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					Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options


                      Sustainable Development
                      Framework- Appraisal Matrix
                      Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                             Base Case

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                      1. To ensure that everyone has the          1. Availability of housing:
                      opportunity of a decent and affordable
                      home.

                                                                  Affordable
                                                                  Private Sector
                                                                  2. Energy efficiency in housing stock

                                                                  3. Quality of housing stock

                                                                  4. Fuel poverty




                                                                                                             Neutral. Potentially requires policy to increase
                                                                                                             provision of housing in the vicinity of Heathrow given
                                                                                                             Terminal 5 and increased job provision.
                      2. To improve the health and well being of 1. Protection of health
                      the population and reduce inequalities in
                                                                 2. Health improvement
                      health.
                                                                 3. Equity – reducing health inequalities.




                                                                                                             Neutral/negative. Neutral- T5 Heathrow will probably
                                                                                                             require further health infrastructure support. Possible at
                                                                                                             Gatwick although less likely. Other part sof this option
                                                                                                             will not affect the South East region. Negative- Air
                                                                                                             travel is polluting and this pollution can affect people's
                                                                                                             long term health, but the smaller scale of activity for
                                                                                                             this package of options will have a lesser negative
                                                                                                             impact.
                      3. To reduce poverty and social exclusion   1. Access to income
                      and close the gap between the most          2. Affordability of services and
                      disadvantaged communities and the rest.     amenities
                                                                                                             Negative. This package will bring fewer jobs to the
                                                                  3. Social inclusion                        South East region than any other airport packages, and
                                                                                                             overall is likely to have a negative impact on overall
                                                                  4. Incidence of poverty                    business activity in the South East. Although there will
                                                                                                             be some job provision, arguably there will be less
                                                                  5. Degree of poverty                       potential employment opportuniteis for South East
                                                                                                             residents over time as multi-national/internationally
                                                                  6. Fuel poverty                            focussed companies de-invest from the UK and invest
                                                                                                             to other places with greater airport capability therefore
                                                                                                             international accessibility.
                      4. To stimulate economic revival in Priority 1. Targeting Priority Regeneration
                      Regeneration Areas                           Areas (PRAs)

                                                                  2. Targeting other deprived areas

                                                                  3. Support for community sector
                                                                  businesses

                                                                  4. Support for new businesses

                                                                  5. Support for training

                                                                  6. Support for education

                                                                  7. Support through infrastructure
                                                                  (services and transport)

                                                                                                             Negative. This package of options- with the exception
                                                                                                             of T5- will not provided many jobs for SEERA region
                                                                  8. Stakeholder consultation                and will not obviously focus any additional investment
                                                                                                             into identified PRA areas. Also, the longer term loss of
                                                                  9. Community involvement                   potential business to the South East as a whole as UK
                                                                                                             competitiveness suffers is likely to ensure that levels of
                                                                                                             deprivation remain in PRAs and indeed there is
                                                                  10. Urban renaissance                      potential for more areas to suffer deprivation in the
                                                                                                             longer term.




                                                                                    1
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                    Criteria

                                                                                                               Base Case

                      Social raise educational achievement levels of everyone of education
                      5. To progress which recognises the needs 1. Availability
                      across the Region and develop
                      opportunities for everyone to acquire the    2. Quality of education opportunities
                      skills to find and remain in work.

                                                                    3. Availability of training and skills
                                                                    development.

                                                                    4. Quality of training and skills
                                                                    development opportunities

                                                                    5. Engagement and participation in
                                                                    education, and/or training and skills
                                                                    development


                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      6. To reduce crime and fear of crime          1. Safety
                                                                    2. Security

                                                                    3. Social inclusion

                                                                    4. Community participation
                                                                    5. Fear of crime
                                                                    6. Incidence of crime
                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      7. To create and sustain vibrant              1. Access to key services and
                      communities                                   amenities locally
                                                                    2. Social inclusion

                                                                    3. Community participation
                                                                    4. Accommodate diversity


                                                                                                               Negative/Positive.Negative for those closest to
                                                                                                               Heathrow who will be impacted upon by increased
                                                                                                               flights and congestion arising from T5. Positive for the
                                                                                                               SEERA region as a whole- no major airport
                                                                                                               developmetn ensures that community vibrancy remains
                                                                                                               untouched and minimal severance is caused by
                                                                                                               increased airport activity.
                      8. To encourage the development of, and 1. Availability of opportunities for
                      participation in, cultural, creative and     culture, creativity and sport
                      sporting activity, and a buoyant sustainable
                      tourism sector
                                                                   2. Affordability of opportunities for
                                                                   culture, creativity and sport



                                                                    3. Quality of opportunities for culture,
                                                                    creativity and sport
                                                                                                               Negative. For the smallest packages there is less
                                                                    4. Investment in opportunities for         scope/capacity for tourism, particularly in the longer
                                                                                                               term. It could be argued that London's world city status
                                                                    culture, creativity and sport              and the attractiveness of the UK as a tourist
                                                                                                               destination could suffer as a by-product of any major
                                                                                                               decline of the South East economy as competitor
                                                                                                               nations attract leading edge businesses. Similarly the
                                                                    5. Social inclusion                        base case options suggest a likely shortage of flight
                                                                                                               routes for tourism minimising opportunities for visitors.




                                                                                     2
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                               Base Case

                      Social progress which the environment
                      Effective protection of recognises the needs of everyone

                      9. To improve efficiency in land-use       1. Land re-use
                      through the re-use of previously developed 2. Building re-use
                      land and existing buildings, and encourage
                      urban renaissance                          3. Availability of opportunities for re-use


                                                                   4. Urban renaissance

                                                                   5. Sequential approach to the use of
                                                                   land

                                                                                                               Neutral. Buildling on existing land area for
                                                                                                               all of these options. Therefore no adiditonal
                                                                                                               land take is required for the base case is
                                                                                                               required, with the exception of some small
                                                                                                               additional land take for infrastructure,
                                                                                                               hosuing and employment land arising from
                                                                                                               T5. There should be sufficient brownfield
                                                                                                               land to accommodate this (relatively small
                                                                                                               scale) development sustainably.
                      10. To reduce air pollution and ensure air   1. Reduce air pollution
                      quality continues to improve

                                                                   2. Improve air quality


                                                                                                               Negative. Air travel is polluting and air quality will be
                                                                                                               negatively affected.
                      11. To maintain and improve the water        1. Water quality
                      quality at the Region’s rivers and coast




                                                                                                               Neutral. SERAS mentions the impact on the quality
                                                                                                               and levels of groundwater. The base case increases
                                                                                                               the demands on Heathrow watertable as a result of T5,
                                                                                                               but while this has an impact it is relatively small scale
                                                                                                               compared to that proposed in other options.
                                                                                                               Negative. All options contribute to climate change
                      12. To address the causes of climate         1. Reduction of greenhouse gas              through the burning of fossil fuels. The base case has
                                                                                                               the least impact, because it is proposing the smallest
                      change through reducing emissions of         emissions
                      13. To conserve and enhance the Region’s     1. Conservation of biodiversity
                      biodiversity                                 2. Enhancement of biodiversity
                                                                   3. Maintenance of habitats (land
                                                                   management) of regional and national
                                                                   importance
                                                                   4. Restoration of habitats of regional
                                                                   and national importance
                                                                   5. Creation of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   6. Recreation of habitat of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   7. Quality of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance                         Minor negative impact compared to the
                                                                                                               scale of others proposed as a part of
                                                                   8. Impact on Biodiversity Action Plan
                                                                                                               SERAS.
                                                                   regional priority habitats




                                                                                   3
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                            Base Case

                      14. To protect, which recognises the needs of everyone of the countryside
                      Social progress enhance and encourage       1. Protection
                      enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                   2. Enhancement of the countryside


                                                                   3. Access to the countryside
                                                                   4. Enjoyment of the countryside
                                                                                                            Minor negative impact compared to the scale of others
                                                                                                            proposed as a part of SERAS.
                      15. To reduce road traffic and congestion    1. Reduced road traffic (personal and
                      through reducing the need to travel by car   freight)
                      and improving travel choice

                                                                   2. Reduced congestion

                                                                   3. Increased support for sustainable
                                                                   forms of transport                       Negative. Increasing activity at all airports will increase
                                                                                                            the demand to travel. The extent to which congestion
                                                                   4. Improved travel choice                and car use is mitigated against is based on public
                                                                                                            transporst choices and the scale of activity and
                                                                   5. Reduced need to travel                therefore demand to be met. The base case assumes a
                                                                                                            continuation of the present.
                      16. To maintain, enhance and make            1. Maintenance of historic environment
                      accessible the historic environment and      and assets
                      assets of the Region.
                                                                   2. Enhancement of historic
                                                                   environmental and assets
                                                                   3. Access to historic environment and
                                                                   assets




                                                                                                            Netural. No impacts on existing historic buildings (ie.
                                                                                                            Demolition etc) other than long-term damage by air
                                                                                                            pollution.
                      Prudent use of natural resources
                      17. To achieve sustainable water resource 1. Conservation of water resources
                      management
                                                                2. Efficiency in the use of water
                                                                resources

                                                                   3. Impact of development on water use




                                                                                                            Negative. Base case assumes presence of T5 which
                                                                                                            will increase demands for water, which will have
                                                                                                            impact in South East Region.
                      18. To reduce the risk of flooding that      1. Improved Flood defences
                      would be detrimental to public well-being,
                      the economy and the environment.             2. Improved Flood protection

                                                                   3. Reduced Flook risk
                                                                                                            Negative. Adequate flood management systems
                                                                   4. Avoid Flood risk                      associated with the current airport developments
                                                                   5. Sustainable drainage                  should be in place (with the exception of Heathrow T5
                                                                                                            which should be implemented with the new terminal).
                      19. To reduce waste generation and           1. Minimise waste production
                      disposal, and achieve sustainable
                      management of waste.                         2. Reduce waste disposal
                                                                                                            Negative. Increase in the capacity of airports, and the
                                                                   3. Sustainable waste management          development of new runways at all airports that are in
                                                                                                            the South East Region will have an affect on the levels
                                                                   (waste hierarchy)                        of waste generated in the Region.




                                                                                  4
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                     Criteria

                                                                                                                 Base Case

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone energy efficiency
                      20. To increase energy efficiency           1. Increased

                                                                                                                 Air travel is not energy efficient. Efficiencies can only
                                                                                                                 be made if public transport links with the airport are
                                                                                                                 improved.

                      21. To increase the proportion of energy  1. Increased availability of renewable
                      generated and consumed in the region from energy production sources in the region
                      renewable sources.

                                                                     2. Increased availability of renewable
                                                                     energy from sources located outside
                                                                     the region
                                                                                                                 Negative. Air travel does not use renewable energy
                                                                                                                 resources. This option has the lowest impact on use of
                                                                     3. Increase in the amount of energy         non-renewable energy resources because it has the
                                                                     consumed from renewable sources as a        lowest capacity of mppa overall. The greatest
                                                                                                                 increases of mppa are at in Heathrow (T5) and
                                                                     proportion of total energy use              Gatwick which are in the South East Region, which
                                                                                                                 does not help this Region-wide objective.
                      Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

                      22. To ensure high and stable levels of        1. Availability of employment
                      employment so everyone can benefit from        opportunities
                      the economic growth of the Region
                                                                     2. Quality of employment opportunities

                                                                     3. Social inclusion
                                                                                                                 Negative. While this option provides the provision for
                                                                     4. Flexible working practices               some jobs in T5, fewre economic benefits to the
                                                                                                                 SEERA population is likely than for the other packages.
                                                                                                                 This is particularly the case because UK and SEERA
                                                                                                                 competitiveness is likely to suffer with less overall
                                                                                                                 airport development, leading to wider job loss as
                                                                                                                 existing MNCs/airport businesses relocate out of the
                                                                                                                 country and potential new investment goes elsewhere
                                                                                                                 outside the South East and UK.
                      23. To sustain economic growth and             1. Economic growth sustained
                      competitiveness, and ensure better
                                                                     2. Economic competitiveness sustained
                      distribution of economic activity across the
                      region.
                                                                     3. Equity – better distribution of
                                                                     economic activity across the region



                                                                                                                 Negative. While this option provides the provision for
                                                                                                                 some jobs in T5, fewre economic benefits to the
                                                                                                                 SEERA population is likely than for the other packages.
                                                                                                                 This is particularly the case because UK and SEERA
                                                                                                                 competitiveness is likely to suffer with less overall
                                                                                                                 airport development, leading to wider job loss as
                                                                                                                 existing MNCs/airport businesses relocate out of the
                                                                                                                 country and potential new investment goes elsewhere
                                                                                                                 outside the South East and UK. It also does not
                                                                                                                 address the redistribution function within the region.
                      24. To invest to secure our future prosperity 1. Investment in economy
                      and quality of life                           2. Investment in R&D
                                                                     3. Investment in social capital
                                                                     4. Equity – better distribution of wealth

                                                                     5. Investment in the existing housing
                                                                     stock
                                                                     6. Investment in infrastructure
                                                                                                                 Negative. While this option provides the provision for
                                                                                                                 some jobs in T5 and some transport and housing
                                                                                                                 provision, thre are fewer wider economic benefits to
                                                                                                                 SEERA population from this option as UK
                                                                                                                 competitiveness suffers. This package therefore
                                                                                                                 represents disinvestment in the long term.
                      25. To develop the knowledge economy by 1. Encouragement of lower impact
                      focusing on higher value, lower impact  activities
                      activities
                                                              2. Activity in the knowledge economy


                                                                     3. Growth in the knowledge economy




                                                                                                                 All options: airports often prove attractive
                                                                                                                 location for high-tech industry.
                                                                                     5
                        25. Framework and SERAS Options
Sustainability DevelopmentTo develop the knowledge economy by
                         focusing on higher value, lower impact
                         activities


                         Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                              Base Case

                         Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                                                                     4. Social inclusion – communities, and
                                                                     community groups




                                                                                                              All options: airports often prove attractive
                                                                                                              location for high-tech industry.




                                                                                    6
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options


                      Sustainable Development
                      Framework- Appraisal Matrix
                      Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                             Maximum Use

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                      1. To ensure that everyone has the          1. Availability of housing:
                      opportunity of a decent and affordable
                      home.

                                                                  Affordable
                                                                  Private Sector
                                                                  2. Energy efficiency in housing stock

                                                                  3. Quality of housing stock

                                                                  4. Fuel poverty




                      2. To improve the health and well being of 1. Protection of health
                      the population and reduce inequalities in
                                                                 2. Health improvement
                      health.
                                                                 3. Equity – reducing health inequalities.




                                                                                                             Neutral/negative. Neutral- T5 Heathrow will probably
                                                                                                             require further health infrastructure support. Possible
                                                                                                             at Gatwick although less likely. Other part sof this
                                                                                                             option will not affect the South East region. Negative-
                                                                                                             Air travel is polluting and this pollution can affect
                                                                                                             people's long term health, but the smaller scale of
                                                                                                             activity for this package of options will have a lesser
                                                                                                             negative impact.
                      3. To reduce poverty and social exclusion   1. Access to income
                      and close the gap between the most          2. Affordability of services and
                      disadvantaged communities and the rest.     amenities
                                                                                                             Negative. This package will bring fewer jobs to the
                                                                  3. Social inclusion                        South East region than any other airport packages,
                                                                                                             and overall is likely to have a negative impact on
                                                                  4. Incidence of poverty                    overall business activity in the South East. Although
                                                                                                             there will be some job provision, arguably there will
                                                                  5. Degree of poverty                       be less potential employment opportuniteis for South
                                                                                                             East residents over time as multi-
                                                                  6. Fuel poverty                            national/internationally focussed companies de-invest
                                                                                                             from the UK and invest to other places with greater
                                                                                                             airport capability therefore international accessibility.
                      4. To stimulate economic revival in Priority 1. Targeting Priority Regeneration
                      Regeneration Areas                           Areas (PRAs)

                                                                  2. Targeting other deprived areas

                                                                  3. Support for community sector
                                                                  businesses

                                                                  4. Support for new businesses

                                                                  5. Support for training

                                                                  6. Support for education

                                                                  7. Support through infrastructure
                                                                  (services and transport)

                                                                                                             Negative. This package of options- with the exception
                                                                                                             of T5- will not provided many jobs for SEERA region
                                                                  8. Stakeholder consultation                and will not obviously focus any additional
                                                                                                             investment into identified PRA areas. Also, the longer
                                                                  9. Community involvement                   term loss of potential business to the South East as a
                                                                                                             whole as UK competitiveness suffers is likely to
                                                                                                             ensure that levels of deprivation remain in PRAs and
                                                                  10. Urban renaissance                      indeed there is potential for more areas to suffer
                                                                                                             deprivation in the longer term.




                                                                                    7
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                    Criteria

                                                                                                               Maximum Use

                      Social raise educational achievement levels of everyone of education
                      5. To progress which recognises the needs 1. Availability
                      across the Region and develop
                      opportunities for everyone to acquire the    2. Quality of education opportunities
                      skills to find and remain in work.

                                                                    3. Availability of training and skills
                                                                    development.

                                                                    4. Quality of training and skills
                                                                    development opportunities

                                                                    5. Engagement and participation in
                                                                    education, and/or training and skills
                                                                    development


                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      6. To reduce crime and fear of crime          1. Safety
                                                                    2. Security

                                                                    3. Social inclusion

                                                                    4. Community participation
                                                                    5. Fear of crime
                                                                    6. Incidence of crime
                                                                                                               No relevance
                      7. To create and sustain vibrant              1. Access to key services and
                      communities                                   amenities locally
                                                                    2. Social inclusion

                                                                    3. Community participation
                                                                    4. Accommodate diversity


                                                                                                               Negative/Positive.Negative for those closest to
                                                                                                               Heathrow who will be impacted upon by increased
                                                                                                               flights and congestion arising from T5. Positive for
                                                                                                               the SEERA region as a whole- no major airport
                                                                                                               developmetn ensures that community vibrancy
                                                                                                               remains untouched and minimal severance is caused
                                                                                                               by increased airport activity.
                      8. To encourage the development of, and 1. Availability of opportunities for
                      participation in, cultural, creative and     culture, creativity and sport
                      sporting activity, and a buoyant sustainable
                      tourism sector
                                                                   2. Affordability of opportunities for
                                                                   culture, creativity and sport



                                                                    3. Quality of opportunities for culture,
                                                                    creativity and sport                       Negative. For the smallest packages there is less
                                                                                                               scope/capacity for tourism, particularly in the longer
                                                                    4. Investment in opportunities for         term. It could be argued that London's world city
                                                                                                               status and the attractiveness of the UK as a tourist
                                                                    culture, creativity and sport              destination could suffer as a by-product of any major
                                                                                                               decline of the South East economy as competitor
                                                                                                               nations attract leading edge businesses. Similarly the
                                                                                                               base case options suggest a likely shortage of flight
                                                                    5. Social inclusion                        routes for tourism minimising opportunities for
                                                                                                               visitors.




                                                                                     8
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                               Maximum Use

                      Social progress which the environment
                      Effective protection of recognises the needs of everyone

                      9. To improve efficiency in land-use       1. Land re-use
                      through the re-use of previously developed 2. Building re-use
                      land and existing buildings, and encourage
                      urban renaissance                          3. Availability of opportunities for re-use


                                                                   4. Urban renaissance

                                                                   5. Sequential approach to the use of
                                                                   land
                                                                                                               Neutral. Buildling on existing land area for
                                                                                                               all of these options. Therefore no
                                                                                                               adiditonal land take is required for the
                                                                                                               base case is required, with the exception
                                                                                                               of some small additional land take for
                                                                                                               infrastructure, hosuing and employment
                                                                                                               land arising from T5. There should be
                                                                                                               sufficient brownfield land to accommodate
                                                                                                               this (relatively small scale) development
                                                                                                               sustainably.
                      10. To reduce air pollution and ensure air   1. Reduce air pollution
                      quality continues to improve

                                                                   2. Improve air quality


                                                                                                               Negative. Air travel is polluting and air quality will be
                                                                                                               negatively affected.
                      11. To maintain and improve the water        1. Water quality
                      quality at the Region’s rivers and coast




                                                                                                               Neutral. SERAS mentions the impact on the quality
                                                                                                               and levels of groundwater. The base case increases
                                                                                                               the demands on Heathrow watertable as a result of
                                                                                                               T5, but while this has an impact it is relatively small
                                                                                                               scale compared to that proposed in other options.
                                                                                                               Negative. All options contribute to climate change
                      12. To address the causes of climate         1. Reduction of greenhouse gas              through the burning of fossil fuels. The maximum use
                                                                                                               case has less impact than any requiring one
                      change through reducing emissions of         emissions
                      13. To conserve and enhance the Region’s     1. Conservation of biodiversity
                      biodiversity                                 2. Enhancement of biodiversity
                                                                   3. Maintenance of habitats (land
                                                                   management) of regional and national
                                                                   importance
                                                                   4. Restoration of habitats of regional
                                                                   and national importance
                                                                   5. Creation of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   6. Recreation of habitat of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   7. Quality of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance                         Minor negative impact compared to the
                                                                                                               scale of others proposed as a part of
                                                                   8. Impact on Biodiversity Action Plan
                                                                                                               SERAS.
                                                                   regional priority habitats




                                                                                   9
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                            Maximum Use

                      14. To protect, which recognises the needs of everyone of the countryside
                      Social progress enhance and encourage       1. Protection
                      enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                   2. Enhancement of the countryside


                                                                   3. Access to the countryside
                                                                   4. Enjoyment of the countryside
                                                                                                            Minor negative impact compared to the scale of
                                                                                                            others proposed as a part of SERAS.
                      15. To reduce road traffic and congestion    1. Reduced road traffic (personal and
                      through reducing the need to travel by car   freight)
                      and improving travel choice

                                                                   2. Reduced congestion

                                                                   3. Increased support for sustainable
                                                                   forms of transport
                                                                                                            Negative. Increasing activity at all airports will
                                                                   4. Improved travel choice                increase the demand to travel. The extent to which
                                                                                                            congestion and car use is mitigated against is based
                                                                   5. Reduced need to travel                on public transporst choices and the scale of activity
                                                                                                            and therefore demand to be met.
                      16. To maintain, enhance and make            1. Maintenance of historic environment
                      accessible the historic environment and      and assets
                      assets of the Region.
                                                                   2. Enhancement of historic
                                                                   environmental and assets
                                                                   3. Access to historic environment and
                                                                   assets




                                                                                                            Netural. No impacts on existing historic buildings (ie.
                                                                                                            Demolition etc) other than long-term damage by air
                                                                                                            pollution.
                      Prudent use of natural resources
                      17. To achieve sustainable water resource 1. Conservation of water resources
                      management
                                                                2. Efficiency in the use of water
                                                                resources

                                                                   3. Impact of development on water use




                                                                                                            Negative. Maximum use case will require greater use
                                                                                                            of water than the base case because the mppa
                                                                                                            increases, with corresponding increase in demand for
                                                                                                            water in South East Region.
                      18. To reduce the risk of flooding that      1. Improved Flood defences
                      would be detrimental to public well-being,
                      the economy and the environment.             2. Improved Flood protection

                                                                   3. Reduced Flook risk
                                                                                                            Negative. Adequate flood management systems
                                                                   4. Avoid Flood risk                      associated with the current airport developments
                                                                   5. Sustainable drainage                  should be in place (with the exception of Heathrow T5
                                                                                                            which should be implemented with the new terminal).
                      19. To reduce waste generation and           1. Minimise waste production
                      disposal, and achieve sustainable
                      management of waste.                         2. Reduce waste disposal
                                                                                                            Negative. Increase in the capacity of airports, and the
                                                                   3. Sustainable waste management          development of new runways at all airports that are in
                                                                                                            the South East Region will have an affect on the
                                                                   (waste hierarchy)                        levels of waste generated in the Region.




                                                                                 10
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                     Criteria

                                                                                                                 Maximum Use

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone energy efficiency
                      20. To increase energy efficiency           1. Increased

                                                                                                                 Air travel is not energy efficient. Efficiencies can only
                                                                                                                 be made if public transport links with the airport are
                                                                                                                 improved.

                      21. To increase the proportion of energy  1. Increased availability of renewable
                      generated and consumed in the region from energy production sources in the region
                      renewable sources.

                                                                     2. Increased availability of renewable
                                                                     energy from sources located outside
                                                                     the region                                  Positive. Air travel does not use renewable energy
                                                                                                                 resources. The greatest increases in mppa are at
                                                                                                                 Stansted and Luton, both of which are outside the
                                                                     3. Increase in the amount of energy         South East Region. Therefore, although this option
                                                                     consumed from renewable sources as a        signifies a greater use of non-renewable resources
                                                                                                                 than the base case, the use of these non-renewable
                                                                     proportion of total energy use              resources in the Region is reduced because of the
                                                                                                                 location of Stansted and Luton.
                      Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

                      22. To ensure high and stable levels of        1. Availability of employment
                      employment so everyone can benefit from        opportunities
                      the economic growth of the Region
                                                                     2. Quality of employment opportunities

                                                                     3. Social inclusion
                                                                                                                 Negative. While this option provides the provision for
                                                                     4. Flexible working practices               some jobs in T5, fewre economic benefits to the
                                                                                                                 SEERA population is likely than for the other
                                                                                                                 packages. This is particularly the case because UK
                                                                                                                 and SEERA competitiveness is likely to suffer with
                                                                                                                 less overall airport development, leading to wider job
                                                                                                                 loss as existing MNCs/airport businesses relocate out
                                                                                                                 of the country and potential new investment goes
                                                                                                                 elsewhere outside the South East and UK.
                      23. To sustain economic growth and             1. Economic growth sustained
                      competitiveness, and ensure better
                                                                     2. Economic competitiveness sustained
                      distribution of economic activity across the
                      region.
                                                                     3. Equity – better distribution of
                                                                     economic activity across the region


                                                                                                                 Negative. While this option provides the provision for
                                                                                                                 some jobs in T5, fewre economic benefits to the
                                                                                                                 SEERA population is likely than for the other
                                                                                                                 packages. This is particularly the case because UK
                                                                                                                 and SEERA competitiveness is likely to suffer with
                                                                                                                 less overall airport development, leading to wider job
                                                                                                                 loss as existing MNCs/airport businesses relocate out
                                                                                                                 of the country and potential new investment goes
                                                                                                                 elsewhere outside the South East and UK. It also
                                                                                                                 does not address the redistribution function within the
                                                                                                                 region.
                      24. To invest to secure our future prosperity 1. Investment in economy
                      and quality of life                           2. Investment in R&D
                                                                     3. Investment in social capital
                                                                     4. Equity – better distribution of wealth

                                                                     5. Investment in the existing housing
                                                                     stock
                                                                     6. Investment in infrastructure
                                                                                                                 Negative. While this option provides the provision for
                                                                                                                 some jobs in T5 and some transport and housing
                                                                                                                 provision, thre are fewer wider economic benefits to
                                                                                                                 SEERA population from this option as UK
                                                                                                                 competitiveness suffers. This package therefore
                                                                                                                 represents disinvestment in the long term.
                      25. To develop the knowledge economy by 1. Encouragement of lower impact
                      focusing on higher value, lower impact  activities
                      activities
                                                              2. Activity in the knowledge economy


                                                                     3. Growth in the knowledge economy



                                                                                                                 Negative. Airports themselves do not offer
                                                                                                                 many jobs within the knowledge economy
                                                                                                                 (high concentration of relatively unskilled
                                                                                                                 jobs). It is the attracted jobs that are the
                                                                                                                 main source of knowledge based jobs.
                                                                                                                 This package while it allows for the
                                                                                                                 concentration of airport activity at
                                                                                                                 Heathrow, and therefore the continuation
                                                                                                                 of the Thames Valley high tech cluster,
                                                                                                                 over time it is likely that the knowledge
                                                                                                                 economy will lose out due to major
                                                                                                                 disinvestment as UK competitiveness
                                                                                                                 suffers. This package therefore
                                                                                                                 represents disinvestment in the long term.
                                                                                    11
                        25. Framework and SERAS Options
Sustainability DevelopmentTo develop the knowledge economy by
                         focusing on higher value, lower impact
                         activities


                         Objectives                                Criteria

                                                                                                         Maximum Use

                         Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                                                                     4. Social inclusion – communities, and
                                                                     community groups                       Negative. Airports themselves do not offer
                                                                                                         many jobs within the knowledge economy
                                                                                                         (high concentration of relatively unskilled
                                                                                                         jobs). It is the attracted jobs that are the
                                                                                                         main source of knowledge based jobs.
                                                                                                         This package while it allows for the
                                                                                                         concentration of airport activity at
                                                                                                         Heathrow, and therefore the continuation
                                                                                                         of the Thames Valley high tech cluster,
                                                                                                         over time it is likely that the knowledge
                                                                                                         economy will lose out due to major
                                                                                                         disinvestment as UK competitiveness
                                                                                                         suffers. This package therefore
                                                                                                         represents disinvestment in the long term.




                                                                                 12
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options


                      Sustainable Development
                      Framework- Appraisal Matrix
                      Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                             Heathrow +1

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                      1. To ensure that everyone has the          1. Availability of housing:
                      opportunity of a decent and affordable
                      home.

                                                                  Affordable
                                                                  Private Sector
                                                                  2. Energy efficiency in housing stock

                                                                  3. Quality of housing stock
                                                                                                             Negative. The SERAS document
                                                                  4. Fuel poverty
                                                                                                             recognises that an additional runway at
                                                                                                             Heathrow will have serious land take
                                                                                                             implications- for employment and additional
                                                                                                             housing land. It is recognised that additional
                                                                                                             development would have to occur on
                                                                                                             greenbelt sites given the shortage of
                                                                                                             brownfield land, even assuming intensive
                                                                                                             use of previously developed land.
                                                                                                             Estimated that 40,000 dwellings needed up
                                                                                                             to 2030. Provision at Luton would also have
                                                                                                             impacts for housing land, but this is beyond
                                                                                                             the SEERA boundary.
                      2. To improve the health and well being of 1. Protection of health
                      the population and reduce inequalities in
                                                                 2. Health improvement
                      health.
                                                                 3. Equity – reducing health inequalities.




                                                                                                             Negative. Any development at Heathrow will result in
                                                                                                             the possible need for additional health provision
                                                                                                             particularly the additional runway option. Air travel is
                                                                                                             polluting, and this pollution can affect people's long
                                                                                                             term health. Air pollution (nitrogen dioxide) will affect
                                                                                                             significant numbers of people due to Heathrow
                                                                                                             development: 35000 in 2015, falling to 33000 in 2030.
                                                                                                             Take up of Green Belt may have long term impact on
                                                                                                             health as there is reduced access to countryside. This
                                                                                                             package of options focuses negative health impacts in
                                                                                                             heavily populated parts of the west of the SEERA
                                                                                                             region.
                      3. To reduce poverty and social exclusion   1. Access to income
                      and close the gap between the most          2. Affordability of services and
                      disadvantaged communities and the rest.     amenities                                  Neutral/Positive.A new runway at Heathrow will require
                                                                                                             workers mostly sourced from the SEERA and GOL
                                                                                                             regions. There are areas close to the airport which
                                                                  3. Social inclusion                        suffer from high deprivation and may benefit from
                                                                                                             additional employment opportunity. The effect may be
                                                                  4. Incidence of poverty                    wider for the west of the region given the possible wider
                                                                                                             indirect and attracted employment benefits from
                                                                  5. Degree of poverty                       Heathrow's expansion/continuation of its position as the
                                                                                                             main national airport. It would have the effect of
                                                                  6. Fuel poverty                            increasing wealth in the west of the region, but may not
                                                                                                             impact on the east of the region and therefore those
                                                                                                             most deprived areas.
                      4. To stimulate economic revival in Priority 1. Targeting Priority Regeneration
                      Regeneration Areas                           Areas (PRAs)

                                                                  2. Targeting other deprived areas

                                                                  3. Support for community sector
                                                                  businesses

                                                                  4. Support for new businesses

                                                                  5. Support for training

                                                                  6. Support for education

                                                                  7. Support through infrastructure
                                                                                                             Neutral/Positive.A new runway at Heathrow will require
                                                                  (services and transport)                   workers mostly sourced from the SEERA and GOL
                                                                                                             regions. There are areas close to the airport which
                                                                                                             suffer from high deprivation and may benefit from
                                                                                                             additional employment opportunity. The effect may be
                                                                  8. Stakeholder consultation                wider for the west of the region given the possible wider
                                                                                                             indirect and attracted employment benefits from
                                                                  9. Community involvement                   Heathrow's expansion/continuation of its position as the
                                                                                                             main national airport. It would have the effect of
                                                                                                             increasing wealth in the west of the region, but may not
                                                                  10. Urban renaissance                      impact on the east of the region and therefore those
                                                                                                             most deprived areas.




                                                                                   13
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                    Criteria

                                                                                                               Heathrow +1

                      Social raise educational achievement levels of everyone of education
                      5. To progress which recognises the needs 1. Availability
                      across the Region and develop
                      opportunities for everyone to acquire the    2. Quality of education opportunities
                      skills to find and remain in work.

                                                                    3. Availability of training and skills
                                                                    development.

                                                                    4. Quality of training and skills
                                                                    development opportunities

                                                                    5. Engagement and participation in
                                                                    education, and/or training and skills
                                                                    development


                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      6. To reduce crime and fear of crime          1. Safety
                                                                    2. Security

                                                                    3. Social inclusion

                                                                    4. Community participation
                                                                    5. Fear of crime
                                                                    6. Incidence of crime
                                                                                                               No relevance
                      7. To create and sustain vibrant              1. Access to key services and
                      communities                                   amenities locally
                                                                    2. Social inclusion

                                                                    3. Community participation
                                                                    4. Accommodate diversity
                                                                                                               Negative/Neutral.Negative for those closest to
                                                                                                               Heathrow who will be impacted upon by increased
                                                                                                               flights (noise, air quality) and congestion arising from a
                                                                                                               new runway. Land take threatens to remove and alter
                                                                                                               several nearby communities irreparably. But the
                                                                                                               communities further away may benefit from improved
                                                                                                               transport infrastructure, a wider range of sources of
                                                                                                               employment which are attracted by the airport.
                                                                                                               Communities around Gatwick and Heathrow will take
                                                                                                               the greatest negative impact.
                      8. To encourage the development of, and 1. Availability of opportunities for
                      participation in, cultural, creative and     culture, creativity and sport
                      sporting activity, and a buoyant sustainable
                      tourism sector
                                                                   2. Affordability of opportunities for
                                                                   culture, creativity and sport



                                                                    3. Quality of opportunities for culture,
                                                                    creativity and sport

                                                                    4. Investment in opportunities for         Positive. This would continue to encourage tourists to
                                                                                                               arrive at Heathrow as a stop off for other locations
                                                                    culture, creativity and sport              within the UK, including London. The scope to
                                                                                                               accommodate tourists would obviously be largely
                                                                                                               dictated by the quality and direction of public transport
                                                                                                               provision, adn the extent to which significant additional
                                                                    5. Social inclusion                        developmetn can be accommodated at Heathrow
                                                                                                               without overheating.




                                                                                    14
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                               Heathrow +1

                      Effective protection of recognises the needs of everyone
                      Social progress which the environment

                      9. To improve efficiency in land-use       1. Land re-use
                      through the re-use of previously developed 2. Building re-use
                      land and existing buildings, and encourage
                      urban renaissance                          3. Availability of opportunities for re-use


                                                                                                               Negative. The document specifies that the
                                                                   4. Urban renaissance
                                                                                                               additional housing and general
                                                                                                               developmetn associated with SERAS is
                                                                   5. Sequential approach to the use of
                                                                                                               very likely to necessitate the release of
                                                                   land                                        greenfield sites given the shortage of
                                                                                                               brownfield sites and intensification
                                                                                                               opportunities. However, it could be argued
                                                                                                               that this is an area where there has been
                                                                                                               efficient land-use planning- although using
                                                                                                               the sequential test principle it is difficult ot
                                                                                                               justify that scale of developmetn in a
                                                                                                               greenfield location given other airport
                                                                                                               options within SERAS in areas with higher
                                                                                                               brownfield qualities and labour market
                                                                                                               flexibility.
                      10. To reduce air pollution and ensure air   1. Reduce air pollution
                      quality continues to improve

                                                                   2. Improve air quality
                                                                                                               Negative. Air travel is polluting. If no new runway is
                                                                                                               built at Heathrow, 14000 people are exposed to
                                                                                                               nitrogen dioxide, compared to 35000 in 2015 if a new
                                                                                                               runway is built. This will be a higher level of impact for
                                                                                                               the SEERA region because Heathrow is within it.
                      11. To maintain and improve the water        1. Water quality
                      quality at the Region’s rivers and coast



                                                                                                               Negative. The proposals at SERAS will have a
                                                                                                               significant impact on the quality of the region's rivers
                                                                                                               and coasts. Heathrow already suffers from groundwater
                                                                                                               shortages and a new runway will increase runoff and
                                                                                                               affect the hydrological cycle, and new passengers and
                                                                                                               workers will great an increased demadn for water in a
                                                                                                               location where there is already a signfiicant shortage.

                      12. To address the causes of climate         1. Reduction of greenhouse gas              Negative. The Heathrow +1 option will contribute to
                                                                                                               climate change significantly within the SEERA region.
                      change through reducing emissions of         emissions
                      13. To conserve and enhance the Region’s     1. Conservation of biodiversity
                      biodiversity                                 2. Enhancement of biodiversity
                                                                   3. Maintenance of habitats (land
                                                                   management) of regional and national
                                                                   importance
                                                                   4. Restoration of habitats of regional
                                                                   and national importance
                                                                   5. Creation of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   6. Recreation of habitat of regional and
                                                                                                            Negative. New runway at Heathrow would
                                                                   national importance
                                                                                                               mean that 25% of Harmondsworth
                                                                   7. Quality of habitats of regional and      Conservation Area would be lost and would
                                                                   national importance                         result in demand for development on
                                                                                                               greenfield sites. There were no high/high*
                                                                   8. Impact on Biodiversity Action Plan
                                                                                                               impacts identified.
                                                                   regional priority habitats




                                                                                  15
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                            Heathrow +1

                      14. To protect, which recognises the needs of everyone of the countryside
                      Social progress enhance and encourage       1. Protection
                      enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                   2. Enhancement of the countryside


                                                                   3. Access to the countryside             Negative. One runway at Heathrow requires an
                                                                                                            estimated 30,000 dwellings, most of which cannot be
                                                                   4. Enjoyment of the countryside          accommodated within the existing buildt up area. The
                                                                                                            scope for providing additional housing without incursion
                                                                                                            into the Green Belt is limited, even assuming intensive
                                                                                                            use of previously developed land.
                      15. To reduce road traffic and congestion    1. Reduced road traffic (personal and
                      through reducing the need to travel by car   freight)
                      and improving travel choice

                                                                   2. Reduced congestion

                                                                   3. Increased support for sustainable
                                                                   forms of transport
                                                                                                            Negative. Major impact on local road and rail network
                                                                   4. Improved travel choice                arising from major runway development and
                                                                                                            subsequent trip generation. Plans show reliance on
                                                                   5. Reduced need to travel                road and rail transport in an already congested part of
                                                                                                            SEERA region.
                      16. To maintain, enhance and make            1. Maintenance of historic environment
                      accessible the historic environment and      and assets
                      assets of the Region.
                                                                   2. Enhancement of historic
                                                                   environmental and assets
                                                                   3. Access to historic environment and
                                                                   assets


                                                                                                            Negative. Possible impact on Harmondsworth Tithe
                                                                                                            Barn (Grade 1 listed) - but this could be reconstructed
                                                                                                            in a new location. Plus one church (Grd II listed) and
                                                                                                            25% of Harmondsworth Conservation Area would be
                                                                                                            lost.
                      Prudent use of natural resources
                      17. To achieve sustainable water resource 1. Conservation of water resources
                      management
                                                                2. Efficiency in the use of water
                                                                resources

                                                                   3. Impact of development on water use
                                                                                                            Negative. New runway at Heathrow: high adverse
                                                                                                            impacts on surface and ground water, high risk to
                                                                                                            acquifer which is an important resource. Diverting and
                                                                                                            culverting required, which is generally opposed by
                                                                                                            Environment Agency. Extra passengers associated
                                                                                                            with the runway add to the demand for water which
                                                                                                            may be difficult to meet. Less relevance to South East:
                                                                                                            development at Luton will have impacts on ground
                                                                                                            water as the airport is in an area of a major acquifer,
                                                                                                            and both runway options intersect a source prortection
                                                                                                            zone for public water supply, plus extra passengers
                                                                                                            associated with the higher capacity runway add to
                                                                                                            demand for water which might not be possible to meet.
                      18. To reduce the risk of flooding that      1. Improved Flood defences
                      would be detrimental to public well-being,
                      the economy and the environment.             2. Improved Flood protection

                                                                   3. Reduced Flook risk
                                                                                                            Negative. Impacts to the groundwater / rivers (see
                                                                   4. Avoid Flood risk                      above) may have impact on flooding, plus increased
                                                                   5. Sustainable drainage                  area of impermeable surface (runway) which may
                                                                                                            contribute to flooding problems.
                      19. To reduce waste generation and           1. Minimise waste production
                      disposal, and achieve sustainable
                      management of waste.                         2. Reduce waste disposal
                                                                                                            Negative. Increase in the capacity of airports, and the
                                                                   3. Sustainable waste management          development of new runways at all airports that are in
                                                                                                            the South East Region will have an affect on the levels
                                                                   (waste hierarchy)                        of waste generated in the Region.




                                                                                 16
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                     Criteria

                                                                                                                 Heathrow +1

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone energy efficiency
                      20. To increase energy efficiency           1. Increased
                                                                                                                 Air travel is not energy efficient. Efficiencies can only
                                                                                                                 be made if public transport links with the airport are
                                                                                                                 improved. Improved productivtieis may improve the
                                                                                                                 efficiency of that use over time.

                      21. To increase the proportion of energy  1. Increased availability of renewable
                      generated and consumed in the region from energy production sources in the region
                      renewable sources.

                                                                     2. Increased availability of renewable
                                                                     energy from sources located outside
                                                                     the region
                                                                                                                 Negative. Air travel does not use renewable energy
                                                                     3. Increase in the amount of energy         resources. More non-renewable resources are used in
                                                                     consumed from renewable sources as a        the South East Region than outside the Region due the
                                                                                                                 additional runway at Heathrow and the increase in
                                                                     proportion of total energy use              capacity at Gatwick which are larger than the increases
                                                                                                                 at Stansted and Luton.
                      Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

                      22. To ensure high and stable levels of        1. Availability of employment
                      employment so everyone can benefit from        opportunities
                      the economic growth of the Region
                                                                     2. Quality of employment opportunities

                                                                     3. Social inclusion
                                                                     4. Flexible working practices
                                                                                                                 Positive. This option provides significant employment
                                                                                                                 opportunity for those operating in and around
                                                                                                                 Heathrow, increasing employment opportunities within
                                                                                                                 SEERA albeit in areas that have a shortage of labour
                                                                                                                 and therefore where there could be significant
                                                                                                                 recruitment possibilities. This option maintains
                                                                                                                 economic dominance of the west of the SEERA region.
                      23. To sustain economic growth and             1. Economic growth sustained
                      competitiveness, and ensure better
                                                                     2. Economic competitiveness sustained
                      distribution of economic activity across the
                      region.
                                                                     3. Equity – better distribution of
                                                                     economic activity across the region         Neutral. This option provides significant employment
                                                                                                                 opportunity for those operating in and around
                                                                                                                 Heathrow, increasing employment opportunities within
                                                                                                                 SEERA albeit in areas that have a shortage of labour
                                                                                                                 and therefore where there could be significant
                                                                                                                 recruitment possibilities. This option maintains
                                                                                                                 economic dominance of the west of the SEERA region.
                                                                                                                 It therefore does not provide for a redistribution of
                                                                                                                 employment to the east of the region and identified
                                                                                                                 PRAs which is contrary to this policy objective. Also,
                                                                                                                 overall levels of growth proposed in this package may
                                                                                                                 be insufficient for SEERA and the UK as a whole to be
                                                                                                                 able to maintain aviation and economic
                                                                                                                 competitiveness, and in the longer term the economy
                                                                                                                 may decline.
                      24. To invest to secure our future prosperity 1. Investment in economy
                      and quality of life                           2. Investment in R&D
                                                                     3. Investment in social capital
                                                                     4. Equity – better distribution of wealth

                                                                     5. Investment in the existing housing       Neutral. While the development of one runway at
                                                                                                                 Heathrow represents a (medium - long-term?)
                                                                     stock                                       investment in the economy of the South East Region,
                                                                     6. Investment in infrastructure             and provides an increase in jobs, infrastructure and
                                                                                                                 increased requirements for housing stock, in the longer
                                                                                                                 term it may not represent, on its own, sufficient
                                                                                                                 economic investment to safeguard the international
                                                                                                                 competitiveness of the SEERA economy over the
                                                                                                                 longer term. This package would also not provide much
                                                                                                                 redistribution of investment.
                      25. To develop the knowledge economy by 1. Encouragement of lower impact
                      focusing on higher value, lower impact  activities
                      activities
                                                              2. Activity in the knowledge economy


                                                                     3. Growth in the knowledge economy




                                                                                                                 Negative. Airports themselves do not offer
                                                                                                                 many jobs within the knowledge economy
                                                                                                                 (high concentration of relatively unskilled
                                                                                                                 jobs). It is the attracted jobs that are the
                                                                                                                 main source of knowledge based jobs. This
                                                                                                                 package while it allows for the concentration
                                                                                                                 of airport activity at Heathrow, and therefore
                                                                                                                 the continuation of the Thames Valley high
                                                                                                                 tech cluster, over time it is likely that the
                                                                                                                 knowledge economy will lose out due to
                                                                                                                 major disinvestment as UK competitiveness
                                                                                                                 suffers. This package therefore represents
                                                                                                                 disinvestment in the long term.
                                                                                    17
                        25. Framework and SERAS Options
Sustainability DevelopmentTo develop the knowledge economy by
                         focusing on higher value, lower impact
                         activities


                         Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                              Heathrow +1

                         Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                                                                     4. Social inclusion – communities, and
                                                                     community groups
                                                                                                              Negative. Airports themselves do not offer
                                                                                                              many jobs within the knowledge economy
                                                                                                              (high concentration of relatively unskilled
                                                                                                              jobs). It is the attracted jobs that are the
                                                                                                              main source of knowledge based jobs. This
                                                                                                              package while it allows for the concentration
                                                                                                              of airport activity at Heathrow, and therefore
                                                                                                              the continuation of the Thames Valley high
                                                                                                              tech cluster, over time it is likely that the
                                                                                                              knowledge economy will lose out due to
                                                                                                              major disinvestment as UK competitiveness
                                                                                                              suffers. This package therefore represents
                                                                                                              disinvestment in the long term.




                                                                                   18
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options


                      Sustainable Development
                      Framework- Appraisal Matrix
                      Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                             Stansted +1

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                      1. To ensure that everyone has the          1. Availability of housing:
                      opportunity of a decent and affordable
                      home.

                                                                  Affordable
                                                                  Private Sector
                                                                  2. Energy efficiency in housing stock

                                                                  3. Quality of housing stock

                                                                  4. Fuel poverty
                                                                                                             Neutral. This option shifts emphasis for new
                                                                                                             housing out of the SEERA region and in the
                                                                                                             vicinity of Stansted and to a lesser extent
                                                                                                             Luton. There is a noted decline in mppa at
                                                                                                             both Heathrow and Gatwick- suggesting a
                                                                                                             possible loss of jobs at both of these
                                                                                                             airports (particularly when productivity
                                                                                                             increases are considered). This may ease
                                                                                                             current housing shortages and will not
                                                                                                             encourage major green belt releases in the
                                                                                                             Western Policy Area as a result of airport
                                                                                                             development per se.
                      2. To improve the health and well being of 1. Protection of health
                      the population and reduce inequalities in
                                                                 2. Health improvement
                      health.
                                                                 3. Equity – reducing health inequalities.




                                                                                                             Neutral. Limited impact upon the population
                                                                                                             within the SEERA region.
                      3. To reduce poverty and social exclusion   1. Access to income
                      and close the gap between the most          2. Affordability of services and
                      disadvantaged communities and the rest.     amenities

                                                                  3. Social inclusion

                                                                  4. Incidence of poverty

                                                                  5. Degree of poverty
                                                                                                             Neutral. While an additional runway at Stansted will
                                                                  6. Fuel poverty                            have major employment implications, they will not
                                                                                                             impact greatly on the South East and in particular the
                                                                                                             existing areas of deprivation.
                      4. To stimulate economic revival in Priority 1. Targeting Priority Regeneration
                      Regeneration Areas                           Areas (PRAs)

                                                                  2. Targeting other deprived areas

                                                                  3. Support for community sector
                                                                  businesses

                                                                  4. Support for new businesses

                                                                  5. Support for training

                                                                  6. Support for education

                                                                  7. Support through infrastructure
                                                                  (services and transport)


                                                                  8. Stakeholder consultation

                                                                  9. Community involvement
                                                                                                             Neutral. While an additional runway at Stansted will
                                                                                                             have major employment implications, they will not
                                                                  10. Urban renaissance                      impact greatly on the South East and in particular the
                                                                                                             existing areas of deprivation.




                                                                                   19
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                    Criteria

                                                                                                               Stansted +1

                      Social raise educational achievement levels of everyone of education
                      5. To progress which recognises the needs 1. Availability
                      across the Region and develop
                      opportunities for everyone to acquire the    2. Quality of education opportunities
                      skills to find and remain in work.

                                                                    3. Availability of training and skills
                                                                    development.

                                                                    4. Quality of training and skills
                                                                    development opportunities

                                                                    5. Engagement and participation in
                                                                    education, and/or training and skills
                                                                    development


                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      6. To reduce crime and fear of crime          1. Safety
                                                                    2. Security

                                                                    3. Social inclusion

                                                                    4. Community participation
                                                                    5. Fear of crime
                                                                    6. Incidence of crime
                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      7. To create and sustain vibrant              1. Access to key services and
                      communities                                   amenities locally
                                                                    2. Social inclusion

                                                                    3. Community participation
                                                                    4. Accommodate diversity




                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      8. To encourage the development of, and 1. Availability of opportunities for
                      participation in, cultural, creative and     culture, creativity and sport
                      sporting activity, and a buoyant sustainable
                      tourism sector
                                                                   2. Affordability of opportunities for
                                                                   culture, creativity and sport



                                                                    3. Quality of opportunities for culture,
                                                                    creativity and sport                       Positive/Netural. All options will bring tourists to the
                                                                                                               South East Region, which may prompt investment in
                                                                    4. Investment in opportunities for         cultural / creative / sporting activities which will be to
                                                                                                               the benefit of local communities. This option will have
                                                                    culture, creativity and sport              less impact on these activities due to the increased
                                                                                                               number of runways at Stansted, an airport which lies
                                                                                                               outside the Region - but transport links between the
                                                                                                               airport and the Region will have to be improved for this
                                                                    5. Social inclusion                        option to be deliverable, and these links could improve
                                                                                                               cultural / creative / sporting activities in the Region.




                                                                                    20
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                               Stansted +1

                      Social progress which the environment
                      Effective protection of recognises the needs of everyone

                      9. To improve efficiency in land-use       1. Land re-use
                      through the re-use of previously developed 2. Building re-use
                      land and existing buildings, and encourage
                      urban renaissance                          3. Availability of opportunities for re-use


                                                                   4. Urban renaissance

                                                                   5. Sequential approach to the use of
                                                                   land




                                                                                                               Neutral. Not relevant for the South East
                                                                                                               region.
                      10. To reduce air pollution and ensure air   1. Reduce air pollution
                      quality continues to improve

                                                                   2. Improve air quality

                                                                                                               Negative. There will be some indirect pollution and air
                                                                                                               quality impacts, but these will be far less significant for
                                                                                                               SEERA given the location of Stansted out of the region.
                      11. To maintain and improve the water        1. Water quality
                      quality at the Region’s rivers and coast




                                                                                                               Neutral. No impact on the SEERA region.
                                                                                                               Neutral/Negative. While the new runway is not located
                      12. To address the causes of climate         1. Reduction of greenhouse gas              in the SEERA runway, fuels burning and therefore
                                                                                                               contributing to climate change will be flying near or over
                      change through reducing emissions of         emissions
                      13. To conserve and enhance the Region’s     1. Conservation of biodiversity
                      biodiversity                                 2. Enhancement of biodiversity
                                                                   3. Maintenance of habitats (land
                                                                   management) of regional and national
                                                                   importance
                                                                   4. Restoration of habitats of regional
                                                                   and national importance
                                                                   5. Creation of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   6. Recreation of habitat of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   7. Quality of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                                                               Neutral. Not relevant for the South East
                                                                   8. Impact on Biodiversity Action Plan
                                                                                                               region.
                                                                   regional priority habitats




                                                                                  21
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                            Stansted +1

                      14. To protect, which recognises the needs of everyone of the countryside
                      Social progress enhance and encourage       1. Protection
                      enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                   2. Enhancement of the countryside


                                                                   3. Access to the countryside
                                                                   4. Enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                                                            Neutral. Not relevant for the South East region.
                      15. To reduce road traffic and congestion    1. Reduced road traffic (personal and
                      through reducing the need to travel by car   freight)
                      and improving travel choice

                                                                   2. Reduced congestion

                                                                   3. Increased support for sustainable
                                                                   forms of transport
                                                                   4. Improved travel choice
                                                                   5. Reduced need to travel
                                                                                                            Neutral. Not relevant for the South East region.
                      16. To maintain, enhance and make            1. Maintenance of historic environment
                      accessible the historic environment and      and assets
                      assets of the Region.
                                                                   2. Enhancement of historic
                                                                   environmental and assets
                                                                   3. Access to historic environment and
                                                                   assets




                                                                                                            Neutral. No relevance to the South East region.
                      Prudent use of natural resources
                      17. To achieve sustainable water resource 1. Conservation of water resources
                      management
                                                                2. Efficiency in the use of water
                                                                resources

                                                                   3. Impact of development on water use

                                                                                                            Negative. Some relevance for South East Region: all
                                                                                                            Stansted options require engineering work, diverting
                                                                                                            and culverting to serveral rivers (opposed by EA), and
                                                                                                            with the additional passengers the demand for water
                                                                                                            might not be met. Potential ground water effect at
                                                                                                            Luton as the airport is in the area of a major acquifer
                                                                                                            and both runway options intersect a source prortection
                                                                                                            zone for public water supply, plus extra passengers
                                                                                                            associated with the higher capacity runway add to
                                                                                                            demand for water which might not be possible to meet.
                                                                                                            South East Region may come under pressure to
                                                                                                            supply some of this demand.
                      18. To reduce the risk of flooding that      1. Improved Flood defences
                      would be detrimental to public well-being,
                      the economy and the environment.             2. Improved Flood protection

                                                                   3. Reduced Flook risk
                                                                                                            Negative.Impacts to the groundwater / rivers (see
                                                                   4. Avoid Flood risk                      above) may have impact on flooding, plus increased
                                                                   5. Sustainable drainage                  area of impermeable surface (runway) which may
                                                                                                            contribute to flooding problems.
                      19. To reduce waste generation and           1. Minimise waste production
                      disposal, and achieve sustainable
                      management of waste.                         2. Reduce waste disposal
                                                                                                            Increase in the capacity of airports, and the
                                                                   3. Sustainable waste management          development of new runways at all airports that are in
                                                                                                            the South East Region will have an affect on the levels
                                                                   (waste hierarchy)                        of waste generated in the Region.




                                                                                 22
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                     Criteria

                                                                                                                 Stansted +1

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone energy efficiency
                      20. To increase energy efficiency           1. Increased



                                                                                                                 Neutral. Not relevant to the SEERA region.

                      21. To increase the proportion of energy  1. Increased availability of renewable
                      generated and consumed in the region from energy production sources in the region
                      renewable sources.

                                                                     2. Increased availability of renewable
                                                                     energy from sources located outside
                                                                     the region
                                                                                                                 Positive.Air travel does not use renewable energy
                                                                                                                 resources. For this option, although the amount of non-
                                                                     3. Increase in the amount of energy         renewable resources is still highest in the South East
                                                                     consumed from renewable sources as a        Region due to the Heathrow T5 and Gatwick capacity
                                                                                                                 expansion, it is only marginally higher than for the area
                                                                     proportion of total energy use              outside the region due to the new runway planned at
                                                                                                                 Stansted and new increased capacity in Luton.
                      Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

                      22. To ensure high and stable levels of        1. Availability of employment
                      employment so everyone can benefit from        opportunities
                      the economic growth of the Region
                                                                     2. Quality of employment opportunities

                                                                     3. Social inclusion
                                                                     4. Flexible working practices


                                                                                                                 Neutral. This results in the provision of more jobs
                                                                                                                 outside the SEERA region, with options within the
                                                                                                                 South East effectively suggesting minimal change over
                                                                                                                 the thirty year period. Heathrow's status as major
                                                                                                                 international airport unchallenged however.
                      23. To sustain economic growth and             1. Economic growth sustained
                      competitiveness, and ensure better
                                                                     2. Economic competitiveness sustained
                      distribution of economic activity across the
                      region.
                                                                     3. Equity – better distribution of
                                                                     economic activity across the region

                                                                                                                 Neutral. This option provides a significant employment
                                                                                                                 opportunity for those operating in and around Stansted,
                                                                                                                 increasing employment opportunities out of the region.
                                                                                                                 Critically Heathrow remains the dominant airport and
                                                                                                                 so it is likely that support services and attracted
                                                                                                                 employment will remain. There may be some
                                                                                                                 redistribution of the economic geography eastwards
                                                                                                                 through the region. Also, overall levels of growth
                                                                                                                 proposed in this package may be insufficient for
                                                                                                                 SEERA and the UK as a whole to be able to maintain
                                                                                                                 aviation and economic competitiveness, and in the
                                                                                                                 longer term the economy may decline.
                      24. To invest to secure our future prosperity 1. Investment in economy
                      and quality of life                           2. Investment in R&D
                                                                     3. Investment in social capital
                                                                     4. Equity – better distribution of wealth

                                                                     5. Investment in the existing housing
                                                                                                                 Negative. The development of one runway at Stansted
                                                                     stock                                       represents a (medium - long-term?) investment outside
                                                                     6. Investment in infrastructure             SEERA. Also, on its own, it is probably insufficient
                                                                                                                 economic investment to safeguard the international
                                                                                                                 competitiveness of the UK airports over the longer
                                                                                                                 term; perhaps fuelling a cycle of disinvestment in
                                                                                                                 SEERA as companies relocate to other countries. This
                                                                                                                 package would also not provide much redistribution of
                                                                                                                 investment within SEERA.
                      25. To develop the knowledge economy by 1. Encouragement of lower impact
                      focusing on higher value, lower impact  activities
                      activities
                                                              2. Activity in the knowledge economy


                                                                     3. Growth in the knowledge economy




                                                                                                                 Negative. This will encourage growth
                                                                                                                 outside SEERA region, and the continuation
                                                                                                                 of the knowledge economy near Heathrow.
                                                                                                                 IT is likely that the knowledge economy will
                                                                                                                 lose out over time due to major
                                                                                                                 disinvestment as UK competitiveness
                                                                                                                 suffers. T is likely that the knowledge
                                                                                                                 economy will lose out over time due to
                                                                                                                 major disinvestment.
                                                                                    23
                        25. Framework and SERAS Options
Sustainability DevelopmentTo develop the knowledge economy by
                         focusing on higher value, lower impact
                         activities


                         Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                              Stansted +1

                         Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                                                                     4. Social inclusion – communities, and
                                                                     community groups




                                                                                                              Negative. This will encourage growth
                                                                                                              outside SEERA region, and the continuation
                                                                                                              of the knowledge economy near Heathrow.
                                                                                                              IT is likely that the knowledge economy will
                                                                                                              lose out over time due to major
                                                                                                              disinvestment as UK competitiveness
                                                                                                              suffers. T is likely that the knowledge
                                                                                                              economy will lose out over time due to
                                                                                                              major disinvestment.




                                                                                   24
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options


                      Sustainable Development
                      Framework- Appraisal Matrix
                      Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                             Stansted +2

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                      1. To ensure that everyone has the          1. Availability of housing:
                      opportunity of a decent and affordable
                      home.

                                                                  Affordable
                                                                  Private Sector
                                                                  2. Energy efficiency in housing stock
                                                                                                             Neutral. This option shifts emphasis for new
                                                                  3. Quality of housing stock                housing out of the SEERA region and in the
                                                                                                             vicinity of Stansted and to a lesser extent
                                                                  4. Fuel poverty
                                                                                                             Luton. There is a greater decline in mppa at
                                                                                                             both Heathrow and Gatwick- suggesting a
                                                                                                             possible loss of jobs at both of these airports
                                                                                                             (particularly when productivity increases are
                                                                                                             considered). This may ease current housing
                                                                                                             shortages and will not encourage major
                                                                                                             green belt releases in the Western Policy
                                                                                                             Area as a result of airport development per
                                                                                                             se. There may also begin to be a shift of
                                                                                                             activity eastwards and away from the west of
                                                                                                             SEERA as a new hub airport operation
                                                                                                             develops at Stansted.
                      2. To improve the health and well being of 1. Protection of health
                      the population and reduce inequalities in
                                                                 2. Health improvement
                      health.
                                                                 3. Equity – reducing health inequalities.




                                                                                                             Neutral. Limited impact upon the population
                                                                                                             within the SEERA region.
                      3. To reduce poverty and social exclusion   1. Access to income
                      and close the gap between the most          2. Affordability of services and
                      disadvantaged communities and the rest.     amenities

                                                                  3. Social inclusion

                                                                  4. Incidence of poverty                    Neutral. While two additional runways at Stansted will
                                                                                                             have major employment implications, they will not
                                                                  5. Degree of poverty                       impact greatly on the South East and in particular the
                                                                                                             existing areas of deprivation; however, it may become
                                                                  6. Fuel poverty                            necessary to source labour from the Thames Gateway,
                                                                                                             including the Kent side (subject to river crossings), for
                                                                                                             the larger Stansted options.
                      4. To stimulate economic revival in Priority 1. Targeting Priority Regeneration
                      Regeneration Areas                           Areas (PRAs)

                                                                  2. Targeting other deprived areas

                                                                  3. Support for community sector
                                                                  businesses

                                                                  4. Support for new businesses

                                                                  5. Support for training

                                                                  6. Support for education

                                                                  7. Support through infrastructure
                                                                  (services and transport)


                                                                  8. Stakeholder consultation                Neutral. While two additional runways at Stansted will
                                                                                                             have major employment implications, they will not
                                                                  9. Community involvement                   impact greatly on the South East and in particular the
                                                                                                             existing areas of deprivation; however, it may become
                                                                                                             necessary to source labour from the Thames Gateway,
                                                                  10. Urban renaissance                      including the Kent side (subject to river crossings), for
                                                                                                             the larger Stansted options.




                                                                                   25
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                    Criteria

                                                                                                               Stansted +2

                      Social raise educational achievement levels of everyone of education
                      5. To progress which recognises the needs 1. Availability
                      across the Region and develop
                      opportunities for everyone to acquire the    2. Quality of education opportunities
                      skills to find and remain in work.

                                                                    3. Availability of training and skills
                                                                    development.

                                                                    4. Quality of training and skills
                                                                    development opportunities

                                                                    5. Engagement and participation in
                                                                    education, and/or training and skills
                                                                    development


                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      6. To reduce crime and fear of crime          1. Safety
                                                                    2. Security

                                                                    3. Social inclusion

                                                                    4. Community participation
                                                                    5. Fear of crime
                                                                    6. Incidence of crime
                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      7. To create and sustain vibrant              1. Access to key services and
                      communities                                   amenities locally
                                                                    2. Social inclusion

                                                                    3. Community participation
                                                                    4. Accommodate diversity




                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      8. To encourage the development of, and 1. Availability of opportunities for
                      participation in, cultural, creative and     culture, creativity and sport
                      sporting activity, and a buoyant sustainable
                      tourism sector
                                                                   2. Affordability of opportunities for
                                                                   culture, creativity and sport



                                                                    3. Quality of opportunities for culture,
                                                                    creativity and sport                       Neutral/Positive.All options will bring tourists to the
                                                                                                               South East Region, which may prompt investment in
                                                                    4. Investment in opportunities for         cultural / creative / sporting activities which will be to the
                                                                                                               benefit of local communities. This option will have less
                                                                    culture, creativity and sport              impact on these activities due to the increased number of
                                                                                                               runways at Stansted, an airport which lies outside the
                                                                                                               Region - but transport links between the airport and the
                                                                                                               Region will have to be improved for this option to be
                                                                    5. Social inclusion                        deliverable, and these links could improve cultural /
                                                                                                               creative / sporting activities in the Region.




                                                                                    26
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                               Stansted +2

                      Social progress which the environment
                      Effective protection of recognises the needs of everyone

                      9. To improve efficiency in land-use       1. Land re-use
                      through the re-use of previously developed 2. Building re-use
                      land and existing buildings, and encourage
                      urban renaissance                          3. Availability of opportunities for re-use


                                                                   4. Urban renaissance

                                                                   5. Sequential approach to the use of
                                                                   land




                                                                                                               Neutral. Not relevant for the South East
                                                                                                               region.
                      10. To reduce air pollution and ensure air   1. Reduce air pollution
                      quality continues to improve

                                                                   2. Improve air quality

                                                                                                               Negative. There will be some indirect pollution and air
                                                                                                               quality impacts associated with two new runways at
                                                                                                               Stansted, but these will be far less significant for SEERA
                                                                                                               given the location of Stansted out of the region.
                      11. To maintain and improve the water        1. Water quality
                      quality at the Region’s rivers and coast




                                                                                                               Neutral. Not relevant for the South East region.
                                                                                                               Neutral/Negative. While the new runway is not located in
                      12. To address the causes of climate         1. Reduction of greenhouse gas              the SEERA runway, fuels burning and therefore
                                                                                                               contributing to climate change will be flying near or over
                      change through reducing emissions of         emissions
                      13. To conserve and enhance the Region’s     1. Conservation of biodiversity
                      biodiversity                                 2. Enhancement of biodiversity
                                                                   3. Maintenance of habitats (land
                                                                   management) of regional and national
                                                                   importance
                                                                   4. Restoration of habitats of regional
                                                                   and national importance
                                                                   5. Creation of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   6. Recreation of habitat of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   7. Quality of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                                                               Neutral. Not relevant for the South East
                                                                   8. Impact on Biodiversity Action Plan
                                                                                                               region.
                                                                   regional priority habitats




                                                                                  27
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                            Stansted +2

                      14. To protect, which recognises the needs of everyone of the countryside
                      Social progress enhance and encourage       1. Protection
                      enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                   2. Enhancement of the countryside


                                                                   3. Access to the countryside
                                                                   4. Enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                                                            Neutral. Not relevant for the South East region.
                      15. To reduce road traffic and congestion    1. Reduced road traffic (personal and
                      through reducing the need to travel by car   freight)
                      and improving travel choice

                                                                   2. Reduced congestion

                                                                   3. Increased support for sustainable
                                                                   forms of transport
                                                                   4. Improved travel choice
                                                                                                            Neutral. Not relevant for the South East region. Although
                                                                   5. Reduced need to travel                could begin to impact strategic road and rail network
                                                                                                            (negative?).
                      16. To maintain, enhance and make            1. Maintenance of historic environment
                      accessible the historic environment and      and assets
                      assets of the Region.
                                                                   2. Enhancement of historic
                                                                   environmental and assets
                                                                   3. Access to historic environment and
                                                                   assets




                                                                                                            Neutral. No relevance to the South East regino.
                      Prudent use of natural resources
                      17. To achieve sustainable water resource 1. Conservation of water resources
                      management
                                                                2. Efficiency in the use of water
                                                                resources

                                                                   3. Impact of development on water use


                                                                                                            Negative. Some relevance for South East Region: all
                                                                                                            Stansted options require engineering work, diverting and
                                                                                                            culverting to serveral rivers (opposed by EA), and with
                                                                                                            the additional passengers the demand for water might
                                                                                                            not be met. Potential ground water effect at Luton as the
                                                                                                            airport is in the area of a major acquifer and both runway
                                                                                                            options intersect a source prortection zone for public
                                                                                                            water supply, plus extra passengers associated with the
                                                                                                            higher capacity runway add to demand for water which
                                                                                                            might not be possible to meet. South East Region may
                                                                                                            come under pressure to supply some of this demand.
                      18. To reduce the risk of flooding that      1. Improved Flood defences
                      would be detrimental to public well-being,
                      the economy and the environment.             2. Improved Flood protection

                                                                   3. Reduced Flook risk
                                                                                                            Negative.Impacts to the groundwater / rivers (see above)
                                                                   4. Avoid Flood risk                      may have impact on flooding, plus increased area of
                                                                   5. Sustainable drainage                  impermeable surface (runway) which may contribute to
                                                                                                            flooding problems.
                      19. To reduce waste generation and           1. Minimise waste production
                      disposal, and achieve sustainable
                      management of waste.                         2. Reduce waste disposal
                                                                                                            Increase in the capacity of airports, and the development
                                                                   3. Sustainable waste management          of new runways at all airports that are in the South East
                                                                                                            Region will have an affect on the levels of waste
                                                                   (waste hierarchy)                        generated in the Region.




                                                                                 28
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                     Criteria

                                                                                                                 Stansted +2

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone energy efficiency
                      20. To increase energy efficiency           1. Increased



                                                                                                                 Neutral. Not relevant to the SEERA region.

                      21. To increase the proportion of energy  1. Increased availability of renewable
                      generated and consumed in the region from energy production sources in the region
                      renewable sources.

                                                                     2. Increased availability of renewable
                                                                     energy from sources located outside
                                                                     the region

                                                                     3. Increase in the amount of energy         Positive. Air travel does not use renewable energy
                                                                     consumed from renewable sources as a        resources. Due to the two runways plannned at
                                                                                                                 Stansted, the ammount of non-renewable resources
                                                                     proportion of total energy use              used outside the Region is greater than that used inside
                                                                                                                 the Region.
                      Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

                      22. To ensure high and stable levels of        1. Availability of employment
                      employment so everyone can benefit from        opportunities
                      the economic growth of the Region
                                                                     2. Quality of employment opportunities

                                                                     3. Social inclusion                         Negative. This results in the provision of more jobs
                                                                                                                 outside the SEERA region, with options within the South
                                                                     4. Flexible working practices               East effectively suggesting minimal change over the
                                                                                                                 thirty year period. Heathrow's status as major
                                                                                                                 international airport is challenged in this scenario, as
                                                                                                                 Stansted becomes a bigger more efficient airport which
                                                                                                                 is 'seeded' (i.e has major aircraft alliance operating
                                                                                                                 there). The case for a region with two major international
                                                                                                                 airports is also unclear- if they are competing with each
                                                                                                                 other they may lose to international competition.
                      23. To sustain economic growth and             1. Economic growth sustained
                      competitiveness, and ensure better
                                                                     2. Economic competitiveness sustained
                      distribution of economic activity across the
                      region.
                                                                     3. Equity – better distribution of          Neutral. This option provides a significant employment
                                                                     economic activity across the region         opportunity for those operating in and around Stansted,
                                                                                                                 increasing employment opportunities out of the region.
                                                                                                                 Heathrow still remains a major airport, although it is
                                                                                                                 unclear how it would function as Stansted's equal and
                                                                                                                 whether this would be workable economically. There may
                                                                                                                 be some redistribution of the economic geography
                                                                                                                 eastwards through the region as well as out of it, as the
                                                                                                                 competitiveness of the Eastern region increases.
                                                                                                                 However, overall levels of growth proposed in this
                                                                                                                 package are more considerable and better match the
                                                                                                                 forecast levels predicted necessary to guarentee future
                                                                                                                 competitiveness of UK airports with their counterparts on
                                                                                                                 the continent. This can only benefit UK plc and could
                                                                                                                 therefore safeguard against the wider decline of the
                                                                                                                 SEERA economy.
                      24. To invest to secure our future prosperity 1. Investment in economy
                      and quality of life                           2. Investment in R&D
                                                                     3. Investment in social capital
                                                                     4. Equity – better distribution of wealth

                                                                     5. Investment in the existing housing
                                                                     stock                                       Negative/Neutral. The development of two runways at
                                                                     6. Investment in infrastructure             Stansted represents a (medium - long-term?) investment
                                                                                                                 outside SEERA. Together with Heathrow it may be
                                                                                                                 sufficient overall capacity to safeguard the international
                                                                                                                 competitiveness of the UK airports over the longer term,
                                                                                                                 encouraging continued private sector investment in
                                                                                                                 SEERA. This package may also encourage
                                                                                                                 redistribution eastwards across SEERA.
                      25. To develop the knowledge economy by 1. Encouragement of lower impact
                      focusing on higher value, lower impact  activities
                      activities
                                                              2. Activity in the knowledge economy


                                                                     3. Growth in the knowledge economy




                                                                                                                 Neutral. This will encourage growth outside
                                                                                                                 SEERA region, and the continuation of the
                                                                                                                 knowledge economy near Heathrow. IT is
                                                                                                                 likely that the knowledge economy will lose
                                                                                                                 out over time due to major disinvestment as
                                                                                                                 UK competitiveness suffers. While Heathrow
                                                                                                                 as a location for knowledge economy is
                                                                                                                 questionable, it is likely that the the
                                                                                                                 knowledge economy for the SEERA region
                                                                                                                 as a whole will be safeguarded as
                                                                                                                 international competitiveness is maintained.
                                                                                    29
                        25. Framework and SERAS Options
Sustainability DevelopmentTo develop the knowledge economy by
                         focusing on higher value, lower impact
                         activities


                         Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                              Stansted +2

                         Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                                                                     4. Social inclusion – communities, and
                                                                     community groups


                                                                                                              Neutral. This will encourage growth outside
                                                                                                              SEERA region, and the continuation of the
                                                                                                              knowledge economy near Heathrow. IT is
                                                                                                              likely that the knowledge economy will lose
                                                                                                              out over time due to major disinvestment as
                                                                                                              UK competitiveness suffers. While Heathrow
                                                                                                              as a location for knowledge economy is
                                                                                                              questionable, it is likely that the the
                                                                                                              knowledge economy for the SEERA region
                                                                                                              as a whole will be safeguarded as
                                                                                                              international competitiveness is maintained.




                                                                                   30
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options


                      Sustainable Development
                      Framework- Appraisal Matrix
                      Objectives                                  Criteria
                                                                                                             Heathrow +1
                                                                                                             Stansted +1

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                      1. To ensure that everyone has the          1. Availability of housing:
                      opportunity of a decent and affordable
                      home.

                                                                  Affordable
                                                                  Private Sector
                                                                  2. Energy efficiency in housing stock

                                                                  3. Quality of housing stock
                                                                                                             Negative. The SERAS document recognises
                                                                  4. Fuel poverty
                                                                                                             that an additional runway at Heathrow will
                                                                                                             have serious land take implications- for
                                                                                                             employment and additional housing land. It
                                                                                                             is recognised that additional development
                                                                                                             would have to occur on greenbelt sites
                                                                                                             given the shortage of brownfield land, even
                                                                                                             assuming intensive use of previously
                                                                                                             developed land. Estimated that 40,000
                                                                                                             dwellings needed up to 2030. Provision at
                                                                                                             Luton and Stansted would also have
                                                                                                             impacts for housing land, but this is beyond
                                                                                                             the SEERA boundary.
                      2. To improve the health and well being of 1. Protection of health
                      the population and reduce inequalities in
                                                                 2. Health improvement
                      health.
                                                                 3. Equity – reducing health inequalities.




                                                                                                             Negative. Any development at Heathrow will result in
                                                                                                             the possible need for additional health provision
                                                                                                             particularly the additional runway option. Air travel is
                                                                                                             polluting, and this pollution can affect people's long
                                                                                                             term health. Air pollution (nitrogen dioxide) will affect
                                                                                                             significant numbers of people due to Heathrow
                                                                                                             development: 35000 in 2015, falling to 33000 in 2030.
                                                                                                             Take up of Green Belt may have long term impact on
                                                                                                             health as there is reduced access to countryside. This
                                                                                                             package of options focuses negative health impacts in
                                                                                                             heavily populated parts of the west of the SEERA
                                                                                                             region. Limited impacts for SEERA arising from
                                                                                                             increased activity at Stansted.
                      3. To reduce poverty and social exclusion   1. Access to income
                      and close the gap between the most          2. Affordability of services and
                      disadvantaged communities and the rest.     amenities                                  Neutral/Positive.A new runway at Heathrow will require
                                                                                                             workers mostly sourced from the SEERA and GOL
                                                                                                             regions. There are areas close to the airport which
                                                                  3. Social inclusion                        suffer from high deprivation and may benefit from
                                                                                                             additional employment opportunity. The effect may be
                                                                  4. Incidence of poverty                    wider for the west of the region given the possible wider
                                                                                                             indirect and attracted employment benefits from
                                                                  5. Degree of poverty                       Heathrow's expansion/continuation of its position as the
                                                                                                             main national airport. It would have the effect of
                                                                  6. Fuel poverty                            increasing wealth in the west of the region, but may not
                                                                                                             impact on the east of the region and therefore those
                                                                                                             most deprived areas.
                      4. To stimulate economic revival in Priority 1. Targeting Priority Regeneration
                      Regeneration Areas                           Areas (PRAs)

                                                                  2. Targeting other deprived areas

                                                                  3. Support for community sector
                                                                  businesses

                                                                  4. Support for new businesses

                                                                  5. Support for training

                                                                  6. Support for education

                                                                  7. Support through infrastructure
                                                                                                             Neutral/Positive.A new runway at Heathrow will require
                                                                  (services and transport)                   workers mostly sourced from the SEERA and GOL
                                                                                                             regions. There are areas close to the airport which
                                                                                                             suffer from high deprivation and may benefit from
                                                                                                             additional employment opportunity. The effect may be
                                                                  8. Stakeholder consultation                wider for the west of the region given the possible wider
                                                                                                             indirect and attracted employment benefits from
                                                                  9. Community involvement                   Heathrow's expansion/continuation of its position as the
                                                                                                             main national airport. It would have the effect of
                                                                                                             increasing wealth in the west of the region, but may not
                                                                  10. Urban renaissance                      impact on the east of the region and therefore those
                                                                                                             most deprived areas.




                                                                                   31
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                    Criteria
                                                                                                               Heathrow +1
                                                                                                               Stansted +1

                      Social raise educational achievement levels of everyone of education
                      5. To progress which recognises the needs 1. Availability
                      across the Region and develop
                      opportunities for everyone to acquire the    2. Quality of education opportunities
                      skills to find and remain in work.

                                                                    3. Availability of training and skills
                                                                    development.

                                                                    4. Quality of training and skills
                                                                    development opportunities

                                                                    5. Engagement and participation in
                                                                    education, and/or training and skills
                                                                    development


                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      6. To reduce crime and fear of crime          1. Safety
                                                                    2. Security

                                                                    3. Social inclusion

                                                                    4. Community participation
                                                                    5. Fear of crime
                                                                    6. Incidence of crime
                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      7. To create and sustain vibrant              1. Access to key services and
                      communities                                   amenities locally
                                                                    2. Social inclusion

                                                                    3. Community participation
                                                                    4. Accommodate diversity
                                                                                                               Negative/Neutral.Negative for those closest to Heathrow
                                                                                                               who will be impacted upon by increased flights (noise,
                                                                                                               air quality) and congestion arising from a new runway.
                                                                                                               Land take threatens to remove and alter several nearby
                                                                                                               communities irreparably. But the communities further
                                                                                                               away may benefit from improved transport
                                                                                                               infrastructure, a wider range of sources of employment
                                                                                                               which are attracted by the airport. Communities around
                                                                                                               Gatwick and Heathrow will take the greatest negative
                                                                                                               impact.
                      8. To encourage the development of, and 1. Availability of opportunities for
                      participation in, cultural, creative and     culture, creativity and sport
                      sporting activity, and a buoyant sustainable
                      tourism sector
                                                                   2. Affordability of opportunities for
                                                                   culture, creativity and sport



                                                                    3. Quality of opportunities for culture,
                                                                    creativity and sport
                                                                                                               Neutral/Positive. All options will bring tourists to the
                                                                    4. Investment in opportunities for         South East Region, which may prompt investment in
                                                                                                               cultural / creative / sporting activities which will be to the
                                                                    culture, creativity and sport              benefit of local communities. The new runway at
                                                                                                               Stansted may only have limited positive impact on the
                                                                                                               Region as it is outside the Region, and the new runway
                                                                                                               at Heathrow may cause more congestion in this part of
                                                                    5. Social inclusion                        the Region and therefore problems, rather than
                                                                                                               encouraging these activities.




                                                                                    32
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria
                                                                                                               Heathrow +1
                                                                                                               Stansted +1

                      Effective protection of recognises the needs of everyone
                      Social progress which the environment

                      9. To improve efficiency in land-use       1. Land re-use
                      through the re-use of previously developed 2. Building re-use
                      land and existing buildings, and encourage
                      urban renaissance                          3. Availability of opportunities for re-use

                                                                                                               Negative. The document specifies that the
                                                                                                               additional housing and general developmetn
                                                                   4. Urban renaissance
                                                                                                               associated with SERAS is very likely to
                                                                                                               necessitate the release of greenfield sites
                                                                   5. Sequential approach to the use of
                                                                                                               given the shortage of brownfield sites and
                                                                   land                                        intensification opportunities. However, it
                                                                                                               could be argued that this is an area where
                                                                                                               there has been efficient land-use planning-
                                                                                                               although using the sequential test principle it
                                                                                                               is difficult ot justify that scale of developmetn
                                                                                                               in a greenfield location given other airport
                                                                                                               options within SERAS in areas with higher
                                                                                                               brownfield qualities and labour market
                                                                                                               flexibility. Proposals for Stansted have
                                                                                                               neutral effect for the SEERA region in this
                                                                                                               regard.
                      10. To reduce air pollution and ensure air   1. Reduce air pollution
                      quality continues to improve
                                                                                                               Negative. This will be damaging both specifically and
                                                                   2. Improve air quality                      generally to the SEERA region. The western part of the
                                                                                                               region will be hit by air quality and pollution arising from
                                                                                                               the extra runway at Heathrow. A new runway at
                                                                                                               Stansted will also have a general impact, although it will
                                                                                                               be more dispersed by virtue of its location about forty
                                                                                                               miles north and east of SEERA region boundary.
                      11. To maintain and improve the water        1. Water quality
                      quality at the Region’s rivers and coast


                                                                                                               Negative. The proposals at SERAS will have a
                                                                                                               significant impact on the quality of the region's rivers
                                                                                                               and coasts. Heathrow already suffers from groundwater
                                                                                                               shortages and a new runway will increase runoff and
                                                                                                               affect the hydrological cycle, and new passengers and
                                                                                                               workers will great an increased demadn for water in a
                                                                                                               location where there is already a signfiicant shortage.
                                                                                                               Proposals at Stansted are irrelevant for SERAS in this
                                                                                                               respect.
                                                                                                               Negative. The Heathrow +1 option will contribute to
                      12. To address the causes of climate         1. Reduction of greenhouse gas              climate change significantly within the SEERA region.
                                                                                                               Impacts from Stansted runway expansions will also
                      change through reducing emissions of         emissions
                      13. To conserve and enhance the Region’s     1. Conservation of biodiversity
                      biodiversity                                 2. Enhancement of biodiversity
                                                                   3. Maintenance of habitats (land
                                                                   management) of regional and national
                                                                   importance
                                                                   4. Restoration of habitats of regional
                                                                   and national importance
                                                                   5. Creation of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   6. Recreation of habitat of regional and Negative. New runway at Heathrow would
                                                                                                            mean that 25% of Harmondsworth
                                                                   national importance
                                                                                                               Conservation Area would be lost and would
                                                                   7. Quality of habitats of regional and      result in demand for development on
                                                                   national importance                         greenfield sites. There were no high/high*
                                                                                                               impacts identified. Development at Stansted
                                                                   8. Impact on Biodiversity Action Plan
                                                                                                               is not directly relevant to SEERA.
                                                                   regional priority habitats




                                                                                  33
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria
                                                                                                            Heathrow +1
                                                                                                            Stansted +1

                      Social progress enhance and encourage
                      14. To protect, which recognises the needs of everyone of the countryside
                                                                  1. Protection
                      enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                   2. Enhancement of the countryside

                                                                                                            Negative. One runway at Heathrow requires an
                                                                   3. Access to the countryside             estimated 30,000 dwellings, most of which cannot be
                                                                                                            accommodated within the existing buildt up area. The
                                                                   4. Enjoyment of the countryside          scope for providing additional housing without incursion
                                                                                                            into the Green Belt is limited, even assuming intensive
                                                                                                            use of previously developed land. No impacts for
                                                                                                            Stansted felt within the SEERA policy area.
                      15. To reduce road traffic and congestion    1. Reduced road traffic (personal and
                      through reducing the need to travel by car   freight)
                      and improving travel choice

                                                                   2. Reduced congestion
                                                                                                            Negative. Major impact on local road and rail network
                                                                   3. Increased support for sustainable     arising from major runway development and
                                                                   forms of transport                       subsequent trip generation. Plans show reliance on road
                                                                                                            and rail transport in an already congested part of
                                                                   4. Improved travel choice                SEERA region. Developmetn of this scale at Stansted
                                                                                                            not relevant to SEERA region, althoguh could be
                                                                   5. Reduced need to travel                perceived as positive in that it diverts demand to travel
                                                                                                            out of the region.
                      16. To maintain, enhance and make            1. Maintenance of historic environment
                      accessible the historic environment and      and assets
                      assets of the Region.
                                                                   2. Enhancement of historic
                                                                   environmental and assets
                                                                   3. Access to historic environment and
                                                                   assets

                                                                                                            Negative. Possible impact on Harmondsworth Tithe
                                                                                                            Barn (Grade 1 listed) - but this could be reconstructed in
                                                                                                            a new location. Plus one church (Grd II listed) and 25%
                                                                                                            of Harmondsworth Conservation Area would be lost.
                                                                                                            Development at Stansted not relevant to the SEERA
                                                                                                            region.
                      Prudent use of natural resources
                      17. To achieve sustainable water resource 1. Conservation of water resources
                      management
                                                                2. Efficiency in the use of water           Negative. New runway at Heathrow: high adverse
                                                                resources                                   impacts on surface and ground water, high risk to
                                                                                                            acquifer which is an important resource. Diverting and
                                                                                                            culverting required, which is generally opposed by
                                                                   3. Impact of development on water use    Environment Agency. Extra passengers associated with
                                                                                                            the runway add to the demand for water which may be
                                                                                                            difficult to meet. Some relevance for South East Region:
                                                                                                            all Stansted options require engineering work, diverting
                                                                                                            and culverting to serveral rivers (opposed by EA), and
                                                                                                            with the additional passengers the demand for water
                                                                                                            might not be met. Potential ground water effect at
                                                                                                            Luton as the airport is in the area of a major acquifer
                                                                                                            and both runway options intersect a source prortection
                                                                                                            zone for public water supply, plus extra passengers
                                                                                                            associated with the higher capacity runway add to
                                                                                                            demand for water which might not be possible to meet.
                                                                                                            South East Region may come under pressure to supply
                                                                                                            some of this demand.
                      18. To reduce the risk of flooding that      1. Improved Flood defences
                      would be detrimental to public well-being,
                      the economy and the environment.             2. Improved Flood protection

                                                                   3. Reduced Flook risk
                                                                                                            Impacts to the groundwater / rivers (see above) may
                                                                   4. Avoid Flood risk                      have impact on flooding, plus increased area of
                                                                   5. Sustainable drainage                  impermeable surface (runway) which may contribute to
                                                                                                            flooding problems.
                      19. To reduce waste generation and           1. Minimise waste production
                      disposal, and achieve sustainable
                      management of waste.                         2. Reduce waste disposal
                                                                                                            Negative. Increase in the capacity of airports, and the
                                                                   3. Sustainable waste management          development of new runways at all airports that are in
                                                                                                            the South East Region will have an affect on the levels
                                                                   (waste hierarchy)                        of waste generated in the Region.




                                                                                 34
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                     Criteria
                                                                                                                 Heathrow +1
                                                                                                                 Stansted +1

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone energy efficiency
                      20. To increase energy efficiency           1. Increased
                                                                                                                 Negative.Air travel is not energy efficient. Efficiencies
                                                                                                                 can only be made if public transport links with the
                                                                                                                 airport are improved.Increases of energy expended at
                                                                                                                 Heathrow. Improved productivtieis may improve the
                                                                                                                 efficiency of that use over time.

                      21. To increase the proportion of energy  1. Increased availability of renewable
                      generated and consumed in the region from energy production sources in the region
                      renewable sources.

                                                                     2. Increased availability of renewable
                                                                     energy from sources located outside
                                                                     the region
                                                                                                                 Negative. Air travel does not use renewable energy
                                                                     3. Increase in the amount of energy         resources. Although there is a new runway proposed at
                                                                     consumed from renewable sources as a        both Heathrow and Stansted, there is greater capacity
                                                                                                                 planned at Heathrow, and combined with Gatwick this
                                                                     proportion of total energy use              means that the South East Region uses more non-
                                                                                                                 renewable energy resources than outside the Region.
                      Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

                      22. To ensure high and stable levels of        1. Availability of employment
                      employment so everyone can benefit from        opportunities
                      the economic growth of the Region
                                                                     2. Quality of employment opportunities
                                                                                                                 Positive. This option provides significant employment
                                                                                                                 opportunity for those operating in and around Heathrow,
                                                                     3. Social inclusion                         increasing employment opportunities within SEERA
                                                                                                                 albeit in areas that have a shortage of labour and
                                                                     4. Flexible working practices               therefore where there could be significant recruitment
                                                                                                                 possibilities. This option maintains economic
                                                                                                                 dominance of the west of the SEERA region. Additional
                                                                                                                 provision at Stansted effectively increases airport
                                                                                                                 capacity and therefore international competitiveness of
                                                                                                                 hte sub-region as a whole and therefore also potentially
                                                                                                                 benefits SEERA region without diverting too much
                                                                                                                 activity out of it.
                      23. To sustain economic growth and             1. Economic growth sustained
                      competitiveness, and ensure better
                                                                     2. Economic competitiveness sustained
                      distribution of economic activity across the
                      region.
                                                                     3. Equity – better distribution of
                                                                     economic activity across the region         Positive. This package provides significant employment
                                                                                                                 opportunity for those operating in and around Heathrow,
                                                                                                                 increasing employment opportunities within SEERA
                                                                                                                 albeit in areas that have a shortage of labour and
                                                                                                                 therefore where there could be significant recruitment
                                                                                                                 problems. The Heathrow option safeguards the
                                                                                                                 economic dominance of the west of the SEERA region,
                                                                                                                 but the added provision at Stansted may also
                                                                                                                 encourage a a redistribution of employment to the east
                                                                                                                 of the region and identified PRAs which supports this
                                                                                                                 policy objective. Also, overall levels of growth proposed
                                                                                                                 in this package are potentially high enough for SEERA
                                                                                                                 and the UK as a whole to be able to maintain aviation
                                                                                                                 and economic competitiveness, arguably safeguarding
                                                                                                                 the future of the SEERA economy.
                      24. To invest to secure our future prosperity 1. Investment in economy
                      and quality of life                           2. Investment in R&D
                                                                     3. Investment in social capital
                                                                     4. Equity – better distribution of wealth

                                                                     5. Investment in the existing housing
                                                                                                                 Positive. While the development of one runway at
                                                                     stock                                       Heathrow represents a (medium - long-term?)
                                                                     6. Investment in infrastructure             investment in the economy of the South East Region,
                                                                                                                 and provides an increase in jobs, infrastructure and
                                                                                                                 increased requirements for housing stock, the provision
                                                                                                                 of a single runway at Stansted will assist in providing
                                                                                                                 sufficient inter-region airport capacity to safeguard the
                                                                                                                 international competitiveness of the SEERA economy
                                                                                                                 over the longer term.
                      25. To develop the knowledge economy by 1. Encouragement of lower impact
                      focusing on higher value, lower impact  activities
                      activities
                                                              2. Activity in the knowledge economy


                                                                     3. Growth in the knowledge economy




                                                                                                                 Positive. While the development of one
                                                                                                                 runway at Heathrow will effectively
                                                                                                                 safeguard the knowledge economy in its
                                                                                                                 current form (i.e largely concnetrated in teh
                                                                                                                 Western Policy area), the provision of a
                                                                                                                 single runway at Stansted will assist in
                                                                                                                 providing sufficient inter-region airport
                                                                                                                 capacity to safeguard the international
                                                                                                                 competitiveness of the SEERA economy
                                                                                                                 over the longer term.
                                                                                    35
                        25. Framework and SERAS Options
Sustainability DevelopmentTo develop the knowledge economy by
                         focusing on higher value, lower impact
                         activities


                         Objectives                                  Criteria
                                                                                                              Heathrow +1
                                                                                                              Stansted +1

                         Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                                                                     4. Social inclusion – communities, and
                                                                     community groups



                                                                                                              Positive. While the development of one
                                                                                                              runway at Heathrow will effectively
                                                                                                              safeguard the knowledge economy in its
                                                                                                              current form (i.e largely concnetrated in teh
                                                                                                              Western Policy area), the provision of a
                                                                                                              single runway at Stansted will assist in
                                                                                                              providing sufficient inter-region airport
                                                                                                              capacity to safeguard the international
                                                                                                              competitiveness of the SEERA economy
                                                                                                              over the longer term.




                                                                                   36
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options


                      Sustainable Development
                      Framework- Appraisal Matrix
                      Objectives                                  Criteria
                                                                                                             Heathrow +1
                                                                                                             Stansted +2

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                      1. To ensure that everyone has the          1. Availability of housing:
                      opportunity of a decent and affordable
                      home.

                                                                  Affordable
                                                                  Private Sector
                                                                  2. Energy efficiency in housing stock

                                                                  3. Quality of housing stock
                                                                                                             Negative. The SERAS document
                                                                  4. Fuel poverty
                                                                                                             recognises that an additional runway at
                                                                                                             Heathrow will have serious land take
                                                                                                             implications- for employment and additional
                                                                                                             housing land. It is recognised that additional
                                                                                                             development would have to occur on
                                                                                                             greenbelt sites given the shortage of
                                                                                                             brownfield land, even assuming intensive
                                                                                                             use of previously developed land.
                                                                                                             Estimated that 40,000 dwellings needed up
                                                                                                             to 2030. Provision at Luton and Stansted
                                                                                                             would also have impacts for housing land,
                                                                                                             but this is beyond the SEERA boundary.
                      2. To improve the health and well being of 1. Protection of health
                      the population and reduce inequalities in
                                                                 2. Health improvement
                      health.
                                                                 3. Equity – reducing health inequalities.




                                                                                                             Negative. Any development at Heathrow will result in
                                                                                                             the possible need for additional health provision
                                                                                                             particularly the additional runway option. Air travel is
                                                                                                             polluting, and this pollution can affect people's long
                                                                                                             term health. Air pollution (nitrogen dioxide) will affect
                                                                                                             significant numbers of people due to Heathrow
                                                                                                             development: 35000 in 2015, falling to 33000 in 2030.
                                                                                                             Take up of Green Belt may have long term impact on
                                                                                                             health as there is reduced access to countryside. This
                                                                                                             package of options focuses negative health impacts in
                                                                                                             heavily populated parts of the west of the SEERA
                                                                                                             region. Limited impacts for SEERA arising from
                                                                                                             increased activity at Stansted.
                      3. To reduce poverty and social exclusion   1. Access to income
                      and close the gap between the most          2. Affordability of services and
                      disadvantaged communities and the rest.     amenities                                  Neutral/Positive.A new runway at Heathrow will require
                                                                                                             workers mostly sourced from the SEERA and GOL
                                                                                                             regions. There are areas close to the airport which
                                                                  3. Social inclusion                        suffer from high deprivation and may benefit from
                                                                                                             additional employment opportunity. The effect may be
                                                                  4. Incidence of poverty                    wider for the west of the region given the possible
                                                                                                             wider indirect and attracted employment benefits from
                                                                  5. Degree of poverty                       Heathrow's expansion/continuation of its position as
                                                                                                             (together wtih Stansted) the main national airport. It
                                                                  6. Fuel poverty                            would have the effect of increasing wealth in the west
                                                                                                             of the region, but may not impact on the east of the
                                                                                                             region and therefore those most deprived areas.
                      4. To stimulate economic revival in Priority 1. Targeting Priority Regeneration
                      Regeneration Areas                           Areas (PRAs)

                                                                  2. Targeting other deprived areas

                                                                  3. Support for community sector
                                                                  businesses

                                                                  4. Support for new businesses

                                                                  5. Support for training

                                                                  6. Support for education

                                                                  7. Support through infrastructure
                                                                                                             Neutral/Positive.A new runway at Heathrow will require
                                                                  (services and transport)                   workers mostly sourced from the SEERA and GOL
                                                                                                             regions. There are areas close to the airport which
                                                                                                             suffer from high deprivation and may benefit from
                                                                                                             additional employment opportunity. The effect may be
                                                                  8. Stakeholder consultation                wider for the west of the region given the possible
                                                                                                             wider indirect and attracted employment benefits from
                                                                  9. Community involvement                   Heathrow's expansion/continuation of its position as
                                                                                                             (together wtih Stansted) the main national airport. It
                                                                                                             would have the effect of increasing wealth in the west
                                                                  10. Urban renaissance                      of the region, but may not impact on the east of the
                                                                                                             region and therefore those most deprived areas.




                                                                                   37
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                    Criteria
                                                                                                               Heathrow +1
                                                                                                               Stansted +2

                      Social raise educational achievement levels of everyone of education
                      5. To progress which recognises the needs 1. Availability
                      across the Region and develop
                      opportunities for everyone to acquire the    2. Quality of education opportunities
                      skills to find and remain in work.

                                                                    3. Availability of training and skills
                                                                    development.

                                                                    4. Quality of training and skills
                                                                    development opportunities

                                                                    5. Engagement and participation in
                                                                    education, and/or training and skills
                                                                    development


                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      6. To reduce crime and fear of crime          1. Safety
                                                                    2. Security

                                                                    3. Social inclusion

                                                                    4. Community participation
                                                                    5. Fear of crime
                                                                    6. Incidence of crime
                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      7. To create and sustain vibrant              1. Access to key services and
                      communities                                   amenities locally
                                                                    2. Social inclusion

                                                                    3. Community participation
                                                                    4. Accommodate diversity
                                                                                                               Negative/Neutral.Negative for those closest to
                                                                                                               Heathrow who will be impacted upon by increased
                                                                                                               flights (noise, air quality) and congestion arising from a
                                                                                                               new runway. Land take threatens to remove and alter
                                                                                                               several nearby communities irreparably. But the
                                                                                                               communities further away may benefit from improved
                                                                                                               transport infrastructure, a wider range of sources of
                                                                                                               employment which are attracted by the airport.
                                                                                                               Communities around Gatwick and Heathrow will take
                                                                                                               the greatest negative impact.
                      8. To encourage the development of, and 1. Availability of opportunities for
                      participation in, cultural, creative and     culture, creativity and sport
                      sporting activity, and a buoyant sustainable
                      tourism sector
                                                                   2. Affordability of opportunities for
                                                                   culture, creativity and sport



                                                                    3. Quality of opportunities for culture,
                                                                    creativity and sport                       Neutral/Positive. All options will bring tourists to the
                                                                                                               South East Region, which may prompt investment in
                                                                    4. Investment in opportunities for         cultural / creative / sporting activities which will be to
                                                                                                               the benefit of local communities. This option will have
                                                                    culture, creativity and sport              less impact on these activities due to the increased
                                                                                                               number of runways at Stansted, an airport which lies
                                                                                                               outside the Region - but transport links between the
                                                                                                               airport and the Region will have to be improved for this
                                                                    5. Social inclusion                        option to be deliverable, and these links could improve
                                                                                                               cultural / creative / sporting activities in the Region.




                                                                                    38
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria
                                                                                                               Heathrow +1
                                                                                                               Stansted +2

                      Effective protection of recognises the needs of everyone
                      Social progress which the environment

                      9. To improve efficiency in land-use       1. Land re-use
                      through the re-use of previously developed 2. Building re-use
                      land and existing buildings, and encourage
                      urban renaissance                          3. Availability of opportunities for re-use
                                                                                                               Negative. The document specifies that the
                                                                                                               additional housing and general
                                                                                                               developmetn associated with SERAS is
                                                                   4. Urban renaissance
                                                                                                               very likely to necessitate the release of
                                                                                                               greenfield sites given the shortage of
                                                                   5. Sequential approach to the use of
                                                                                                               brownfield sites and intensification
                                                                   land                                        opportunities. However, it could be argued
                                                                                                               that this is an area where there has been
                                                                                                               efficient land-use planning- although using
                                                                                                               the sequential test principle it is difficult ot
                                                                                                               justify that scale of developmetn in a
                                                                                                               greenfield location given other airport
                                                                                                               options within SERAS in areas with higher
                                                                                                               brownfield qualities and labour market
                                                                                                               flexibility. Proposals for Stansted have
                                                                                                               neutral effect for the SEERA region in this
                                                                                                               regard.
                      10. To reduce air pollution and ensure air   1. Reduce air pollution
                      quality continues to improve
                                                                                                               Negative. This will be damaging both specifically and
                                                                   2. Improve air quality                      generally to the SEERA region. The western part of the
                                                                                                               region will be hit by air quality and pollution arising
                                                                                                               from the extra runway at Heathrow. Two new runways
                                                                                                               at Stansted will also have a general impact, although it
                                                                                                               will be more dispersed by virtue of its location about
                                                                                                               forty miles north and east of SEERA region boundary.
                      11. To maintain and improve the water        1. Water quality
                      quality at the Region’s rivers and coast


                                                                                                               Negative. The proposals at SERAS will have a
                                                                                                               significant impact on the quality of the region's rivers
                                                                                                               and coasts. Heathrow already suffers from
                                                                                                               groundwater shortages and a new runway will increase
                                                                                                               runoff and affect the hydrological cycle, and new
                                                                                                               passengers and workers will great an increased
                                                                                                               demadn for water in a location where there is already a
                                                                                                               signfiicant shortage. Proposals at Stansted are
                                                                                                               irrelevant for SERAS in this respect.
                                                                                                               Negative. The Heathrow +1 option will contribute to
                      12. To address the causes of climate         1. Reduction of greenhouse gas              climate change significantly within the SEERA region.
                                                                                                               Impacts from Stansted runway expansions will also
                      change through reducing emissions of         emissions
                      13. To conserve and enhance the Region’s     1. Conservation of biodiversity
                      biodiversity                                 2. Enhancement of biodiversity
                                                                   3. Maintenance of habitats (land
                                                                   management) of regional and national
                                                                   importance
                                                                   4. Restoration of habitats of regional
                                                                   and national importance
                                                                   5. Creation of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   6. Recreation of habitat of regional and Negative. New runway at Heathrow would
                                                                                                            mean that 25% of Harmondsworth
                                                                   national importance
                                                                                                               Conservation Area would be lost and would
                                                                   7. Quality of habitats of regional and      result in demand for development on
                                                                   national importance                         greenfield sites. There were no high/high*
                                                                                                               impacts identified. Development at
                                                                   8. Impact on Biodiversity Action Plan
                                                                                                               Stansted is not directly relevant to SEERA.
                                                                   regional priority habitats




                                                                                  39
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria
                                                                                                            Heathrow +1
                                                                                                            Stansted +2

                      Social progress enhance and encourage
                      14. To protect, which recognises the needs of everyone of the countryside
                                                                  1. Protection
                      enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                   2. Enhancement of the countryside

                                                                                                            Negative. One runway at Heathrow requires an
                                                                   3. Access to the countryside             estimated 30,000 dwellings, most of which cannot be
                                                                                                            accommodated within the existing buildt up area. The
                                                                   4. Enjoyment of the countryside          scope for providing additional housing without
                                                                                                            incursion into the Green Belt is limited, even assuming
                                                                                                            intensive use of previously developed land. No
                                                                                                            impacts for Stansted felt within the SEERA policy area.
                      15. To reduce road traffic and congestion    1. Reduced road traffic (personal and
                      through reducing the need to travel by car   freight)
                      and improving travel choice

                                                                   2. Reduced congestion
                                                                                                            Negative. Major impact on local road and rail network
                                                                   3. Increased support for sustainable     arising from major runway development and
                                                                   forms of transport                       subsequent trip generation. Plans show reliance on
                                                                                                            road and rail transport in an already congested part of
                                                                   4. Improved travel choice                SEERA region. Developmetn of this scale at Stansted
                                                                                                            not relevant to SEERA region, althoguh could be
                                                                   5. Reduced need to travel                perceived as positive in that it diverts demand to travel
                                                                                                            out of the region.
                      16. To maintain, enhance and make            1. Maintenance of historic environment
                      accessible the historic environment and      and assets
                      assets of the Region.
                                                                   2. Enhancement of historic
                                                                   environmental and assets
                                                                   3. Access to historic environment and
                                                                   assets

                                                                                                            Negative. Possible impact on Harmondsworth Tithe
                                                                                                            Barn (Grade 1 listed) - but this could be reconstructed
                                                                                                            in a new location. Plus one church (Grd II listed) and
                                                                                                            25% of Harmondsworth Conservation Area would be
                                                                                                            lost. Development at Stansted not relevant to the
                                                                                                            SEERA region.
                      Prudent use of natural resources
                      17. To achieve sustainable water resource 1. Conservation of water resources
                      management
                                                                2. Efficiency in the use of water           New runway at Heathrow: high adverse impacts on
                                                                resources                                   surface and ground water, high risk to acquifer which is
                                                                                                            an important resource. Diverting and culverting
                                                                                                            required, which is generally opposed by Environment
                                                                   3. Impact of development on water use    Agency. Extra passengers associated with the runway
                                                                                                            add to the demand for water which may be difficult to
                                                                                                            meet. Some relevance for South East Region: all
                                                                                                            Stansted options require engineering work, diverting
                                                                                                            and culverting to serveral rivers (opposed by EA), and
                                                                                                            with the additional passengers the demand for water
                                                                                                            might not be met. Potential ground water effect at
                                                                                                            Luton as the airport is in the area of a major acquifer
                                                                                                            and both runway options intersect a source prortection
                                                                                                            zone for public water supply, plus extra passengers
                                                                                                            associated with the higher capacity runway add to
                                                                                                            demand for water which might not be possible to meet.
                                                                                                            South East Region may come under pressure to
                                                                                                            supply some of this demand.
                      18. To reduce the risk of flooding that      1. Improved Flood defences
                      would be detrimental to public well-being,
                      the economy and the environment.             2. Improved Flood protection
                                                                                                            Negative. Impacts to the groundwater / rivers (see
                                                                   3. Reduced Flook risk                    above) may have impact on flooding, plus increased
                                                                                                            area of impermeable surface (3 new runways) which
                                                                                                            may contribute to flooding problems. Two of these
                                                                   4. Avoid Flood risk                      runways are outside the South East Region and
                                                                   5. Sustainable drainage                  therefore the possible flooding problems are not likely
                                                                                                            to affect the Region significantly.
                      19. To reduce waste generation and           1. Minimise waste production
                      disposal, and achieve sustainable
                      management of waste.                         2. Reduce waste disposal
                                                                                                            Increase in the capacity of airports, and the
                                                                   3. Sustainable waste management          development of new runways at all airports that are in
                                                                                                            the South East Region will have an affect on the levels
                                                                   (waste hierarchy)                        of waste generated in the Region.




                                                                                 40
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                     Criteria
                                                                                                                 Heathrow +1
                                                                                                                 Stansted +2

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone energy efficiency
                      20. To increase energy efficiency           1. Increased

                                                                                                                 Negative. Air travel is not energy efficient. Efficiencies
                                                                                                                 can only be made if public transport links with the
                                                                                                                 airport are improved.

                      21. To increase the proportion of energy  1. Increased availability of renewable
                      generated and consumed in the region from energy production sources in the region
                      renewable sources.

                                                                     2. Increased availability of renewable
                                                                     energy from sources located outside
                                                                     the region

                                                                     3. Increase in the amount of energy         Positive. Air travel does not use renewable energy
                                                                     consumed from renewable sources as a        resources. Due to the two runways plannned at
                                                                                                                 Stansted, the ammount of non-renewable resources
                                                                     proportion of total energy use              used outside the Region is greater than that used
                                                                                                                 inside the Region.
                      Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

                      22. To ensure high and stable levels of        1. Availability of employment
                      employment so everyone can benefit from        opportunities
                      the economic growth of the Region
                                                                     2. Quality of employment opportunities

                                                                                                                 Negative. This results in the provision of more jobs
                                                                     3. Social inclusion                         outside the SEERA region, with options within the
                                                                                                                 South East effectively suggesting minimal change over
                                                                     4. Flexible working practices               the thirty year period. Heathrow's status as major
                                                                                                                 international airport is challenged in this scenario, as
                                                                                                                 Stansted becomes a bigger more efficient airport which
                                                                                                                 is 'seeded' (i.e has major aircraft alliance operating
                                                                                                                 there). The case for a region with two major
                                                                                                                 international airports is also unclear- if they are
                                                                                                                 competing with each other they may lose to
                                                                                                                 international competition.
                      23. To sustain economic growth and             1. Economic growth sustained
                      competitiveness, and ensure better
                                                                     2. Economic competitiveness sustained
                      distribution of economic activity across the
                      region.
                                                                     3. Equity – better distribution of
                                                                     economic activity across the region         Positive. This package provides significant
                                                                                                                 employment opportunity for those operating in and
                                                                                                                 around Heathrow, increasing employment opportunities
                                                                                                                 within SEERA albeit in areas that have a shortage of
                                                                                                                 labour and therefore where there could be significant
                                                                                                                 recruitment problems. The Heathrow option safeguards
                                                                                                                 the economic dominance of the west of the SEERA
                                                                                                                 region, but the added provision at Stansted may also
                                                                                                                 encourage a a redistribution of employment to the east
                                                                                                                 of the region and identified PRAs which supports this
                                                                                                                 policy objective. Also, overall levels of growth proposed
                                                                                                                 in this package are potentially high enough for SEERA
                                                                                                                 and the UK as a whole to be able to maintain aviation
                                                                                                                 and economic competitiveness, arguably safeguarding
                                                                                                                 the future of the SEERA economy.
                      24. To invest to secure our future prosperity 1. Investment in economy
                      and quality of life                           2. Investment in R&D
                                                                     3. Investment in social capital             Positive. While the development of one runway at
                                                                                                                 Heathrow represents a (medium - long-term?)
                                                                     4. Equity – better distribution of wealth   investment in the economy of the South East Region,
                                                                                                                 and provides an increase in jobs, infrastructure and
                                                                                                                 increased requirements for housing stock, the provision
                                                                     5. Investment in the existing housing       of a two runways at Stansted will assist in providing
                                                                                                                 sufficient inter-region airport capacity to safeguard the
                                                                     stock                                       international competitiveness of the SEERA economy
                                                                     6. Investment in infrastructure             over the longer term. It may be that Stansted at this
                                                                                                                 size may begin to challenge the competitiveness of the
                                                                                                                 SEERA region, although the precedent for company
                                                                                                                 location in SEERA (around Heathrow and Gatwick),
                                                                                                                 and the larger size of Heathrow suggests it may still
                                                                                                                 dominate airport activity and maintain its status as the
                                                                                                                 main national airport.
                      25. To develop the knowledge economy by 1. Encouragement of lower impact
                      focusing on higher value, lower impact  activities
                      activities
                                                              2. Activity in the knowledge economy


                                                                     3. Growth in the knowledge economy




                                                                                                                 Positive. While the development of one
                                                                                                                 runway at Heathrow will effectively
                                                                                                                 safeguard the knowledge economy in its
                                                                                                                 current form (i.e largely concnetrated in teh
                                                                                                                 Western Policy area), the provision of a
                                                                                                                 single runway at Stansted will assist in
                                                                                                                 providing sufficient inter-region airport
                                                                                                                 capacity to safeguard the international
                                                                                                                 competitiveness of the SEERA economy
                                                                                                                 over the longer term.
                                                                                    41
                        25. Framework and SERAS Options
Sustainability DevelopmentTo develop the knowledge economy by
                         focusing on higher value, lower impact
                         activities


                         Objectives                                  Criteria
                                                                                                              Heathrow +1
                                                                                                              Stansted +2

                         Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                                                                     4. Social inclusion – communities, and
                                                                     community groups



                                                                                                              Positive. While the development of one
                                                                                                              runway at Heathrow will effectively
                                                                                                              safeguard the knowledge economy in its
                                                                                                              current form (i.e largely concnetrated in teh
                                                                                                              Western Policy area), the provision of a
                                                                                                              single runway at Stansted will assist in
                                                                                                              providing sufficient inter-region airport
                                                                                                              capacity to safeguard the international
                                                                                                              competitiveness of the SEERA economy
                                                                                                              over the longer term.




                                                                                   42
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options


                      Sustainable Development
                      Framework- Appraisal Matrix
                      Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                             Stansted +3

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                      1. To ensure that everyone has the          1. Availability of housing:
                      opportunity of a decent and affordable
                      home.

                                                                  Affordable                                 Neutral/Positive. This option shifts emphasis
                                                                  Private Sector                             for new housing out of the SEERA region
                                                                                                             and in the vicinity of Stansted and to a lesser
                                                                  2. Energy efficiency in housing stock      extent Luton. There is a decline in mppa at
                                                                                                             both Heathrow and Gatwick- suggesting a
                                                                  3. Quality of housing stock                possible loss of jobs at both of these airports
                                                                                                             (particularly when productivity increases are
                                                                  4. Fuel poverty
                                                                                                             considered). This may ease current housing
                                                                                                             shortages and will not encourage major
                                                                                                             green belt releases in the Western Policy
                                                                                                             Area as a result of airport development per
                                                                                                             se. There may also begin to be a shift of
                                                                                                             activity eastwards and away from the west of
                                                                                                             SEERA as a new hub airport operation
                                                                                                             develops at Stansted. There may become a
                                                                                                             greater availability of housing stock as
                                                                                                             businesses relocate out of the region as
                                                                                                             Heathrow and Gatwick decline in national
                                                                                                             significance.
                      2. To improve the health and well being of 1. Protection of health
                      the population and reduce inequalities in
                                                                 2. Health improvement
                      health.
                                                                 3. Equity – reducing health inequalities.




                                                                                                             Neutral. Limited impact upon the population
                                                                                                             within the SEERA region, although there may
                                                                                                             be negative consequences of air pollution
                                                                                                             and adverse air quality for those eastern
                                                                                                             most parts of the region closest to Stansted.
                      3. To reduce poverty and social exclusion   1. Access to income
                      and close the gap between the most          2. Affordability of services and           Neutral/Negative Three new runways at Stansted would
                      disadvantaged communities and the rest.     amenities                                  arguably increase the competitiveness of the UK and
                                                                                                             therefore the South East and may therefore have positive
                                                                                                             benefits for SEERA's economy some of which could be
                                                                  3. Social inclusion                        felt in areas of deprivation. Also, a three runway solution
                                                                                                             would be more likely to tap into labour at PAER's within
                                                                  4. Incidence of poverty                    the SEERA region- namely the Thames Gateway- via
                                                                                                             Thames Crossings. However, with the exception of this
                                                                  5. Degree of poverty                       area, other deprived parts of the SEERA region are
                                                                                                             unlikely to benefit directly from improved airport
                                                                  6. Fuel poverty                            provision at Stansted, and indeed may disbenefit from
                                                                                                             the relative decline of Heathrow and Gatwick in the
                                                                                                             overall UK airport hierarchy.
                      4. To stimulate economic revival in Priority 1. Targeting Priority Regeneration
                      Regeneration Areas                           Areas (PRAs)

                                                                  2. Targeting other deprived areas

                                                                  3. Support for community sector
                                                                  businesses

                                                                  4. Support for new businesses

                                                                  5. Support for training

                                                                  6. Support for education

                                                                  7. Support through infrastructure          Neutral/Negative Three new runways at Stansted would
                                                                                                             arguably increase the competitiveness of the UK and
                                                                  (services and transport)                   therefore the South East and may therefore have positive
                                                                                                             benefits for SEERA's economy some of which could be
                                                                                                             felt in areas of deprivation. Also, a three runway solution
                                                                                                             would be more likely to tap into labour at PAER's within
                                                                  8. Stakeholder consultation                the SEERA region- namely the Thames Gateway- via
                                                                                                             Thames Crossings. However, with the exception of this
                                                                  9. Community involvement                   area, other deprived parts of the SEERA region are
                                                                                                             unlikely to benefit directly from improved airport
                                                                                                             provision at Stansted, and indeed may disbenefit from
                                                                  10. Urban renaissance                      the relative decline of Heathrow and Gatwick in the
                                                                                                             overall UK airport hierarchy.




                                                                                   43
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                    Criteria

                                                                                                               Stansted +3

                      5. To progress which recognises the needs 1. Availability
                      Social raise educational achievement levels of everyone of education
                      across the Region and develop
                      opportunities for everyone to acquire the    2. Quality of education opportunities
                      skills to find and remain in work.

                                                                    3. Availability of training and skills
                                                                    development.

                                                                    4. Quality of training and skills
                                                                    development opportunities

                                                                    5. Engagement and participation in
                                                                    education, and/or training and skills
                                                                    development


                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      6. To reduce crime and fear of crime          1. Safety
                                                                    2. Security

                                                                    3. Social inclusion

                                                                    4. Community participation
                                                                    5. Fear of crime
                                                                    6. Incidence of crime
                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      7. To create and sustain vibrant              1. Access to key services and
                      communities                                   amenities locally
                                                                    2. Social inclusion

                                                                    3. Community participation
                                                                                                               Negative/Neutral.With this option there will be no
                                                                    4. Accommodate diversity                   adverse impact for communities within the SEERA
                                                                                                               region following major increases in airport activity.
                                                                                                               However, there may be a decline in airport activity in the
                                                                                                               Heathrow and Gatwick in particular which could have
                                                                                                               negative impacts for community vibrancy as businesses
                                                                                                               move out of the region, or eastwards and away from
                                                                                                               established locations. There could however be some
                                                                                                               benefit to SEERA communities in the east of the region
                                                                                                               (Thames Gateway) arising from relative proximity to
                                                                                                               major new airport facilities, infrastructure provision and
                                                                                                               employment opportunities.
                      8. To encourage the development of, and 1. Availability of opportunities for
                      participation in, cultural, creative and     culture, creativity and sport
                      sporting activity, and a buoyant sustainable
                      tourism sector
                                                                   2. Affordability of opportunities for
                                                                   culture, creativity and sport



                                                                    3. Quality of opportunities for culture,
                                                                    creativity and sport                       Neutral/Positive. All options will bring tourists to the
                                                                                                               South East Region, which may prompt investment in
                                                                    4. Investment in opportunities for         cultural / creative / sporting activities which will be to the
                                                                                                               benefit of local communities. This option will have less
                                                                    culture, creativity and sport              impact on these activities due to the increased number of
                                                                                                               runways at Stansted, an airport which lies outside the
                                                                                                               Region - but transport links between the airport and the
                                                                                                               Region will have to be improved for this option to be
                                                                    5. Social inclusion                        deliverable, and these links could improve cultural /
                                                                                                               creative / sporting activities in the Region.




                                                                                    44
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                               Stansted +3

                      Effective protection of recognises the needs of everyone
                      Social progress which the environment

                      9. To improve efficiency in land-use       1. Land re-use
                      through the re-use of previously developed 2. Building re-use
                      land and existing buildings, and encourage
                      urban renaissance                          3. Availability of opportunities for re-use

                                                                                                               Neutral/Positive. The area is beyond SEERA
                                                                                                               region, and will involve very significant land
                                                                   4. Urban renaissance
                                                                                                               use change in the Eastern region. This may
                                                                                                               have implications for SEERA because this
                                                                   5. Sequential approach to the use of
                                                                                                               package of options results in the effective
                                                                   land                                        decline of Heathrow and Gatwick in the
                                                                                                               national airport hierarchy, and the potential
                                                                                                               outward shift of associated businesses to
                                                                                                               alternative locations in the east of the region
                                                                                                               or out of it to be closer to Stansted airport.
                                                                                                               This could have a significant impact on the
                                                                                                               land use geography of the west of SEERA,
                                                                                                               resulting in the release of brownfield sites,
                                                                                                               increase in available stock, and therefore
                                                                                                               increase in opportunities to reuse. It may put
                                                                                                               less pressure on greenfield sites.
                      10. To reduce air pollution and ensure air   1. Reduce air pollution
                      quality continues to improve

                                                                   2. Improve air quality

                                                                                                               Negative. There will be some indirect pollution and air
                                                                                                               quality impacts associated with three new runways at
                                                                                                               Stansted, but these will be far less significant for SEERA
                                                                                                               given the location of Stansted out of the region.
                      11. To maintain and improve the water        1. Water quality
                      quality at the Region’s rivers and coast




                                                                                                               Neutral. Not relevant for SEERA region.
                                                                                                               Neutral/Negative. While the new runway is not located in
                      12. To address the causes of climate         1. Reduction of greenhouse gas              the SEERA runway, fuels burning and therefore
                                                                                                               contributing to climate change will be flying near or over
                      change through reducing emissions of         emissions
                      13. To conserve and enhance the Region’s     1. Conservation of biodiversity
                      biodiversity                                 2. Enhancement of biodiversity
                                                                   3. Maintenance of habitats (land
                                                                   management) of regional and national
                                                                   importance
                                                                   4. Restoration of habitats of regional
                                                                   and national importance
                                                                   5. Creation of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   6. Recreation of habitat of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   7. Quality of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                                                               Neutral. Not relevant for the South East
                                                                   8. Impact on Biodiversity Action Plan
                                                                                                               region.
                                                                   regional priority habitats




                                                                                  45
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                            Stansted +3

                      14. To protect, which recognises the needs of everyone of the countryside
                      Social progress enhance and encourage       1. Protection
                      enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                   2. Enhancement of the countryside


                                                                   3. Access to the countryside
                                                                   4. Enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                                                            Neutral. Not relevant for the South East region.
                      15. To reduce road traffic and congestion    1. Reduced road traffic (personal and
                      through reducing the need to travel by car   freight)
                      and improving travel choice

                                                                   2. Reduced congestion

                                                                   3. Increased support for sustainable
                                                                   forms of transport
                                                                   4. Improved travel choice                Neutral. Not relevant for the South East region. Although
                                                                                                            could begin to impact strategic road and rail network
                                                                   5. Reduced need to travel                (negative?). This is countered by the 'positive' impact of
                                                                                                            reducing travel demand in SEERA itself.
                      16. To maintain, enhance and make            1. Maintenance of historic environment
                      accessible the historic environment and      and assets
                      assets of the Region.
                                                                   2. Enhancement of historic
                                                                   environmental and assets
                                                                   3. Access to historic environment and
                                                                   assets




                                                                                                            Neutral. No relevance to the South East regino.
                      Prudent use of natural resources
                      17. To achieve sustainable water resource 1. Conservation of water resources
                      management
                                                                2. Efficiency in the use of water
                                                                resources

                                                                   3. Impact of development on water use


                                                                                                            Negative. Some relevance for South East Region: all
                                                                                                            Stansted options require engineering work, diverting and
                                                                                                            culverting to serveral rivers (opposed by EA), and with
                                                                                                            the additional passengers the demand for water might
                                                                                                            not be met. Potential ground water effect at Luton as the
                                                                                                            airport is in the area of a major acquifer and both runway
                                                                                                            options intersect a source prortection zone for public
                                                                                                            water supply, plus extra passengers associated with the
                                                                                                            higher capacity runway add to demand for water which
                                                                                                            might not be possible to meet. South East Region may
                                                                                                            come under pressure to supply some of this demand.
                      18. To reduce the risk of flooding that      1. Improved Flood defences
                      would be detrimental to public well-being,
                      the economy and the environment.             2. Improved Flood protection

                                                                   3. Reduced Flook risk                    Negative. Impacts to the groundwater / rivers (see
                                                                                                            above) may have impact on flooding, plus increased
                                                                                                            area of impermeable surface (3 new runways) which
                                                                   4. Avoid Flood risk                      may contribute to flooding problems - although these are
                                                                   5. Sustainable drainage                  not located in the South East Region, it is possible that
                                                                                                            there may be an effect 'downstream' in the Region.
                      19. To reduce waste generation and           1. Minimise waste production
                      disposal, and achieve sustainable
                      management of waste.                         2. Reduce waste disposal
                                                                                                            Increase in the capacity of airports, and the development
                                                                   3. Sustainable waste management          of new runways at all airports that are in the South East
                                                                                                            Region will have an affect on the levels of waste
                                                                   (waste hierarchy)                        generated in the Region.




                                                                                 46
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                     Criteria

                                                                                                                 Stansted +3

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone energy efficiency
                      20. To increase energy efficiency           1. Increased



                                                                                                                 Neutral. Not relevant for SEERA region.

                      21. To increase the proportion of energy  1. Increased availability of renewable
                      generated and consumed in the region from energy production sources in the region
                      renewable sources.

                                                                     2. Increased availability of renewable
                                                                     energy from sources located outside
                                                                     the region
                                                                                                                 Negative. Air travel does not use renewable energy
                                                                     3. Increase in the amount of energy         resources. Due to the three runways plannned at
                                                                     consumed from renewable sources as a        Stansted, the amount of non-renewable resources used
                                                                                                                 outside the Region is greater than that used inside the
                                                                     proportion of total energy use              Region. With less airport activity happening inside the
                                                                                                                 region there is a positive impact in the SEERA region.
                      Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

                      22. To ensure high and stable levels of        1. Availability of employment
                      employment so everyone can benefit from        opportunities
                      the economic growth of the Region
                                                                     2. Quality of employment opportunities

                                                                     3. Social inclusion                         Negative. This results in the provision of more jobs
                                                                                                                 outside the SEERA region, with options within the South
                                                                     4. Flexible working practices               East effectively suggesting minimal change over the
                                                                                                                 thirty year period. Heathrow's status as major
                                                                                                                 international airport is challenged in this scenario, as
                                                                                                                 Stansted becomes a bigger more efficient airport which
                                                                                                                 is 'seeded' (i.e has major aircraft alliance operating
                                                                                                                 there).This suggests the likely shift of economic activity
                                                                                                                 eastwards away from the west of SEERA towards the
                                                                                                                 east of the region and potentially out of it.
                      23. To sustain economic growth and             1. Economic growth sustained
                      competitiveness, and ensure better
                                                                     2. Economic competitiveness sustained
                      distribution of economic activity across the
                      region.
                                                                     3. Equity – better distribution of
                                                                     economic activity across the region
                                                                                                                 Negative. While this option does provide significant
                                                                                                                 overall capacity within the SERAS region and therefore
                                                                                                                 potentially safeguards against general loss of
                                                                                                                 competitiveness of the region as a whole, it may not be
                                                                                                                 wholly of benefit to the SEERA region as this package
                                                                                                                 provides a scenario where Stansted eclipses Heathrow
                                                                                                                 as the major international airport and potentailly
                                                                                                                 therefore encourages a shift of economic activity east
                                                                                                                 and out of the SEERA region. In addition, Heathrow and
                                                                                                                 Gatwick could suffer some major losses of employment.
                                                                                                                 Therefore, while this scenario potentially protects the
                                                                                                                 case for UK plc, it does not necessarily assist SEERA's
                                                                                                                 competitiveness within the UK.
                      24. To invest to secure our future prosperity 1. Investment in economy
                      and quality of life                           2. Investment in R&D
                                                                     3. Investment in social capital
                                                                     4. Equity – better distribution of wealth
                                                                                                                 Negative. The development of three runways at Stansted
                                                                     5. Investment in the existing housing       represents a (medium - long-term?) investment outside
                                                                                                                 SEERA. It will provide sufficient airport capacity to
                                                                     stock                                       safeguard the international competitiveness of the UK
                                                                     6. Investment in infrastructure             airports over the longer term, encouraging continued
                                                                                                                 private sector investment in SEERA. However, this will
                                                                                                                 potentially encourage disinvestment away from Heathrow
                                                                                                                 and Gatwick to the east of the region and beyond- as
                                                                                                                 companies want to relocate and invest in a location
                                                                                                                 closer to the major airport. Improved transport links may
                                                                                                                 minimise this loss of investment
                      25. To develop the knowledge economy by 1. Encouragement of lower impact
                      focusing on higher value, lower impact  activities
                      activities
                                                              2. Activity in the knowledge economy


                                                                     3. Growth in the knowledge economy


                                                                                                                 Negative. The development of three runways
                                                                                                                 at Stansted represents a (medium - long-
                                                                                                                 term?) investment outside SEERA. It will
                                                                                                                 provide sufficient airport capacity to
                                                                                                                 safeguard the international competitiveness
                                                                                                                 of the UK airports over the longer term,
                                                                                                                 encouraging continued private sector
                                                                                                                 investment in SEERA. However, this will
                                                                                                                 potentially encourage disinvestment away
                                                                                                                 from Heathrow and Gatwick to the east of the
                                                                                                                 region and beyond- as knowledge sector
                                                                                                                 companies want to relocate and invest in a
                                                                                                                 location closer to the major airport. Improved
                                                                                                                 transport links may minimise this loss of
                                                                                                                 investment
                                                                                    47
                        25. Framework and SERAS Options
Sustainability DevelopmentTo develop the knowledge economy by
                         focusing on higher value, lower impact
                         activities


                         Objectives                               Criteria

                                                                                                       Stansted +3

                         Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                                                                     4. Social inclusion – communities, and Negative. The development of three runways
                                                                     community groups                       at Stansted represents a (medium - long-
                                                                                                       term?) investment outside SEERA. It will
                                                                                                       provide sufficient airport capacity to
                                                                                                       safeguard the international competitiveness
                                                                                                       of the UK airports over the longer term,
                                                                                                       encouraging continued private sector
                                                                                                       investment in SEERA. However, this will
                                                                                                       potentially encourage disinvestment away
                                                                                                       from Heathrow and Gatwick to the east of the
                                                                                                       region and beyond- as knowledge sector
                                                                                                       companies want to relocate and invest in a
                                                                                                       location closer to the major airport. Improved
                                                                                                       transport links may minimise this loss of
                                                                                                       investment




                                                                                48
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options


                      Sustainable Development
                      Framework- Appraisal Matrix
                      Objectives                                  Criteria

                                                                                                             Cliffe (4 runways)

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                      1. To ensure that everyone has the          1. Availability of housing:
                      opportunity of a decent and affordable
                      home.

                                                                  Affordable
                                                                  Private Sector
                                                                                                             Positive. This proposes a major scale of
                                                                  2. Energy efficiency in housing stock      development in the Thames Gateway- a
                                                                                                             nationally recognised regeneration area,
                                                                  3. Quality of housing stock                characterised by high unemployment, a high
                                                                                                             proportion of brownfield sites, and a higher
                                                                  4. Fuel poverty
                                                                                                             than average availability of vacant housing
                                                                                                             stock.It is therefore a location where a range
                                                                                                             of housing provision could be readily
                                                                                                             provided/utilitised in locations which are
                                                                                                             already part of the existing urban area. The
                                                                                                             provision of a major international airport at
                                                                                                             Cliffe could serve as the driver for the
                                                                                                             effective regeneration of the Thames
                                                                                                             Gateway itself, potentially encourage the
                                                                                                             market to improve the quality and range of
                                                                                                             housing stock and remediate sites as
                                                                                                             demand increases.
                      2. To improve the health and well being of 1. Protection of health
                      the population and reduce inequalities in
                                                                 2. Health improvement
                      health.
                                                                 3. Equity – reducing health inequalities.



                                                                                                             Negative. A major four runway airport at
                                                                                                             Cliffe would generate a major requirement
                                                                                                             for additoinal new health provision. The
                                                                                                             pollution arising from air travel and adverse
                                                                                                             air quality can affect people's long term
                                                                                                             health, and this is likely to affect those
                                                                                                             people particularly in the eastern most part
                                                                                                             of the region (Kent). The loss of countryside
                                                                                                             Take up of nature reserves etc may have
                                                                                                             long term impact on health as there is
                                                                                                             reduced access to countryside.
                      3. To reduce poverty and social exclusion   1. Access to income
                      and close the gap between the most          2. Affordability of services and
                      disadvantaged communities and the rest.     amenities

                                                                  3. Social inclusion                        Positive. This proposes a major scale of development in
                                                                                                             the Thames Gateway- a nationally recognised
                                                                  4. Incidence of poverty                    regeneration area, characterised by high unemployment,
                                                                                                             a high proportion of brownfield sites, and a higher than
                                                                  5. Degree of poverty                       average availability of vacant housing stock. It has the
                                                                                                             potential to provide the economic kickstart to the
                                                                  6. Fuel poverty                            Thames Gateway and in turn provide a rationale for
                                                                                                             assoicated developmetn areas in the SEERA region- for
                                                                                                             example East Kent and Ashford.
                      4. To stimulate economic revival in Priority 1. Targeting Priority Regeneration
                      Regeneration Areas                           Areas (PRAs)

                                                                  2. Targeting other deprived areas

                                                                  3. Support for community sector
                                                                  businesses

                                                                  4. Support for new businesses

                                                                  5. Support for training

                                                                  6. Support for education

                                                                  7. Support through infrastructure
                                                                  (services and transport)

                                                                                                             Positive. This proposes a major scale of development in
                                                                                                             the Thames Gateway- a nationally recognised
                                                                  8. Stakeholder consultation                regeneration area, characterised by high unemployment,
                                                                                                             a high proportion of brownfield sites, and a higher than
                                                                  9. Community involvement                   average availability of vacant housing stock. It has the
                                                                                                             potential to provide the economic kickstart to the
                                                                                                             Thames Gateway and in turn provide a rationale for
                                                                  10. Urban renaissance                      assoicated developmetn areas in the SEERA region- for
                                                                                                             example East Kent and Ashford.




                                                                                   49
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                    Criteria

                                                                                                               Cliffe (4 runways)

                      Social raise educational achievement levels of everyone of education
                      5. To progress which recognises the needs 1. Availability
                      across the Region and develop
                      opportunities for everyone to acquire the    2. Quality of education opportunities
                      skills to find and remain in work.

                                                                    3. Availability of training and skills
                                                                    development.

                                                                    4. Quality of training and skills
                                                                    development opportunities

                                                                    5. Engagement and participation in         Neutral/Positive. The scale of development in a noted
                                                                    education, and/or training and skills      area of major deprivation (including educational
                                                                                                               deprivation) suggests that proposals at Cliffe may have
                                                                    development                                a positive impact on educational achievement and
                                                                                                               training levels in the eastern part of the SEERA region,
                                                                                                               despite the predominantly low skill levels associated
                                                                                                               with airport employment.
                      6. To reduce crime and fear of crime          1. Safety
                                                                    2. Security

                                                                    3. Social inclusion

                                                                    4. Community participation
                                                                    5. Fear of crime
                                                                    6. Incidence of crime
                                                                                                               Neutral.
                      7. To create and sustain vibrant              1. Access to key services and
                      communities                                   amenities locally
                                                                    2. Social inclusion

                                                                    3. Community participation
                                                                    4. Accommodate diversity
                                                                                                               Neutral. The proposals at Cliffe are radical and suggest
                                                                                                               the loss of many existing houses and the alteration of
                                                                                                               the rural character of a series of communities located on
                                                                                                               the edge of an internationally protected wetland.
                                                                                                               However, many of the exisitng communities in the
                                                                                                               Medway Towns are not as economically and socially
                                                                                                               vibrant as they could be, and would benefit from major
                                                                                                               investment and increase in economic activity which
                                                                                                               woudl be provided by a major airport at Cliffe.
                      8. To encourage the development of, and 1. Availability of opportunities for
                      participation in, cultural, creative and     culture, creativity and sport
                      sporting activity, and a buoyant sustainable
                      tourism sector
                                                                   2. Affordability of opportunities for
                                                                   culture, creativity and sport



                                                                    3. Quality of opportunities for culture,
                                                                    creativity and sport
                                                                                                               Positive. All options will bring tourists to the South East
                                                                    4. Investment in opportunities for         Region, which may prompt investment in cultural /
                                                                                                               creative / sporting activities which will be to the benefit
                                                                    culture, creativity and sport              of local communities. The airport will have the effect of
                                                                                                               increasing the overall character and size of neighbouring
                                                                                                               towns (Medway Towns, Ashford) which in turn will help
                                                                                                               to generate the This is particularly relevant for the Cliffe
                                                                    5. Social inclusion                        option as there has been relatively low investment in
                                                                                                               these activities.




                                                                                    50
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                               Cliffe (4 runways)

                      Social progress which the environment
                      Effective protection of recognises the needs of everyone

                      9. To improve efficiency in land-use       1. Land re-use
                      through the re-use of previously developed 2. Building re-use
                      land and existing buildings, and encourage
                      urban renaissance                          3. Availability of opportunities for re-use


                                                                                                               Negative/Positive. This will have both
                                                                   4. Urban renaissance
                                                                                                               positive and negative impacts on land use in
                                                                                                               the SEERA region. In promoting an airport in
                                                                   5. Sequential approach to the use of
                                                                                                               a part of the South East which is effectively
                                                                   land                                        open protected countryside and wetland, it is
                                                                                                               contrary to this objective. However, in
                                                                                                               shifting development pressure from teh west
                                                                                                               of the region eastwards (away from areas
                                                                                                               which might be overheating and are
                                                                                                               suffering from major developmetn pressure)
                                                                                                               and providing a likely market for the
                                                                                                               redevelopmetn and intensification of many
                                                                                                               brownfield and undensely developed sites in
                                                                                                               the Thames Gateway (and East Kent) it is
                                                                                                               arguably improving the situation.
                      10. To reduce air pollution and ensure air   1. Reduce air pollution
                      quality continues to improve
                                                                                                               Negative. Air travel is polluting. A four runway airport at
                                                                                                               Cliffe will significantly increase pollution and air quality
                                                                   2. Improve air quality                      levels in the east of the SEERA region, in an area with
                                                                                                               traditionally less pollution and higher air quality (no
                                                                                                               history of airport activity at or near the site). This may
                                                                                                               mean that existing residential and environmental
                                                                                                               communities experience the negative effects of that
                                                                                                               pollution to greater effect.
                      11. To maintain and improve the water        1. Water quality
                      quality at the Region’s rivers and coast                                                 Negative. The proposals at Cliffe will have a dramatic
                                                                                                               impact on the hydrology of the rivers and coasts in the
                                                                                                               Thames Gateway, in irreversibly converting an
                                                                                                               internationally protected wetland into a strip of raised
                                                                                                               concrete 15 metres above the river edge. This will have
                                                                                                               knock- on consequences re tides and sandy deposits,
                                                                                                               and will also impact on the flows of local rivers, such as
                                                                                                               the River Medway. The requirements for water usage
                                                                                                               derived from a major airport of this scale will require
                                                                                                               major new infrastructure from teh water utilities. It is
                                                                                                               unclear to what extent this is possible to achieve from
                                                                                                               relatively local water sources.
                                                                                                               Negative. The Cliffe option will provide the largest
                      12. To address the causes of climate         1. Reduction of greenhouse gas              contribution of any of the options to climate change
                                                                                                               within the SEERA region.
                      change through reducing emissions of         emissions
                      13. To conserve and enhance the Region’s     1. Conservation of biodiversity
                      biodiversity                                 2. Enhancement of biodiversity
                                                                   3. Maintenance of habitats (land
                                                                   management) of regional and national
                                                                   importance
                                                                   4. Restoration of habitats of regional
                                                                   and national importance
                                                                   5. Creation of habitats of regional and
                                                                   national importance
                                                                   6. Recreation of habitat of regional and    Negative. This option is likely to have the biggest
                                                                   national importance                         negative impact on biodiversity with the South East
                                                                                                               Region. Development of airport will not protect and
                                                                   7. Quality of habitats of regional and      enhance the biodiversity of international and national
                                                                   national importance                         important nature reserves - impact on several national
                                                                                                               and internationally designated areas, notably Thames
                                                                   8. Impact on Biodiversity Action Plan       Estuary, Marshes Special Protection Area (SPA) and
                                                                                                               Northward Hill SSSI ./ National Nature Reserve.
                                                                   regional priority habitats




                                                                                  51
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                   Criteria

                                                                                                            Cliffe (4 runways)

                      Social progress enhance and encourage
                      14. To protect, which recognises the needs of everyone of the countryside
                                                                  1. Protection
                      enjoyment of the countryside

                                                                   2. Enhancement of the countryside
                                                                                                            Negative. This option is likely to have the biggest
                                                                                                            negative impact on biodiversity with the South East
                                                                   3. Access to the countryside             Region. Development of airport will not protect and
                                                                                                            enhance the biodiversity of international and national
                                                                   4. Enjoyment of the countryside          important nature reserves - impact on several national
                                                                                                            and internationally designated areas, notably Thames
                                                                                                            Estuary, Marshes Special Protection Area (SPA) and
                                                                                                            Northward Hill SSSI ./ National Nature Reserve.
                      15. To reduce road traffic and congestion    1. Reduced road traffic (personal and
                      through reducing the need to travel by car   freight)
                      and improving travel choice

                                                                   2. Reduced congestion

                                                                   3. Increased support for sustainable
                                                                   forms of transport
                                                                                                            Negative. Major impact on local road and rail network
                                                                   4. Improved travel choice                arising from four runway development and subsequent
                                                                                                            trip generation. Plans show reliance on road and rail
                                                                   5. Reduced need to travel                transport and also on already congested strategic routes
                                                                                                            in the South East of the SEERA region. .
                      16. To maintain, enhance and make            1. Maintenance of historic environment
                      accessible the historic environment and      and assets
                      assets of the Region.
                                                                   2. Enhancement of historic
                                                                   environmental and assets
                                                                   3. Access to historic environment and
                                                                   assets



                                                                                                            Negative. Development at Cliffe would cause the loss of
                                                                                                            one Grade 1 builiding (Church of All Saints at
                                                                                                            Allhallows) and one Grade II* and seven Grade II
                                                                                                            buildings (eight if the crosswind runway is also built).
                      Prudent use of natural resources
                      17. To achieve sustainable water resource 1. Conservation of water resources
                      management
                                                                2. Efficiency in the use of water
                                                                resources

                                                                   3. Impact of development on water use




                                                                                                            Negative impact on Thames Estuary, Marshes Special
                                                                                                            Protection Area (SPA) and Northward Hill SSSI /
                                                                                                            National Nature Reserve.
                      18. To reduce the risk of flooding that      1. Improved Flood defences
                      would be detrimental to public well-being,                                            Negative.Impacts to the groundwater / rivers (see above)
                      the economy and the environment.             2. Improved Flood protection             may have impact on flooding, plus increased area of
                                                                                                            impermeable surface (4 new runways) which may
                                                                   3. Reduced Flook risk                    contribute to flooding problems - unlike Heathrow which
                                                                                                            has flood management systems in place, the Cliffe area
                                                                                                            does not currently have a large impermeable surface
                                                                   4. Avoid Flood risk                      (runways and associated airport works / buildings),
                                                                   5. Sustainable drainage                  therefore issue of flooding management needs to be
                                                                                                            considered.
                      19. To reduce waste generation and           1. Minimise waste production
                      disposal, and achieve sustainable
                      management of waste.                         2. Reduce waste disposal
                                                                                                            Increase in the capacity of airports, and the development
                                                                   3. Sustainable waste management          of new runways at all airports that are in the South East
                                                                                                            Region will have an affect on the levels of waste
                                                                   (waste hierarchy)                        generated in the Region.




                                                                                 52
Sustainability Development Framework and SERAS Options



                      Objectives                                     Criteria

                                                                                                                 Cliffe (4 runways)

                      Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone energy efficiency
                      20. To increase energy efficiency           1. Increased
                                                                                                                 Negative.Air travel is not energy efficient. Efficiencies
                                                                                                                 can only be made if public transport links with the airport
                                                                                                                 are improved.This is the largest airport proposed for the
                                                                                                                 SEERA region and so will have the greatest negative
                                                                                                                 impact.

                      21. To increase the proportion of energy  1. Increased availability of renewable
                      generated and consumed in the region from energy production sources in the region
                      renewable sources.

                                                                     2. Increased availability of renewable
                                                                     energy from sources located outside
                                                                     the region

                                                                     3. Increase in the amount of energy         Negative. Air travel does not use renewable energy
                                                                     consumed from renewable sources as a        resources. With 4 runways planned at Cliffe, as well as
                                                                                                                 capacity increases at Gatwick, there is greater use of
                                                                     proportion of total energy use              non-renewable energy resources in the South East
                                                                                                                 Region than outside it.
                      Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

                      22. To ensure high and stable levels of        1. Availability of employment
                      employment so everyone can benefit from        opportunities
                      the economic growth of the Region
                                                                     2. Quality of employment opportunities      Positive. This package provides a major employment
                                                                                                                 opportunity for the Thames Gateway, providing the
                                                                                                                 economic driver that the Thames Gateway potentially
                                                                                                                 has been waiting for. The SERAS documentation
                                                                     3. Social inclusion                         suggests that there is significant demand for jobs
                                                                                                                 already in the Thames Gateway as well as the potential
                                                                     4. Flexible working practices               to redevelop and reuse much land/buildings. There may
                                                                                                                 be a long term issue regarding the skill levels required
                                                                                                                 for airport employment, but the potential for spin off
                                                                                                                 employment and a variety therefore of jobs and skill sets
                                                                                                                 is significant. The SERAS documentation identifies that
                                                                                                                 the job requirements generated by the airport of this size
                                                                                                                 necessitate a river crossing to tap labour in teh northern
                                                                                                                 part of the Thames Gateway.
                      23. To sustain economic growth and             1. Economic growth sustained
                      competitiveness, and ensure better
                                                                     2. Economic competitiveness sustained
                      distribution of economic activity across the
                      region.
                                                                     3. Equity – better distribution of          Positive. This package provides a major employment
                                                                     economic activity across the region         opportunity for the Thames Gateway, providing the
                                                                                                                 economic driver that the Thames Gateway potentially
                                                                                                                 has been waiting for. The SERAS documentation
                                                                                                                 suggests that there is significant demand for jobs
                                                                                                                 already and that there is scope to tap into a major labour
                                                                                                                 reserve. Developing a major new airport here would
                                                                                                                 effectively provide the rebalancing of economic activity
                                                                                                                 according with this policy, and is of a scale to safeguard
                                                                                                                 against the loss of businesses to UK plc and retain the
                                                                                                                 competitiveness of the South East. The shift of
                                                                                                                 employment from the west of the region to the east, and
                                                                                                                 the extent to which Gatwick and Heathrow and
                                                                                                                 hinterlands suffer economically depends on the nature of
                                                                                                                 airport operations and how far they can continue with
                                                                                                                 Cliffe in existence.
                      24. To invest to secure our future prosperity 1. Investment in economy
                      and quality of life                           2. Investment in R&D
                                                                                                                 Positive. This package provides a major employment
                                                                     3. Investment in social capital             opportunity for the Thames Gateway, and insodoing is a
                                                                                                                 major investment for the southeast. It provides scope to
                                                                     4. Equity – better distribution of wealth   tap into a major labour reserve in an identified major
                                                                                                                 regeneration area. . Developing a major new airport here
                                                                                                                 would effectively provide the rebalancing of economic
                                                                     5. Investment in the existing housing       activity across the region to the east, and would
                                                                                                                 necessitate major housing, infrastructure and economic
                                                                     stock                                       investment in the South East not to mention providing
                                                                     6. Investment in infrastructure             airport capacity at a scale which will safeguard the UK
                                                                                                                 and SEERA's continued international competitiveness.
                                                                                                                 The shift of employment from the west of the region to
                                                                                                                 the east, and the extent to which Gatwick and Heathrow
                                                                                                                 and hinterlands suffer economically depends on the
                                                                                                                 nature of airport operations and how far they can
                                                                                                                 continue with Cliffe in existence.
                      25. To develop the knowledge economy by 1. Encouragement of lower impact
                      focusing on higher value, lower impact  activities
                      activities
                                                              2. Activity in the knowledge economy

                                                                                                                 Positive. This package provides a major
                                                                     3. Growth in the knowledge economy          employment opportunity for the Thames
                                                                                                                 Gateway, providing the economic driver that
                                                                                                                 the Thames Gateway potentially has been
                                                                                                                 waiting for. The SERAS documentation
                                                                                                                 suggests that there is significant demand for
                                                                                                                 jobs already and that there is scope to tap
                                                                                                                 into a major labour reserve. Developing a
                                                                                                                 major new airport here would effectively
                                                                                                                 provide the rebalancing of economic activity
                                                                                                                 according with this policy, and is of a scale to
                                                                                                                 safeguard against the loss of businesses to
                                                                                                                 UK plc and retain the competitiveness of the
                                                                                                                 South East. The shift of employment from
                                                                                                                 the west of the region to the east, and the
                                                                                                                 extent to which Gatwick and Heathrow and
                                                                                                                 hinterlands suffer economically depends on
                                                                                                                 the nature of airport operations and how far
                                                                                                                 they can continue with Cliffe in existence.
                                                                                    53
                        25. Framework and SERAS Options
Sustainability DevelopmentTo develop the knowledge economy by
                         focusing on higher value, lower impact
                         activities


                         Objectives                                 Criteria                                Positive. This package provides a major
                                                                                                            employment opportunity for the Thames
                                                                                                            Gateway, providing the economic driver that
                                                                                                            Cliffe (4 runways)
                                                                                                            the Thames Gateway potentially has been
                         Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
                                                                     4. Social inclusion – communities, and waiting for. The SERAS documentation
                                                                     community groups                       suggests that there is significant demand for
                                                                                                            jobs already and that there is scope to tap
                                                                                                            into a major labour reserve. Developing a
                                                                                                            major new airport here would effectively
                                                                                                            provide the rebalancing of economic activity
                                                                                                            according with this policy, and is of a scale to
                                                                                                            safeguard against the loss of businesses to
                                                                                                            UK plc and retain the competitiveness of the
                                                                                                            South East. The shift of employment from
                                                                                                            the west of the region to the east, and the
                                                                                                            extent to which Gatwick and Heathrow and
                                                                                                            hinterlands suffer economically depends on
                                                                                                            the nature of airport operations and how far
                                                                                                            they can continue with Cliffe in existence.




                                                                                  54

				
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