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					Toxicant                                          Exposure Type                              Action levels
crude oil                                         waterborne (static)
WAF of Bass Strait stabilized crude oil           waterborne (static renenwal)
copper, pH 7.5-8.0                                waterborne                                 1.3ppm (USEPA]
crude oil (Prudhoe bay)                           waterborne (continual)
crude oil (Prudhoe bay)                           waterborne (continual)
bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO)                      waterborne (continual)                     250ppb (Canadian water quality guidelines)
bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO)                      waterborne (continual)                     250ppb (Canadian water quality guidelines)
bleached kraft mill effluent                      waterborne (continual)
zinc                                              waterborne
copper                                            waterborne (continual)
bleached kraft pulp mill effluent                 waterborne
                                                   waterborne (renewal)
diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-[6-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-6-pyrimidinyl] phosphorothioate
oil spill                                         tank experiment
oil spill                                         field monitoring (Shetland, Scotland)
simetryn                                          waterborne
simetryn                                          waterborne
hexazinone                                        waterborne (continual)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran                   single oral dosage
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran                   single oral dosage
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran                   single oral dosage
tert-butyl hydroperoxide                          single i.p. injection
lead nitrate                                      waterborne
lead nitrate                                      waterborne
lead nitrate                                      waterborne
lead nitrate                                      waterborne
lead nitrate                                      waterborne
lead nitrate                                      waterborne
lead acetate                                      waterborne
lead acetate                                      waterborne
lead acetate                                      waterborne
lead acetate                                      waterborne
lead acetate                                      waterborne
lead nitrate                                      waterborne
metacid-50                                        waterborne
carbaryl                                          waterborne
thiocarb                                          waterborne (continual)
thiocarb                                          waterborne (continual)
molinate                                          waterborne (continual)
molinate                                          waterborne (continual)
molinate                                          waterborne (renewal)
fenitrothion                                      waterborne (continual)
thiocarb                                          waterborne (continual)
thiocarb                                          waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                           waterborne                                 3ppm (WHO 1993, for drinking water)
PAHs and heavy metal contaminated site            transplantation experiment (Manukau Harbour, New zealand)
thiodon                                           waterborne
thiodon                                           waterborne
thiodon                                           waterborne
oil spill                                         field monitoring (Northern Adriatic Sea)
lead                                              waterborne
copper                                            waterborne (continual)
bleached kraft pulp mill effluent                 wild animals collected down stream of a bleached kraft pulp mill, begin at 1996
industrial wastewater              transplantation experiment (Sado Estuary)
carbofuran                         waterborne
endosulfan                         waterborne (static)
17β-estradiol (E2)                 waterborne (renewal)
phosphamidon                       waterborne
phosphamidon                       waterborne
lead                               waterborne
lead                               waterborne
lead                               waterborne
lead, zinc, and mercuric acetate   waterborne (renewal) with daily estrogen injection
trichloron                         waterborne
trichloron                         waterborne
trichloron                         waterborne
silver                             daily oral dosage
silver                             daily oral dosage
detergent "Solo" or crude oil      waterborne
detergent "Solo" or crude oil      waterborne
copper                             waterborne (static renenwal)
17β-estradiol (E2)                 waterborne (continual)
p-nonylphenol                      waterborne (continual)
zinc                               waterborne
zinc                               waterborne
zinc                               waterborne
deltamethrin                       waterborne
deltamethrin                       waterborne
deltamethrin                       waterborne
carbofuran                         waterborne
cadmium                            waterborne (renewed by flowthorugh system every 2d)
cadmium                            waterborne (renewed by flowthorugh system every 3d)
cadmium                            waterborne (renewed by flowthorugh system every 4d)
cadmium                            waterborne (renewed by flowthorugh system every 5d)
cadmium                            waterborne (renewed by flowthorugh system every 7d)
cadmium                            waterborne (renewed by flowthorugh system every 8d)
malathion                          waterborne
malathion                          waterborne
malathion                          waterborne
lead                               waterborne
2,4-Diamin                         waterborne
2,4-Diamin                         waterborne
2,4-Diamin                         waterborne
2,4-Diamin                         waterborne
malathion                          waterborne (renewal)
malathion                          waterborne (renewal)
malathion                          waterborne (renewal)
malathion                          waterborne (renewal)
malathion                          waterborne (renewal)
malathion                          waterborne (renewal)
17β-estradiol (E2)                 waterborne
cadmium                            waterborne (renewed every 2 d)
cadmium                            waterborne (renewed every 2 d)
mercury                            waterborne (renewed every 2 d)
mercury                            waterborne (renewed every 2 d)
mercury                            waterborne (renewed every 2 d)
potassium dichromate                              waterborne (renewed every 2 d)
potassium dichromate                              waterborne (renewed every 2 d)
potassium dichromate                              waterborne (renewed every 2 d)
lead                                              waterborne (static)
βNF                                               waterborne (static)
βNF                                               waterborne (static)
3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)                        single i.p. injection
3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)                        single i.p. injection
βNF                                               single i.p. injection
βNF                                               single i.p. injection
βNF                                               single i.p. injection
B[a]P                                             waterborne
B[a]P                                             daily oral dosage
B[a]P                                             daily oral dosage
B[a]P                                             daily oral dosage
B[a]P, BkF, DBC mixture                           oral dosageadministered on (0, 12, 24, 36, 50d)
                                                  daily oral dosage
Aroclor 1254:tributyltin:3-methycholanthrene:nonnyl-phenol mixture
crude oil (North Sea)                             waterborne (continual)
paraquat                                          waterborne (static)
paraquat                                          waterborne (static)
paraquat                                          waterborne (static)
cadmium                                           waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                           waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                           waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                           waterborne (continual)
lead                                              waterborne (renewal)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide                          single i.p. injection
copper sulphate pentahydrate                      waterborne (continual)

B[a]P                                             single i.p. injection
confinment stess                                  \
B[a]P                                             single i.p. injection
synthetic detergentent                            waterborne
phosphamidon                                      waterborne
lead chloride                                     waterborne
lead chloride                                     waterborne
lead chloride                                     waterborne
lead chloride                                     waterborne
cadmium                                           waterborne (static)
rotenone                                          waterborne
rotenone                                          waterborne
rotenone                                          waterborne
rotenone                                          waterborne
copper                                            waterborne
copper                                            waterborne
carbofuran                                        waterborne (continual)
fenvalerate                                       waterborne (continual)
3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)                        single i.p. injection
3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)                        single i.p. injection
3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)                        single i.p. injection
oil spill                                         field study (Prince Willian Sound, Alaska)
oil spill                                         field study (Prince Willian Sound, Alaska)
aldrin                                            waterborne (renewal)
carbaryl                                          waterborne
methyl parathion                                 waterborne (static)
phosphamidon                                     waterborne (static)
o,p'-DDT                                         oral dosage (daily)
cadmium                                          waterborne (renewal)
oil spill                                        field monitoring (Milford Haven, Wales, UK)
copper                                           waterborne
copper                                           waterborne
mercury                                          waterborne
copper                                           waterborne
B[a]P                                            waterborne
B[a]P                                            waterborne
βNF                                              single i.p. injection
βNF                                              single i.p. injection
βNF                                              single i.p. injection
acidification                                    \
acidification                                    \
acidification                                    \
Clophen A50                                      single i.p. injection
βNF                                              single i.p. injection
4-nonylphenol                                    single i.p. injection
17β-estradiol (E2)                               single i.p. injection
chasing by a hand net                            daily
cadmium                                          waterborne
acidification                                    \
acidification                                    \
acidification                                    \
acidification                                    \
3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)                       single i.p. injection
3,,',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or B[a]P           waterborne (static)
3,,',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or B[a]P           waterborne (static)
3,,',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or B[a]P           waterborne (static)
3,,',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or B[a]P           waterborne (static)
copper                                           waterborne (renewal)
copper                                           waterborne (renewal)
silver                                           waterborne (renewal)
silver                                           waterborne (renewal)
silver                                           waterborne
aluminum                                         waterborne (static)
B[a]P                                            waterborne (continual)
Polish wood rosin                                waterborne
P5CDF                                            daily oral dosage
copper or cyanide                                waterborne
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)       single i.p. injection
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)       single i.p. injection
                                                 waterborne (static)
sediment contaminated with unbleached pulp mill effluent
3,,',4,4'-tetrachlorodiphenyl                    gavage intubation
3,,',4,4'-tetrachlorodiphenyl                    single i.p. injection
17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2)                       intra-arterial injection
TeCB                                             waterborne
TeCG                                             waterborne
methylmercury                                    waterborne (renewal)
methylmercury                                    waterborne (renewal)
mercury                                          waterborne (renewal)
mercury                                           waterborne (renewal)
cadmium                                           waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                           waterborne (continual)
starvation                                        \
TeCG                                              waterborne
TeCG                                              waterborne
phosphamidon                                      \
cadmium                                           waterborne
cadmium                                           waterborne
lead                                              waterborne
lead                                              waterborne
lead                                              waterborne
lead                                              waterborne
chlorpyrifos                                      waterborne (renewal)
dimethoate                                        waterborne (renewal)
methylazoxymethanol (MAM)                         waterborne
                                                   waterborne (renewal)
diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-[6-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-4-pyrimidinyl] phosphorothioate
                                                   waterborne (renewal)
diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-[6-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-5-pyrimidinyl] phosphorothioate
17β-estradiol (E2)                                 waterborne (renewal)
17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2)                        waterborne
17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2)                        waterborne
temperature increase                              \
temperature increase                              \
sumithion                                         waterborne
cypermethrin                                      waterborne
cypermethrin                                      waterborne
cypermethrin                                      waterborne
cypermethrin                                      waterborne
cypermethrin                                      waterborne
ammonia                                           waterborne (renewal)
profenofos                                        waterborne
linear alkylbenzebe sulfonate                     waterborne (static)
cadmium                                           waterborne
butachlor                                         waterborne
dimecron                                          waterborne
dimecron                                          waterborne
17β-estradiol (E2)                                single i.p. injection
B[a]P                                             intramuscular administration
PCB156                                            intramuscular administration
2-chlorosytingaldehyde (3-CSA)                    waterborne (renewal)
3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)                        single i.p. injection
sediment extract                                  single i.p. injection
fenitrothion                                      waterborne (static)
copper                                            waterborne
copper                                            waterborne
copper                                            waterborne
cadmium                                           waterborne
copper                                            waterborne
phenanthrene                                      waterborne
phenol                                            waterborne
SDS                                               waterborne
TBT                                               field transplant experimetn
primaryily treated domestic sewage                \
                                                 waterborne (continual)
secondary treated sewage effluent, Chelmsford, Essex, UK
WAF of Bass Strait stabilized crude oil           waterborne (renewed every 2d)
WAF of Bass Strait stabilized crude oil           waterborne (renewed every 2d)
WAF of Bass Strait stabilized crude oil           waterborne (renewed every 2d)
dispersed crude oil or WAF                        waterborne
dispersed crude oil or WAF                        waterborne
dispersed crude oil or WAF                        waterborne
17β-estradiol (E2)                                single i.p. injection
17β-estradiol (E2)                                single i.p. injection
aluminum, pH 5                                    waterborne (static)
aluminum, pH 5                                    waterborne (static)
aluminum, pH 5                                    waterborne (static)
PCB126                                            single i.p. injection
PCB126                                            single i.p. injection
17β-estradiol (E2)                                weekly ip injection (weekly)
17β-estradiol (E2)                                weekly ip injection (weekly)
P5CDF                                             single i.p. injection
P5CDF                                             single i.p. injection
P5CDF                                             single i.p. injection
P5CDF                                             single i.p. injection
P5CDF                                             single i.p. injection
P5CDF                                             single i.p. injection
P5CDF                                             single i.p. injection
P5CDF                                             single i.p. injection
crude oil                                         waterborne (continual)
βNF                                               single i.p. injection
βNF                                               single i.p. injection
βNF                                               single i.p. injection
copper                                            waterborne
cadmium                                           waterborne
aluminum                                          waterborne (continual)
monocrotophos                                     waterborne
copper                                            waterborne
bleached kraft pulp mill effluent                 wild animals collected down stream of a bleached kraft pulp mill, begin at 1996
bleached kraft pulp mill effluent                 wild animals collected down stream of a bleached kraft pulp mill, begin at 1996
formalin                                          waterborne (static)
λ-cyhalothrin                                     waterborne (renewed every 3d)
λ-cyhalothrin                                     waterborne (renewed every 3d)
λ-cyhalothrin                                     waterborne (renewed every 3d)
linear tridecyl benzene sulfonate (LTBS)          waterborne
linear tridecyl benzene sulfonate (LTBS)          waterborne
Hydrogen hexachloroplatinate (H2PtCl6)            waterborne
procymidone (fungicide dicarboximide)             waterborne
procymidone (fungicide dicarboximide)             waterborne
phosphamidon                                      waterborne
atrazine                                          waterborne
industrial wastewater                             field monitoring (Lille Belt, Denmark)
crude oil (Ural, Maya types, and lubricant oil)   waterborne
colchicine                                        waterborne (static)
mitomycin C                                       waterborne (static)
acidification                                     \
allyl formate                                     single oral dosage
resin acids                                       \
aluminum, pH 5-7                                    waterborne (continual)
chlorine dioxide                                    waterborne
naphthalene                                         waterborne (static renenwal)
copper                                              waterborne
cadmium                                             waterborne
hydrogen sulphide                                   periodic exposure (6 hour per day)
temperature increase                                \
PCB126                                              single i.p. injection
sewage                                              field monitoring
oil spill                                      field monitoring (William Sound, Alaska)
                                               field monitoring (Belews lake, North Carolina)
selenium contaminated sewage (Belews lake, North Carolina)
                                               field monitoring (Belews lake, North Carolina)
selenium contaminated sewage (Belews lake, North Carolina)
sewage                                              field monitoring (sewage outfall, Marseille, France)
sewage                                              field monitoring (sewage outfall, Marseille, France)
process effluent disposition                        field monitoring (Alice Arm)
process effluent disposition                        field monitoring (Alice Arm)
aviation gasoline spill                             field monitroing
municipal wastewater                                field monitoring
oil spill                                           field monitoring (Amoco Cadiz)
sewage                                              field monitoring (Raritan river)
acidification                                       experimental lake
acidification                                       experimental lake
acidification                                       experimental lake
                                                      field monitoring (Prince Willian Sound, Alaska)
oil spill (Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince Willian Sound, Alaska, March 24 1989)
simetryn                                            waterborne
acidification                                       field monitoring (Sudbury, Ont, Canada)
permethrin                                          aerially applied
severe anoxia                                       field monitoring (Orbetello lagoon, Italy)
severe anoxia                                       field monitoring (Orbetello lagoon, Italy)
severe anoxia                                       field monitoring (Orbetello lagoon, Italy)
severe anoxia                                       field monitoring (Orbetello lagoon, Italy)
oil contamination                                   field monitoring (vicinity of an oil refinery, southwest Finaland)
oil contamination                                   field monitoring (vicinity of an oil refinery, southwest Finaland)
oil spill                                           waterborne
rotenone                                            prairie wetlands treated with rotenone
sewage                                              field monitoring (Erie Lake, Ontario)
sewage                                              field monitoring (Firth of Clyde, Scotland)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (Crouch Estuary, UK)
sulphit pulp mill effluent                          field monitoring (Swedish estuary)
copper                                              field monitoring
chlorpyrifos                                        waterborne (static)
heavy metals from mine (Cd, As, Pb, Zn)             field monitoring (Ichikawa River, Japan)
heavy metals from mine (Cd, As, Pb, Zn)             field monitoring (Ichikawa River, Japan)
heavy metals from mine (Cd, As, Pb, Zn)             field monitoring (Ichi-kawa River, Japan)
methabenzthiazuron                                  waterborne (static)
untreated heavy and chemical industrial waste       field monitoring (Dokai Bay, northern Kyushu, Japan)
acidification                                       field monitoring (experimental lake, Sudbury, Ontario)
acidification                                       field monitoring (experimental lake, Sudbury, Ontario)
deltamethrin                                        aerially applied
Tebufenozide                                        toxicant applied to large lake enclosures
TBT                                                 field monitoring (Crouch Estuary, UK)
heavy metals from mine (Cd, As, Pb, Zn)             field monitoring (Ichikawa River, Japan)
sewage                                              field monitoring (Firth of Clyde, Scotland)
oil spill                                           \
PAHs                                              field monitoring
B[a]P                                             single i.p. injection
\                                                 field exposure
diethylstilbestrol                                waterborne (continual)
17β-estradiol (E2)                                waterborne (continual)
p-nonylphenol                                     waterborne (continual)
textile effluent                                  waterborne (static renenwal)
textile effluent                                  waterborne (static renenwal)
B[a]P                                             waterborne
B[a]P, BkF, DBC mixture                           oral dosageadministered on (0, 12, 24, 36, 50d)
                                                  daily oral dosage
Aroclor 1254:tributyltin:3-methycholanthrene:nonnyl-phenol mixture
B[a]P                                             single i.p. injection
crude oil (North Sea)                             waterborne (continual)
crude oil (North Sea)                             waterborne (continual)
\                                                 field exposure
UV irradiation                                    waterborne
B[a]P                                             waterborne (continual)
hydrogen peroxide                                 waterborne
B[a]P                                             fed by contamintaed marine liquifry
4-nitroquinoline-oxide                            single i.p. injection
B[a]P                                             single i.p. injection
4-nonylphenol                                     single i.p. injection
4-nonylphenol                                     single i.p. injection
17β-estradiol (E2)                                single i.p. injection
17β-estradiol (E2)                                single i.p. injection
17β-estradiol (E2)                                single i.p. injection
3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)                        single i.p. injection
3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)                        single i.p. injection
B[a]P                                             waterborne (continual)
βNF                                               single i.p. injection
B[a]P                                             single i.p. injection
B[a]P                                             waterborne (renewal)
B[a]P                                             waterborne (renewal)
B[a]P                                             waterborne (renewal)
17β-estradiol (E2)                                single i.p. injection
B[a]P                                             waterborne (continual)
γ-ray                                             36rad/min
γ-ray                                             36rad/min
4-nonylphenol                                     single i.p. injection
paraquat                                          single i.p. injection
monocrotophos                                     waterborne (renewal)
copper                                            waterborne (static)
mercuric acetate                                  waterborne (static, 12h per day)
carbofuran                                        waterborne
carbofuran                                        waterborne
cadmium                                           waterborne (renewed by flowthorugh system every 6d)
copper                                            waterborne (continual)
lindane                                           waterborne
copper                                            waterborne (renewal)
copper                                            waterborne (renewal)
copper                                            waterborne (renewal)
cadmium                                           \
cadmium                                           \
arsenic                                             waterborne
copper sulphate pentahydrate                        waterborne (continual)
lead chloride                                       waterborne
lead chloride                                       waterborne
lead chloride                                       waterborne
lead chloride                                       waterborne
pentachlorophenol (PCP)                             waterborne
copper                                              waterborne
copper                                              waterborne
oil spill                                           field study (Prince Willian Sound, Alaska)
crude oil (Ural, Maya types, and lubricant oil)     waterborne
oil spill                                           field monitoring (Milford Haven, Wales, UK)
disel oil                                           \
acidification                                       \
copper                                              waterborne (renewal)
copper                                              waterborne (renewal)
silver                                              waterborne
zinc                                                waterborne
zinc                                                waterborne
nickel                                              waterborne (continual)
alkalnation                                         waterborne (continual)
alkalnation                                         waterborne (continual)
copper                                              waterborne
TeCG                                                waterborne
phosphamidon                                        \
cadmium                                             waterborne
cadmium                                             waterborne (static)
chromium                                            waterborne (static)
copper                                              waterborne (static)
mercury                                             waterborne (static)
lead                                                waterborne (static)
zinc                                                waterborne (static)
copper                                              waterborne
DDT                                                 field monitoring (East Shoal Lake, Manitoba)
fenitrothion                                        waterborne (continual)
copper                                              waterborne
copper                                              waterborne
copper                                              waterborne
copper                                              waterborne
copper                                              waterborne
cadmium                                             waterborne
cadmium                                             waterborne
hydrogen sulphide                                   periodic exposure (6 hour per day)
cadmium                                             waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                             waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                             waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                             waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                             waterborne (continual)
cadmium                                             waterborne (continual)
TBT                                                 field monitroing (Sourthern and Western Coast, Vancouver Island and Strait of Gerogia)
waste water discharge                               field monitoring (Swedish fjord)
sewage                                              field monitoring (Raritan river)
                                                    density-dependent modelling
potential oil spill damage in the U.S. mid-Alantic Outer Continental Shelf oil leasing area
dispersants                                         field monitoring (Porthleven, Cornwall)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (Isle of Cumbrae and Shetland Isle, UK)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (Isle of Cumbrae and Shetland Isle, UK)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (Isle of Cumbrae and Shetland Isle, UK)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (North Sea)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (North Sea)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (North Sea)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (North Sea and the Clyde Sea, UK)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (UK)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (UK)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (UK)
TBT                                                 field monitoring (Firth of Forth, UK)
TBT                                                 Field monitoring
acidification                                       field monitoring (acidified lakes in southern Finland)
acidification                                       field monitoring (acidified lakes in southern Finland)
acidification                                       field monitoring (Lake Vaha Valkjarvi, Southern Finland)
acidification                                       field monitroing (Gaular, Vikedal and Bjerkreim catchments, Norway)
                                                    density-dependent modelling
potential oil spill damage in the U.S. mid-Alantic Outer Continental Shelf oil leasing area
oil spill                                           field monitoring (West Falmouth, Massachusetts)
thiocyanate (SCN-)                                  nominal conc.
                                                      during 1974-1985
selenium from coal-fired electric generating facility field monitoring
fenitrothion                                        waterborne (static)
fenitrothion                                        waterborne (static)
aluminum                                            waterborne (continual)
DSP toxin                                           via ingestion of Prorocentrum lima
DSP toxin                                           via ingestion of Prorocentrum lima
DSP toxin                                           via ingestion of Prorocentrum lima
pentachlorophenol (PCP)                             waterborne (static)
cadmium                                             waterborne (renewed every 5d)
cadmium                                             waterborne (renewed every 5d)
naphthalene                                         waterborne (static)
methoxychlor                                        waterborne
chloronitrophenol (CNP)                             waterborne (continual)
thiobencarb                                         waterborne (continual)
rogor                                               waterborne (continual)
chloronitrophenol (CNP)                             waterborne (continual)
thiobencarb                                         waterborne (continual)
copper                                              waterborne
                                                 aromatic fractions)
petroleum hydrocarbon (saturated chains and mostindigenous animals in Galveston Bay
PAHs                                                transplantation experiment (Elizabeth River, Virginia)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)          TCDD spiked sediment
pyribenzoxim                                        waterborne (continual)
B[a]P                                               daily oral dosage
copper                                              waterborne (renewal)
B[a]P                                               single i.p. injection
crude oil (North Sea)                               waterborne (continual)
crude oil (North Sea)                               waterborne (continual)
zinc                                                waterborne (static)
pentachlorophenol (PCP)                             waterborne
PSP toxins                                          fed with A. minutum every 2d
zinc                                                waterborne
copper sulphate pentahydrate                        waterborne (continual)
phenol                                              waterborne (renewed every 2d)
dieldrin                                                 waterborne
3-chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride (CPTH)                waterborne (continual)
avermectin B1a                                          waterborne (continual)
239,240
          Pu, 241Am and 243,244Cm from radioactive liquid waste
                                                        field monitoring (Sellafield, Ireland)
floranthene                                              waterborne (continual)
anthracene                                               waterborne (static renenwal)
fluorene                                                 waterborne (static renenwal)
pyrene                                                   waterborne (static renenwal)
oil spill                                                field monitoring (Milford Haven, Wales, UK)
disel fuel adsorbed on kaolin particles                  waterborne
hydrocarbons                                             waterborne (continual)
copper                                                   waterborne
phenathrene                                              waterborne
silver                                                   waterborne (continual)
decabromodiphenyl ether (DeBDE)                          daily oral dosage
P5CDF                                                    daily oral dosage
silver                                                   waterborne (static)
4-chloroaniline                                          waterborne (static)
aniline                                                  waterborne (static)
copper                                                   waterborne
copper, 20oC, 30oC                                       waterborne
cadmium                                                  waterborne
phenanthrene                                             waterborne (continual)
2-chlorosytingaldehyde (2-CSA)                           waterborne (renewal)
copper                                                   waterborne (renewal)
oil spill                                                field monitoring (Tomakomai, Hokkaido)
B[a]P                                                    waterborne
maganese                                                 \
B[a]P                                                    waterborne
dispersed topped crude oil                               waterborne (continual)
Environmentally realistic?   Toxicant Level References
                             WSF                Busdosh, 1981
                             2%, 10%            Temara et al., 1999
Yes                          100,200 ppb        Waiwood et al., 1978
Yes                          0.27ppm            Pearson et al., 1981
Yes                          0.27ppm            Pearson et al., 1981
Yes                          3-9ppb             Wibe et al., 2001
Yes                          3-9ppb             Wibe et al., 2001
                                                 Kankaanpaa et al., 1995
                             ~8.3 mg/g organic chlorine determined as adsorbable organic halogen (AOX)
yes                          20ppm              Hughes and Tort, 1985
Yes                          22ppb              Saucier et al., 1991
                             <0.7 96h LC50      Howard, 1975
No                           100ppb             Shin et al., 2001
                             30kl               Nishihama et al., 1998
Yes                          not clear          George et al., 1995
No                           100ppb             Kasai and Hanazato, 1995
No                           101ppb             Kasai and Hanazato, 1995
                             2.7ppm             Kreutzweiser et al., 1995
                             0.16 ng/kg b.w.    Palace et al., 1996
                             1.6 ng/kg b.w.     Palace et al., 1996
                             0.16, 1.6 ng/kg    Palace et al., 1996
                             125 mg/kg b.w.     Hasspieler et al., 1994
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1994
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1994
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1994
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1994
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1994
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1994
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1995
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1995
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1995
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1995
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1995
                             10ppm              Chandravathy and Reddy, 1995
                             0.106ppb           Ghosh et al., 2001
                             1.06ppb            Ghosh et al., 2001
                             13.2-25.7ppm       Fernandez-Vega et al., 1999
                             13.2-25.7ppm       Fernandez-Vega et al., 1999
                             41.8ppm            Pena-Llopis et al., ?
                             41.8ppm            Pena-Llopis et al., ?
                             33.46ppm           Sancho et al., 2000
                             0.02-0.04ppm       Sancho et al., 1997
                             0.22ppm            Sancho et al., 2000
                             0.22ppm            Sancho et al., 2000
Yes                          20ppb              Tamara et al., 1997
Yes                          \                  De Luca-Abbott, 2001
                                                  Deoray and Wagh, 1991
                             sublethal concentration
                                                  Deoray and Wagh, 1991
                             sublethal concentration
                                                  Deoray and Wagh, 1991
                             sublethal concentration
Yes                          \                  Kurelec et al., 1977
                             5ppm               Bolognani-Fantin and Rebecchi, 1993
                             100ppb             Jacabson and Reimschuessel, 1998
Yes                          not clear          Janz et al., 2001
Yes   \                    Picado and Le-Gal, 1990
      312-462ppb           Bhattacharya and Jash, 1981
      sublethal and lethal Gopal et al., 1985
      2.2ppt               Irwin et al., 2001
      0.01-0.03ppm         Medda et al., 1993
      0.01-0.03ppm         Medda et al., 1993
      1 mg/ml              Shakoori et al., 1992
      1 mg/ml              Shakoori et al., 1992
      1 mg/ml              Shakoori et al., 1992
      not mentioned        Panigrahi et al., 1990
      2ppm                 Shobha-Rani et al., 1989
      2ppm                 Shobha-Rani et al., 1989
      2ppm                 Shobha-Rani et al., 1989
      1, 10 ug/g food/d    Pedlar et al., 2002.
      100 ug/g food/d      Pedlar et al., 2002.
      10-100ppm            Drewa et al., 1977
      10-100ppm            Drewa et al., 1977
      80ppb                Ringwood et al., 1998
      0.089-0.71ppb        Hemmer et al., 2002
      5.6-59.6ppb          Hemmer et al., 2002
      50 g/ml              Ali et al., 1992
      50 g/ml              Ali et al., 1992
      50 g/ml              Ali et al., 1992
      2ppm                 Balint et al., 1995
      2ppm                 Balint et al., 1995
      2ppm                 Balint et al., 1995
      16ppm                Chandra et al., 2001
      1.6ppm               de la Torre et al., 2000
      1.6ppm               de la Torre et al., 2000
      1.6ppm               de la Torre et al., 2000
      1.6ppm               de la Torre et al., 2000
      1.6ppm               de la Torre et al., 2000
      1.6ppm               de la Torre et al., 2000
      2ppm                 Malla-Reddy and Phillip, 1991
      2ppm                 Malla-Reddy and Phillip, 1991
      2ppm                 Malla-Reddy and Phillip, 1991
      100ppb               Nakagawa et al., 1995
      50ppm                Oruc and Uener, 1999
      50, 80ppm            Oruc and Uener, 1999
      50, 80ppm            Oruc and Uener, 1999
      50, 80ppm            Oruc and Uener, 1999
      0.5-1.1ppm           Kumar and Alam-Ansari, 1986
      0.5-1.1ppm           Kumar and Alam-Ansari, 1986
      0.5-1.1ppm           Kumar and Alam-Ansari, 1986
      0.5-1.1ppm           Kumar and Alam-Ansari, 1986
      0.5-1.1ppm           Kumar and Alam-Ansari, 1986
      0.5-1.1ppm           Kumar and Alam-Ansari, 1986
      1ppb                 Andersen et al., 2001
      0.8-570ppb           De Coen and Janssen, 1997
      0.8-570ppb           De Coen and Janssen, 1997
      3.2ppb               De Coen and Janssen, 1997
      1.8-30ppb            De Coen and Janssen, 1997
      3.2-30ppb            De Coen and Janssen, 1997
      56ppb                De Coen and Janssen, 1997
      56-180ppb            De Coen and Janssen, 1997
      56-180ppb            De Coen and Janssen, 1997
      4-256ppb             Berglind et al., 1985
      0.1, 0.3uM           Gravato and Santos, ?
      0.9,2.7uM            Gravato and Santos, ?
      20mg/kg b.w.         Lemaire et al., 1996
      20mg/kg b.w.         Lemaire et al., 1996
      80 mg/kg b.w.        Novi et al., 1998
      80 mg/kg b.w.        Novi et al., 1998
      80 mg/kg b.w.        Novi et al., 1998
      1.01ppb              Levine and Oris, 1997
      0.25; 12.5ug/g/d     Wu et al., 2003
      0.25; 12.5ug/g/d     Wu et al., 2003
      0.25; 12.5ug/g/d     Wu et al., 2003
                         Ericson
      25umol of each substance/kget al., 1999
      10:1:1:10ppm         Rice and Xiang, 2000
      1ppm                 Aas et al., 2000
      0.5mM                Wenning et al., 1988
      1mM                  Wenning et al., 1988
      2mM                  Wenning et al., 1988
      0.26ppm              Sastry et al., 1985
      0.26ppm              Sastry et al., 1985
      0.26ppm              Sastry et al., 1985
      0.26ppm              Sastry et al., 1985
      50ppb                Gould and Greig, 1983
      126 mg/kg b.w.       Hasspieler et al., 1994
      354ppb               Perkins et al., 1997

      20mg/kg b.w.         Ploch et al., 1998
      1h                   Schlenk et al., 1999
      20mg/kg b.w.         Ploch et al., 1998
                           Chellan et al., 1999
      sublethal concentration
      0.01-0.03ppm         Medda et al., 1993
      1/10th 96hLC50       Reddy et al., 1998
      1/10th 96hLC50       Reddy et al., 1998
      1/10th 96hLC50       Reddy et al., 1998
      1/10th 96hLC50       Reddy et al., 1998
                           Vanklhede, and Dhande, 1999
      sublethal concentration
      0.1ppm               Medda et al., 1995
      0.1ppm               Medda et al., 1995
      0.1ppm               Medda et al., 1995
      0.1ppm               Medda et al., 1995
      261ppb               Heath, 1991
      261ppb               Heath, 1991
      30ppb                Hohreiter et al., 1991
      0.2ppb               Hohreiter et al., 1991
      20 mg/kg b.w.        Lemaire et al., 1996
      20mg/kg b.w.         Lemaire et al., 1996
      20 mg/kg b.w.        Lemaire et al., 1996
yes   ~ 11 million gallons Duffy et al., 1994
yes   ~ 11 million gallons Duffy et al., 1994
      0.008-0.021ppm       Murti and Shukla, 1984
                           Jayaprada and Rao, 1991
      sublethal concentration
      0.04, 0.12ppm         Reddy et al., 1987
      0.4, 1.2ppm           Reddy et al., 1987
      0.02 ug/g/d           Khan and Thomas, ?
      0.5ppm                Evtushenko et al., 1986
yes   over 70000t crude oilDyrynda et al., 2000
                           Kirchin et
      environmentally realistic levels al., 1992
      0.625uM               Panfoli et al., 2000
      0.2uM                 Panfoli et al., 2000
      0.6uM                 Viarengo et al., 1996
      100ppb                Cravedei et al., 1998
      10, 100ppb            Cravedei et al., 1998
      5mg/kg b.w.           Lemaire et al., 1996
      5mg/kg b.w.           Lemaire et al., 1996
      5mg/kg b.w.           Lemaire et al., 1996
      pH4.5                 Adams et al., 1985.
      pH4.5                 Adams et al., 1985.
      pH4.5                 Adams et al., 1985.
      500mg/kg b.w.         Anderson, 1975.
      100mg/kg b.w.         Anderson, 1975.
      50 mg/kg b.w.         Arukwe et al., 2002
      5 mg/kg b.w.          Arukwe et al., 2002
      2 min/day             Blom et al., 2000
      1ppb                  Brodeur et al., 1998
      pH4.76                Brown et al., 1986
      pH4.76                Brown et al., 1986
      pH4.76                Brown et al., 1986
      pH4.76                Brown et al., 1986
      not clear             Celander and Foerlin, 1995
      10 or 100ppb          Cravedi et al., 1997
      100ppb                Cravedi et al., 1997
      10 or 100ppb          Cravedi et al., 1997
      100ppb                Cravedi et al., 1997
      26.9ppb               Dethloff et al., 1999
      26.9ppb               Dethloff et al., 1999
      3-5ppb                Galvez and Wood, 2002
      3-5ppb                Galvez and Wood, 2002
      3, 5ppb               Galvez and Wood, 2002
      10-4 M                Hwang et al., 2000
      1.23+0.08ppb          Levine and Oris, 1999
      0.5ppm                Mattsoff and Oikari, 1987
      0.82, 9 ng/g/d        Muir et al., 1990
                           Munoz et al., 1991
      sublethal concentration
      10ug/kg b.w.          Newsted and Gisey, 1993
      10ug/kg b.w.          Newsted and Gisey, 1993
      2, 4L                 Otto et al., 1994
      3.3 umol/kg b.w.      Pastershank et al., 1999
      3.3 umol/kg b.w.      Pastershank et al., 1999
      0.001-10 mg/kg b.w. Schultz et al., 2001
      200ppb                Yang and Randall, 1997
      200ppb                Yang and Randall, 1997
      6ppb                  Bleau et al., 1996
      6ppb                  Bleau et al., 1996
      28-112ppb             Bleau et al., 1996
      28-112ppb          Bleau et al., 1996
      0.4-0.8ppm         Hontela et al., 1996
      0.4-2.4ppm         Hontela et al., 1996
      \                  Yamashita and Suzuki, 1996
      100ppb             Yang and Randall, 1997
      100ppb             Yang and Randall, 1997
      LC50, 96h          Baskaran and Selvarajan, 1990
      10ppb              Fu et al., 1989
      10ppb              Fu et al., 1989
      17.5, 35ppm        James et al., 1996
      17.5, 35ppm        James et al., 1996
      17.5, 35ppm        James et al., 1996
      17.5, 35ppm        James et al., 1996
      0.117ppm           Pathiratne and Athauda, 1998
      14.84ppm           Pathiratne and Athauda, 1998
      1-2ppm             Aoki et al., 1993
      100ppb             Shin et al., 2001
      100ppb             Shin et al., 2001
      20ppb              Foran et al., 2000
      1nM                Kordes et al., 2002
      100nM              Kordes et al., 2002
      32oC               Piano et al., 2002
      32oC               Piano et al., 2002
      1-4ppm             Bhagyalakshmi et al., 1984
      not clear          Yellamma et al., 1995
      not clear          Yellamma et al., 1995
      not clear          Yellamma et al., 1995
      not clear          Yellamma et al., 1995
      not clear          Yellamma et al., 1995
      3ppm               Marazza et al., 1996
      0.1ppb             Abdullah et al., 1994
      10ppm              Hwang et al., 1993
      1.5ppm             Moksnes et al., 1995
      26.6ppm            Rajyalakshmi et al., 1996
      6-18ppm            Reju, 1993
      6-18ppm            Reju, 1993
      0.5, 5mg/kg b.w.   Korte et al., 2000
      1 mg/kg b.w.       Beyer et al., 1994
      2.5 mg/kg b.w.     Beyer et al., 1994
      0.5ppb             Brumley et al., 1998
      10mg/kg b.w.       Geroge and Young, 1986
                        Clemons
      ~860ug selected PACs/kg b.w.et al, 1999
      20ppb              Escartin and Porte, 1996
      29ppb              Cerqueira and Fernandes, 2002
      29ppb              Cerqueira and Fernandes, 2002
      29ppb              Cerqueira and Fernandes, 2002
      1.18uM             Heimann et al., 2002
      0.96uM             Heimann et al., 2002
      1.64uM             Heimann et al., 2002
      1.64uM             Heimann et al., 2002
      15.6uM             Heimann et al., 2002
yes   \                  Sole, 2000
      12.5-100%          Rodgers-Gray et al., 2001
                     100% Rodgers-Gray et al., 2001
                         Gagnon and
      250ppm on 1-2d, 125ppm on 3-4dHolway, 1999
                         Gagnon and
      250ppm on 1-2d, 125ppm on 3-4dHolway, 1999
                         Gagnon and
      250ppm on 1-2d, 125ppm on 3-4dHolway, 1999
      not clear            Gagnon and Holway, 1999
      not clear            Gagnon and Holway, 1999
      not clear            Gagnon and Holway, 1999
      100 ug/kg b.w.       Sherry et al., 1999
      500-1000 ug/kg b.w. Sherry et al., 1999
      12.5ppb              Waring et al., 1996
      12.5ppb              Waring et al., 1996
      12.5ppb              Waring et al., 1996
      0.6-25mg/kg b.w.     Brown et al., 1993
      0.6-25mg/kg b.w.     Brown et al., 1993
      5 mg/kg b.w.         Palace et al., 2001
      5 mg/kg b.w.         Palace et al., 2001
      1ng/g b.w.           Delorme et al., 1993
      1ng/g b.w.           Delorme et al., 1993
      1ng/g b.w.           Delorme et al., 1993
      1ng/g b.w.           Delorme et al., 1993
      1ng/g b.w.           Delorme et al., 1993
      1ng/g b.w.           Delorme et al., 1993
      1ng/g b.w.           Delorme et al., 1993
      1ng/g b.w.           Delorme et al., 1993
      1-25% WSF            Lignot et al., 1997
      10mg/kg b.w.         Pretti et al., 2001
      10mg/kg b.w.         Pretti et al., 2001
      10mg/kg b.w.         Pretti et al., 2001
      96h LC50             Reimschuessel et al., 1993
      5ppm                 Gony, 1990
      250-500ppb           Kadar et al., 2001
      2,4ppm               Patil et al., 1992
      0.5ppm               Nonnotte et al., 1993
yes   not clear            Janz et al., 2001
yes   not clear            Janz et al., 2001
      50-500ppm            Cruz and Pitogo, 1989
      0.05ppb              Campana et al., 1999
      0.01ppb              Campana et al., 1999
      0.001ppb             Campana et al., 1999
      1ppm                 Maciorowski et al., 1977
      10ppm                Maciorowski et al., 1977
      16ppb                Jouhaud et al., 1999
      1ppm                 Paris-Palacio et al., 1998
      1ppm                 Paris-Palacio et al., 1998
      0.01ml/L             Medda et al., 1992
      0.17ppm              Biagianti-Risbourg and Bastide, 1995
yes   \                    Wrisberg et al., 1992
      WAF                  Cajaraville et al., 1997
      0.5ppm               Majone et al., 1990
      10-7M, 0.5x10-7 M    Majone et al., 1990
      pH4.76               Brown et al., 1986
      100 ul/kg            Droy and Hinton, 1988
      not clear            Mattsoff and Oikari, 1987
      150ppb              Norrgren et al., 1991
      0.13, 0.19ppm       Yonkos et al., 2000
      10ppm               Sarojini et al., 1995
      29ppb               Cerqueira and Fernandes, 2002
      20ppm               Kumari and Gopal-Dutt, 1991
      sublethal levels    Black et al., 1994
      7oC elevation       Nolan et al., 2000
      0.6-25mg/kg b.w.    Brown et al., 1993
yes   \                   Archambault et al., 2001
yes   \                   Barber et al., 1995
yes   \                   Barwick and Harrell, 1997
yes   \                   Barwick and Harrell, 1997
yes   \                   Bellan et al., 1999
yes   \                   Bellan et al., 1999
yes   \                   Brinkhurst et al., 1987
yes   \                   Brinkhurst et al., 1987
yes   5000 gall           Bugbee and Walter, 1973
yes   not clear           Crawford et al., 1992
yes   not clear           Dauvin and Gentil, 1990
yes   \                   Dean and Haskin, 1964
      pH5                 Findlay and Kasian, 1991
      pH5                 Findlay and Kasian, 1991
      pH5                 Findlay and Kasian, 1991
yes   ~ 11 million gallons Hooten and Highsmith, 1996
      0.1ppm              Kasai and Hanazato, 1995
yes   \                   Keller et al., 2002
      not clear           Kreutweiser and Kingsbury, 1987
yes   \                   Lardicci et al., 2001
yes   \                   Lardicci et al., 2001
yes   \                   Lardicci et al., 2001
yes   \                   Lardicci et al., 2001
yes   \                   Leppakoski and Lindstorm, 1978
yes   \                   Leppakoski and Lindstorm, 1978
      \                   Mann and Clark, 1978
      not clear           Melaas et al., 2001
yes   \                   Metcalfe-Smith et al., 2000
yes   \                   Moore and Rodger, 1991
yes   \                   Rees et al., 2001
yes   \                   Rosenberg, 1972
yes   ~12-32ppb           Schultheis et al., 1997
      0.1-44ppb           Van den Brink et al., 1996
yes                        average = et al., ug/L,
      before mine closure, Watanabe Cd, 102000 Pb, 100 ug/L, As, 50 ug/L.
yes                        average = et al., ug/L,
      before mine closure, Watanabe Cd, 102000 Pb, 100 ug/L, As, 50 ug/L.
yes                        average = et al., ug/L,
      before mine closure, Watanabe Cd, 102000 Pb, 100 ug/L, As, 50 ug/L.
      10-3371 ug a.i./L   Wellmann et al., 1998
yes   \                   Yamada et al., 1991
yes   pH5.7               Yan et al., 1996
yes   pH5.7               Yan et al., 1996
      7.5 g/ha            Morrill and Neal, 1990
      0.07-0.66ppm        Kreutzweiser and Thomas, 1995
yes   \                   Rees et al., 2001
yes                        average = et al., ug/L,
      before mine closure, Watanabe Cd, 102000 Pb, 100 ug/L, As, 50 ug/L.
yes   \                   Moore and Rodger, 1991
      \                   Burns et al., 1993
yes                       Steinert et al., 1998
      40ppb diesel fuel marine standard equivalents
      20mg/kg b.w.        Ploch et al., 1998
yes   \                   Ralph and Petras, 1998
      20-100ppt           Folmar et al., 2000
      0.089-0.71ppb       Hemmer et al., 2002
      5.6-59.6ppb         Hemmer et al., 2002
      1-10%               Sumathi et al., 2001
      1-10%               Sumathi et al., 2001
      1.01ppb             Levine and Oris, 1997
                         Ericson
      25umol of each substance/kget al., 1999
      10:1:1:10ppm        Rice and Xiang, 2000
      12mg/kg b.w.        Rose et al., 2001
      0.06ppm             Aas et al., 2000
      1ppm                Aas et al., 2000
      \                   Ralph and Petras, 1998
      2.25-40KJ M-2 (240-360nm) et al., 2001
                          Fafandel
      1ppb                Shugart, 1989
      10, 100 uM          Pruski and Dixon, 2002
                         Akcha et al., 2000a
      2.08-4.16ug B[a]P/mg marine liquifry
      5-20 ug/g b.w.      Bihari et al., 1990
      5-20 ug/g b.w.      Bihari et al., 1990
      50 mg/kg b.w.       Arukwe et al., 2002
      5, 50 mg/kg b.w.    Arukwe et al., 2002
      5 mg/kg b.w.        Arukwe et al., 2002
      5 mg/kg b.w.        Arukwe et al., 2002
      5 mg/kg b.w.        Arukwe et al., 2002
      not clear           Celander and Foerlin, 1995
      not clear           Celander and Foerlin, 1995
      1.23+0.08ppb        Levine and Oris, 1999
      50 mg/kg b.w.       Zhang et al., 1990
      20ug/kg b.w.        James et al., 1992
      0.3-30ppb           Ching et al., 2001
      0.3-3ppb            Ching et al., 2001
      30ppb               Ching et al., 2001
      0.5, 5mg/kg b.w.    Korte et al., 2000
      1ppb                Shugart, 1988
      1000rad             Shugart and Gustin, 1989
      3000-6000rad        Shugart and Gustin, 1989
      25 mg/kg b.w.       Yadetie et al., 1999
      30mg/kg             Rodriguez-Ariza et al., 1999
      0.313-4.375ppm      Banu et al., 2001
      0.4-0.8ppm          Lundebye and Depledge, 1998
      10, 100ppm          Cunningham, 1976
      16ppm               Chandra et al., 2001
      16ppm               Chandra et al., 2001
      1.6ppm              de la Torre et al., 2000
      0.34+0.12 umol/L    De-Boeck et al., 1995
      ~250ppb             Hartgers et al., 1999
      0.2ppm              Nusetti et al., 1998
      0.2ppm              Nusetti et al., 1998
      0.2ppm              Nusetti et al., 1998
      2ppb                Baker and Montgomery, 2001
      0.5-1ppb            Baker and Montgomery, 2001
      300ppb               Depledge and Phillips, 1988
      465ppb               Perkins et al., 1997
      1/10th 96hLC50       Reddy et al., 1998
      1/10th 96hLC50       Reddy et al., 1998
      1/10th 96hLC50       Reddy et al., 1998
      1/10th 96hLC50       Reddy et al., 1998
      48, 173ppb           Samis et al., 1994
      0.5ppm               De-Pirro et al., 2001
      0.5ppm               De-Pirro et al., 2001
yes   ~ 11 million gallons Duffy et al., 1994
      WAF                  Cajaraville et al., 1992
yes   over 70000t crude oilDyrynda et al., 2000
      30, 130ppb           Widdows et al., 1985
      pH4.76               Brown et al., 1986
      26.9ppb              Dethloff et al., 1999
      26.9ppb              Dethloff et al., 1999
      3, 5ppb              Galvez and Wood, 2002
      20ppm                Hughes and Tort, 1985
      20ppm                Hughes and Tort, 1985
      0.05 of LC50         Hunghes et al., 1979
      pH 9.5               Wilkie and Wood, 1994
      pH 9.5               Wilkie and Wood, 1994
      2.2ppb               Marr et al., 1996
      100ppb               Yang and Randall, 1997
      LC50, 96h            Baskaran and Selvarajan, 1990
      10ppb                Fu et al., 1989
      0.1-10ppm            Lorenzon et al., 2001
      0.5-50ppm            Lorenzon et al., 2001
      0.1-2ppm             Lorenzon et al., 2001
      0.05-5ppm            Lorenzon et al., 2001
      10-500ppm            Lorenzon et al., 2001
      1-50ppm              Lorenzon et al., 2001
      0.5ppm               De-Pirro et al., 2001
yes   \                    Bugden and Evans, 1997
      >0.8ppb              Lignot et al., 1997
      29ppb                Cerqueira and Fernandes, 2002
      29ppb                Cerqueira and Fernandes, 2002
      29ppb                Cerqueira and Fernandes, 2002
      29ppb                Cerqueira and Fernandes, 2002
      29ppb                Cerqueira and Fernandes, 2002
      200ppm               Vogiatzis and Loumbourdis, 1998
      200ppm               Vogiatzis and Loumbourdis, 1998
      sublethal levels     Black et al., 1994
      25ppm                Tort and Torres, 1988
      25ppm                Tort and Torres, 1988
      25ppm                Tort and Torres, 1988
      25ppm                Tort and Torres, 1988
      25ppm                Tort and Torres, 1988
      25ppm                Tort and Torres, 1988
yes   \                    Reitsema et al., 2002
yes   \                    Rosenberg, 1972
yes   \                    Dean and Haskin, 1964
      \                    Samuels and Ladino, 1984
yes   \                   Hawkins et al., 2002
yes   \                   Birchenough et al., 2002
yes   \                   Birchenough et al., 2002
yes   \                   Birchenough et al., 2002
yes   \                   Evans et al., 2000
yes   \                   Evans et al., 2000
yes   \                   Evans et al., 2000
yes   \                   Evans et al., 1996
yes   \                   Hawkins et al., 2002
yes   \                   Hawkins et al., 2002
yes   \                   Hawkins et al., 2002
yes   \                   Miller et al., 1999
yes   \                   Minchin et al., 1995
yes   not clear           Nyberg et al., 2001
yes   not clear           Nyberg et al., 2001
yes   pH 4.5, 1980s       Rask et al., 2001
yes   average <5.5        Hesthagen et al., 2001
      \                   Samuels and Ladino, 1984
yes                        of wet mud
      ~6000 ug oil/g (ppm) Krebs and Burns, 1978
      40ppm               Brown et al., 1995
yes   \                   Lemly, 1997
      0.02ppm             Sancho et al., 1998
      0.04ppm             Sancho et al., 1998
      250-500ppb          Kadar et al., 2001
      173 cells/ml/day    Bauder et al., 2001
      173 cells/ml/day    Bauder et al., 2001
      173 cells/ml/day    Bauder et al., 2001
      50ppb               Benner and Tjeerdema, 1993
      0.8ppm              Lam et al., 1997
      0.8ppm              Lam et al., 1997
      0.1ppb              Corner et al., 1976
                           Armstrong et al.,
      juvenile, 2.0ppb; adult, 1.8 and 7.5ppb1976
      1.7+0.39ppb          Uno et al., 1997
      4.2+0.28ppb         Uno et al., 1997
      16.66ppm            Jouhaud et al., 1999
      1.7+0.39ppb         Uno et al., 1997
      4.2+0.28ppb         Uno et al., 1997
      100ppb              Lu et al., 1998
      \                   Anderson, 1975.
      \                   Pittinger et al., 1985
      39pg/g              Kuehl et al., 1987
      1, 10ppm            Seo et al., 2002
      0.25; 12.5ug/g/d    Wu et al., 2003
      0.2ppm              Nusetti et al., 1998
      5mg/kg b.w.         Willet et al., 1995
      1ppm                Aas et al., 2000
      1ppm                Aas et al., 2000
      1ug/ml              Liao and Lin, 2001
      1.2ppm              Tjeerdema and Crosby, 1992
      5.5+0.55x108cells   Chen and Chou, 2002
                           Waiwood et al., 1987
      sublethal concentration
      222-465ppb          Perkins et al., 1997
      0.1-10ppm           Sherif et al., 1996
      0.0135-1.35ppb      Parrish et al., 1974
      0.1ug/ml            Spanggord et al., 1996
      0.099ppb            Van den Heuvel et al., 1996
yes   \                   Swift, 1995
      1,10,20ppb          Sheedy et al., 1998
      25,100ppb           Sheedy et al., 1998
      50, 500ppb          Sheedy et al., 1998
      50,100ppb           Sheedy et al., 1998
yes   over 70000t crude oilDyrynda et al., 2000
      200-400ppb          Fossato and Canzonier, 1976
                          Fossatp and Canzonier, 1976
      200-400ppb disel fuel adsorbed on kaolin particles
      20ppb               Moore et al., 1984
      100ppb              Moore et al., 1984
      0.1uM               Bertram and Playle, 2002
      7.5-10 mg/kg/d      Kierkegaard et al., 1999
      0.82, 9 ng/g/d      Muir et al., 1990
      1.3ppb              Wood et al., 2002
      7.67+0.15ng/ml      Bradbury et al., 1993
      10.8+0.36ng/ml      Bradbury et al., 1993
      0.2, 1.2ppm         Lemus and Chung, 1999
      1.2ppm              Lemus and Chung, 1999
      1.5ppm              Moksnes et al., 1995
                         coal particles
      adsorbed to <125um Gerhart et al., 1981
      0.5ppb              Brumley et al., 1998
      5ppm                Naqvi et al., 1998
yes   30kl                Nishihama et al., 1998
      0.0305ppm           Neff and Anderson, 1975
      0.1ppb              Rouleau et al., 1995
      not clear           Boleas et al., 1998
      0.5,2ppm            Camus et al., 1998
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Blue = Biomarker studies using environmentally realistic concentrations
Yellow = Biomarker studies using environmentally unrealistic concentrations
Green = Other review papers that have been included in our review paper.
ome P4501A and DNA adducts as environmental risk parameters for chronic oil exposure: a laboratory experiment with Atlantic cod. Aquat. Toxicol. 51, 241-258.
 shwater shrimp (Paratya australiensis) by profenofos. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13, 1861-1866.
ainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to varying durations of acidifications stress. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 82C, 301-310.
ation of bulky benzo[a]pyrene -related DNA adducts and 8-oxoGuo in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed in vivo to B[a]P-contaminated feed. Mar. Ecol. Prog. S
 e liver of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Punjab. Univ. J. Zool. 7, 1-11.
 afish Danio rerio and roach Rutilus rutilus: Two species suitable for evaluating effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals? Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manage. 4(3), 275-282
erence on prevention and control of oil pollution: proceedings, pp. 557
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                                                                                                             +   +
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