Ch 21 Take Home Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. The company responsible for the dumping of toxic and cancer-causing wastes into an old canal excavation called the Love Canal was a. DuPont. b. Monsanto. c. Hooker Chemicals and Plastics Corporation. d. the 3M Company. ____ 2. After Love Canal was abandoned, it was sold and used for a. an elementary school and housing project. b. a shopping mall. c. an amusement park. d. an industrial park. ____ 3. The Love Canal incident demonstrates that a. preventing pollution is safer and cheaper than cleaning it up. b. political officials are alert and sympathetic to their constituents. c. pollutants can be stored safely underground for a long time. d. polluting companies can escape from the costs and responsibility of their actions. ____ 4. With about 5% of the world's population, the United States produces about _____ of the world's solid waste. a. 1/10 b. 1/5 c. 1/4 d. 1/3 ____ 5. The amount of solid waste produced in the United States in 1996 would fill a convoy of garbage trucks stretching around the world almost a. 2 times. b. 4 times. c. 6 times. d. 8 times. ____ 6. U.S. consumers throw away enough aluminum to rebuild the U.S. commercial airline fleet every a. 3 weeks. b. 3 months. c. 6 months. d. 12 months. ____ 7. If a small business produces less than ___ pounds of a waste per month, the EPA does not consider the material hazardous. a. 50 b. 220 c. 550 d. 1,500 ____ 8. All of the following substances have been "linguistically detoxified" except a. radioactive material. b. gasoline. c. materials of any type discarded from households. d. mining wastes. ____ 9. In a low-waste approach, which of the following strategies should be given top priority? a. incinerate b. reuse c. reduce d. bury ____ 10. All of the following reflect a low-waste approach except a. extending the useful lifetime for a product. b. designing products that pollute less when used. c. built-in obsolescence. d. modular construction for repair. ____ 11. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) is famous for its a. clean-burning incinerator. b. waste treatment program. c. Pollution Prevention Pays program. d. recycling model. ____ 12. Xerox Corporation now leases most of its copy machines, providing maintenance and upgrades for the length of the lease. This is an example of the shift towards a. a material flow economy b. a service flow economy c. a resource intensive economy d. a no-sell economy ____ 13. Environmentalists say that the best way to handle soft-drink and beer containers is to a. use landfills. b. recycle aluminum cans. c. use stainless steel cans. d. use reusable glass bottles. ____ 14. At the checkout counter, an environmentalist is most likely to a. say "plastic please." b. say "paper please." c. say "I brought my own bag." d. walk out of the store. ____ 15. The least desirable final resting place for a used tire is a. in the foundation of a low-cost passive solar home. b. asphalt pavement. c. in an incinerator to produce electricity. d. in the landfill. ____ 16. Compost is most completely described as a. manure. b. landfill by-products. c. pure garbage. d. soil conditioner and organic fertilizer. ____ 17. The most desirable type of recycling is a. primary, or closed-loop recycling. b. secondary, or open-loop recycling. c. tertiary, or figure-eight recycling. d. high-tech resource recovery. ____ 18. Which of the following statements is false? a. It is more economical to have consumers separate trash before pickup than to use high- technology recovery plants. b. Glass, iron, and aluminum can be recovered from solid wastes. c. Low-tech resource recovery involves consumers separating trash into categories like glass, paper, plastics, and metal. d. High-technology recycling provides many more jobs than low-technology recycling. ____ 19. Critics of recycling are most likely to claim a. it isn't worth the effort. b. there is no solid-waste problem. c. incineration is the safest and most efficient way to dispose of solid wastes. d. it doesn't make sense to recycle if it costs more than landfilling or incinerating. ____ 20. Environmentalists are likely to claim that all of the following are primary benefits of recycling except reduced a. throughput of matter and energy resources. b. use of landfills and incinerators. c. use of virgin resources. d. pollution. ____ 21. Obstacles to recycling in the United States include a. lack of inclusion of environmental costs in market prices. b. tax breaks for mining virgin materials. c. lack of large, steady markets for recycled materials. d. all of these answers. ____ 22. Obstacles to recycling can be overcome by all of the following except a. requiring households and businesses to pay directly for garbage collection based on how much they throw away. b. encouraging government purchases of recycled products. c. requiring ecolabels that evaluate life-cycle environmental costs. d. enacting a national aluminum-can bill. ____ 23. Plastics a. account for about 60% of the debris found on U.S. beaches. b. in landfills can release cadmium and plutonium from binders. c. break down quickly in landfills. d. can economically be converted to fuel oil. ____ 24. Partially biodegradable plastics need _____ to be broken down. a. light b. oxygen and moisture c. anaerobic conditions d. cool conditions ____ 25. Of the following methods of reducing hazardous wastes, the most desirable is a. recycling and reusing hazardous wastes. b. substitution of safer products that don't produce hazardous wastes. c. conversion into less hazardous and nonhazardous materials. d. incineration. ____ 26. Denmark's hazardous-waste detoxification program includes a. 21 transfer stations located throughout the country. b. a facility in each municipality to accept household hazardous waste. c. a carefully designed and monitored landfill as a last resort. d. all of these answers. ____ 27. Bioremediation a. involves training bacteria to eat new foods. b. results in the production of low-level hazardous wastes. c. may be used at considerably less expense than landfills and incineration if toxin-degrading bacteria can be found. d. is widely accepted as the best way to cut hazardous wastes. ____ 28. Sanitary landfills typically have problems with a. rodents and insects. b. odor. c. open, uncovered garbage. d. traffic, noise, and dust. ____ 29. Even though paper is biodegradable in the presence of water and oxygen, still-readable newspapers have been dug up from some landfills after a. 30 or 40 years. b. 40 or 50 years. c. 50 or 60 years. d. 60 or 70 years. ____ 30. Deep-well injection of hazardous wastes can result in contamination of groundwater by a. surface wastes leaching down. b. leaking seals. c. earthquake fractures. d. all of these answers. ____ 31. The real cost of dumping hazardous wastes is borne by the a. producer of the waste. b. the disposer of the waste. c. the people who live in affluent areas. d. the taxpayers who pay to clean up disposal messes. ____ 32. Lead may cause a. partial paralysis. b. mental retardation. c. palsy. d. all of these answers. ____ 33. Which of the following would least protect children from lead poisoning? a. eliminating leaded paint and contaminated dust in housing b. switching from wooden to mechanical pencils c. testing all community sources of drinking water for lead contamination d. testing for lead glazing in ceramics ____ 34. Which of the following is a source of environmental mercury? a. discarded fluorescent light tubes b. discarded refrigerators c. discarded smoke detectors d. discarded plastic packaging ____ 35. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 a. requires the EPA to set standards for hazardous-waste management. b. requires all firms that handle more than 100 kilograms of hazardous waste per month to have a permit stating how such wastes are to be managed. c. provides guidelines and financial aid to establish state waste management programs. d. all of these answers. ____ 36. The Superfund program pays a. to clean up inactive or abandoned hazardous-waste dump sites. b. to monitor hazardous wastes. c. for testing for lead in paint, water, and air samples. d. the doctors' bills and lawyers' fees for pollution events. ____ 37. Enforcement of Superfund has failed because a. polluters deny responsibility. b. polluting businesses campaign that toxic dumps are not that threatening. c. big polluters sue local governments and small businesses to make them responsible for cleanup. d. of all the above reasons. ____ 38. It is generally accepted that enforcement of Superfund could be improved by a. creating a form of triage in which hazardous-waste sites are classified by severity and the worst ones get treated first. b. involving people and local governments where sites are located in the decision-making process. c. setting up an Environmental Insurance Resolution Fund. d. all of these answers. ____ 39. Toxic racism a. is most rampant in South Africa. b. refers to location of landfills and hazardous-waste incinerators in poor areas. c. occurs where land is cheap. d. occurs only in highly populated areas. ____ 40. Individuals can reduce inputs of hazardous waste by all of the following except a. using rechargeable batteries. b. using biodegradable cleaning products. c. changing automobile oil and dumping it carefully in marked storm drains. d. consulting local environmental agencies for safe disposal methods for hazardous chemicals.