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Deep Bench 2007 Questions by Jeremy Hixson Edited by Rob Carson


									Deep Bench 2007
Questions by Jeremy Hixson
Edited by Rob Carson, Andrew Hart, and Quentin Roper
Quads Tossups

1. In one of this author's short stories, a young man contemplates what he should tell a girl, eventually
deciding on a story about fate, but she passes him before he can speak. That story, "On Seeing the 100%
Perfect Girl One Beautiful April Morning" appeared in this author's collection, The Elephant Vanishes. One of
his novels tells the stories of a Calcutec whose brain has been split and of a man who lives with villagers whose
shadows have been destroyed. That novel, Hard-Boiled Wonder Land and the End of the World followed A Wild
Sheep Chase and Pinball, 1973. FTP, who is this Japanese author, best known for the novels The Wind-Up Bird
Chronicle, Norwegian Wood and Kafka on the Beach?
ANSWER: Murakami Haruki or Haruki Murakami

2. In the Orthodox tradition, non-adherents to the doctrine established here applied the "Trisagion hymn" to
Christ, an interpretation expressly banned in the 81st Canon of the Council of Trullo. Justinian I sanctioned
the use of the hymn "Ho monogenês" with the controversial Theopaschite formula in the Divine Liturgy in an
attempt to reconnect with those alienated by this council. The Marionite Church of Syria broke with the Syrian
Orthodox Church over this church council, which established the invalidity of the Eutychian form of
monophysitism. FTP, what is this fourth ecumenical council, held in 451 CE, which established a namesake creed
declaring the dual-nature of Christ?
ANSWER: Council of Chalcedon

3. The precision of one type of this effect has led to the definition of the von Klitzing constant, while the
current density associated with it is often measured using the van der Pauw method. The Rigghi-Leduc effect
helps describe the thermal version of this, while the Corbino effect is its analogue in metal discs. The basic
principle underlying it is the Lorentz force, and this effect offered proof that moving electrons, not protons, are
mobile charge carriers in materials. FTP, identify this effect named for an American physicist, in which a magnetic
field applied perpendicular to an electric current creates a potential difference on opposite sides of an electrical
ANSWER: Hall effect (accept quantum Hall effect before "van der Pauw")

4. This man is believed to have been behind the agrarian reform bill proposed by Gaius Laelius Sapiens
during the latter's praetorship in 145 BCE. He was married to Sempronia, the elder sister of Tiberius and
Gaius Gracchus, two men who formed the core of a rival political faction. He won his second consulship in 134
and led Rome to victory against the Celtiberians of Numantia. After serving under his father at Pydna during the
Third Macedonian War, he was adopted into a powerful family and won his first election to the consulship, despite
being too young. FTP, name this Roman general and statesman, best known for the destruction of Carthage at the
end of the Third Punic War.
ANSWER: Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus (prompt on Scipio Africanus)

5. In Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, Sandra Day O'Connor disagreed with this case's ruling but
referenced this case in establishing an understanding of "equal protection" in the Fifth Amendment. In his
dissent to Hugo Black's majority opinion, Frank Murphy cites Sterling v. Constantin and Charles Evans
Hughes's claim that questions of military necessity versus the rights of citizens fall to the judiciary. Centered on
Exclusion Order No. 34 and Executive Order No. 9066 and upholding the earlier Hirabayashi v. United States, this
is, FTP, what Supreme Court case which found constitutional the government detention of Japanese-Americans?
ANSWER: Korematsu v. United States 323 U.S. 214 (1944)

6. The US dispatched the Trescot Mission to negotiate an end to this conflict, while the conduct of the Crédit
Industriel caused considerable scandal for the then departing Secretary of State, James G. Blaine. Capt.
Arturo Prat became a hero for one side when he was killed after leaping aboard an enemy vessel alone, after
his Esmeralda was rammed during the Battle of Iquique. One side completely controlled the seas after the Cochrane
captured the Huascar and promptly began a ground invasion. FTP, name this war between the forces of Chile and
those of Peru and Bolivia, which is named for the coastal gains the Chileans made at its conclusion.
ANSWER: War of the Pacific or Saltpeter War or Guano War
7. In an inscription attributed to Niarchus which is found on the tomb of Telephanes, this man is included in a
list of master artists along with Homer and Orpheus. In Book XII of the Metamorphoses, he relates the story
of Caeneus to Achilles, while in another work he is often referred to as the "Gerenian horseman." His son
Thrasymedes once donated his sword and shield to Diomedes, while this man was saved from death at the hands of
Memnon by another of his sons, Antilochus. In the Odyssey, Telemachus travels to this man's land of Pylos for
advice. FTP, name this king who made several long-winded attempts to reconcile Achilles and Agamemnon in the
ANSWER: Nestor

8. A proposed mechanism for this reaction involves radical anions and zinc carbenoid intermediates, and
pinacols are often produced as side products. An amalgamated mercury is present, with the mercury acting
only as a clean surface for the reaction, while the metal it binds with functions as the reductant in a hydroxyl
solution of HCl or another mineral acid. Commonly used after a Friedel-Crafts acylation to produce an alkyl final
product, this acidic counterpart to the strongly basic Wolf-Kishner reduction uses amalgamated zinc. FTP name this
reaction named after a Danish-American chemist, which is the reduction of a carbonyl group of a ketone to a
methylene group.
ANSWER: Clemmensen Reduction

9. In one game in which this character appears, he is played primarily as a boxing specialist, though his jump-
S and LLL sword attacks are considered useful. In another appearance, he is the only male character able to
equip Ribbons, and in that game the technique Cherry Blossom is added to his repertoire. His escape from
the laboratory of Professor Hojo with Zack Fair is detailed in the OVA Last Order, an expansion of a flashback
from the game he starred in, while in its sequel movie, this character defeats Bahamut SIN and the triplets Kadaj,
Yazoo, and Loz, along with an incarnation of his greatest foe, Sephiroth. Born and raised in Nibelheim, FTP, name
this spiky-haired Buster Sword-wielding protagonist of Final Fantasy VII.
ANSWER: Cloud Strife (accept either)

10. A lutist and the girl for whom he is playing in this painting are the subject of a description by Sylvia Plath
in the second stanza of her poem "Two Views of a Cadaver Room," and are found in the lower right corner
of this work. Near them are strewn playing cards and a backgammon board, while to their left a banquet has
been disturbed. In the upper left corner, the sky is filled with smoke, while in the upper right, several raised breaking
wheels can be seen towering over a man on the gallows and another man about to be beheaded. In the center an
army of the dead herds many of the living into what appears to be a large box in, FTP, what 1562 painting by Pieter
Brueghel the Elder?
ANSWER: The Triumph of Death

11. Bertolt Brecht left an adaptation of this play unfinished at his death; that adaptation was completed by
Wekwerth and Tenscher and staged in 1962. In this work's opening scene, one man is called "the great toe of
this assembly... being one o' the lowest, basest, poorest / Of this most wise rebellion," after another relates
Aesop's fable of the body's revolt against the stomach. Act II, scene iii sees Sicinius and Brutus set their plot in
motion among the masses, eventually leading the title character to side with his enemies, the Volsces. After
entreaties from his mother, Volumnia, that character is killed by Aufidius's conspirators in, FTP, what Shakespeare
tragedy about a Roman general who leads an enemy army against Rome to seek revenge?
ANSWER: Coriolanus

12. The presence of this hormone promotes the creation of cardiomyocytes from stem cells and it also
stimulates blood pressure regulation through release of ANP. It alters the role of GABA in fetal neurons and
reduced potential anoxic damage during delivery. Recent research indicates that nasal application of this
hormone in humans results in greater "trust" and less social anxiety. Produced in the paraventricular nucleus, this
hormone is, like the structurally similar ADH, released via the posterior pituitary gland from the hypothalamus.
FTP, name this hormone, which results in contractions of the uterus during childbirth and in the ejection of milk
during breast-feeding.
ANSWER: Oxytocin
13. The New York Minerva, a Federalist paper, published Jefferson's politically damaging "Mazzei Letter,"
which was written in response to this; while it also prompted attacks from Benjamin Franklin Bache in his
Republican Philadelphia Aurora against Washington. The Directory interpreted it as an alliance against France,
but it resulted in but one gain, namely the British evacuation of forts in the northwest. Moreover, it failed to address
such concerns as impressment and the opening of British ports to American trade. FTP, name this agreement which
avoided war with Britain in 1795 and which was named for its chief U.S. negotiator, the then Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court.
ANSWER: Jay's Treaty or Jay Treaty or Treaty of London

14. This character was said to own a magic hound which could turn spring water into mead by bathing in it.
He spared the life of one of his predecessors, Bres, when he promised to teach his people to plow. After Nuada
Argétlamh's death, he rallied his army at the Second Battle of Magh Tuireadh and defeated Balor, whose giant,
destructive eye he shot through the back of his skull. He received his sword, Retaliator, from either Urias or
Manánnan Mac Lir, but he was more associated with an insatiable spear, the Red Javelin, which he took from
Tuirenn's sons as payment for his father's murder. The son of Cian and Ethniu, FTP, name this Irish deity, whose
name means "bright," the leader of the Tuatha dé Danaan and the father of Cúchulainn.
ANSWER: Lugh Lamhfada or Lugh of the Long Arm or Lleu Llaw Gyffes or Lleu of the Skillful Hand

15. Near the end of this work, the main character urges his attendants to speak accurately, for not to do so is
both unharmonious and even damaging to the soul. Earlier in this work, the main character explains that
Aesop should have composed a fable explaining that pleasure and pain are connected by a single head and thus
always present together. In one of his arguments, the main character demonstrates to Simmias that the bodily senses
cannot be trusted and uses this to argue in favor of his view that philosophers are right to seek death, because the
afterlife will be pleasant. FTP, name this Platonic dialogue, which tells of the death of Socrates as told to Echecrates
by the title character.
ANSWER: Phaedo

16. For small values of x, the nth one of these can be represented by the quantity x over 2 to the nth power
times one over the gamma function of n plus 1. The first spherical one is known as the unnormalized sinc
function, while the second kind of these are also referred to as Neumann functions, and complex linear
combinations of the first and second kind are called Hankel functions. The Riccati variety of these are used to deal
with problems arising in Mie scattering, while the graph of the first and second kinds resemble decaying oscillations.
Used for many problems in wave propagation, such as modeling the vibrations of a drum head, FTP identify these
functions named after a German astronomer and usually represented by the letters Y and J.
ANSWER: Bessel functions

17. The ninth chapter of this work was published independently in Contemporary Review in 1849 as the title
character's "Dream" and features vivid descriptions of that character's childhood home. One character in
this work is so forgettable even to the other characters that the narrator decides to call him Alexeyev. Other
characters in this work include the protagonist's manservant Zakhar and his one-time fiancée Olga, who cancels
their wedding after a series of delays. The vivacity of the title character's best friend, Stolz, is in stark contrast to the
protagonist's laziness, who does not leave his bed until well into the novel. FTP, name this novel about the titular
superfluous man par excellence, a work of Ivan Goncharov.
ANSWER: Oblomov

18. Dimitri Sitkovetsky has transcribed this work for string trio and string orchestra, Arthur Frackenpohl
has transcribed it for brass quintet, and the Canadian Brass released a CD consisted solely of this work. Its
sixth part contains a "canon at the second;" it also contains a four-voice fughetta, while the quodlibet near the
end includes two popular songs. To restore order, the work ends with the opening aria, which is from the Anna
Magdalena Notebook. Originally published in the fourth volume of Clavier-Übung, the name comes from a
harpsichord virtuoso who was perhaps this work's first performer. FTP, name this set of 30 variations composed by
Johann Sebastian Bach.
ANSWER: Goldberg Variations or BWV 988
19. The upward propagation of Rossby waves of exceptionally long wavelength is responsible for sudden
warming in this region. The absorption of high levels of solar energy with wavelengths between .2 and .31 μm
near its apex is responsible for its internal temperature maximum, a feature which helps to distinguish Earth
from Venus and Mars, the atmospheres of which feature isothermal regions below their thermospheres.
Photodissociation of diatomic oxygen in this atmospheric layer, coupled with its relatively high density, results in
the formation of the Earth's ozone layer here. FTP, name this layer of the atmosphere found between the mesosphere
and troposphere.
ANSWER: Stratosphere

20. Carl Van Doren edited a collection of this writer's shorter works entitled Twenty Stories, and this man
dedicated his first poetry collection to Hamlin Garland. A poor child steals a toy fire truck from a rich child
in this man's The Ominous Baby, while his poems include "A Man Said to the Universe" and a one which
includes the lines, "Great is the battle-god, great, and his kingdom– / A field where a thousand corpses lie." The
latter, "War Is Kind," was the namesake of his second poetry collection. In one short story, this author observes that
"every sin is the result of a collaboration" and tells of the murder of the Swede. Author of The Blue Hotel and The
Open Boat, this is, FTP, what author, best known for The Red Badge of Courage?
ANSWER: Stephen Crane

TB: The expedition which resulted in the choice of this site was the result of planning by Thomas Halkyut
and the voyage's financier, both of whom selected to repeat the expedition of Richard Hore made nearly 50
years earlier. It was chosen by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, who were introduced to the location by
Granganimeo, and the fleet that brought colonists there was led by Richard Grenville. The colonists here left a
message for former governor John White in the form of the carved word CROATOAN. FTP, name this island, site
of a failed English colony in North Carolina, the loss of which remains a mystery.
ANSWER: Roanoke Island
Deep Bench 2007
Questions by Jeremy Hixson
Edited by Rob Carson and Andrew Hart
Quads bonuses

1. He succeeded his uncle Shirkuh as vizier of Egypt in 1169 and abolished the Fatimid Caliphate two years later.
[10] Name this Kurdish Muslim leader, best known for his role as Richard the Lionheart's principal foe during the
Third Crusade.
ANSWER: Saladin or al-Malik al-Nasir Salah ed-Din Yusuf
[10] Saladin's predecessor, Shirkuh, was a general for this successor of Zengi and ruler of Syria, whom Saladin
himself succeeded upon his death in 1174.
ANSWER: Nur ed-Din or al-Malik al-Adil Nur al-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn 'Imad al-Din Zangi
[10] In order to cut off the Crusader States and secure his own power, Saladin concluded a treaty with Kilij Arslan
II, the leader of this group, which had put the Byzantines on the defensive with a victory at Myriocephalum.
ANSWER: Seljuk Turks

2. Answer some questions related to the group of composers called "The Five," FTPE:
[10] Left incomplete at Alexander Borodin's death, this opera relates the titular character's campaign against the
Cumans and contains the Polovtsian Dances. It was finished by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Aleksandr Glazunov.
ANSWER: Prince Igor
[10] Based on a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin, this opera by Rimsky-Korsakov is best known for The Flight of the
Bumble Bee and tells of an exiled prince who visits his father's kingdom with the help of an enchanted swan.
ANSWER: The Tale of Tsar Saltan, of His Son the Renowned Bogatyr Prince Gvidon Saltanovich, and of the
Beautiful Princess Swan
[10] This member of The Five was renowned in his day as a music critic and completed Borodin's unfinished The
Fair at Sorochintsi. His own works include the operas The Mandarin's Son and Prisoner of the Caucuses.
ANSWER: César Cui

3. Answer the following about a mystery-religion which found popularity in Rome under the Empire, FTPE.
[10] Name this god of Indo-Iranian origin, whose popularity in Achaemenid Persia saw the spread of his cult among
the Hellenistic Greeks and, in turn, the Romans. He was popular with soldiers and his rites were conducted in caves.
ANSWER: Mithras
[10] The place of honor in Mithraic temples was always occupied by a depiction of Mithras sacrificing one of these
creatures, while a dog and a serpent drank its blood and a scorpion attacked its testicles.
ANSWER: a bull (accept tauroctony or taurobolium from those with deep knowledge but no patience)
[10] In the iconography found in mithraea, Mithras is often seen flanked by two "dadophoroi," or "torch-bearers,"
and which are associated with the ascendant and descendant Sun. Name either.
ANSWER: Cautes or Cautopates

4. According to the prediction of Polymnestor, this play's title character will fall from a masthead at a spot known as
Kynossema. FTPE:
[10] Name this play, in which an enslaved queen orchestrates her revenge against the Thracian king Polymecstor for
the betrayal and murder of her son Polydoros, by killing his sons and blinding him.
ANSWER: Hecuba
[10] This playwright, author of The Bacchae and Medea, wrote Hecuba, which William Arrowsmith believed was
presented along with the satyr play Cyclops.
ANSWER: Euripides
[10] This is Hecuba's daughter who, having accompanied her mother to the Chersonese along with the other
prisoners, is sacrificed by Agamemnon to propitiate the spirit of Akhilleus. Her death is reported by Talthybius.
ANSWER: Polyxena
5. FTPE, answer the following about a class of cellular organelles.
[10] This organelle is found in "smooth" and "rough" varieties dependent on the presence of ribosomes along its
surface membrane. It synthesizes molecules, acts as storage units, and transports molecules elsewhere in the cell.
ANSWER: Endoplasmic Reticulum or ER
[10] The structure of the endoplasmic reticulum generally consists of these sacs, which are also found in the Golgi
apparatus. Their name comes from the Latin for "a water reservoir."
ANSWER: Cisterna or Cisternae
[10] A third variety of ER functions as a storage unit for Ca 2+ in skeletal muscle cells; its membrane meets with
transverse tubules at sites called triads, where it receives signals to release the Ca2+, causing muscle contraction.
ANSWER: Sarcoplasmic Reticulum or SR

6. Answer the following about a branch of the Indo-European language family, FTPE.
[10] This branch contains many modern languages, including Afrikaans, Faroese, Scottish, and English.
ANSWER: Germanic
[10] Some of the earliest attestations to Germanic can be found in this extinct tongue, the sole member of the East
Germanic branch. It is noteworthy for, among other things, possessing the only Germanic passive verb inflection.
ANSWER: Gothic
[10] Taking its name from a Germanic tribe described by Tacitus in his Germania, this proposed sub-branch of West
Germanic would include Old English, Old Frisian, and other languages associated with the North Sea.
ANSWER: Ingvaeonic (prompt on Anglo-Frisian and North Sea Germanic)

7. FTPE, identify the following Turkish cities from clues.
[10] Formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, this city is the largest in Turkish Thrace and Turkey as a
whole. It is home to such sites as Hagia Sophia, the Blue Mosque, and Maiden's Tower.
ANSWER: Istanbul
[10] This city in a namesake province to the south of Asian İstanbul is the country's fourth largest and is a major
industrial center, home to Turkey's automotive industry. It is located along the Sea of Marmara.
[10] This city on a namesake bay in the Aegean Sea is Turkey's second largest port after Istanbul and its third largest
city. As a former ancient Greek polis, it is sometimes credited with being a birthplace for Homer.
ANSWER: İzmir or Smyrna

8. With a force of 18 vessels, including four monitors, the Union made a daring morning attack into a major
Alabama port on August 5, 1864. FTPE:
[10] Name this battle, which saw Union forces under David Farragut pass the defenses around Fort Morgan, despite
of the loss of the monitor Tecumseh. It also heard Farragut's famous "Damn the torpedoes" quote.
ANSWER: Battle of Mobile Bay
[10] Apart from Fort Morgan, Confederate defense of Mobile Bay hinged on this Columbia-class ironclad, named
for a state, which severely damaged Union ships, until immobility and low ammo forced its surrender.
ANSWER: C.S.S. Tennessee II
[10] The commander of the Tennessee was this man, who was promoted to the rank of admiral following his
successful command of the Virginia, née Merrimack, during the Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862.
ANSWER: Admiral Franklin Buchanan

9. Her first work included such poems as "The Four Ages of Man," "The Four Monarchies," and "A Dialogue
Between Old England and New." FTPE:
[10] Name this 17th Century colonial poetess, whose first collection of poems, The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung Up in
America was possibly published by her brother-in-law in London without her consent.
ANSWER: Anne Bradstreet
[10] Recording the titular event of July 18, 1666, this Bradstreet poem opens with the lines "In silent night when rest
I took,/ For sorrow near I did not look,/ I waken'd was with thundring nois/ And Piteous shrieks of dreadfull voice."
ANSWER: "Upon the Burning of Our House, 1666"
[10] Bradstreet later revised The Tenth Muse herself, publishing it in America as this work 28 years after the
publication of the original.
ANSWER: Several Poems Compiled with Great Variety of Wit and Learning
10. Answer the following about the greatest musical of our decade, FTPE:
[10] Based on a 1936 Louis Gasnier exploitation film, it is narrated by the Lecturer, who, at the play's opening,
warns an audience of concerned parents that the titular addictive affliction is sweeping America.
ANSWER: Reefer Madness
[10] Among the stars of the 2005 movie version was this man, who played the Lecturer and other roles. He may be
better known for his roles at Saturninus in Titus, Nightcrawler in X2, and Boris Grishenko in GoldenEye.
ANSWER: Alan Cumming
[10] Jimmy was convicted of the murder of this character, his girlfriend, played by Kristen Bell. She had followed
Jimmy to the "reefer den," where she was nearly seduced by Ralph and accidentally shot in the ensuing mêlée.
ANSWER: Mary Lane

11. Answer some questions about compounds that are used in detergents FTPE.
[10] Identify these materials which contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, and lower the surface tension
of liquids.
ANSWER: Surfactants or Surface-Active Agents or tensides (prompt on "detergent[s]")
[10] When their concentration in water is greater than the CMC, surfactants form these spherical structures, in which
the hydrophilic head groups face outwards and surround the hydrophobic tails.
ANSWER: Micelle (or Micellae)
[10] In addition to the ionic and non-ionic is this variety of surfactant, in which the surfactant is neutral overall but
carries two groups of opposite charge.
ANSWER: Zwitterionic

12. FTPE, answer the following about a massive trade that involved Fred McGriff.
[10] In 1990, McGriff was traded to San Diego in a deal that brought this right fielder to Toronto. He is best
remembered for jumping around after his three-run, walk-off homerun that gave the Blue Jays their second straight
World Series in 1993.
ANSWER: Joseph Christopher "Joe" Carter
[10] This man was also part of the trade that brought McGriff to southern California. He is best remembered for a
heated debate that saw him spit on John Hirschbeck in 1996.
ANSWER: Roberto Alomar Velázquez
[10] This shortstop was moved south along with McGriff in that trade, but returned to the Jays in time to win the
Series in 1993, driving in 9 runs. He later played with Alomar in the 1997 World Series with Cleveland.
ANSWER: Octavio Antonio "Tony" Fernández Castro

13. From the age of 30, he served as the attorney general for Maryland for twenty-eight years and delivered a three-
hour long speech against the Virginia Plan as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. FTPE:
[10] Name this man who ardently opposed strengthening the central government, before he, along with John Francis
Mercer, walked out of the Convention. He later became a Federalist due to his hatred of Thomas Jefferson.
ANSWER: Luther Martin
[10] Martin represented his adopted state in this landmark case, in which the Supreme Court determined that the
Constitution granted implied powers to Congress in order to perform its expressed powers.
ANSWER: McCulloch v. Maryland
[10] Martin also successfully served as the defense attorney for this Federalist and Supreme Court Justice when he
was impeached in 1805. He was the only federal Supreme Court Justice ever impeached.
ANSWER: Samuel Chase

14. It ends with the title character declaring that he and his wife are to eat shit. FTPE:
[10] Name this short work in which the title character awaits a pension 15 years overdue and pins his hopes on a
rooster, which he plans to have compete in the cockfights on January 20.
ANSWER: No One Writes to the Colonel or El Coronel No Tiene Quien Le Escriba
[10] This Colombian author wrote No One Writes to the Colonel, as well as other works like Chronicle of a Death
Foretold and Love in the Time of Cholera.
ANSWER: Gabriel García Márquez
[10] The rooster once belonged to this son of the Colonel, who was killed by the oppressive government for
subversive activities at a cockfight. He was also born one month before the musician whose funeral opens the work.
ANSWER: Agustín
15. It saw the death of up to 96% of all marine species and 70% of all terrestrial vertebrate species. Answer the
following about the “Great Dying”, FTPE.
[10] The Great Dying is the term for the extinction event which preceded this first period of the Mesozoic Era. It is
noted for the rise of the terrestrial archosaurs and may have witnessed the first angiosperms. //POTENTIAL CUT
ANSWER: Triassic Period
[10] One reason posited for the Great Dying was this large basalt flood in modern-day Russia, the largest known
volcanic event of all time; it lasted for over 1 million years and covers over 1.5 million square miles.
ANSWER: Siberian Traps
[10] Some scientists have posited that the Siberian Traps raised temperature enough to release this hydrocarbon and
greenhouse gas from the clathrates in which it is found in the world’s oceans, causing a 10 parts-per-thousand
decrease in the carbon-13 to carbon-12 ratio and finishing up the Great Dying.
ANSWER: Methane Clathrate or Methane Hydrate or Methane Ice

16. FTPE, identify each of the following Egyptian gods associated with the creation of the world in different
[10] This deity, whose name means mouth, is said to have created most of the other gods by speaking their names.
Often symbolized by the solar disk, he was originally the primary god of the Ogdoad.
ANSWER: Ra or Re (don't accept Amun-Ra)
[10] Often depicted with the head of a ram, this god, often associated with Elephantine, was originally the source of
the Nile and a potter and molder responsible for the creation of the other gods and human beings.
ANSWER: Khnum or Khnemu
[10] Primarily worshipped at Memphis, this god, whose name means opener and who was depicted as a mummified
man, was the deification of the primordial mound and brought about creation when he thought it.
ANSWER: Ptah or Tathenen

17. Answer the following about the fight to bring an end to Apartheid in South Africa, FTPE.
[10] This political group, organized in 1912, was the leading black group fighting Apartheid throughout all of its
history. After the first free elections in 1994, it was elected to form a government, and has yet to relinquish power.
ANSWER: African National Congress or ANC
[10] Following the death of 69 unarmed blacks at Sharpeville in 1960, members of the ANC's Youth League formed
this militant wing, which lead an armed struggle from bases in neighboring nations, particularly Zambia.
ANSWER: Spear of the Nation or Umkhonto we Sizwe or MK
[10] In addition to Umkhonto we Sizwe, members of the black power Pan-Africanist Congress formed this militant
wing which also fought against Apartheid. Its original name means "Pure" in isiZulu.
ANSWER: POQO or Azanian People's Liberation Army or APLA

18. Answer the following about everyone's favorite Middle English poem, The Canterbury Tales, FTPE.
[10] The collection comes to a conclusion with one of the longest tales, a prose sermon on penitence and the seven
deadly sins by this character, described in the prologue as "poor...but holy thought and work."
ANSWER: Parson of a Town
[10] In contrast to the Parson's is this man's tale, which promises to be so bawdy when he introduces a girl who
"fucked for her food," that it is cut off by the Host, Harry Bailey, after only 58 lines.
ANSWER: Cook of London
[10] The Cook's tale is the nadir of the immoral trend begun by the Miller and Reeve after the first tale, told by this
man. It relates Arcyte's and Palamon's contest for Emily, a story retold in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen.
ANSWER: Knight
19. FTPE, answer the following about an artist and some of his works.
[10] This Futurist painter and sculptor produced numerous works including 1915's Charge of the Lancers, depicting
a cavalry charge against entrenched infantry, and the series States of Mind.
ANSWER: Umberto Boccioni
[10] Boccioni's most famous work is this 1913 sculpture, which is featured on the €0.20 Italian euro coin. It depicts
a man walking, emphasizing the violence of motion through its sharp edges and many lines of force.
ANSWER: Unique Forms of Continuity in Space or Forme Uniche della Continuità nello Spazio
[10] In 1914, Boccioni published this book which laid out the theoretical basis for the Futurist art movement and
which contained his earlier essay "Plastic Dynamism."
ANSWER: Futurist Painting and Sculpture - Plastic Dynamism or Pittura e Scultura Futuriste – Dinamismo

20. FTPE, answer the following about a Nobel Prize-winning author and his works.
[10] Works by this author include one of his first, Anxieties, which discusses his imprisonment during World War I,
and The Damned Yard, which relates the stories of Camil and Fra Peter's imprisonment by the Ottoman Sultan.
ANSWER: Ivo Andrić
[10] This work, Andrić's most famous, relates the history of the city of Višegrad through the titular object, beginning
with its construction under Mehmed Pasha Sokolović and ending with its destruction during World War I.
ANSWER: The Bridge on the Drina or Na Drini Ćuprija
[10] The Bridge on the Drina, along with two other novels published by Andrić in 1945, The Day of the Consuls and
The Woman from Sarajevo make up this trilogy, named for the country whose history they tell, Andrić's homeland.
ANSWER: Bosnian Trilogy

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