? NESS DISORIENTATION I can’t sit still. I’m having trouble getting through the day. I’m just overwhelmed! RE-TRIGGERING I keep having flashbacks. I wish they would stop. DENIAL Wasn’t it ‘just’ a rape? FEAR I’m afraid of so many things. Will I get pregnant or get VD? Am I safe? Can people tell what’s happened to me? Will I ever want to be intimate again? Will I ever get over this? I’m afraid I’m go- ing crazy. I have nightmares that terrify me. ANXIETY I’m a nervous wreck! I have trouble breathing. (Anxiety is often expressed in physical symptoms like difficulty in breathing, muscle tension, sleep trouble, change in appetite, nausea, stomach aches, nightmares.) ANGER I want to KILL him ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION 7 Middle: diagram 01 Above L-R: Cathy and Glory; woman singing Below: Protest outside courthouse in Johannesburg to believe there is some form of justice sought justice in South Africa. foresee with Charlene’s suggestions? operating in this world. Use your discussions and research to • Does Laura’s comment (above) help comment on her list and improve them Glory Legodi is a South African woman, explain why justice is so important in an Australian context. whose two toddlers were raped and sodo- to the rape victims, their families and • Identify three different ways that mized by a man she trusted. He was re- friends? people have sought justice in this leased on bail, free to offend again. • How do Cathy and Glory work to- documentary, either for themselves gether to support each other and to or their loved ones. Which means Playwright Bongani Linda’s girlfriend work for justice and change in South seem to be the most effective for committed suicide after failing to deal Africa? them as people? What reasons can with the aftermath of a gang rape. He • What did Cathy do to bring about you give from research or the evi- confronted and killed one of the suspects some form of justice for her mother? dence in the film to explain this? and while in jail, wrote a play that he now What kinds of risks did she take? uses with mainly male groups in schools What motivated her to go to such PROGRESS TOWARDS JUSTICE and prisons to help educate them about lengths to find the rapist? rape and its effects. • Cathy felt she didn’t achieve much by INTERNATIONALLY going to South Africa again but Laura Charlene Smith is a rape survivor and said, ‘The very fact that someone was h t t p : / / w w w. a m n e s t y. o r g . a u / campaigner who believes that a solution prepared to believe me and to listen whatshappening/icc/icc7.html to combating sexual violence lies in: for the first time got me going again’. • What evidence is there in the docu- This is a short fact sheet from Amnesty In- - the way mothers bring up sons; mentary that Laura has got going ternational Australia about new directions - greater community responsibility for again? Look at her actions, body for protecting women against crimes of members’ actions; language, behaviours. violence, particularly in war. - better policing; - harsher sentences; ACTIVITIES Over half a century after the adoption - reform of (the) criminal justice sys- of the Universal Declaration of Human tem.7 • Summarize the barriers to justice Rights, discrimination and violence against that led to Cathy dropping the case women continues to be an everyday reality DISCUSSION against her mother’s rapist in 1988. worldwide. The vulnerability of women to What changes made it possible to human rights violations is compounded Use these examples to discuss and evalu- reopen the case in 2001-2? in situations of armed conflict. The Rome ate the various ways that people have • What are some possible problems you Statute of the International Criminal Court ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION 8 ABOVE: Cathy Henkel; Glory Legodi; Glory outside govt. building in Pretoria L-R: Billboard; Laura; men with placards (Statute) has incorporated a gender per- Laura and Cecily the first interview to the second, spective to ensure that women who are Laura and Michael years later. What has changed? How victims of the gravest crimes under inter- Laura and Cathy does this affect her and Laura? national law have access to justice and Laura and her grandchildren that women play a role in the International Black and white South Africans Cecily: Laura showed me a picture from Criminal Court (ICC). Michael and the South African Police a school magazine. It’s somebody I hap- pened to know. He was at school with my IN AUSTRALIA DISCUSSION children, but apparently it turned out not to be him. In response to these unacceptably high There is a saying that ‘time heals all statistics, the Commonwealth Government wounds’. Does it? Laura said, Laura: When I showed Cecily the phots announced funding of $16.5 million for a and pointed to the boy she actually said to National Initiative to Combat Sexual As- People don’t forget when traumatic events my face that I must be mistaken because sault in the 2001-02 Federal Budget. The hit their lives. There are still people looking he looked such a nice boy and she knew Initiative aims to foster the development of for resolution to atrocities that occurred him. People don’t realize how devastating an Australian culture that will not tolerate vio- during the Second World War sixty years it is to be disbelieved when you are so lence, and will implement measures aimed ago. These experiences and the impact adamant as I was about my attacker. at eliminating sexual assault. they have on our lives don’t have a ‘use- by’ date. • How is this rift eventually resolved? IN SOUTH AFRICA • Use research and discussion to an- ACTIVITIES swer how Cecily, or any good friend, A Sexual Offences Unit based in Johannes- should react in a way that helps the burg was set up in 2001. When Cathy was • Choose one incident in this docu- rape victim. working on her mother’s case they had 1800 mentary to debate this statement in active cases they were pursuing. relation to rape victims. THE FILM-MAKER • View the scene in which Laura’s THEME FOUR: HEALING AND friend Cecily describes how she re- This documentary is also Cathy Henkel’s RECONCILIATION sponded to being shown the school story. Her love for her mother gave her the photo of the boy that Laura identified courage to do what her mother could not. There is a powerful theme of healing and as her rapist. Compare the language reconciliation in the film between: and the emotions of the two women When I proposed the idea of going back to as they describe the same incident. Johannesburg in 2002 to find my mother’s Laura and her son, Michael • Compare Cecily’s responses from attacker and attempt to get some justice, I ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION 9 L-R: Protests; Cathy and Glory Below: Cathy Henkel; Cathy Henkel; A scene in Alexandra took a giant gamble. This could either help ing workload of the police. The unit had role-play the interview. her to recover from this horrendous event, 1800 other sexual assault cases they were • Write down three unanswered ques- or it could open old wounds and make it investigating, and understandably, many tions you would like to ask the film- worse. I decided to take the chance. The of these had to take precedence over my maker via an email discussion. film charts my journey through the new mother’s case. • Identify the factors that Cathy might police investigation as well as my personal have taken into account in taking the attempts to track down the man who stole As the police investigation bogged down ‘giant gamble’ in the first paragraph my mother’s face. and the sexual assault unit continued to be of her story above. over-taxed by the huge number of cases • Use this analysis to role play a dis- The story takes place in the city of my birth, they were investigating, I realized that if I cussion in which two people play dif- Johannesburg, at a time when South Af- wanted closure in my mother’s case, I would ferent roles, one trying to persuade rica is struggling to heal past wrongs and have to take action myself. With the help of her NOT to go back to South Africa combat the current epidemic of violence. a private investigator, and the name on the and one supporting her decision. A new unit had been established in Johan- school photograph, I found out where the Use evidence from research and nesburg to deal specifically with sexual as- suspect lived and worked. Confronting him from the video in your arguments. sault, and the head of this unit authorized was one of the most terrifying things I have Those not taking part in the role play the new investigation. My mother’s iden- ever done and his response, the outcome must take the role of critical friends tification of the suspect from the school of the police investigation and the impact and give feedback on the arguments photograph was sufficient evidence for of my search on my mother’s recovery form given and on the way the advice was him, and he assigned the case to one the final chapter of the film. given. What methods of giving ad- of his most experienced police officers. vice might be helpful, and what is It quickly became clear, however, that DISCUSSION unhelpful in such situations? there were major obstacles. All the files and documents relating to my mother’s • Identify from the documentary some FILM-MAKING AND THE FILM- case had vanished without a trace. There of the evidence for positive changes MAKER : MUSIC were no fingerprints, no DNA samples, in attitude at the government and and no records of the investigation. The community levels in South Africa. Cathy is not only a daughter seeking justice, investigating officer who had handled the she is a film-maker who has used her talent case at the time refused to cooperate and ACTIVITIES to create a powerful documentary that goes was unable to provide satisfying answers beyond her own family’s tragedy. in relation to the missing files and why • Identify the critical points in Cathy’s the suspect had not been apprehended. story. Music plays important roles in this docu- I also had to acknowledge the overwhelm- • Rewrite her story as an interview and mentary. The musical narrative begins and ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION 10 L-R: The film crew; women in South Africa Below: A scene in Alexandra ends with Laura playing the piano. Christ- hannesburg while I was there and he and personally. The ABC switchboard was also mas carols also feature at the beginning his partner Andrea Watson contributed hit with calls the day after the broadcast. and the end of the documentary. some of the music. The suspense music That is why this time I would like to think was written by local musician Andrew about dealing with audience responses ap- DISCUSSION Richards, and the Chopin was played by propriately prior to the broadcast. Deirdre Paillas and Laura Henkel. • How does the music embody the ACTIVITIES changes that have taken place at FILM-MAKING: ETHICS the personal and political level dur- • Students have been asked to advise ing the passage of time since Laura DISCUSSION the film-maker on ways to prepare left South Africa? for the anticipated responses to this • Discuss the symbolism of Christmas Professional ethics and how they affect documentary. This table may help carols in this musical narrative. film-makers may not be an issue that them to begin to consider who is • Discuss the possibilities and poten- many students have considered. Accord- likely to respond. tial difficulties Cathy Henkel may ing to Cathy Henkel, there is an important • Ask students to work in small groups have faced in choosing appropriate ethical responsibility on the part of the film- to fill in information about the needs music for this film. Do you think her maker to try to anticipate and then deal with of each identified group and how choices are effective? the audience response to a film. best to meet those needs. • What roles does the South African • Compare their suggestions with music play in complementing and In the case of the previous film I co-pro- Cathy’s proposed responses (see advancing the stories in the film? duced for the ABC, Losing Layla, we were diagram 2) not adequately prepared for the public Cathy Henkel says: response following the broadcast. The PROPOSED RESPONSE very basic web site set up was completely The music in this film is a complex and inadequate in dealing with the audience’s WEB SITE AND DVD unexpected mix of African choral music, need to speak to someone, get a response Chopin and specially written suspense and share their stories. The forum after the Hatchling Productions is currently devel- music. The African music was sourced broadcast crashed due to overload of audi- oping interactive and online programmes from churches in Tzaneen and Alexandra, ence questions and responses. The web related to the themes of the film. These and the protest music from a youth theatre site received over half a million hits in include a web site and DVD exploring the group based in Tembisa on the outskirts the week of the broadcast, and Vanessa Australian and global extent of sexual of Johannesburg. Melbourne-based South Gorman and I received HUNDREDS of assault, the hidden impacts of the crime, African singer Valanga Khosa, was in Jo- letters and emails that we had to reply to deterrents to gaining justice and the re- ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION IDENTIFIED GROUPS NEEDS SUGGESTED RESPONSES Victims Families Support groups Opposition groups Men who want to help Perpetrators 11 Anyone else??? DIAGRAM 02 L-R: Filming; Cathy and police officers Ferdi Ungerer and Arnold Boonstra sponse of men and men’s groups to this • Date rape is an increasing danger of Refugees and Displaced Per- issue. The web site and DVD will be ready in our society. http://www.silent-no- sons in Croatia’, Anthropology of and launched prior to the ABC screening more.org/daterape.html East Europe Review Vol. 13, No. 1 of the film in early 2004. This is a useful site for some quick Spring, 1995 Special Issue: Refu- tips on avoiding date rape. Here is a gee Women of the Balkans http:// OTHER RESOURCES question based on one tip: condor.depaul.edu/~rrotenbe/aeer/ Question: Why should you avoid aeer13_1/Olujic.html She offers a Because of the seriousness of this prob- parties with excessive amounts of detailed and well researched account lem, you will find it easy to find web based alcohol or drug use? of what happened to women in Bos- resources on any of the aspects of rape in Answer: Studies show that seventy- nia-Herzegovina. accessed 17/9/03 this guide. There are numerous Australian five per cent of date rapists, and 7 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ and international sites relating to rape and fifty-five per cent of the victims, world/africa/1909220.stm accessed rape prevention. The crime is a violent one have been drinking or using drugs. 17/9/03 and many of the sites are graphic in their descriptions and advice. It is important to Study guide prepared by Patricia Kelly, a This study guide was produced by check any site before recommending it to Brisbane-based academic and writer. ATOM. For more information about your particular group. Seek advice from ATOM study guides, The Speakers’ counsellors or rape crisis centres if you ENDNOTES Bureau or ScreenHub (the daily online are unsure. 1 Crisis centre says gang rape a prob- film and television newsletter) visit our lem across all races, Eamonn Duff web site: www.metromagazine.com.au OTHER RESOURCES July 21 2002 The SunHerald http: or email: firstname.lastname@example.org //www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/ • There are many sites offering advice 07/20/1026898931412.html Photos by Aliison Kelly and Jeff Canin. and help 2 Fromhttp://www.womensenews.org/ If you have been raped, or think you article.cfm/dyn/aid/1126 might have been raped, see Get 3 from http://www.scu.edu.au/ Help: Australia and NZ. For how to research/clpc/human_rights/ help a friend, and how to fight rape, Plenary6.html see What You Can Do. For ideas 4 From http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ The Man Who Stole My Mother’s Face is on how to keep yourself safe from world/africa/1909220.stm distributed exclusively on video by ABC rape, see Avoiding Rape: Safety Tips. 5 Bergman 1974: 69 , cited in Olujic, Video Program Sales. Tel 1300 650 587 These links are from the following Op cit; Ref 6. www.abc.net.au/progamsales site: http://katesfeminist.info/rape/ 6 Maria B. Olujic, ‘Women, Rape, info/australia.html and War: The Continued Trauma ISSUE 33 AUSTRALIAN SCREEN EDUCATION 12 L-R: Angel; Cathy Henkel and Glory
"StGdMan Stole Mother"