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Understanding Bulk An overview Presented by: Sydney Holden and Gregory September Date: 23 November 2007 Compiled by: Sydney Holden Directorate: Strategy and Planning Understanding Bulk Content 1. Introduction 2. Definitions Of Bulk and related informants 3. Measurement / Calculation of Bulk / Floor Space 4. Key Considerations in striving for Bulk 5. Application of Bulk in the City: Some Examples 6. International Practice / Trends towards Bulk 7. Broader challenges relating to Bulk. 8. Conclusion Introduction Bulk and massing are used in many cities internationally to control the amount of construction in a particular area. This is usually done by using a certain formula for floor-to-area ratios – termed differently in different cities. In Cape Town, for instance, this is called the Permissible Floor Area Ratio, in New York the Floor Area Ratio or Floor Space Index, and in London Plot Ratios. The purpose of this paper is to provide some understanding on the concept of bulk. In Cape Town with increasing urbanization, land scarcity and land price escalation, the use of air rights in the form of increased bulk is a reality in our Central City Environs and adjacent areas of higher amenity and economic value. Introduction (cont.) However, a key driver of the concept of bulk is economic development and tourism. In this respect just a few pointers as it relates to Cape Town. Between 2003 and 2006 there has been a 4% growth Building Plans processed (48 000 plans in 2006). The growth in plan value has escalated by 85% over the same period from R6,5 billion to R12 billion. Between 1995 and 2006 the City contributed 16 % of National Growth and 82% of new Provincial Economic Growth. 22% of all economic activity takes place in the Central Business District whilst Cape Town, Bellville and Claremont support 46% of total Business Turnover and contain 42% of formal businesses in the City. The current population in the City stands at 3,27 million people. In the next 3 – 5 years there are already over R30 billion worth of private and public sector development projects in the Central Cape Town area that will impact on our economy. Mapping impact of key development projects in the Cape Town Central City worth approximately R28,5bn over the next 3-5 years Private sector Private sector 1. V&A Waterfront expansion (multiple 19. Harbour Bridge, Roggebaai (R180m) projects) 20. Canal Quay, Roggebaai (R220m) 2. Jarvis House, Green Point (R300m) 21. Cnr Riebeeck/ Bree – two sites 3. De Waterkant Centre, Green Point 22. The Pulse (R600m) (R100m) 23. T1, Strand/ Buitengracht 4. Somerset Square, Green Point 24. New Hotel, Buitengracht/ Wale (R100m) 25. Wembley Square extension, Lower 5. Cape Royal Hotel, Green Point Gardens 6. Strand on Adderley (R2,2bn) 26. Orangerie, lower Gardens (R180m) 7. Golden Acre upgrade (R475m) 27. 15 on Orange Hotel, Lower Gardens 8. 11 Adderley upgrade (R500m) 9. Oscar Pearse Hotel (new - R220m) 28. Creative House, Church Square 10. Taj Hotel (new - R500m) 29. #4 Church Square (R20m) 11. 106 Adderley commercial/ retail 30. Piazza on the Square (R70m) (R300m) 31. Four Seasons, Buitenkant (R100m) 12. Cape Sun upgrade (R56m) 32. Temple House, Buitenkant 13. Townhouse Hotel/ Plein Park upgrade 33. Ogilvy Building, Woodstock 14. Citroen Building (R90m) 34. The District, Woodstock 15. Oval Institute (R12m) 35. Boulevard, Woodstock 16. Malgas/ Brian Porter site 36. D6 Homecoming/ Sacks Futeran 17. Amway House site (R30m) 18. Liebenberg and Stander Building 37. Desmond Tutu Peace Centre (R140m) 38. Erf 9 and 10, Jan smuts, Foreshore Mapping impact of key development projects in the Cape Town Central City worth approximately R28,5bn over the next 3-5 years Public sector / JVs Public sector / JVs 1. Green Point Stadium (R3,2bn) 15. Grand Parade (R23,5m) 2. Green Point Sport and Urban Park 16. Greenmarket Square (R4m) (R160m) 17. St Andrew‟s Square (R8m) 3. Granger Bay Boulevard 18. Pier Place (R2m) 4. Somerset Hospital site 19. Harrington Square (proposed) 5. Parliamentary extension (R750m) 20. Electricity network upgrade (R300m) 6. (Proposed) Parliamentary residential 21. Inner City Transport Projects (R50m) complex (R1,2bn) 22. District Six 7. City Hall (R81m) 23. Salt River Market (R1m) 8. Good Hope Centre (R50-75m) 24. Social Housing projects: Woodstock, 9. Granary Building (R35m) Bo Kaap 10. CT Station, phase one (R265m), phase 25. Fibre Optic Network rollout (phase one two R50) 11. CT Harbour expansion (R4,5bn) 26. Iziko Social History Centre (R50m) 12. Foreshore: Blocks A (City) B (Media 27. Drill Hall/ CT Library 24) and C (PGWC) 28. Company‟s Gardens upgrade (R1m) 13. CTICC Expansion and hotel and office site (R680m) 14. Site B, Old Power Station Site Definitions of bulk and related informants Bulk in the City of Cape Town is governed by the following definitions: Actual Floor Area, in relation to a building, means the total floor area of such building, inclusive of areas covered by walls of such building. Permissible Floor Area, in relation to a site means the floor area which may not be exceeded by the actual floor area of buildings on such site. The permissible floor area shall be equal to the area of the site multiplied by a factor quantified for the use zone. In the City‟s proposed Integrated Zoning Scheme, the following term is used: Floor Factor: means the factor (expressed as a proportion of 1) which is prescribed for the calculation of maximum floor space of a building or buildings permissible in a land unit. If the floor factor is known, the maximum permissible floor space can be calculated by multiplying the floor factor by the area of the land unit. City of TheJohannesburg (Sandton) sum of the area covered by the buildings at definitions of bulk in some major “Floor area ratio” means the the floor level of each cities are: area, provided that in South Africanstorey in relation could be excluded. Exclusions: calculating the floor area certain areas to site roofs, staircases, parking areas etc. City of Mangaung (Bloemfontein) “Bulk” means the floor areas of all storeys of a building(s) on a site except that certain areas are excluded from this by the scheme. The maximum permissible floor area is expressed as a factor which is to be multiplied by the area of the site in each case, to obtain the said maximum. Exclusions: floor area used for parking, lift wells, staircases etc. The definitions of bulk in some major South African cities are: (cont.) Buffalo City (East London) "Maximum floor space" means the greatest total floor space which is allowed for a building or buildings with all of its floors on a site; such floor space is calculated by multiplying the floor factor with the net erf area of a site or that portion of the site which is situated within the particular zone; provided that where a site has more than one zoning to which different floor factors apply, the maximum floor space for the whole site shall be the total of the maximum floor space for each portion of the site. Exclusions include parking areas, external fire escape areas, stairs, balconies etc. “Floor factor” means the factor that is prescribed for the calculation of the maximum floor space of a building or buildings permissible on a land unit; it is the maximum floor space as a proportion of the net erf area. The definitions of bulk in some major South African cities are: cont. Generally speaking, a floor-to-area ratio is the ratio of the total floor area of buildings on a certain location to the size of the land of that location, or the limit imposed on such a ratio. The Permissible Floor Area Ratio is the total building square metres (building area) divided by the erf size square meterage (erf area). Thus, as a formula, floor-to-area ratio is the total covered area on all floors of all buildings on a certain erf. A floor-to-area ratio of 2.0 would indicate that the total floor area of a building is two times the gross area of the erf on which it is constructed. Certain exclusions usually apply. In Cape Town, for instance, this excludes „non habitable‟ space like corridors, lifts and stairs. Building Number of Resulting floor-to-area Plot size footprint stories ratio 100 sq. 25 sq. meters 4 1.0 meters 100 sq. 100 sq. meters 1 1.0 meters 200 sq. 100 sq. meters 3 1.5 meters Development Rules Floor Space (Bulk) Height Coverage Building Lines Setback Floor Space (Bulk) Quantification of development rights Traffic & Service implications Bulk service levy Urban form implications Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space Different Zones and Sub Zones have different Bulk Factors General Residential Sub Zones (R1 – R12) Bulk Factor 0,4 – 5,6 Special Business Bulk Factor 1,0 General Business / Commercial (B1/ C1 – B4 / C4) Bulk Factor 1,2 – 5,6 General / Noxious Industrial Unlimited General Commercial / Business (C6 / B6) Unlimited The width of abutting streets can reduce your bulk factor for certain buildings, e.g. Places of assembly B4 / C4 / B5 / C5 General Business / Commercial Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space (cont.) Certain components of buildings are INCLUDED in the calculation of Floor Space: Portions covered by walls Floors / paved areas covered by portion of building Galleries and passages Floors of verandahs, porches, balconies Floors of terraces, flat roofs to which occupants have access Internal courtyards, light wells, uncovered shafts which do not exceed 10m² Lift shaft, stair shaft, pipe duct or other internal floor opening Area covered by roof, slab or projection Floor space measured from outer face of exterior walls Total floor space = sum of all floors and basements Stairs, atriums and common passages covered by roof Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space (cont.) Certain components of buildings are EXCLUDED in the calculation of Floor Space: Stoeps Entrance steps / landings Garages (parking and loading) Covered paved area outside / adjoining building at or below ground floor level Uncovered flat roof (recreation area) for occupants only and uncovered balcony which exceeds 10 m² Eaves, sun screen, architectural features Public arcade connecting public places Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space (cont.) Different uses can have different floor space calculations: Hotels EXCLUDE the following in the calculation of floor space: Dining Rooms, Banqueting Rooms. Public Foyers. Shops in Hotel for exclusive use of guests. Administration Offices. Kitchens. Store Rooms. Staff quarters. Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space (cont.) The calculation of floor space for blocks of flats is governed by – A habitable room factor Calculation • Other critical informants relating to bulk are coverage, height, building lines, and street centre line set backs. Integrated Zoning Scheme (IZS) In order to achieve consistency of measurement of floor space in arriving at bulk the proposed IZS is suggesting the following definition of floor space depicting certain exclusions: “Floor space” in relation to any building means the area of a floor which is covered by a slab, roof or projection; provided that: i. any area, including a basement, which is reserved solely for parking or loading or vehicles, shall be excluded: ii. external entrance steps and landings, any canopy, any stoep and any area required for external fire escapes shall be excluded: iii. a projection including a projection of eaves, and a projection which acts as a sunscreen or an architectural feature, which projection does not exceed 1,0 m beyond the exterior wall or similar support, shall be excluded; Integrated Zoning Scheme (IZS) (cont.) iv. any uncovered internal courtyard, lightwell or other uncovered shaft which has an area in excess of 10 m² shall be excluded; v. any common pedestrian thoroughfare which provides access through the building concerned from parking, public street or open space, to some other parking, public street or open space, and which is accessible to the general public during normal business hours, shall be excluded; vi. any covered paved area outside and immediately adjoining a building at or below the ground floor level, where such paved area is part of a forecourt, yard, external courtyard, pedestrian walkway, parking area or vehicular access, and which is permanently open to the elements on at least the front or long side, shall be excluded; Integrated Zoning Scheme (IZS) (cont.) vii. any covered balcony, verandah or terrace which, apart from protective railings, is permanently open to the elements on at least the front or long side, and which does not exceed 2,5 m in width, shall be excluded: viii. subject to clause (ix), any stairs, stairwells and atriums that are covered by a roof shall be included; ix. in the case of multi-level buildings, any stairwells, liftwells, lightwells or other wells, and any atrium, shall only be counted once; and provided further that: x. floor space shall be measured from the outer face of the exterior walls or similar supports of such building, and where the building consists of more than one level, the total floor space shall be the sum of the floor space of all the levels, including the basements Integrated Zoning Scheme (IZS) (cont.) It is essential to distinguish permissible floor area / floor space from gross leasable area; hence the IZS states; “Gross leasable area” means the area of a building designed for, or capable of, occupancy and control by tenants, measured from the centre line of the joint partitions to the inside finished surface of the outside walls, and shall exclude the following: i. all exclusions from the definition of floor space; ii. toilets, iii. lift shafts, service ducts, vertical penetrations of floors, iv. lift motor rooms and rooms for other mechanical equipment required for the proper functioning of the building; v. areas reasonably used in connection with the cleaning, maintenance and care of the building excluding dwelling units for caretakers, supervisors, cleaners or maintenance staff; vi. interior parking and loading bays; Floor Space Floor space vs gross leasable area Floor space = area covered by a slab, roof or projection - Measured from the outer face of exterior walls - Total floor space = sum of all floors + basements - Stairs, atriums & common passages covered by a roof are included Parking & balconies are excluded Floor Space Exclusions Balconies Eaves, sunscreen, architectural features Uncovered internal courtyard, light well Public arcade connecting public places Areas for parking & loading Key considerations in striving for bulk Site Area Impacts: Zoning Environmental / Heritage Development Parameters: Visual / Daylight / Shadow (Height / Coverage / Building Lines / Parking) Urban Design Title Deeds Aesthetics Servitudes (Services / Height) Public Realm Interface Geotechnics Scale / Context Road Widening Schemes Wind Tunneling Development Conditions (Sec. 42 Services Infrastructure (Lupo) Traffic Development Costs / Feasibility Analysis / Cost-Benefit / Value Finance (Development Policies (Overlays / Scenic Drives Contributions) / Special Regulations) Time / Development Horizon / Risk Application of Bulk in the City: Examples TAJ PALACE HOTEL Hotels are regarded as “Bulk Friendly” in view of the significant areas of exclusion from Bulk Calculation / Measurement. Bulk Area permissible: 18 275m² Bulk used: 12 786m² Full bulk cannot be achieved in view of Building Line / Envelope setbacks. Note the retention of historic facades. Application of Bulk in the City: Examples Waterfront Package of plans approach. Development Framework / Precinct Plans / Site Development Plans / Building Plans. Bulk Register Infra-structure Development at key stages. Approximately 40% of bulk still available. Biggest challenge (Traffic / Parking) Application of Bulk in the City: Examples Century City Approved as Sub-divisional Area in terms of LUPO. Package of plans approach. Sub-divisional Area / Site Development Plan / Building Plan. Bulk Register. Bulk permitted is limited by the conditions approved by Council and conditions in Title Deed. Additional bulk can be purchased – Assessment. CENTURY CITY ALLOCATION OF BULK AS AT APRIL 2007 (Based on approvals issued by the Municipality) SUMMARY OF CENTURY CITY BULK ALLOCATION LANDUSE MACRO TIA EXISTING BALANCE APPROVAL ALLOCATION AVAILABLE RETAIL 299720m²(TFA) 154160m²(TFA) 145560m²(TFA) OFFICES 591180m²(TFA) 322808m²(TFA) 268373m²(TFA) THEME PARK 101000v.p.d 101000v.p.d 0v.p.d WATERPARK 6000v.p.d 0v.p.d 6000v.p.d SHOWPLEX 20000 seats 2624 seats 17376 seats HOTELS 1000 bedrooms 273 bedrooms 727 bedrooms THEATRES & CINEMAS 1800 seats 0 seats 1800 seats RESIDENTIAL 3110 dwelling units 1801 dwelling units 1309 dwelling units CENTURY CITY ALLOCATION OF BULK AS AT APRIL 2007 (Based on approvals issued by the Municipality) SUMMARY OF CUMULATIVE BULK ALLOCATION LAND USE EXISTING CONVERSION EXISTING DEEMED TOTAL DEEMED DEEMED BULK ALLOCATION FACTOR BULK ALLOCATION BULK APPROVED AVAILABLE (TFA) (TFA) (TFA) RETAIL 154160m²(TFA) N.A. 154160m² 299720m² 145560m² OFFICES N.A. 322808m² 591180m² 268373m² THEMEPARK 101000v.p.d N.A. 46535m² 46535m² 0m² WATER PARK 0v.p.d N.A. 0m² 8429m² 8429m² SHOWPLEX 2624seats 1 2624m² 20000m² 17376m² HOTELS 273bedrooms 55 15015m² 55000m² 39985m² THEATRES& 0seats 4.6 0m² 8280m² 8280m² CINEMAS RESIDENTIAL 1801dwellingunits 100 180100m² 311000m² 130900m² TOTAL 721242m² 1340144m² 618903m² NOTES: Note1: The following abbreviations are used: Note2: These figures do not relate to the area West of Ratanga Road. V.P.D refers to Visitors per Day. TFA refers to Total Floor Area. Note3: Bulk is released in phases and the construction of specified infrastructure is required GLA refers to Gross Leasable Area. before additional bulk for a new phase may be released. The transport infrastructure & release of cumulative bulk for each phase is as stipulated in the following table. DETAILS OF EXISTING ALLOCATION AT CENTURY CITY APPROVED BULK/ CODE ERFNO DESCRIPTION NOTES FLOOR SPACE(MPFS) Source: City of CapeTown 4795 SHELL SERVICE STATION NOT APPLICABLE No bulk specified in the subdivision PQDATA 5025&5026 Office:12000m2 approval. Bulk allocation provided (OFFICES) CENTURY GATE 2 5027 Office:1504m (OFFICES) NASHUA 5029 Office:4089m2 (OFFICES) 5153 (Formerly RATANGA JUNCTION Item (with notional FAF of 1.0) 5033) THEMEPARK 5037 DOCKSIDE Item (with notional FAF of 4.0) 5159 NO1 WATERFORD PLACE Office: 3880m2 (OFFICES) CMCSITE 2 5161 Office: 25000m (OFFICES) 5165 NO2 WATERFORD PLACE Office: 3425m 2 (OFFICES) 2 SYCO DELI Retail: 130m 5166 Res: 1 Unit (ANCILLARY RETAIL) SHOPPING CENTRE RETAIL 2 2 118205m GLA (139065m TFA) 5958 CINEMAS 2 7848m GLA Formerly5173 OFFICES 9132m2 GLA (10744m2 TFA) &5508 ENTERTAINMENT FLOOR 2 AREA 3227m GLA ENTERTAINMENT AREA 2 1600m GLA MULTI LEVELS Application of Bulk in the City: Examples Nedbank Foreshore Buildings that achieved prescribed bulk. Parking is bulk free. Offices require parking / office bulk being “sacrificed” for on- site, secure parking. Application of Bulk in the City: Examples Shell House Buildings that achieved prescribed bulk. Parking is bulk free. Offices require parking / office bulk being “sacrificed” for on- site, secure parking. Application of Bulk in the City: Examples 2 Long Street Buildings that achieved prescribed bulk. Parking is bulk free. Offices require parking / office bulk being “sacrificed” for on-site, secure parking. Application of Bulk in the City: Examples Pier Place 2 Floors extra parking built. Indicative of parking demand to satisfy modern office requirements. New York City Zoning system: Incentive zoning / reward based system to meet urban development goals. Base level of limitations on development. Incentive criteria e.g. far bonuses for housing height bonuses for public amenities. Incentive zoning is complex to administer - can become discretionary. Revision of balance between incentive and value given. New York City (cont.) Definition of Bulk Bulk Regulations: Combination of controls that determine the maximum size and placement of a building on a zoning lot. Unused Development Rights (Air Rights): Difference between permissible and actual floor area. Transfer of Development Rights: Preservation of historic buildings Open space Cultural resources Usually across streets. New York City (cont.) Definition of Floor Area Ratio (FAR) Principal Bulk Regulation controlling the size of buildings. It is total building floor area to area of zoning lot. Flexibility in building design (combination of vertical and horizontal limits into single figure. The impact of floor area (parking / services) tends to be constant regardless of how that area is distributed horizontally and vertically. London Planning system uses Performance Zoning (effects based planning) Use is made of goal-oriented criteria to achieve credits public amenities building affordable housing Advantages: High level of flexibility, rationality, transparency and accountability. Performance zoning accommodates market principles / property rights with environmental protection. Disadvantages: Difficult to implement. Requires high level of discretion. London (cont.) Definition of Bulk Bulk is the combined effect of the arrangement, volume and shape of a building. Also called massing combined effect of: Height bulk and silhouette of a building (or) 3-dimensional expression of the amount of development on a given piece of land. London (cont.) Method of Control: Bulk controlled by Plot Ratios. Measurement on the overall dimensions of building or part of building below and above ground and includes internal and external walls. It includes stairs / lift shafts, corridors, halls, basements but excludes car / cycle parking accommodation. Inner urban areas Max. Plot Ratio 1,0 : 1 Outer urban areas Max Plot Ratio 0,6 : 1 Exceptions Townscape reasons. Contribute sustainable development Travel patterns London (cont.) Key Considerations: Massing should contribute to distinctive skylines. Overshadowing Local climatic conditions Views / vistas / landmarks Relationship with street Re-use of retained buildings / character of area. London (cont.) Future of London: Tall Buildings High buildings are part of regeneration. Relevant to master planning of areas with good public transport and capacity. Long distance orientation points. Criteria-based approach to the assessment of planning applications for the buildings. Broader Challenges Relating to Bulk Spatial Planning / Ordering: Incentivization: Urbanization Strategy / Growth Community Facilities Management / Regional Housing Cooperation Public Places Upgrade Densification Policy Historic Precinct Upgrade Urban Edge Policy Bulk Transfer (from Historical Urban Design Policy Guidelines Precincts to Central City / Creating Certainty and Foreshore) Consistency: Spatial Market Analysis (Market Legislative Uniformity (Integrated trends / tenant mix / nodes) Zoning Scheme) Services Infrastructure Political Endorsement / Public Public Transportation Participation Conclusion It is quite evident that maximum bulk is seldom achieved in the CBD environs of major South African cities; this largely being because of the lack of effective and efficient public transport systems and our reliance on private vehicle space at or close to places of employ. How many people can you effectively bring into the city without extending the peak flow of traffic beyond all reason. Currently 120 000 people converge on the city daily. (50% rail / 50% road) Previously bulk rates could be achieved as parking was not in such demand. Now 3,2 – 6,0 parking bays / 100 m² is required in order to tenant buildings in the CBD. What is however, encouraging is seeing the numerous buildings being re-developed with a significant emphasis on residential accommodation. Conclusion (cont.) Furthermore, heritage buildings form an important aspect of our rich culture in Cape Town and preservation of conservation-worthy buildings and facades must be factored into the future bulking of our city. Development is generally constrained by the Mountain Chain and Sea, this together with relatively small building blocks available for achieving big / tall buildings all adds to the challenge. The Central City Development Strategy involving both private and public sector and which encompasses, inter alia, infra-structure, urban design, public transport, city management of the public realm and planning requires rapid finalization and implementation in order to sustain the future economic growth of the City. Conclusion (cont.) Given the impetus of 2010 in the development and investment in the City – R30 billion over the next 3 – 5 years – it is essential that strategies be finalised and related guidelines / projects implemented. The compilation of an integrated zoning scheme incorporating the philosophies contained in policy / strategy will rationalise and standardize development zones and parameters and enable bulk regulations to be set which facilitate better urban form: whilst encouraging the re-development and/or protection of areas through overlay zones. Whereas the achievement of existing or increased bulk rights is certainly feasible and supported this should not be at the expense of our heritage resources, good urban design or sound spatial / locational criteria. An integrated and pragmatic approach is needed to integrate and balance the sustainable development of our City in achieving its strategic objectives – key in all of this with respect to bulk is PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS. For more information: Sydney Holden Cell: 084 629 3328 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Gregory September Cell: 084 499 4923 Gregory.email@example.com Transportation Initiatives With respect to Public Transportation initiatives, the following is evident: Challenges: Improving public transport for the FIFA 2010 World Cup is the City‟s main priority in this five year plan. To improve and promote public transport the City plans large-scale investment in public transport infrastructure and an implementation action plan for the City is in the final stages of production. Existing public transport priority lanes will be enforced and new ones introduced. Transportation Initiatives Achievements: The following statutory plans have been approved: Public Transport Plan (PTP) 2006 – 2011, Integrated Transport Plan (ITP) 2006 – 2011; strategic transport plans aligned to the City‟s 5-year Integrated Development Plan. Public Transport Implementation Action Plan has been developed. Plan outlines a list of projects, timeframes, budgets and responsibilities in 3 phases: catalytic projects for 2007 – 2010, 2010 – 2014 and 2014 – 2020. External Funding: the City has allocated R766 m from Public Transport Infrastructure & Systems Fund (PTISF) for the next 3 years. Priority on improvements in public transport, non-motorized transport and 2010 Event transport supporting infrastructure, systems and services. Transportation Initiatives Achievements (cont.): A Transport Capital Investment Management System has been developed to co-ordinate and manage all transport projects being implemented by key stakeholders – airports, rail, road upgrades, etc. Projects under construction include: Metropolitan Transport Information Centre (MTI)Upgrade; Symphony Way Corridor; Airport – City Link projects which include N2 freeway upgrade, Klipfontein Corridor, Stadium and CBD link projects. Current Secured funding for all transport infrastructure including rail, airport, strategic road upgrades is approximately at R5,5 bn. Transportation Initiatives Public Sector Collaboration: An obstacle is the current fragmentation of roles and functions between the different spheres of government and other agencies. An Intergovernmental Transport Committee has been established to address current fragmentation of roles and functions and to facilitate integrated collaborative approach to service deliver. Single Point of Authority for transport is in progress with the main focus on public transport operations and the establishment of a public transport entity.
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