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Add to “Comparing Federal and Unitary Systems”

VIEWS: 19 PAGES: 4

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									Comparative Activity: Comparing Federal and Unitary Systems-Egypt


  ID#                                           C002
  Date of Re-Write                              August 2006
  General Topic/Chapter                         Federal and Unitary Systems
  Author                                        Sunday Obazuaye



Add to “Comparing Federal and Unitary Systems”

Egypt
P069

Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world
transportation hub; however, the country also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect
its investments, the United Kingdom seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but
nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent
from the UK since 1922, the Egyptian Parliament drafted and implemented a new
constitution in 1923 under the leadership of the popular revolutionary Saad Zaghlul.
Between1924-1936, there existed a short-lived but successful attempt to model Egypt's
constitutional government after the European style of government; known as Egypt's
Liberal Experiment. The British, however, retained a degree of control which led to
continued instability in the government. In 1952, a military coup d'état forced King
Farouk I, a constitutional monarch, to abdicate in support of his son King Ahmed Fouad
II.

Egypt has been a republic since 18 June 1953. President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has
been the President of the Republic since October 14, 1981, following the assassination
of former-President Mohammed Anwar El-Sadat. Mubarak is currently serving his fifth
term in office. He is the leader of the ruling National Democratic Party. Prime Minister
Dr. Ahmed Nazif was sworn in as Prime Minister on 9 July 2004, following the
resignation of Dr. Atef Ebeid from his office. Although power is ostensibly organized
under a multi-party semi-presidential system, whereby the executive power is
theoretically divided between the President and the Prime Minister, in practice it rests
almost solely with the President who traditionally has been elected in single-candidate
elections for more than fifty years. Egypt also holds regular multi-party parliamentary
elections. The last presidential election, in which Mubarak won a fifth consecutive term,
was held in September 2005.

The Egyptian constitution provides for a strong executive. Authority is vested in an
elected president who can appoint one or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a
cabinet. The president's term runs for 6 years. Egypt's legislative body, the People's
Assembly, has 454 members--444 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president.
The constitution reserves 50% of the assembly seats for "workers and peasants." The
assembly sits for a 5-year term but can be dissolved earlier by the President. There also
is a 264-member Shura (consultative) Council, in which 88 members are appointed and
174 elected for 6-year terms. Below the national level, authority is exercised by and
through governors and mayors appointed by the central government and by popularly
elected local councils. Opposition party organizations make their views public and
represent their followers at various levels in the political system, but power is
concentrated in the hands of the President and the National Democratic Party majority
in the People's Assembly and those institutions dominate the political system. In
addition to the ruling National Democratic Party, there are 16 other legally recognized
parties.



Tidbits About Egypt

       Egypt is divided into 26 (Soon becoming 27 as The City of Al Uqsur is becoming
        a governorate.) governorates and the city of Al Uqsur (Luxor), which is classified
        as a city rather than a governorate.

       In 1978, Egypt and Israel signed a peace accord in Camp David after a series of
        negotiations mediated by United States president Jimmy Carter.


Add to “What is the principle of political power and how long has the principle existed?”

Egypt
P069

Has always been unitary


Add to “What are the main constitutional powers of the central government?”

Egypt
P069

The Egyptian constitution provides for a strong executive. Power is concentrated in the
hands of the President and the National Democratic Party majority in the People's
Assembly.
Add to “Are any concurrent powers shared between national and sub national
government?”


Egypt
P069

Authority is vested in an elected president who can appoint one or more vice presidents,
a prime minister, and a cabinet. Below the national level, authority is exercised by and
through governors and mayors appointed by the central government and by popularly
elected local councils.


Add to “What percentage of government revenue is collected by the central
government?”

Egypt
P069

63%

Add to “Check Your Understanding”

Which country has a central government that collects most of the revenue and has the
ability to delegate powers?

            The United States
            Egypt (instead of Canada)
            Russia
            Germany
            Great Britain



Add to “How does the Constitution regulate potential conflicts between national and sub
national governments.”

The Constitutional Court supervises the judicial system and possesses the right to
declare laws and other acts of government unconstitutional. However, the central
government is supreme as power is concentrated in the hands of the president who can
override the Constitutional Court’s decision by presidential emergency powers.


Add to “Conclusion.”

What are the similarities and differences between Britain and Egypt unitary systems?
Add to “Suggested Websites.”

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitary_state

This site has a list of Unitary States and several articles on Unitary States.


Add to “Test Yourself”

Question #4
Which of the following countries are unitary?

             Russia
             United States
             Germany and Egypt
             Britain and Egypt
             Canada and Russia

Replace questions 7, 8, 9, & 10 that have Switzerland or Canada with Egypt

								
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