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									                                                                                Business Focus Groups Interim Reports




10. Business Name and Payroll Tax Registration

10.1 New South Wales

10.1.1 Payroll tax

The time taken by the participant who completed this form was 330 minutes. This was driven heavily by the
time taken to gather information during the familiarisation stage (120 minutes). The costs incurred were $405
which was comprised mostly of accountant fees. The participant mentioned no additional requirements or
fees for this registration.


The overall difficulty rating for this form was two out of five. The participant agreed that the form was not
overly complicated in itself, however the participant spent time going through the form with the accountant
double-checking responses to ensure everything was completed correctly.


      “He [the accountant] came up with the stuff from the city and brought it to us. He went through
      everything with us. My dad was already in his 60s. He didn’t fancy doing that, so we always
      had an accountant available, and I was always there…It wasn’t difficult. You have the
      Jeweller’s Guide and you have the Jeweller’s Manual. It’s all readily available in the
      magazines that you need to do these things.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The estimates provided by the regulator indicated an overall time of 27 minutes to complete the registration
process, and one day for processing. The participant felt the process took significantly longer than this both to
complete the form and to receive notification.


      “Definitely didn’t take twenty minutes and all of that, because it does take longer.”


      “It’s not that quick, I mean even to read the paper and understand it, even now takes more
      than five minutes or ten minutes.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
The estimates provided by the regulator indicated an overall time of 39 minutes to complete the registration
process. Similarly to the regulator data, the participant felt the process took significantly longer than
estimated.




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       “I’d say, for a professional person filling out those forms, possibly it would take that time. For a
       person with a dad like mine, and an accountant and myself it would have taken longer.”


       “I know that filling in any form takes me longer than what it would normally take anybody else,
       because I have to understand it, I have to be sure it’s right, etc…I don’t rush into those things,
       it’s not something that you rush into. Filling it in, you’ve got to be correct, you don’t want to be
       going back again. It would have taken me an hour, that’s for sure, to check it and go over it.”


Table 117: Payroll Tax Registration (NSW)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time           Direct costs                  Difficulty
                                                 (average in             (average in            incurred (average            rating* (average
                                                  minutes)                 minutes)                 in $AUD)                    out of five)

 Base n=1
 One-on-one interview

 Familiarisation with requirements                  120                       180                      300.0                        3

 Obtaining a copy of the form                         0                        60                         -                         1

 Completing the form                                 60                        60                      100.0                        3

 Attending interviews/hearings                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Completing other requirements                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Pay any fee                                          -                         -                         -

 Any other costs                                      -                         -                         -

 External Aid                                         -                         -                         -

 Travel time                                         60                         -                        5.0

 Lodging registration forms                          90                         -                         -                         2

 TOTAL                                              330                       300                      405.0                        2

 Processing time of form (days)                      10

* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only

10.1.2 Application for Registration of a Business Name

The time taken by the one participant who completed this form was eleven minutes.                                            The participant
mentioned no additional requirements or fees for this registration. Overall the discussion around this form
was brief due to the low level of difficulty to complete the form. The overall difficulty rating to complete the
form was one out of five. The participant included the cost of an envelope and stamp in the estimates.


       “Easy. Unless you are so unlucky that all the names you think of have already been taken.”




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       “Very easy. It’s very straightforward. Just postal number, owner’s name and things like ABN,
       that’s it.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
Regulator data was not discussed directly however based the estimates provided by the participant the
estimates appear to be in line with the actual experience.


Comparisons to synthetic data
Synthetic data was not discussed directly however based the estimates provided by the participant the
estimates appear to be in line with the actual experience.


Table 118: Application for Registration of a Business Name (NSW)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time           Direct costs                  Difficulty
                                                 (average in             (average in            incurred (average            rating* (average
                                                  minutes)                 minutes)                 in $AUD)                    out of five)

 Base n=1
 One-on-one interview

 Familiarisation with requirements                    -                         -                         -                         -

 Obtaining a copy of the form                         -                         -                         -                         -

 Completing the form                                 10                         -                         -                         1

 Attending interviews/hearings                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Completing other requirements                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Pay any fee                                          -                         -                         -

 Any other costs                                      -                         -                         -

 External aid                                         -                         -                         -

 Travel time                                          -                         -                         -

 Lodging registration forms                           1                         -                         -                         -

 TOTAL                                               11                         0                        0.0                        1

 Processing time of form (days)                      10

* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only




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10.2 Victoria

10.2.1 Application for Payroll Tax Registration (Not                            for     profit/Incorporated
     organisation – Environmental/Sustainable energy)

This organisation found itself in a unique position in terms of operating historically as a not for profit
organisation, exempt from payroll tax. The organisation experienced exponential growth in recent years,
triggering the need to register for payroll tax (which was sanctioned through an audit process).


As such, a significant amount of time was spent by the participant understanding the requirements and
intricacies of payroll tax, the implications it would impose on the business and extracting historical data from
informal and fragmented internal systems. Whilst the time taken to complete this form was 10 minutes, two
days (2,880 minutes) were spent familiarising and understanding the process and extracting required
historical information.


This process was considered extremely complex. Up to three hours was spent consulting with the CEO on
the implications of payroll tax and the developments and improvements that were to be instituted as a result
of its introduction. Up to 30 minutes was also spent in consultation with representatives from the State
Revenue Office to clarify issues and ensure accuracy and compliance in filling out the form.


      “It was [an] extremely difficult process…the informal nature of the business as it was growing
      overtime meant we didn’t have systems in place to record the [required] historical information.
      We previously weren’t subject to payroll tax, because we didn’t meet the threshold…but there
      was still an expectation that you needed to have the capability to get that information out of
      your system before you knew completely what the requirements were.              That felt like an
      unrealistic expectation. But I survived, I had to make a few estimates, a few assumptions.”


      “It was and is a huge learning process for us. Working out what are the inclusions, the
      exclusions…making sure I wasn’t subjecting the organisation to unnecessary payroll tax, or
      exposing us to another fine etc. I needed to make sure I was making the right assumptions.”


      “We have actually overhauled and improved our data collection systems as a direct result of
      registering for payroll tax. All future lodgements will be more efficient, based on the new
      systems we have put in place”.




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The table below includes all other requirements, fees, costs and external aid mentioned by participants for
this form.


Table 119: Victorian Payroll Tax Employer Registration



 Completing other requirements                      Extracting required historical information
                                                    Improving system data collection for future
 Pay any fee

 Any other costs

 External aid                                       Phone call



Scoping issues
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The participant felt that completion time estimated by the regulator was roughly accurate. However, there
was a strong suggestion that the regulator had significantly underestimated time taken in the familiarisation
stage.


      “Forty-five minutes is well and truly not enough for the familiarisation especially if you’re talking
      about learning about differences of payroll tax versus WorkCover and Superannuation and all
      that sort of stuff, and making sure your definitions of wages is right etc.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
Given the knowledge gained from going through the process and overhauling internal systems as a result, the
participant felt that the synthetic data more closely reflected the time they envisaged it would now take them
to complete the form.




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Table 120: Victorian Payroll Tax Employer Registration (VIC)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time           Direct costs                  Difficulty
                                                 (average in             (average in            incurred (average            rating* (average
                                                  minutes)                 minutes)                 in $AUD)                    out of five)

 Base n=1
 One-on-one interview

 Familiarisation with requirements                  2880                      180                         -                         5

 Obtaining a copy of the form                         5                         -                         -                         2

 Completing the form                                 10                         -                         -                         3

 Attending interviews/hearings                        0                         -                         -                         -

 Completing other requirements                      2280                        -                         -                         5

 Pay any fee                                          -                         -                         -

 Any other costs                                      -                         -                         -

 External aid                                        30                         -                         -

 Travel time                                          -                         -                         -

 Lodging registration forms                           5                         -                         -                         2

 TOTAL                                              5210                      180                        0.0                        4

 Processing time of form (days)                      10

* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only

10.2.2 Business name application

Across the four participants the average time taken to complete this form was 69 minutes, the maximum
completion time was 125 minutes and the minimum was 30 minutes. This was driven heavily by the time
taken to complete the form with participants taking on average 22 minutes.


The table below includes all other requirements, fees, costs and external aid mentioned by participants for
this form.


Table 121: Business Name Application



 Completing other requirements

 Pay any fee

 Any other costs                            Administration

 External aid                               Accountant




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The average overall difficulty rating to complete this form was two out of five. Participants saw this form as
‘very easy’ to complete.


       “My (business name application) name was quite easy done online. It was simple as…”


One participant paid an accountant to register the name. This was over in a matter of minutes however
instead of costing the standard registration fee of $77 this cost approximately $500. The remaining applicants
completed the form online. Generally there was very little discussion around this form as it was seen as a very
fast, simple and easy process.


      ‘The way I look at it, as builders, if you can’t fill out forms like this, then you got no hope. Because
      when it comes to insurance forms and stuff like that they’re ten times more complicated than this. The
      forms aren’t a problem at all. That’s easy.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
This was not discussed directly but based on the average time provided by participants the regulator data
underestimates the actual time spent to complete the application.


Comparisons to synthetic data
This was not discussed directly but based on the average time provided by participants the synthetic data
underestimates the actual time spent to complete the application.




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Table 122: Business Name Application (VIC)

                                             Internal staff time        External aid time              Direct costs               Difficulty
                                                 (minutes)                 (minutes)                   incurred ($)                rating*

 Base n=4
 One-on-one interview, mini focus          Min      Max      Ave      Min      Max      Ave     Min       Max      Ave      Min     Max        Ave
 group

 Familiarisation with requirements           10       60       28       45      45      45       5.0       5.0        5.0    1        2         2

 Obtaining a copy of the form                5        10       8        -        -       -        -         -          -     1        1         1

 Completing the form                         15       30       22       -        -       -        -         -          -     1        2         2

 Attending interviews/hearings               0        0        0        0        0       0        -         -          -     1        1         1

 Completing other requirements               -         -        -       -        -       -        -         -          -     1        1         1

 Pay any fee                                 10       10       10       -        -       -        -         -          -

 Any other costs                             10       10       10       -        -       -       5.0       5.0        5.0

 External aid                                -         -        -       60      60      60        -         -          -

 Travel time                                 15       30       23       -        -       -        -         -          -

 Lodging registration forms                  10       15       12       -        -       -        -         -          -     1        1         1

 TOTAL                                       30      125       69       45      60      53      10.0       10.0    10.0      1        2         2

 Processing time of form (days)                    Min – 0                   Max – 30                   Ave – 11
* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only


10.3 Queensland

10.3.1 Application for Payroll Tax registration

The time taken to complete this form by the one participant interviewed was 32 minutes. This figure may be
an overestimation as the participant said it took three days to receive a copy of the form (responding in
elapsed time rather than actual time). The participant mentioned no additional requirements or fees for this
registration.


In terms of difficulty in completing the registration form, the participant said it was ‘very easy’ to complete (one
out of five). This was driven by the participants’ positive interactions with the State Revenue Office. Any
query related to the form was answered by the State Revenue Office and thus the participant did not need
outside assistance (e.g. accountants, solicitors) to complete the form. No external aid or direct costs were
reported


       “Well they send this pack and it’s very easy to locate the bit that you need. You read it. Again,
       it’s plain English. I think State Revenue subscribe to the sort of plain English, where they go




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      through their forms and try and make sure that they actually are easy to understand. I certainly
      never had a problem with any of their tax stuff.”


Scoping issues
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The participant felt that the overall time estimated by the regulator was overestimated. They felt the time
allocated to completing the form was too much (60 minutes allocated in regulator data).


      “Not my experience anyway…Five minutes on the phone (for the familiarisation stage). I
      explained what I’m doing and they tell me what I need. I think it took 15 minutes. Don’t think it
      took 60 minutes to complete the form either…no it wouldn’t take an hour to fill this in if you had
      all your information.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
The participant felt that the synthetic data was in line with the actual time taken.


      “Yeah, I mean that’s pretty much bang on what I just said. Not on the other one [regulator
      data], but on this one [synthetic data] I’d say that’s spot on.”




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Table 123: Application for payroll tax registration (QLD)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time           Direct costs                  Difficulty
                                                 (average in             (average in            incurred (average            rating* (average
                                                  minutes)                 minutes)                 in $AUD)                    out of five)

 Base n=1
 One-on-one interview

 Familiarisation with requirements                    5                         -                         -                         1

 Obtaining a copy of the form                         -                         -                         -                         -

 Completing the form                                 25                         -                         -                         1

 Attending interviews/hearings                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Completing other requirements                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Pay any fee                                          -                         -                         -

 Any other costs                                      -                         -                         -

 External aid                                         -                         -                         -

 Travel time                                          -                         -                         -

 Lodging registration forms                           2                         -                         -                         1

 TOTAL                                               32                         0                        0.0                        1

 Processing time of form (days)                       7
* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only

10.3.2 Particulars of Business Name

Across the six participants the average time taken to complete this form was 63 minutes, the maximum
completion time was 90 minutes and the minimum was 28 minutes. This was driven by the time taken to
research different names and then to identify one that was not currently in use.


The table below includes all other requirements, fees, costs and external aid mentioned by participants for
this form.


Table 124: Application for Registration of a Business Name



 Completing other requirements                               Proof of ID

 Pay any fee                                                 Travel costs

 Any other costs                                             Lodging forms

 External aid




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The average difficulty rating to complete this form was two out of five. Participants did not find this form
difficult to complete, with the main issue being locating a name that was not currently in use and was
sufficiently different from existing business names to be acceptable to the regulator.


      “Probably took ten minutes, getting the form probably took another minute, filling out this form
      was really easy, all very straightforward as long as you know what business name you want,
      that’s pretty much done.”


      “If you’ve got the name, trying to find out what form you need to fill out, how much you need to
      pay and how to fill it out was very, very simple and straightforward.”


Participants discussed the different lodgement options available, identifying some key benefits and issues
faced when selecting one over another.


      “You can post it, fax it, go into the OFT or go to the licensing centre at Spring Hill. It’s quicker
      than going to the OFT because they can do it there on the spot and give you your
      certificate…you walk in there, you hand your money over and they say take a seat for ten
      minutes and then they print out the certificate and you walk out with it.”


      “It’s very good like that and they do actually have their act together, but what amazes me is
      you go to the OFT, I’ve got to lodge it there, and then they will post it out when they are good
      and ready and they will not give you an answer whether your name is accepted or otherwise
      because it’s got to go to a process and you go to the Smart Licensing office, and they have a
      processor there that will give you a definite answer there and then.”


      “The trouble is, when you lodge it they won’t guarantee your name, even though you can do
      the search, because anybody else can lodge the same name in between. Where as, if you go
      to the Smart Licensing [office] you know straight away whether that name is accepted or not.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The estimates provided by the regulator indicated an overall time of 65 minutes to complete the registration
process, and 10 days for processing. The participants felt that these times were overestimating the time
taken to complete this registration.


      “Probably on the high side really. As I said, I got mine back within a day and yeah.”


      “Probably a bit extreme.”




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       “At the top end.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
The synthetic estimates indicated an overall time of 12 minutes to complete the registration form. The
participants felt that these times accurately reflected their experiences.


Table 125: Application for Registration of a Business Name (QLD)

                                     Internal staff time         External aid time                                                 Difficulty
                                                                                           Direct costs incurred ($)
                                         (minutes)                  (minutes)                                                       rating*

 Base n=6
 One-on-one interview, Focus        Min      Max       Ave     Min      Max       Ave       Min       Max        Ave         Min      Max       Ave
 group
 Familiarisation with
                                    10        40       18       20       20       20         -          -          -         1         2         2
 requirements

 Obtaining a copy of the form        2        10        5        5        5        5        1.0        1.0        1.0        1         2         1

 Completing the form                10        40       18       20       20       20         -          -          -         1         2         2
 Attending interviews/
                                     -         -        -        -        -        -         -          -          -          -        -         -
 hearings
 Completing other
                                    30        30       30        -        -        -        0.1        0.1        0.1        1         2         2
 requirements

 Pay any fee                         -         -        -        -        -        -         -          -          -

 Any other costs                     -         -        -       20       20       20        5.0        5.0        5.0

 External aid                        -         -        -        -        -        -       116.9      116.9     116.9

 Travel time                         5        30       22       60       60       60       10.0       10.0       10.0

 Lodging registration forms          1        15        8       10       10       10         -          -          -         1         1         1

 TOTAL                              28        90       63      135       135      135       1.0       117.0      44.3        1         2         2
 Processing time of form
                                           Min – 1                    Max – 15                       Ave – 8
 (days)
* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only


10.4 Australian Capital Territory

10.4.1 Application for Payroll Tax registration

The time taken to complete this form by the one participant interviewed was 80 minutes. This was driven
mostly by the time taken to complete the form where an accountant was also involved to assist with the
process.        The costs incurred by the participant included the direct cost of utilising the services of the
accountant ($55). The participant mentioned no additional requirements or fees for this registration.




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The participant rated the overall difficulty of the form as a four out of five. This was driven by uncertainty
around the implications of the answers and needing to subsequently seek further information from the
accountant.


      “I did not understand what the ramifications of completing the form was so I called the
      accountant to work out what it was all about.”


The participant felt that this was not as challenging to complete as other registration forms in particular the
liquor licence.


      “Compared to other forms like liquor licensing this form was not as difficult, because we are a
      small business.”


Given the participant was in the very early stages of start-up, the questions on the form were difficult to
answer and estimates of projected payroll were provided rather than actual amounts.


      “I really had no idea what to put down I was just basing it on the previous owner’s payroll as I
      did not actually have anyone on the payroll at that point.”


Scoping issues
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The participant felt that the overall time estimated by the regulator was accurate however she had spent less
time during familiarisation.


      “I would say I took less than that to familiarise myself with the form and requirements but other
      times they put down are OK.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
The participant felt that the synthetic data was in line with the actual time taken.




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Table 126: Application for Payroll Tax Registration (ACT)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time           Direct costs                  Difficulty
                                                 (average in             (average in            incurred (average            rating* (average
                                                  minutes)                 minutes)                 in $AUD)                    out of five)

 Base n=1
 One-on-one interview
 Familiarisation with requirements                   10                         -                         -                         2

 Obtaining a copy of the form                         5                         -                         -                         2

 Completing the form                                 30                        15                       55.0                        4

 Attending interviews/hearings                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Completing other requirements                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Pay any fee                                          -                         -                         -

 Any other costs                                      -                         -                         -

 External aid                                         -                         -                         -

 Travel time                                         20                         -                         -

 Lodging registration forms                          15                         -                         -                         3

 TOTAL                                               80                        15                       55.0                        4

 Processing time of form (days)                       -

* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only

10.4.2 Particulars of Business Name

Across the three participants the average time taken to complete this form was 81 minutes, the maximum
completion time was 165 minutes and the minimum was 35 minutes. This was driven heavily by the time
taken to lodge the form through travel time to the regulator and waiting to lodge the registration at the
shopfront.


The table below includes all other requirements, fees, costs and external aid mentioned by participants for
this form.


Table 127: Particulars of Business Name (ACT)



 Completing other requirements                                Discuss names

 Pay any fee

 Any other costs

 External aid




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The average difficulty rating to complete this form was two out of five. Although participants agreed this form
was not challenging to complete some participants had difficulty locating a unique name.


      “The form seems straightforward enough, two pages, it’s got everything you need, it’s self
      explanatory.”


      “The problem you face is when you do buy a name, they come back and say, no it’s too similar
      to another name. There’s lots of different databases you can get onto, you can check it
      internationally or for each state. But at the end of the day, the examiner looks at it and says,
      well yeah it’s probably a bit similar to that one. It’s hit and miss, and it’s also people who
      register names to stop others from using them. It says in the Act that they can’t do that. They
      have to show just cause that they’re actually using it, and they just write back saying, yes I am
      using it – whether they advertise it or not. That’s more to do with the Act. The Act needs to be
      revised.”


Participants operating across jurisdictions raised issues about the same business names being used in
different States and Territories.


      “What I’m doing is just this, but I’m going to have to duplicate it all for New South Wales. You
      want to register your name for a region, but they can put a caveat on that name regardless of
      whether it’s used or not. Why can’t the name just be registered in Australia, and recognised in
      Australia? Someone can take my name and use it in Western Australia.”


One participant spent time gaining permission from a third party to use a name they had registered.


      “The Act says if a particular name is similar to somebody else’s you need to get their
      permission. So I wrote to that other party, and that other party wrote back and said, oh these
      names are now registered. They’ve gone down there and registered them, and stopped my
      registering. They wouldn’t have known otherwise until I wrote to them. That was under the Act.
      It’s a crazy system. They’re registering business names to restrict other businesses to trade in
      them. The form itself is fine, but when you start looking into it’s a can of worms.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
   One participant was recalling issues they encountered when filling out a business name registration with
    the ACT for a previous business.        Participants were asked to focus on the most recent time they
    completed the business name.


Comparisons to regulator data
Participants agreed that the time estimates provided by the regulator were underestimated.




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       “You’ve got to think about it when you’re doing it. The physical time to fill out a form is fine, but
       it’s got to have some content. To say that you’re taking four minutes for that – sure, if you’re
       just getting your kids to scribble on it with crayon they could do it but it’s not going to mean
       anything.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
Although not discussed directly based on the time estimates provided by participants the synthetic data was
felt to be underestimated.


Table 128: Particulars of Business Name (ACT)

                                        Internal staff time       External aid time                                                Difficulty
                                                                                          Direct costs incurred ($)
                                            (minutes)                (minutes)                                                      rating*

 Base n = 3                            Min     Max      Ave      Min     Max      Ave     Min       Max         Ave          Min     Max        Ave
 Mini focus group
 Familiarisation with                   5       10        8       -        -       -        -         -           -          1         2         2
 requirements

 Obtaining a copy of the form           1       10        5       -        -       -        -         -           -          1         2         2

 Completing the form                    5       15        9       -        -       -        -         -           -          1         2         2

 Attending interviews/hearings          5        5        5       -        -       -        -         -           -           -        -         -

 Completing other requirement          20       20       20       -        -       -        -         -           -           -        -         -

 Pay any fee                           10       10       10       -        -       -     120.0      120.0      120.0

 Any other costs                        -        -        -       -        -       -        -         -           -

 External aid                           -        -        -       -        -       -        -         -           -

 Travel time                           60       60       60       -        -       -        -         -           -

 Lodging registration forms            20       60       40       -        -       -        -         -           -          1         1         1

 TOTAL                                 35      165       81       0       0        0      12.0      120.0      120.0         2         2         2

 Processing time of form (days)               Min – 0                  Max – 10                     Ave – 6

* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only


10.5 Western Australia

10.5.1 Payroll tax

The time taken by the participant who completed this form was 155 minutes. The discussion around this form
was brief due to the low level of difficulty to complete the form. The participant mentioned no additional
requirements or fees for this registration. An overall difficulty rating was not provided by the participant, and
no costs were incurred.




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The form itself was seen as easy to complete, apart from the challenges with the calculation required. Thus,
while it wasn’t seen as stressful it did require some effort to complete, and as a result the participant did not
see it as the easiest of regulations to deal with, compared to other regulations.


          “You do have a doubt because it is a calculation and you are not sure what they are trying to
          achieve from it. Once you work out your payroll’s $100,000 then it’s a percentage of that, times
          something else, plus something else. It’s not just 10% and you can’t say oh I’ve got 10% and it’s
          either right or wrong.”


The participant noted that they would have preferred to submit the form online but this option was not
available. It was also commented that it was unclear what was included in the definition of payroll, such as
whether superannuation needed to be included.


          “The hardest thing is knowing what to include in the payroll tax. And that’s where, along the way,
          I made the mistake that I didn’t include super and I had to backtrack. That wasn’t clear, I reckon.”


Scoping issues raised by participant
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The estimates provided by the regulator indicated an overall time of 25 minutes to complete the registration
process, and 20 days for processing. This estimation was not supported by the participant, who suggested
that the slightly higher estimate provided in the synthetic data was more likely. The reasons given for this
were:

           Time taken will depend on what accounting or payroll software package is being used
           If someone had to calculate it manually, it might take more than 30 minutes
           If an organisation has apprentices it complicates things, as apprentices are exempt.


Comparisons to synthetic data
The synthetic estimates provided showed an estimate of 36 minutes to find and complete the form. The time
for processing the application was not provided. Whilst similar in context to the estimates provided by the
regulator, the participant was more inclined to support these over those provided by the regulator, as they
were slightly more generous.




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Table 129: Payroll tax (WA)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time           Direct costs                  Difficulty
                                                 (average in             (average in            incurred (average            rating* (average
                                                  minutes)                 minutes)                 in $AUD)                    out of five)

Base n=1
One-on-one interview
Familiarisation with requirements                    60                        30                         -                         3

Obtaining a copy of the form                          5                         5                         -                         1

Completing the form                                  30                         -                         -                         1

Attending interviews/hearings                         -                         -                         -                         -

Completing other requirements                         -                         -                         -                         -

Pay any fee                                          30                         -                         -

Any other costs                                       -                         -                         -

External aid                                          -                         -                         -

Travel time                                           -                         -                         -

Lodging registration forms                           30                         -                         -                         3

TOTAL                                               155                        35                        0.0                        -

Processing time of form (days)                        -

* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only

10.5.2 Register business name

The time taken by the three participants who completed this form was 65 minutes, ranging from 56 minutes to
70 minutes. The discussion around this form was brief due to the low level of difficulty to complete the form.


The table below includes all other requirements, fees, costs and external aid mentioned by participants for
this form.


Table 130: Application for Registration of a Business Name



Completing other requirements                                      Postage, Photocopy, Phone Calls

Pay any fee

Any other costs

External aid




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The overall difficulty rating to complete the form was 2 out of 5. Participants described a straightforward
process of downloading the form from the Internet, printing it out, filling it out and sending it in with a cheque
payment.


Scoping issues raised by participants
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The estimates provided by the regulator indicated an overall time of 35 minutes to complete the registration
process, and 1 day for processing. This estimation was questioned by some participants who felt that the
processing time was significantly longer than one day – one in particular estimated this at 15 days.


      “I do remember it did take quite a while for it to come back, so whether they do some sort of
      check and probably because it was not a renewal of a business name, it was an actual search
      application, so I suppose they have to make sure there is no other business name registered that
      is too similar.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
The synthetic estimates estimated finding and completing forms at 9 minutes in total, and no time was
provided for application processing. These estimations were considered to be realistic by participants.




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Table 131: Application for Registration of a Business Name (WA)

                                          Internal staff time         External aid time        Direct costs incurred               Difficulty
                                              (minutes)                  (minutes)                      ($)                         rating*

 Base n=3
 One-on-one interview, Mini focus        Min      Max      Ave      Min      Max      Ave       Min      Max      Ave        Min     Max        Ave
 group

 Familiarisation with requirements         1       20       14        -        -        -        -         -       -         1         4         2

 Obtaining a copy of the form              1       10        5        -        -        -        -         -       -         1         2         1

 Completing the form                       5       45       23        -        -        -        -         -       -         1         4         2

 Attending interviews/hearings             -        -        -        -        -        -        -         -       -          -        -         -

 Completing other requirements            25       25       25        -        -        -      10.0      10.0     10.0       3         3         3

 Pay any fee                               -        -        -        -        -        -        -         -       -

 Any other costs                           -        -        -        -        -        -        -         -       -

 External aid                              -        -        -        -        -        -        -         -       -

 Travel time                              40       40       40        -        -        -      20.0      20.0     20.0

 Lodging registration forms                2        2        2        -        -        -        -         -       -         1         1         1

 TOTAL                                    56       70       65        0        0        0      10.0      20.0     15.0       1         4         2

 Processing time of form (days)                 Min – 0                   Max – 15                     Ave – 10
* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only


10.6 Tasmania

10.6.1 Registration as an employer (payroll tax)

The time taken by the participant who completed this form was 2.9 hours (175 minutes). This was driven by
the time taken to become familiar with the requirements of the registration (90 minutes). There were no costs
incurred for obtaining this registration.




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The table below includes all other requirements, fees, costs and external aid mentioned by participants for
this form.


Table 132: Application for Registration as an Employer (TAS)



    Completing other requirements

    Pay any fee

    Any other costs

    External aid                                      Accountant

The overall difficulty rating for this form was two out of five. The main challenge the participant had with the
registration was familiarising with the requirements. Once the participant was confident in what was required
the form was successfully completed with limited assistance from the company’s accountant. The participant
also downloaded the Employer’s Guide to Payroll Tax, which contained the information required for most
queries.


         “I don’t think I actually spoke to anyone; I just did it all online so that wasn’t difficult at all. I had
         initial discussions with an external accountant to ascertain that that’s what we needed to do
         and then I just researched it all on the State Revenue Office site. Downloaded all the – there
         was, what was it called the Employer’s Guide to Payroll Tax, a bit of light reading. Downloaded
         that and read all that. And downloaded the form and yeah so it wasn’t – that was really easy to
         do. That wasn’t difficult; it was all fairly self explanatory as far as dealing with the actual
         department.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
      Whilst accountants were used to provide assistance with understanding the requirements of the
       registration, due to the billing structure of the accountants it was not possible for the participant to identify
       the exact cost for the payroll tax advice.


         “No there's only probably maybe the time taken by the external accountants…then they have a
         monthly fee.”


Comparisons to regulator data
The estimates provided by the regulator indicated an overall time of 65 minutes to complete the registration
process, and 7 days for processing. The participant felt that the times were accurate in terms of actually
completing the form however they felt the regulator did not take into consideration the time involved with
locating the necessary information.




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       “Yep, well that’s without any research which is yeah, if you're sitting there filling in the forms
       and you’ve got everything that you need in front of you, yes I agree with that.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
The synthetic estimates were also limited – with just ‘find form’ (5 minutes) and ‘completion of required forms
and other documents’ (77 minutes) estimated. The participant felt that these times did not fit with actual
experience.


       “To find the form, five minutes. It took a bit longer, I would say it would have taken longer than
       that.”


       “I don’t think it would take me 77 minutes to fill that in if I had everything in front of me, well it
       didn’t, it wouldn’t have taken that long.”


       “But it would have taken longer probably finding the forms and that and looking at the site and
       going through that.”


Table 133: Application for registration as an employer (TAS)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time           Direct costs                  Difficulty
                                                 (average in             (average in            incurred (average            rating* (average
                                                  minutes)                 minutes)                 in $AUD)                    out of five)

 Base n=1
 One-on-one interview

 Familiarisation with requirements                   90                         -                         -                         2

 Obtaining a copy of the form                         5                         -                         -                         1

 Completing the form                                 30                         -                         -                         2

 Attending interviews/hearings                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Completing other requirements                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Pay any fee                                          -                         -                         -

 Any other costs                                      -                         -                         -

 External aid                                        40                        40                         -

 Travel time                                          -                         -                         -

 Lodging registration forms                          10                         -                         -                         1

 TOTAL                                              175                        40                        0.0                        2

 Processing time of form (days)                       7
* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only




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10.6.2 Registration of a Business Name

The time taken by the participant who completed this form was 60 minutes, driven by the time taken to
become familiarised with the requirements (20 minutes) and the time taken to complete the form (25 minutes).
The participant mentioned no additional requirements or fees for this registration.


The overall difficulty rating for this form was three out of five, however the participant found this form simple to
complete, particularly as the business was a franchise, removing the need to go through a name selection
process. The participant personally completed the form, using their accountant to clarify details where
necessary.


      “Yes, there was only one query about how the business name was to be worded. Whether it was to be
      the term family trust trading as <name removed>, or whether it would suffice just the store being called
      <name removed>. That was the only advice that I had to confirm with him [the accountant].”


The main issue the participant faced was that the business name certificate did not arrive in a timely fashion.


      “I think it was meant to take 10 to 12 days for us to receive it, working days. After three weeks I still
      hadn’t received it in the mail. I contacted them and the lady just said if it’s not there next week call me
      back. She was pretty unhelpful.”


      “Then I had to re-call again and she said it would have been sent to the right address. The second time
      around the gentleman I spoke to was quite helpful. He said we’ll reissue it and send it out to you today.
      It was here the next day.”


      “I think I put the form in on the 3rd. It was actually registered on the 10th from what the certificate said.
      By the time we got the form it would have been late January, early February. So it took a good three or
      four weeks by the time it was actually processed for me to receive it after that.”


The participant did feel that the lodgement process could be simplified, and suggested some potential
alternatives.


      “I probably think opting to be able to use either a scan facility where you could either email into them
      with a signature on it. I know they require signatures on it, so possibly scanning in and then emailing it
      into the Department of Justice.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
   The participant did report that they were going through the entire business registration process at the
    time, so was instructed when considering overall difficulty and time spent to only consider this in relation
    to this form.




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Comparisons to regulator data
The estimates provided by the regulator indicated an overall time of 50 minutes to complete the registration
process, and 5 days for processing. The participant felt that the completion and lodgement times were
accurate but that the collection of information for the form would have taken longer than estimated. The
participant also felt that the processing time was longer than estimated.


     “Yes, I think that’s pretty standard, that’s fair enough. And then to process the application, it
     says five days. I’d probably say it would have taken at least 10 days.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
The synthetic estimates provided indicated a time of 10 minutes comprising 5 minutes for finding the forms
and 5 minutes for completion of required forms and other documents. They also indicated processing time as
35 to 42 days. The participant felt that the completion time underestimated what they had experienced but
that their processing time was within the estimate given.


     “Find the form is probably five minutes, I think that’s quite a reasonable expectation, but
     maybe a little bit more for the completion of forms.”


     “Probably at least 15 minutes. I like to be thorough and double-check everything that I’ve
     written obviously because it’s quite a serious document to fill out. I’d say 15 minutes for the
     completion of the form.”


     “Obviously it was a lot quicker than that from me starting it to eventually getting a form in my
     hand. It was probably three to four weeks. I think that’s quite a generous assumption as well.”




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Table 134: Application for Registration of a Business Name (TAS)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time           Direct costs                  Difficulty
                                                 (average in             (average in            incurred (average            rating* (average
                                                  minutes)                 minutes)                 in $AUD)                    out of five)

 Base n=1
 One-on-one interview

 Familiarisation with requirements                   20                        15                       30.0                        2

 Obtaining a copy of the form                         5                         5                         -                         2

 Completing the form                                 25                         5                       10.0                        2

 Attending interviews/hearings                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Completing other requirements                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Pay any fee                                          -                         -                         -

 Any other costs                                      -                         -                         -

 External aid                                         -                         -                         -

 Travel time                                         10                         -                        5.0

 Lodging registration forms                           -                         -                         -                         -

 TOTAL                                               60                        25                       45.0                        3

 Processing time of form (days)                      15

* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only


10.6 South Australia

10.6.1 Payroll tax

The average time taken by the two participants who completed this form was 16 minutes. The discussion
around this form was brief due to the low level of difficulty to complete the form. The overall difficulty rating to
complete the form was one out of five.


       “This form was pretty straightforward. I think the process took me about five minutes. But actually
       the thing is I never read the fine print. I just fill things out, that is my biggest mistake.”




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The table below includes all other requirements, fees, costs and external aid mentioned by participants for
this form.


Table 135: RevNet payroll tax payment facility



 Completing other requirements                    Obtaining natural person
                                                  Bank account details
 Pay any fee

 Any other costs

 External aid



Scoping issues raised by participants
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The estimates provided by the regulator indicated an overall time of 35 minutes to complete the registration
process, and 0.1 days for processing. This estimation was supported by the participants, however it was
suggested this maybe have even overestimated.


      “This is not the first one you fill in, in the registration process. If it was then the first time… but
      once you’ve been through the registration process, by the time you get to register this you’ve
      already got the information in front of you, it is in the back of your diary or something, ACN, ABN
      number.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
These were also supported by the participants.




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Table 136: RevNet Payroll Tax Payment Facility (SA)

                                             Internal staff time        External aid time             Direct costs               Difficulty
                                                 (minutes)                 (minutes)                  incurred ($)                rating*

Base n=2
                                           Min      Max      Ave      Min     Max      Ave     Min       Max      Ave      Min     Max        Ave
Mini focus group

Familiarisation with requirements            5        5        5        -        -     -          -        -          -      1       1         1

Obtaining a copy of the form                 2        5        4        -        -         -      -        -          -      1       1         1

Completing the form                          5        5        5        -        -         -      -        -          -      1       1         1

Attending interviews/hearings                -         -        -       -        -         -      -        -          -      -       -         -

Completing other requirements                2        2        2        -        -         -      -        -          -      1       1         1

Pay any fee                                  -         -        -       -        -         -      -        -          -

Any other costs                              -         -        -       -        -         -      -        -          -

External aid                                 -         -        -       -        -         -      -        -          -

Travel time                                  -         -        -       -        -         -      -        -          -

Lodging registration forms                   3        3        3        -        -         -      -        -          -      1       1         1

TOTAL                                        15       17       16       0        0         0    0.0       0.0        0.0     1       1         1

Processing time of form (days)                     Min – 0                   Max – 0                    Ave – 0
* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only

10.6.2 Register business name

The time taken by the seven participants who completed this form was 47 minutes, with a maximum
completion time of 57 minutes and a minimum of 20 minutes. The discussion around this form was brief due
to the low level of difficulty to complete the form. The average overall difficulty rating to complete the form
was two out of five.             Participants mentioned no additional requirements or fees for this registration.
Participants included few costs in their estimates.


The only issue mentioned in relation to obtaining this registration was linked to registering for a company
name through ASIC. One participant was told that incorporating a company took precedence over registering
a business name.


        “Registering a business name is pretty simple. You just go down, fill in a form, pick three names
        and they just run it through their computer and let you know which one you can have. It takes
        about half an hour. It was confusing at the start though, because when you ring up business
        licensing, they tell you to register a business name. But when I spoke to my accountant, he said
        if you register a company name, you have to register a business name because it’s ASIC that
        police it and once your company is registered, no one else can take that business name anyway.




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      So you don’t actually have to register a business name because you’re already registering a
      company. That’s what my accountant said, anyway.”


      “I know this one was the least hassle that I’ve had.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The estimates provided by the regulator indicated an overall time of 17 minutes to complete the registration
process, and 5 days for processing. This estimation was generally felt to be underestimated by participants
who felt the process took slightly longer to complete. A minor issue raised was in relation to waiting time when
lodging the form (estimated at 5 minutes by the regulator).


      “It depends on how long you’ve got to wait there. I waited about 10, 10 or 15.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
Although the synthetic estimates provided were simplistic in relation to the regulator estimates – with just
‘finding form’ and ‘completion of forms’ estimated and no time provided for application processing, these
estimations approximated a similar time estimate for completing this registration and having it processed.
Therefore these were also supported by participants.




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Table 137: Application for registration of a business name (SA)

                                             Internal staff time        External aid time              Direct costs               Difficulty
                                                 (minutes)                 (minutes)                   incurred ($)                rating*

 Base n=7
                                           Min      Max      Ave      Min      Max     Ave      Min       Max      Ave      Min     Max        Ave
 2 x Mini focus group

 Familiarisation with requirements           5        15       11       -        -       -       5.0       5.0        5.0    1        2         1

 Obtaining a copy of the form                1        5        2        -        -       -       5.0       5.0        5.0    1        2         1

 Completing the form                         10       20       13       -        -       -       5.0       5.0        5.0    1        3         2

 Attending interviews/hearings               -         -        -       -        -       -        -         -          -     -        -         -

 Completing other requirements               -         -        -       -        -       -        -         -          -     -        -         -

 Pay any fee                                 -         -        -       -        -       -        -         -          -

 Any other costs                             -         -        -       -        -       -        -         -          -

 External aid                                -         -        -       -        -       -        -         -          -

 Travel time                                 10       30       21       -        -       -       5.0       6.0        5.5

 Lodging registration forms                  2        10       6        -        -       -        -         -          -     1        2         1

 TOTAL                                       20       57       47       0        0       0       6.0      20.0     13.0      1        3         2

 Processing time of form (days)                    Min – 0                  Max – 10                     Ave – 4
* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only


10.7 Northern Territory

10.7.1 Payroll tax

The time taken to complete the form by the one participant was 46 minutes. This was driven by the time
spent gathering payroll information relating to its employees.                          The participant mentioned no additional
requirements or fees for this registration. In terms of experiences in completing the form, the one participant
interviewed said the form was “somewhat easy” (two out of five for overall difficulty) and straight forward to
complete.


     “Yeah I mean it's fairly self explanatory [completing the form]. And all the information as you said was
     available internally, so I didn’t have to source anything externally”.


     “…and I think just because of the small nature of Northern Territory you know exactly what
     department that looks after the payroll tax”.


In terms of simplifying the registration process, the participant felt the regulator had done a good job in this
area. They did mention however that it would be useful complete the form online (not realising it was possible
when they completed the form).



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      “Yeah it would be good to have it online. And then you’d know as soon as it – great to get that email
      back once you’ve lodged it, you know we confirm we've received this. And you can always use that as
      a source document if you’re ever discussing the application with anyone because sometimes, maybe
      not in this instance, but other instances you contact people and I say I faxed something through and
      ‘no I haven't received it’. Whereas if you’ve received an automated reply it would tend to indicate it's
      somewhere on their system.”


There were some concerns about the difficulty of a new business projecting payroll costs for the next twelve
months.


      “I'd say this research data is more accurate than the previous [synthetic] data that was provided. But
      it's still getting that information. I think the data collection, probably which is only the wages, but as a
      new company it might be very difficult to actually estimate what it's going to be in the next 12 months.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
Nil


Comparisons to regulator data
The participant felt the regulator underestimated the time required to complete the form. Whilst they felt it
was a simple form to complete, there were steps in actually gathering the required information that was not
felt to be covered in the regulator data.


      “No I think – I think you need background information. Like if you had all your background information
      and you knew exactly what they wanted you know 17 to 20 minutes maybe. But you're not going to
      have all that background information because you don’t know what you need basically. You might
      have a general idea of what they required but you wouldn’t have it at your fingertips before
      commencing this…Say if I was doing this as a living, as an accountant and I was completing this,
      setting up different businesses, yes it might take 17 minutes. But for a normal person that only does
      this once in their lifetime it would be more.”


Comparisons to synthetic data
The participant felt the synthetic data information was a closer reflection of the actual time taken to complete
the form.




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Table 138: Application for registration as an employer – Payroll Tax (NT)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time           Direct costs                  Difficulty
                                                 (average in             (average in            incurred (average            rating* (average
                                                  minutes)                 minutes)                 in $AUD)                    out of five)

 Base n=1
 One-on-one interview

 Familiarisation with requirements                   10                         -                        1.0                        2

 Obtaining a copy of the form                         1                         -                        1.0                        2

 Completing the form                                 30                         -                         -                         2

 Attending interviews/hearings                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Completing other requirements                        -                         -                         -                         -

 Pay any fee                                          -                         -                         -

 Any other costs                                      -                         -                         -

 External aid                                         -                         -                         -

 Travel time                                          -                         -                         -

 Lodging registration forms                           5                         -                        1.0                        1

 TOTAL                                               46                         0                        3.0                        2

 Processing time of form (days)                       -
* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only

10.7.3 Application for Registration of a Business Name

Across the four participants the average time taken to complete this form was 25 minutes, the maximum
completion time was 55 minutes and the minimum was 5 minutes. Participants mentioned no additional
requirements or fees for this registration. Overall the discussion around this form was brief due to the low
level of difficulty to complete the form. The overall difficulty rating to complete the form was one out of five.


      “Yes, very straightforward.”


      “Yes, me too but I mean – well, mine did too but at the end of the day it was back to me real fast
      because I was shocked. I remember being very shocked. I wasn’t expecting it so quickly.”


Scoping issues raised by participants
Nil


Comparisons to regulator and synthetic data
Two participants felt that the regulator and synthetic data was in line with the actual time taken, however one
participant felt the regulator and synthetic data underestimated the time taken.




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     “Very underestimated. Well I don’t know, whether it’s because...They think you do it all online and
     they assume everybody’s familiar with putting forms in, and some people aren’t…Some people filling
     a form in, it’s not something they do day in day out. I think these people probably think it’s 10
     questions there, whatever.”


Table 139: Application for Registration of a Business Name (NT)

                                             Internal staff time       External aid time              Direct costs               Difficulty
                                                 (minutes)                (minutes)                   incurred ($)                rating*

 Base n=4
 2 x One-on-one interview, Mini focus      Min      Max     Ave      Min      Max     Ave      Min       Max     Ave       Min     Max        Ave
 group

 Familiarisation with requirements           0       10       5        5        5       5        -         -          -      1       3         2

 Obtaining a copy of the form                2       15       7        -        -        -       -         -          -      1       3         2

 Completing the form                         2       15       8        -        -        -       -         -          -      1       3         2

 Attending interviews/hearings               -        -        -       -        -        -       -         -          -      -       -         -

 Completing other requirements               -        -        -       -        -        -       -         -          -      -       -         -

 Pay any fee                                 -        -        -       -        -        -       -         -          -

 Any other costs                             -        -        -       -        -        -       -         -          -

 External aid                                -        -        -       -        -        -       -         -          -

 Travel time                                20       20       20      45        45      45       -         -          -

 Lodging registration forms                  1        5       3        -        -        -       -         -          -      1       2         1

 TOTAL                                       5       55       25       0        45      17      0.0       0.0        0.0     1       2         1

 Processing time of form (days)            Min –1                    Max – 10                  Ave – 4
* (1=Very Easy, 2=Somewhat Easy, 3=Neither, 4=Somewhat Difficult, 5=Very Difficult)
- Denotes where participants have purposely left cell blank (i.e. no time or costs involved in relation to this statement)
All averages based on valid observations only




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