Anatomy and Physiology_ Final Exam Review

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					                               Anatomy and Physiology: Final Exam Review
To prepare for the final exam, you should be able to answer the following questions. The final exam is a
cumulative, multiple choice exam covering chapters 1 through 6, as well as any additional material covered.

Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation

1. What is the difference between the terms “anatomy” and “physiology?” How are they related?
2. Starting with the atom and ending with the entire organism, how is the human body organized?
3. What are the 11 major organ systems of the human body? What are their main functions?
4. What are the main functions that humans must perform to maintain life?
5. What are the survival needs of the human body?
6. Explain homeostasis and negative feedback. Give an example of negative feedback in the human body.
7. If a homeostatic imbalance occurs, what is the result? Give an example.
8. What is the “anatomical position?” Stand that way now.
9. What are the orientation and directional terms we learned in class? (table 1.1) Give some examples using
body parts and their relationships (i.e. the head is superior to the neck)
10. What are the major anterior and posterior surface regional terms that we learned in class? (figure 1.5)
11. What are the 3 major planes of space we discussed in class? Why are these important when viewing MRI
scans or diagrams of the human body?
12. Describe the 2 main body cavities, and the major separations within these cavities. (figure 1.7)
13. What are the names of the body’s 4 main quadrants? Show their positions on a diagram. (figure 1.8a)
14. What are the names of the body’s 9 regions separated by 4 planes? (figure 1.8b)

Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry

1. What is a chemical element? Which four elements form most of your body matter (usually as part of
compounds)? How are elements and atoms related?
2. What are the 3 main subatomic particles? What are their locations and charges?
3. Define atomic number and atomic mass.
4. Define radioisotope and describe how they are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
5. What is a chemical reaction?
6. What is a molecule? What is a compound?
7. How are organic and inorganic compounds different?
8. What is homeostasis? List some of the roles of water in the human body.
9. Draw a pH scale. What is the pH of blood?
10. What is ATP? What is its structure? What is its role in the human body?

Chapter 3: Cells and Tissues

1. Define: Cell, organelle, inclusion.
2. What are the 3 major cell regions of a “generalized” cell?
3. What are the structures in the nucleus? What is the function of chromatin and nucleoli?
4. Label a generalized cell (figure 3.4) and state the function of each organelle listed.
5. Define: selective permeability, diffusion, osmosis, active transport, passive transport, solute pumping,
exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, bulk-phase endocytosis, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic.
6. What is the structure of the plasma membrane?
7. What are the main phases of cell division? What are the 4 main stages of mitosis?
8. What is transcription? What is translation? What are the roles of the 3 types of RNA?
9. What are the four main tissue types? What are their chief subcategories?
10. How is epithelium classified (named)? Compare and contrast the different types of epithelium.
11. Label simple histology slides as epithelial, connective, bone, blood, muscle or nervous tissue.

Chapter 4: Skin and Body Membranes

1. What are the 4 main types of membranes? What are the functions and locations of each type?
2. What are the important functions of the integumentary system?
3. Label a diagram with the following structures: epidermis, dermis (papillary and reticular layers), hair and
hair follicle, sebaceous gland, sweat gland.
4. What are the 5 layers of the epidermis? What are the functions of each?
5. What factors determine skin color? What is the function of melanin?
6. What is the difference between first-, second- and third-degree burns.
7. Explain the importance of the “rule of nines.”

Chapter 5: Skeletal System

1. What is the difference between the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.
2. What are the functions of the skeletal system.
3. What are the four main kinds of bones (categories)?
4. What are the major anatomical areas of a long bone?
5. What is the microscopic structure of compact bone? Define: Sharpey’s fibers, lamellae, osteon, osteocyte,
lacuna, canaliculi, Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal, periosteum, osteoblast, osteoclast.
6. How do bone salts and organic materials make bone both hard and flexible?
7. What are the characteristics of the main types of fractures? What are the main steps in bone healing?
8. How does a newborn infant’s skull differ from an adult’s skull? What is a fontanel?
9. What are the parts of a typical vertebra? What are the 3 types of vertebrae, and how are they different? How
many of each type of vertebrae are their in the human body?
10. What is the difference between the male and female pelvis? Why is this important?
11. What are the 3 main categories of joints? What are the main characteristics of each?
12. What is osteoporosis? What is osteoarthritis?
13. Know the names and locations of the bones of the human skeleton, including: skull bones, pelvic girdle,
bony thorax, shoulder girdle, arm and forearm, wrist, hand, leg, ankle and foot.

Chapter 6: Muscular System

1. What are the 3 types of muscle tissue. What are their structures, functions, and locations?
2. What are the connective tissue wrappings of skeletal muscle? Define: epimysium, perimysium, muscle fiber,
fascicle, endomysium, tendon, aponeurosis.
3. Describe the sliding filament theory. What are the roles of actin and myosin?
4. Define: origin, insertion, prime mover, antagonist, synergist and fixator.
5. What are the criteria for naming muscles?
6. What are the 5 “Golden Rules of Skeletal Muscle Activity?”
7. Describe the following movements: Flexion, extension, rotation, abduction, adduction, circumduction,
dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion, supination, pronation, opposition.
8. Locate and name the “top 42” muscles given in class.
9. List the origin, insertion and movement for each of the starred (**) muscles on the top 40 list.
10. Study the figures and tables on pages 190-193 for questions 8 and 9 above.