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Immigration DA

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									Immigration Disadvantage                   MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                        1




          Immigration DA
                           ***Paperless Macros Enabled
                              ***For Index, use document Map
           Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                           MBHS Debate
           Payne Griffin                                                                                                                2


Immigration DA .................................................................................................................................................... 1
   Plan Encourages Illegal Immigration 1NC (1/2) ................................................................................................. 3
   1NC (2/2) ............................................................................................................................................................. 4
Uniqueness Extensions.......................................................................................................................................... 5
Link Extensions ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
   Internal Link ........................................................................................................................................................ 7
   Internal Link Extensions-Economy ..................................................................................................................... 8
   Internal Link Extensions-Economy ..................................................................................................................... 9
   Internal Link Extensions-Overpopulation ......................................................................................................... 10
Impacts ................................................................................................................................................................. 11
   Terrorism – Extensions 1/2................................................................................................................................ 12
   Terrorism – Extensions 2/2................................................................................................................................ 13
   Terrorism – Lashout .......................................................................................................................................... 14
   Overpopulation .................................................................................................................................................. 15
   Economy 1/2 ...................................................................................................................................................... 16
   Economy 2/2 ...................................................................................................................................................... 17
   Coercion 1/3 ...................................................................................................................................................... 18
   Coercion 2/3 ...................................................................................................................................................... 19
   Coercion 3/3 ...................................................................................................................................................... 20
Blocks ................................................................................................................................................................... 21
   A2 Racism ......................................................................................................................................................... 21
   A2 No Link ........................................................................................................................................................ 22
   AFFIRMATIVE ANSWERS ............................................................................................................................ 23
   A2 Increases Immigration ................................................................................................................................. 24
   A2 Increases Immigration ................................................................................................................................. 25
   AFF A2 Immigration Bad.................................................................................................................................. 26
   AFF A2 Illegal Immigrants Hurt The Economy ............................................................................................... 27
   AFF A2 Overpopulation .................................................................................................................................... 28
   A2 California ..................................................................................................................................................... 29
   A2 Spending ...................................................................................................................................................... 30
   AFF A2 Utilitarianism Overview ...................................................................................................................... 31




                                                                                                    File Created by Payne Griffin & Baker
                                                                                                    Allen
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                      MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                           3

                      Plan Encourages Illegal Immigration 1NC (1/2)
   A. Uniqueness- Illegal Immigrants are leaving the country now due to lack of jobs
Drash 09 (Thelma Gutierrez and Wayne Drash. ―Bad economy forcing immigrants to reconsider
U.S.‖ CNN. 6/10/09. http://www.unc.edu/world/2009Seminars/Article_1_
Economic_impact_Latino_immigration.pdf.
  America's economic boom during the 1990s and 2000s created a high demand of day
  workers needed for anything from building homes to picking fruit and from working at slaughterhouses to working as nannies.
  Many of those jobs have since evaporated, resulting in more and more people --
  immigrants and native-born Americans -- flooding day labor job sites and standing on street
  corners in search of any type of work they can get. "All of them are competing for the few jobs being
  dispatched," Valenzuela said. Immigration experts say it's not yet clear how large an
  immigration exodus of Latin Americans is under way. But they say anecdotal
  evidence suggests day laborers, like Pablo, have begun packing -- a result of the economy and
  tougher immigration enforcement. For some immigrants, the experts say, the reasons for toughing out the U.S.
    economic depression outweigh the reasons for leaving, including: • One or two days of work per month at $8 an hour is often better than
    what they can make back home; • Tougher border enforcement along the U.S.-Mexico border has made it harder for them to return once
                       costs to get into the United States from Mexico have skyrocketed
    they leave; • Smuggling
    from about $1,500 three years ago to about $6,000 today.

    B. Link-Free Healthcare Systems Attract illegal Immigrants – Illinois “All Kids Plan”
        Proves
Melchior 07 (Jillian Melchior. The Heartland Insititute. Health Care News. 08/01/2007:
http://www.heartland.org/publications/health%20care/article/21745/Illinois_All_Kids_Plan_Attr
acts_Immigrants.html)
The program consumes too much tax money and encourages illegal immigrants to settle in
Illinois. "Illegal immigration is not a victimless crime," Pulido said, "and it's turning out
that the American taxpayer is footing the bill for the benefits package for illegal aliens. We
are now a magnet for all these immigrants in all other states to come to Illinois to get free
health care for their children. Illinois is broke. We are broke. It's not like we have this
endless pot of money." All Kids statistics offer no insight into how many children of illegal immigrants are enrolled. Kurtenbach
said her office does not keep immigration data. Though 22.12 percent of the children enrolled are Hispanic, administrators don't know whether
                         applications, available online in both Spanish and English, ask
the majority speak Spanish. All Kids
applicants to submit proof of lawful immigration status, but the application notes "receiving
most public health benefits should not affect a person's immigration status."

    C. Illegal aliens distract resources providing cover for terrorism
Kane and Johnson, 06 (Tim and Kirk, Phd is Bradley Fellow in Labor Policy and Phd is a
Senior Policy Analyst in the Center for Data Analysis at The Heritage Foundation, The Real
Problem with Immigration... and the Real Solution, March 1, 2006,
http://www.heritage.org/research/immigration/bg1913.cfm)
   Typical illegal aliens come to America primarily for better jobs and in the process add value to the U.S. economy. However, they
   also take away value by weakening the legal and national security environment. When three
    out of every 100 people in America are undocumented (or, rather, documented with forged and faked papers), there is a profound
                      though they pose no direct security threat, the presence of millions
    security problem. Even
    of undocumented migrants distorts the law, distracts resources, and effectively
    creates a cover for terrorists and criminals.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                                      MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                                           4


                                                                     1NC (2/2)
   D. Terrorism causes a nuclear attack and extinction

Los Angeles Times, June 18, 2002
  Even the experts among us, Foggy Bottom wonks and think-tank philosophers, had dared to dream of a world free of the damoclean sword of mutual
  assured destruction. "The simple truth is that people simply forgot about nuclear danger for about a decade, and there were some pretty good reasons for
  doing so. I had a feeling like that myself," says Jonathan Schell, whose hair-raising tome, "The Fate of the Earth" (Knopf, 1982 ), helped fuel the nuclear
  freeze movement of the early 1980s. But in the bleak months since Sept. 11, the phantom menace of    nuclear catastrophe has come
  back with a vengeance--stalking our imaginations, confounding our leaders, confronting                    us with a host of atomic
  terrors hitherto barely imagined: hijacked airliners rammed down the throats of nuclear power plants; "dirty bombs" spraying lethal radiation and
  rendering huge swaths of cities uninhabitable for years to come. Looming over these lesser catastrophes is the threat of an actual
  nuclear weapons attack. After the lull of the '90s, we're learning to start worrying and fear The Bomb all over again. Only now America
  must face the possibility of dealing with more than just one or two mega-adversaries capable of sending our entire country up in a mushroom cloud. Now
  we're conjuring up visions of a suitcase bomb detonated at Times Square, a 10-kiloton dose
  of megadeath delivered in a truck to downtown Los Angeles or Chicago. Or a regional conflict, like the present one pitting India against
                                                                                        we're being
  nuclear rival Pakistan over the disputed Kashmir territory, escalating into global Armageddon. On the one hand ,
  confronted anew with the sublime terror of extinction; on the other, with the banality and ridiculousness of a
  threat to our lives and our civilization from something that may be lurking in a briefcase, a pair of Hush Puppies or, as in the new Hollywood blockbuster
  "The Sum of All Fears," a cigarette-vending machine.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                     5



                              Uniqueness Extensions
Immigrants are leaving-due to stricter enforcement and Bad economy
Drash 09 (Thelma Gutierrez and Wayne Drash. ―Bad economy forcing immigrants to reconsider
U.S.‖ CNN. 6/10/09.
http://www.unc.edu/world/2009Seminars/Article_1_Economic_impact_Latino_immigration.pdf.

  Steven Camarota with the Center for Immigration Studies, a Washington-based think tank
  that seeks a "pro-immigrant, low-immigration vision," said Census data indicate that
  more than 1 million illegal immigrants left last year, a departure that began even
  before the nation's economy took a turn for the worse toward the end of the year. He
  said better border enforcement and workplace raids on illegal immigrants "let people
  know that the immigration law was back in business." With illegal immigrants
  returning home, he said, "It's certainly good for two groups: taxpayers and less
  educated natives." The lack of work in the United States has had a trickle down effect
  in the immigrants' countries of origin. The money sent back home by Mexican
  immigrants in 2008 fell for the first time since record-keeping began 13 years ago.
  The remittances dipped 3.6 percent, from $26 billion in 2007 to $25 billion, according to
  Mexico's central bank. Remittances are Mexico's second-largest source of foreign income,
  behind only oil. Other Latin American countries also have seen money sent from
  immigrants in the United States slow.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                              MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                   6



                                                 Link Extensions
Free Healthcare Systems Attract illegal Immigrants – Illinois Proves
Melchior 07 (Jillian Melchior. The Heartland Insititute. Health Care News. 08/01/2007:
http://www.heartland.org/publications/health%20care/article/21745/Illinois_All_Kids_Plan_Attr
acts_Immigrants.html)
  Nobody knows exactly how much health care for the children of illegal immigrants costs Illinois
  taxpayers, but some say it's too much. The Illinois All Kids health care program provides
  uninsured children health care ranging from doctor's visits to hospital stays. Proponents say the
  program helps children who would not otherwise receive care. "Governor [Rod] Blagojevich realized that
  there are thousands of parents in Illinois who worked hard--sometimes two to three jobs--to make ends meet and put food on the
  table, and yet access to affordable health care for their children was still out of reach," said Teresa Kurtenbach, spokesperson
  for Illinois Healthcare and Family Services. But the program complain it swallows taxpayer money, hurts
  American citizens, and encourages illegal immigration.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                           MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                                7



                                                           Internal Link
Illegal Immigrants Increase Taxes to pay for Medicaid
Melchior 07 (Jillian Melchior. The Heartland Insititute. Health Care News. 08/01/2007:
http://www.heartland.org/publications/health%20care/article/21745/Illinois_All_Kids_Plan_Attr
acts_Immigrants.html)
    Unlimited access to All Kids also hurts veterans and senior citizens, Pulido said, because
    rising property taxes--directly related to the expense of education and health care for
    illegal immigrants--forces them to sell homes they've owned for years but can no
    longer afford. Likewise, wounded Illinois veterans are the lowest paid nationwide, she
    said. "I believe if we just take it into a smaller context, I used to feed my own kids
    before I feed the kids down the street," Pulido said. Ng'andu said Americans need to look at the broader picture.
   "This isn't about investing in the health of our children or the health of our senior citizens," Pulido said. "We need to invest in the health
   of our country as a whole."
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                      MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                           8



                                 Internal Link Extensions-Economy
Illigeal Immigration Hurts the US economy because it attracts unskilled workers.
Malanga 09 (Steven Malanga. ―The Manhattan Institute ― ―How Unskilled Immigrants Hurt Our
Economy.‖ 2009. http://www.city-journal.org/html/16_3_immigrants_economy.html)
    As the floodgates of legal immigration opened, the widening economic gap between
    the United States and many of its neighbors also pushed illegal immigration to levels
    that America had never seen. In particular, when Mexico‘s move to a more centralized, state-run economy in the 1970s
   produced hyperinflation, the disparity between its stagnant economy and U.S. prosperity yawned wide. Mexico‘s per-capita gross
   domestic product, 37 percent of the United States‘ in the early 1980s, was only 27 percent of it by the end of the decade—and is now
   just 25 percent of it. With Mexican farmworkers able to earn seven to ten times as much in the United States as at home, by the 1980s
                                                                                                             an
   illegals were pouring across our border at the rate of about 225,000 a year, and U.S. sentiment rose for slowing the flow. But
   unusual coalition of business groups, unions, civil rights activists, and church leaders
   thwarted the call for restrictions with passage of the inaptly named 1986 Immigration
   Reform and Control Act, which legalized some 2.7 million unauthorized aliens
   already here, supposedly in exchange for tougher penalties and controls against
   employers who hired illegals. The law proved no deterrent, however, because
   supporters, in subsequent legislation and court cases argued on civil rights grounds,
   weakened the employer sanctions. Meanwhile, more illegals flooded here in the hope of future amnesties from
   Congress, while the newly legalized sneaked their wives and children into the country rather than have them wait for family-preference
   visas. The flow of illegals into the country rose to between 300,000 and 500,000 per year in the 1990s, so that a decade after the
   legislation that had supposedly solved the undocumented alien problem by reclassifying them as legal, the number of illegals living in
                                                                                                         flood of
   the United States was back up to about 5 million, while today it‘s estimated at between 9 million and 13 million. The
   immigrants, both legal and illegal, from countries with poor, ill-educated populations,
   has yielded a mismatch between today’s immigrants and the American economy and
   has left many workers poorly positioned to succeed for the long term. Unlike the
   immigrants of 100 years ago, whose skills reflected or surpassed those of the native
   workforce at the time, many of today’s arrivals, particularly the more than half who
   now come from Central and South America, are farmworkers in their home countries
   who come here with little education or even basic training in blue-collar occupations
   like carpentry or machinery. (A century ago, farmworkers made up 35 percent of the U.S. labor force, compared with
   the under 2 percent who produce a surplus of food today.) Nearly two-thirds of Mexican immigrants, for
   instance, are high school dropouts, and most wind up doing either unskilled factory
   work or small-scale construction projects, or they work in service industries, where
   they compete for entry-level jobs against one another, against the adult children of
   other immigrants, and against native-born high school dropouts. Of the 15 industries
   employing the greatest percentage of foreign-born workers, half are low-wage service
   industries, including gardening, domestic household work, car washes, shoe repair,
   and janitorial work. To take one stark example: whereas 100 years ago, immigrants
   were half as likely as native-born workers to be employed in household service, today
   immigrants account for 27 percent of all domestic workers in the United States.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                     MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                          9

                                 Internal Link Extensions-Economy
Illegal Immigrants Hold Back our Economy-By hampering farmers
Malanga 09 (Steven Malanga. ―The Manhattan Institute ― ―How Unskilled Immigrants Hurt Our
Economy.‖ 2009. http://www.city-journal.org/html/16_3_immigrants_economy.html)
    In many American industries, waves of low-wage workers have also retarded
    investments that might lead to modernization and efficiency. Farming, which employs
    a million immigrant laborers in California alone, is the prime case in point. Faced with a
    labor shortage in the early 1960s, when President Kennedy ended a 22-year-old guest-worker program that allowed
    45,000 Mexican farmhands to cross over the border and harvest 2.2 million tons of
    California tomatoes for processed foods, farmers complained but swiftly automated,
    adopting a mechanical tomato-picking technology created more than a decade earlier.
   Today, just 5,000 better-paid workers—one-ninth the original workforce—harvest 12 million tons of tomatoes using the machines.
   The savings prompted by low-wage migrants may even be minimal in crops not easily
   mechanized. Agricultural economists Wallace Huffman and Alan McCunn of Iowa State
   University have estimated that without illegal workers, the retail cost of fresh produce
   would increase only about 3 percent in the summer-fall season and less than 2 percent
   in the winter-spring season, because labor represents only a tiny percent of the retail
   price of produce and because without migrant workers, America would probably
   import more foreign fruits and vegetables. ―The question is whether we want to import more produce from
   abroad, or more workers from abroad to pick our produce,‖ Huffman remarks. For American farmers, the answer
   has been to keep importing workers—which has now made the farmers more
   vulnerable to foreign competition, since even minimum-wage immigrant workers
   can’t compete with produce picked on farms in China, Chile, or Turkey and shipped
   here cheaply. A flood of low-priced Turkish raisins several years ago produced a glut in the United States that sharply drove
   down prices and knocked some farms out of business, shrinking total acreage in California devoted to the crop by one-fifth, or some
   50,000 acres. The farms that survived are now moving to mechanize swiftly, realizing that no amount of cheap immigrant labor will
   make them competitive.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                      MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                           10


                            Internal Link Extensions-Overpopulation
Illegal immigration causes overpopulation in the US
LCT.org 07 (Legal cyber tips.org . ―What Kinds Of Problems Do Illegal Immigrants Cause.‖
2008. http://www.legalcybertips.com/immigration/What-Kinds-of-Problems-Do-Illegal-
Immigrants-Cause.html)
Illegal immigration causes over population and as a result there is shortage of basic
amenities like potable drinking water, food, energy resources and residential land. Other
problems caused by illegal immigration include racial violence, increased crime rate, corruption and promotion of terrorism. Many times it has
been seen that security officials exchange sensitive and confidential information in exchange for sex, money or expensive gifts. Many illegal
immigrants indulging in securing this type of confidential information are employed by foreign governments. So, illegal immigrants can also pose
a risk for national security. Healthcare is also affected by illegal immigration. Diseases like SARS, AIDS, Tuberculosis, Ebola are wide spread
across the world because of illegal immigration.
Immigration Disadvantage             MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                  11



                           Impacts
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                                                         MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                                                              12



Terrorism – Extensions 1/2
Nuclear terrorism means nuclear omnicide
Louis Rene Beres, Professor of Political Science and International Law at Purdue, TERRORISM
AND GLOBAL SECURITY, 1987, p. 42-3
  Nuclear terrorism could even spark a full scale war between states. Such a war could
  involve the entire spectrum of nuclear conflict possibilities, ranging from a nuclear attack
  upon a non-nuclear state to systemwide nuclear war. How might such far reaching
  consequences of nuclear terrorism come about? Perhaps the most likely way would
  involve a terrorist nuclear assault against a state by terrorists hosted in another state.
  For example, consider the following scenario: Early in the 1990s, Israel and its Arab
  state neighbors finally stand ready to conclude a comprehensive, multilateral peace
  settlement. With a bilateral treaty between Israel and Egypt already many years old,
  only the interests of the Palestinians, as defined by the PLO, seem to have been left
  out. On the eve of the proposed signing of the peace agreement, half a dozen crude
  nuclear explosives in the one kiloton range detonate in as many Israeli cities. Public
  grief in Israel over the many thousand dead and maimed is matched only by the
  outcry for revenge. In response to the public mood, the government of Israel initiates
  selected strikes against terrorist strongholds in Lebanon, whereupon Lebanese Shiite
  forces and Syria retaliate against Israel. Before long, the entire region is ablaze,
  conflict has escalated to nuclear forms, and all countries of the area have suffered
  unprecedented destruction. Of course, such a scenario is fraught with the makings of
  even wider destruction. How would the United States react to the situation in the Middle
  East? What would be the soviet response? It is certainly conceivable that a chain
  reaction of interstate nuclear conflict could ensue, one that would ultimately involve
  the superpowers or even every nuclear weapon state on the planet.

Terrorism causes global war and the destruction of civilization
Walter Laqueur, Historian, Kirkus Reviews, 6-1-1999, ln
  Terrorism is nothing new. Fanatical groups have been wreaking havoc from time immemorial. Today two things have changed that
  together transform terrorism from a ''nuisance'' to ''one                            of the gravest dangers                         facing mankind.'' First terrorists be they Islamic
  extremists in the Middle East, ultranationalists in the US, or any number of other possible permutations seem to have changed from organized groups with clear ideological motives to

                                                                            There are no longer any moral limitations
  small clusters of the paranoid and hateful bent on vengeance and destruction for their own sake.

  on what terrorists are willing to do, who and how many they are willing to kill. Second, these unhinged
  collectivities now have ready access to weapons of mass destruction. The technological skills are not
  that complex and the resources needed not too rare for terrorists to employ nuclear,
  chemical, or biological weapons where and when they wish. The consequences of such
  weapons in the hands of ruthless, rootless fanatics are not difficult to imagine. In addition to the destruction of
  countless lives, panic can grip any targeted society, unleashing retaliatory action
  which in turn can lead to conflagrations perhaps on a world scale. To combat such terrorist activities, states
  may come to rely more and more on dictatorial and authoritarian measures. In short,
  terrorism in the future may threaten the very foundations of modern civilizations. On all of this,
  Laqueur is quite convincing. Useful, too, is his elaboration on the nature of the various terrorist threats we face. Yet he too often falls
  back on questionable, if not offensive, opinion. He asserts, for instance, that in non-Western countries ''human lives count for less,'' and
  so the danger of terrorism in these countries is greater. This is simply unacceptable doggerel.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                                          MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                                               13

Terrorism – Extensions 2/2
Unchecked terrorism will result in extinction
Yonah Alexander, professor and director of the Inter-University for Terrorism Studies in Israel and the United States. ―Terrorism myths and realities,‖ The

Washington Times, August 28, 2003
    Unlike their historical counterparts, contemporary terrorists have introduced a new
    scale of violence in terms of conventional and unconventional threats and impact.
    The internationalization and brutalization of current and future terrorism make it
    clear we have entered an Age of Super Terrorism [e.g. biological, chemical,
    radiological, nuclear and cyber] with its serious implications concerning national, regional and global
    security concerns. Two myths in particular must be debunked immediately if an effective counterterrorism "best practices" strategy can be developed [e.g.,
    strengthening international cooperation]. The first illusion is that terrorism can be greatly reduced, if not eliminated completely, provided the root causes of
    conflicts - political, social and economic - are addressed. The conventional illusion is that terrorism must be justified by oppressed people seeking to
    achieve their goals and consequently the argument advanced by "freedom fighters" anywhere, "give me liberty and I will give you death," should be
    tolerated if not glorified. This traditional rationalization of "sacred" violence often conceals that the real purpose of terrorist groups is to gain political
    power through the barrel of the gun, in violation of fundamental human rights of the noncombatant segment of societies. For instance, Palestinians religious
    movements [e.g., Hamas, Islamic Jihad] and secular entities [such as Fatah's Tanzim and Aqsa Martyr Brigades]] wish not only to resolve national
    grievances [such as Jewish settlements, right of return, Jerusalem] but primarily to destroy the Jewish state. Similarly, Osama bin Laden's international
    network not only opposes the presence of American military in the Arabian Peninsula and Iraq, but its stated objective is to "unite all Muslims and establish
    a government that follows the rule of the Caliphs." The second myth is that strong action against terrorist infrastructure [leaders, recruitment, funding,
    propaganda, training, weapons, operational command and control] will only increase terrorism. The argument here is that law-enforcement efforts and
    military retaliation inevitably will fuel more brutal acts of violent revenge. Clearly, if this perception continues to prevail, particularly in democratic
    societies, there is the danger it will paralyze governments and thereby encourage further terrorist attacks. In sum, past experience provides useful lessons
    for a realistic future strategy. The prudent application of force has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for short- and long-term deterrence of terrorism.
    For example, Israel's targeted killing of Mohammed Sider, the Hebron commander of the Islamic Jihad, defused a "ticking bomb." The assassination of
    Ismail Abu Shanab - a top Hamas leader in the Gaza Strip who was directly responsible for several suicide bombings including the latest bus attack in
    Jerusalem - disrupted potential terrorist operations. Similarly, the U.S. military operation in Iraq eliminated Saddam Hussein's regime as a state sponsor of
    terror. Thus, it behooves those countries victimized by terrorism to understand a cardinal message communicated by Winston Churchill to the House of
    Commons on May 13, 1940: "


A terrorist attack escalates to a global nuclear exchange
Patrick Speice, JD, 2006, William & Mary Law Review, February, p. 1437-8
       Accordingly, there is a significant and ever-present risk that terrorists could acquire a
       nuclear device or fissile material from Russia as a result of the confluence of Russian economic decline and the end of
            stringent Soviet-era nuclear security measures. Terrorist groups could acquire a nuclear weapon by a number of methods, including
            "steal[ing] one intact from the stockpile of a country possessing such weapons, or ... [being] sold or given one by such a country, or
            [buying or stealing] one from another subnational group that had obtained it in one of these ways." Equally threatening, however, is
                                                                                                                    Very little material
            the risk that terrorists will steal or purchase fissile material and construct a nuclear device on their own.
            is necessary to construct a highly destructive nuclear weapon. Although nuclear devices are
            extraordinarily complex, the technical barriers to constructing a workable weapon are not significant. Moreover, the sheer
            number of methods that could be used to deliver a nuclear device into the United
            States makes it incredibly likely that terrorists could successfully employ a nuclear
            weapon once it was built. Accordingly, supply-side controls that are aimed at preventing terrorists from acquiring nuclear material
            in the first place are the most effective means of countering the risk of nuclear terrorism. Moreover, the end of the Cold War
            eliminated the rationale for maintaining a large military-industrial complex in Russia, and the nuclear cities were closed. This resulted
            in at least 35,000 nuclear scientists becoming unemployed in an economy that was collapsing. Although the economy has stabilized
            somewhat, there are still at least 20,000 former scientists who are unemployed or underpaid and who are too young to retire, raising
            the chilling prospect that these scientists will be tempted to sell their nuclear knowledge, or steal nuclear material to sell, to states or
            terrorist organizations with nuclear ambitions. The potential consequences of the unchecked spread of nuclear knowledge and
                                                                                          terrorist attack
            material to terrorist groups that seek to cause mass destruction in the United States are truly horrifying. A
            with a nuclear weapon would be devastating in terms of immediate human and
            economic losses. Moreover, there would be immense political pressure in the United States to
            discover the perpetrators and retaliate with nuclear weapons, massively increasing the number
            of casualties and potentially triggering a full-scale nuclear conflict. In addition to the threat
            posed by terrorists, leakage of nuclear knowledge and material from Russia will reduce the barriers that states with nuclear ambitions
            face and may trigger widespread proliferation of nuclear weapons. This proliferation will increase the risk of nuclear attacks
                                                                    the likelihood that regional
            against the United States or its allies by hostile states, as well as increase
            conflicts will draw in the United States and escalate to the use of nuclear weapons.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                      MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                           14


Terrorism – Lashout
Terrorism causes the U.S. to lash out, precipitating global war
Nicole Schwartz-Morgan, Assistant Professor of Politics and Economics at Royal Military
College of Canada, 10/10/2001, ―Wild Globalization and Terrorism,‖
http://www.wfs.org/mmmorgan.htm
   The terrorist act can reactivate atavistic defense mechanisms which drive us to gather
   around clan chieftans. Nationalistic sentiment re-awakens, setting up an implacable
   frontier which divides "us" from "them," each group solidifying its cohesion in a rising
   hate/fear of the other group. (Remember Yugoslavia?) To be sure, the allies are trying for
   the moment to avoid the language of polarization, insisting that "this is not a war,"
   that it is "not against Islam," "civilians will not be targeted." But the word "war" was
   pronounced, a word heavy with significance which forces the issue of partisanship. And it
   must be understood that the sentiment of partisanship, of belonging to the group, is one of
   the strongest of human emotions. Because the enemy has been named in the media
   (Islam), the situation has become emotionally volatile. Another spectacular attack,
   coming on top of an economic recession could easily radicalize the latent attitudes of
   the United States, and also of Europe, where racial prejudices are especially close to the
   surface and ask no more than a pretext to burst out. This is the Sarajevo syndrome: an
   isolated act of madness becomes the pretext for a war that is just as mad, made of
   ancestral rancor, measureless ambitions, and armies in search of a war. We should
   not be fooled by our expressions of good will and charity toward the innocent victims of
   this or other distant wars. It is our own comfortable circumstances which permit us
   these benevolent sentiments. If conditions change so that poverty and famine put the fear
   of starvation in our guts, the human beast will reappear. And if epidemic becomes a clear
   and present danger, fear will unleash hatred in the land of the free, flinging missiles
   indiscriminately toward any supposed havens of the unseen enemy. And on the other
   side, no matter how profoundly complex and differentiated Islamic nations and tribes
   may be, they will be forced to behave as one clan by those who see advantage in
   radicalizing the conflict, whether they be themselves merchants or terrorists.

Terrorism leads to nuclear war
Gregg Easterbrook, visiting fellow @ Brookings, 11-2-2001, CNN, p ln
  Terrorists may not be held by this, especially suicidal terrorists, of the kind that al Qaeda is
  attempting to cultivate. But I think, if I could leave you with one message, it would be this:
  that the search for terrorist atomic weapons would be of great benefit to the Muslim
  peoples of the world in addition to members, to people of the United States and Western
  Europe, because if an atomic warhead goes off in Washington, say, in the current
  environment or anything like it, in the 24 hours that followed, a hundred million
  Muslims would die as U.S. nuclear bombs rained down on every conceivable military
  target in a dozen Muslim countries.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                                         MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                                              15



Overpopulation
Overpopulation causes nuclear war – text modified
Paul Ehrlich & Anne Ehrlich, Stanford Biologists, The Population Explosion, 1990 p 174-5
  The population explosion contributes to international tensions and therefore makes a
  nuclear [war] holocaust more likely. Most people in our society can visualize the horrors of a large-scale nuclear war followed
    by a nuclear winter.' We call that possible end to our civilization "the Bang." Hundreds of millions of people would be killed outright, and billions more
    would follow from the disruption of agricultural systems and other indirect effects largely caused by the disruption of ecosystem services. it would be the
    ultimate "death-rate solution" to the population problem-a stunning contrast to the humane solution of lowering the global birthrate to slightly below the
    death rate for a few centuries. As this is written (mid-1989), it fortunately seems that the chances of the Bang have lessened. New-minded leadership in the
    Soviet Union is for the moment in the ascendancy. President Mikhail Gorbachev, along with a few other world leaders, seems to be aware that
    environmental security is at least as important as military strength in providing security to nations, and appears to be doing everything possible to damp
    down the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union. An apparently more pragmatic government also is in place in the United States,
    although it is still too soon to tell whether the superpowers are on the road toward massive nuclear-arms reduction and true reconciliation. What is certain is
    that the structure of military forces around the world still provides plenty of chances for local conflicts to escalate into Armageddon even in the face of
    growing East-West rapprochement. There remains the problem that, as the world gets further and further out of control, crazies on both the left and the right
    may exert increasingly xenophobic pressures on national governments. The rise of fundamentalism in both East and West is a completely understandable
                                                   Those struggling to achieve a
    but not at all encouraging sample of what the future may hold in terms of conflict.
    permanently peaceful world still have much work to do, especially as growing and
    already overpopulated nations struggle to divide up dwindling resources in a
    deteriorating global environment.

Overpopulation causes biodiversity loss and human extinction
Edward Otten, Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati,
2000-2001, http://www.ecology.org/biod/population/human_pop1.html
  The exponential growth of the human population, making humans the dominant species
  on the planet, is having a grave impact on biodiversity. This destruction of species by
  humans will eventually lead to a destruction of the human species through natural
  selection. While human beings have had an effect for the last 50,000 years, it has only
  been since the industrial revolution that the impact has been global rather than regional.
  This global impact is taking place through five primary processes: over harvesting,
  alien species introduction, pollution, habitat fragmentation, and outright habit
  destruction.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                                                            MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                                                                 16


Economy 1/2
Economic decline causes extinction
Lt. Col, Tom Bearden, PhD Nuclear Engineering, April 25, 2000,
http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/042500%20-%20modified.htm
  Just prior to the terrible collapse of the World economy, with the crumbling well underway and rising, it is inevitable that some of the
  [wmd] weapons of mass destruction will be used by one or more nations on others. An interesting result then---as all the old strategic
  studies used to show---is that everyone will fire everything as fast as possible against their perceived enemies. The reason is simple:
  When the mass destruction weapons are unleashed at all, the only chance a nation has to survive is to desperately try to destroy its
                                        will erupt a spasmodic unleashing of the long range
  perceived enemies before they destroy it. So there
  missiles, nuclear arsenals, and biological warfare arsenals of the nations as they feel the
  economic collapse, poverty, death, misery, etc. a bit earlier. The ensuing holocaust is
  certain to immediately draw in the major nations also, and literally a hell on earth
  will result. In short, we will get the great Armageddon we have been fearing since the advent of the
  nuclear genie. Right now, my personal estimate is that we have about a 99% chance of that scenario or some modified version of it,
  resulting.


Decline in the economy causes war
Walter Russell Mead, contributing editor to Opinion and a senior fellow at the Council on
Foreign Relations, Los Angeles Times, August 23, 1998, p. M1
  Even with stock markets tottering around the world, the president and the Congress seem determined to spend the next six months arguing about dress stains. Too bad. The United
  States and the world are facing what could grow into the greatest threat to world peace in 60 years. Forget suicide car bombers and Afghan fanatics. It's the financial markets, not the

                                                             Think about the mother of all global
  terrorist training camps that pose the biggest immediate threat to world peace. How can this be?

  meltdowns: the Great Depression that started in 1929. U.S. stocks began to collapse in October, staged a rally, then the market headed south big
  time. At the bottom, the Dow Jones industrial average had lost 90% of its value. Wages plummeted, thousands of banks and brokerages went bankrupt, millions of people lost their

                            the biggest impact of the Depression on the United States--and
  jobs. There were similar horror stories worldwide. But

  on world history--wasn't money. It was blood: World War II, to be exact. The Depression brought Adolf Hitler to
  power in Germany, undermined the ability of moderates to oppose Joseph Stalin's power in Russia, and convinced the Japanese military that the country had no choice but to build an

                                                                    Let the world
  Asian empire, even if that meant war with the United States and Britain. That's the thing about depressions. They aren't just bad for your 401(k).

  economy crash far enough, and the rules change. We stop playing "The Price is Right"
  and start up a new round of "Saving Private Ryan."
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                                                              MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                                                                   17



Economy 2/2

Recession would cause wars worldwide
Bernardo V. Lopez, BusinessWorld, September 10, 1998
  What would it be like if global recession becomes full bloom? The results will be
  catastrophic. Certainly, global recession will spawn wars of all kinds. Ethnic wars can
  easily escalate in the grapple for dwindling food stocks as in India-Pakistan-
  Afghanistan, Yugoslavia, Ethiopia-Eritrea, Indonesia. Regional conflicts in key
  flashpoints can easily erupt such as in the Middle East, Korea, and Taiwan. In the Philippines,
   as in some Latin American countries, splintered insurgency forces may take advantage of the economic drought to regroup and reemerge in the countryside. Unemployment

                 . Famine can be triggered in key Third World nations with India,
   worldwide will be in the billions

  North Korea, Ethiopia and other African countries as first candidates. Food riots and
  the breakdown of law and order are possibilities.
Lopez continues
   Unemployment in the US will be the hardest to cope with since it may have very little capability for subsistence economy and its agrarian base is automated and controlled by a few.
   The riots and looting of stores in New York City in the late '70s because of a state-wide brownout hint of the type of anarchy in the cities. Such looting in this most affluent nation is
   not impossible. The weapons industry may also grow rapidly because of the ensuing wars. Arms escalation will have primacy over food production if wars escalate. The US will
   depend increasingly on weapons exports to nurse its economy back to health. This will further induce wars and conflicts which will aggravate US recession rather than solve it. The

   US may depend more and more on the use of force and its superiority to get its ways
   internationally. The public will rebel against local monopolies. Anarchy and boycotts will be their primary weapons against cartels especially on agricultural
   products such as rice and vegetables, which are presently in the hands of a few in most Third World nations . Global recession will test the

   limits of human cooperation and sharing in the name of survival. Grants and aids will
   decrease. Rescues and international funding for advocacy NGOs will disappear
   rapidly. Coupled with disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, climatic aberrations like the El Nino, global recession will
   degrade a step further.


Economic collapse leads to war (this evidence is gender paraphrased)
Norman Bailey, Senior director of International Economic Affairs, The World and I, 1990, p. 33-
34
   The thirties, after all, began three months after the inception of the Great Depression arid ended four months after the start of World War II. This was not a
           . Tens of millions were killed and maimed in the Second World War. If another
   coincidence
   historical credit liquidation cycle is allowed to take place in the usual chaotic fashion
   the chances of another global armed conflict will be greatly increased—this time not
   only would hundreds of millions (rather than tens of millions) be killed or wounded, but
   the very hopes and the future of [hu]mankind.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                      MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                           18



Coercion 1/3
COLLECTING AND USING TAX MONEY IS COERCIVE

Frederick Mann, Misses, WHY YOU MUST RECOGNIZE AND UNDERSTAND
COERCION, 2003, p. http://www.buildfreedom.com/power/powerx/1.html

   We also need to examine indirect coercion. When I buy gas for my car, part of my money
   goes to "government" bureaucrats in the form of "taxes." Whenever I pay "taxes," I'm
   being coerced indirectly, and I'm also indirectly supporting the coercion perpetrated by
   terrocrats (terrorist bureaucrats or coercive political agents) -- by paying their wages to
   practice more coercion. Terrocrats use this "tax"-money to pay more terrocrats to further
   coerce others through their "tax" and other "systems," and to murder people during their
   "wars," amongst countless other atrocities (like the massacre at Waco).

B. EVERY INVASION OF FREEDOM MUST BE REJECTED

Sylvester Petro, professor of law, Wake Forest University, Spring 1974, TOLEDO LAW
REVIEW, p. 480.
   However, one may still insist, echoing Ernest Hemingway – ―I believe in only one thing:
   liberty.‖ And it is always well to bear in mind David Hume‘s observation: ―It is seldom
   that liberty of any kind is lost all at once.‖ Thus, it is unacceptable to say that the invasion
   of one aspect of freedom is of no import because there have been invasions of so many
   other aspects. That road leads to chaos, tyranny, despotism, and the end of all human
   aspiration. Ask Solzhenitsyn. Ask Milovan Djilas. In sum, if one believes in freedom as a
   supreme value, and the proper ordering principle for any society aiming to maximize
   spiritual and material welfare, then every invasion of freedom must be emphatically
   identified and resisted with undying spirit.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                           MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                                19


Coercion 2/3
C. A RADICAL FRAMING OF LIBERTARIAN POLITICS IS CRITICAL BY
RELENTLESSLY ATTACKING STATIST POLICIES WE CAN USHER IN A
CAPITALIST UTOPIA GENDER PARAPHRASED

Murray Rothbard, Dean of Austrian School, Head of Mises Institute, FOR A NEW LIBERTY,
1973, p. http://www.mises.org/rothbard/newlibertywhole.asp#p263.
  There is another vital tactical reason for cleaving to pure principle. It is true that day-to-day social and political events are the resultants
  of many pressures, the often unsatisfactory outcome of the push-and-pull of conflicting ideologies and interests. But if only for that
        it is all the more important for the libertarian to keep upping the ante. The call
  reason,
  for a two percent tax reduction may achieve only the slight moderation of a projected
  tax increase; a call for a drastic tax cut may indeed achieve a substantial reduction.
  And, over the years, it is precisely the strategic role of the "extremist" to keep
  pushing the matrix of day-to-day action further and further in his direction. The
  socialists have been particularly adept at this strategy. If we look at the socialist
  program advanced sixty, or even thirty years ago, it will be evident that measures
  considered dangerously socialistic a generation or two ago are now considered an
  indispensable part of the "mainstream" of the American heritage. In this way, the day-to-
  day compromises of supposedly "practical" politics get pulled inexorably in the
  collectivist direction. There is no reason why the libertarian cannot accomplish the
  same result. In fact, one of the reasons that the conservative opposition to collectivism
  has been so weak is that conservatism, by its very nature, offers not a consistent
  political philosophy but only a "practical" defense of the existing status quo,
  enshrined as embodiments of the American "tradition." Yet, as statism grows and accretes, it becomes,
  by definition, increasingly entrenched and therefore "traditional"; conservatism can then find no intellectual weapons to accomplish its
           Cleaving to principle means something more than holding high and not
  overthrow.
  contradicting the ultimate libertarian ideal. It also means striving to achieve that
  ultimate goal as rapidly as is physically possible. In short, the libertarian must never
  advocate or prefer a gradual, as opposed to an immediate and rapid, approach to his goal.
  For by doing so, he undercuts the overriding importance of his own goals and principles.
  And if (the libertarian) he himself values his own goals so lightly, how highly will
  others value them? In short, to really pursue the goal of liberty, the libertarian must desire it attained by the most effective
  and speediest means available. It was in this spirit that the classical liberal Leonard E. Read, advocating immediate and total abolition of
  price and wage controls after World War II, declared in a speech, "If there were a button on this rostrum, the pressing of which would
                                                                     The libertarian, then,
  release all wage and price controls instantaneously, I would put my finger on it and push!"
  should be a person who would push the button, if it existed, for the instantaneous
  abolition of all invasions of liberty. Of course, he knows, too, that such a magic button
  does not exist, but his fundamental preference colors and shapes his entire strategic
  perspective. Such an "abolitionist" perspective does not mean, again, that the liber-
  tarian has an unrealistic assessment of how rapidly his goal will, in fact, be achieved.
  Thus, the libertarian abolitionist of slavery, William Lloyd Garrison, was not being
  "unrealistic" when in the 1830s he first raised the glorious standard of immediate
  emancipation of the slaves. His goal was the morally proper one, and his strategic realism came in
  the fact that he did not expect his goal to be quickly reached. We have seen in chapter 1 that Garrison himself distinguished: "Urge
  immediate abolition as earnestly as we may, it will, alas! be gradual abolition in the end. We have never said that slavery would be
  overthrown by a single blow; that it ought to be, we shall always contend." Otherwise, as Garrison trenchantly warned,
  "Gradualism in theory is perpetuity in practice."
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                   MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                        20



Coercion 3/3
GOVERNMENT COERCION DESTROYS THE VALUE TO LIFE AND CANNOT BE
MORALLY JUSTIFIED
  Tibor Machan, PRIVATE RIGHTS & PUBLIC ILLUSIONS, 1995, p. 68-9.

  All governmental action that does not serve to repel or retaliate against coercion is
  antithetical to any respect for human dignity. While it is true that some people should give
  to others to assist them in reaching their goals, forcing individuals to do so plainly robs
  them of their dignity. There is nothing morally worthwhile in forced giving. Generally, for
  a society to respect human dignity, the special moral relations between people should be
  left undisturbed. Government should confine itself to making sure that this voluntarism is
  not abridged, no matter how tempting it might be to use its coercive powers to attain some
  worthy goal.

A LIFE OF GOVERNMENT COERCION IS NOT WORTH LIVING BECAUSE IT IS
NOT CONTROLLED BY THE PERSON WHO IS LIVING IT, DEATH IS
PREFERABLE.
Joseph Raz, philosopher, THE MORALITY OF FREEDOM, 1986, p. 307

  One way to test the thesis of the primacy of action reasons is to think of a person who is
  entirely passive and is continuously led, cleaned, and pumped full with hash, so that he is perpetually
  content, and wants nothing but to stay in the same condition. It‘s a familiar imaginary horror. How do we rank the
  success of such a life? It is not the worst life one can have. It is simply not a life at all. It lacks
  activity, it lacks goals. To the extent that one is tempted to judge it more harshly than that
  and to regard it as a ‗negative life‘ this is because of the wasted potentiality. It is a life
  which could have been and was not. We can isolate this feature by imagining that the
  human being concerned is mentally and physically effected in a way which rules out the
  possibility of a life with any kind of meaningful pursuit in it. Now it is just not really a life
  at all. This does not preclude one from saying that it is better than human life. It is simply
  sufficiently unlike human life in the respects that matter that we regard it as only a
  degenerate case of human life. But clearly not being alive can be better than that life.
Immigration Disadvantage                         MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                              21


                                       Blocks
                                     A2 Racism
See Immigrant Case Negative under Racism
Immigration Disadvantage                       MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                            22



                                  A2 No Link
   1. Prefer our link evidence.
Immigration Disadvantage                     MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                          23



                       AFFIRMATIVE ANSWERS
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                          MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                               24

                                            A2 Increases Immigration
Health care does not increase immigration.
Brietta R. Clark Summer, 2008 Professor of Law, Loyola Law School, Los Angeles; J.D.,
University of Southern California Law School Beazley Institute for Health Law and Policy
Annals of Health Law 17 Ann. Health L. 229 The Immigrant Health Care Narrative and What
it Tells Us About the U.S. Health Care System

  A number of studies, as well as anecdotal evidence, undermine the asserted link between
  benefits availability and immigration decisions. Pro-access advocates always begin by
  noting that for years the data has shown that employment, not public benefit, is the primary
  motivator for illegal immigration or overstays. 140 No correlation has been shown in the
  rate of immigration and narrowing of benefits eligibility; illegal immigration has continued
  to grow despite the state and federal trend toward greater restrictions and stepped up
  enforcement over the last decade. 141 To counter the picture of the immigrant lured here by the prospect of getting
  public benefits, critics of health policy exclusions offer a competing narrative of immigrants as self-reliant and less likely than citizens to
  seek public benefits, even those to which they may be entitled. They criticize statistics about the number of immigrant families on public
                                                                                               a demographer
  assistance as painting a misleading and very narrow picture of immigrants' use of public resources. For example,
  at the University of Southern California who has studied immigrants' use of public services
  found no evidence of large scale use of public benefits by unauthorized immigrants. 142 In
  fact, statistics show that immigrants tend to underutilize public benefits and generally have a
  net positive effect on the economy. 143 Considering the link between immigration and health care specifically reveals
  an even weaker case for deterrence justifications. A direct connection between health care access and decisions to immigrate usually is
                                                                   care tends to be given a
  not and cannot be made for two reasons. The first is inherent in the healthcare market: health
  much lower priority than [*255] employment, which is necessary for food and shelter,
  especially by people suffering from severe economic circumstances. 144 The second reason is that
  the type of health care complained about often is unanticipated emergency health care. 145
  Even the "anchor baby" claim used by the Texas legislators to fight healthcare coverage for children of illegal immigrants is undermined
  by the Texas Hospital Association's own policy director who admits that "most illegal immigrants who go to major hospitals in Texas
                                           Pro-access arguments that public health benefits are
  can show that they have been living here for years." 146
  not a motivating factor for immigrants are also supported by the data on immigrants' use of
  health services. Studies show that immigrants, especially unauthorized immigrants,
  underutilize healthcare benefits. 147 Even legal immigrants and children of immigrants
  entitled to care tend to underutilize the healthcare system as a result of immigration-related
  benefit restrictions and enforcement policies. 148 Moreover, some data suggests that immigrants are much more
  likely to pay for their health care than citizens in many cases, undermining the view of immigrants as welfare abusers. 149 For example,
  although there are many reasons why immigrants may have trouble getting insurance and may need to rely on public benefits or
  assistance initially, [*256] data suggests that this reliance tends to be temporary and that "within a decade, new immigrants in
  California moved up quickly to steadier jobs with more benefits, and the rates of uninsured immigrants dropped sharply." 150All of
  this underlying-motivation data is consistent with a trend that many scholars and
  immigrants' rights groups have found to result from increased restrictions and stepped-up
  immigration enforcement. Illegal immigration continues and has even grown, despite the recent laws that make it
  increasingly difficult for unauthorized immigrants to live in the United States. 151 Illegal immigrants are still
  crossing the border, and they literally live as outlaws in hiding because these restrictionist
  policies have made life much harder for them. Many flock to urban areas where they can more easily "disappear"
  or blend in to society, while those in less urban areas try to avoid contact with others as much as possible. 152 These laws may
  deter immigrants from seeking certain kinds of benefits and keep them segregated in
  society, but they do not deter immigration decisions and they cannot deter immigrants'
  need for care for injury or illness that is beyond their control.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                     MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                          25

                                          A2 Increases Immigration

Health care doesn’t lure immigrants into the country.
Marguerite Angelari 2008 Goedert Elder Law Professor & Director of the Elder Law Initiative
and Elder Law Clinic at Loyola University Chicago. 2008 Loyola University Chicago School of
Law, Beazley Institute for Health Law and Policy Annals of Health Law Summer, 2008 17
Ann. Health L. 279
  Opponents of immigration hope, of course, that immigrants will leave the United States upon learning that they will no longer be eligible
                                                                    data shows that immigrants
  for Medicare, despite how long they work and even after they become documented. However,
  do not come to or remain in the United States because of our healthcare system or other
  public benefits. 104 In fact, immigration has only continued to increase as benefits have been
  cut since 1996. 105 Even if opponents of immigration are correct, and cutting access to
  Medicare will deter immigration or lead immigrants to return home, the Medicare program
  will lose millions of dollars in payroll taxes from healthy young workers. 106 As the
  dependency ratio increases to fifty-nine elderly individuals and children for every 100
  workers in 2005 to seventy-two elderly and children for [*290] every 100 workers in
  2050, the United States needs all the workers it can get. 107
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                          MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                               26

                                             AFF A2 Immigration Bad
Immigration is necessary to maintain Americas Population
D'Agostino 06 (Joseph A. D'Agostino, “300 Million and Immigration: Separating the Issues.” 10/17/2006.
http//www.humanevents.com/millionandImmigrationseparatingtheissues)
   America‘s population will reach 300 million people today. Those of us who see people as a resource will celebrate, especially since we
   recognize the need for more workers to support America‘s baby boomers in their impending retirement. Yet even many who have a pro-
   people attitude and recognize our worsening worker-retiree ratio have problems with America‘s current immigration levels. Sometimes, this
                                                                                                         be glad our nation is
   spills over into hostility toward population growth per se. It‘s past time to separate these two issues, and
   not dying out like those of Europe. The simple point: Population growth for America is
   good, while large numbers of unassimilated or unproductive immigrants are bad. Yet without some immigration, the
   United States’ population would continue aging indefinitely because her birthrate is so
   low. Even when accounting for the higher birthrate of immigrants, Americans‘ Total Fertility Rate is only 2.0 children per woman during
   her lifetime, on average. That is slightly less than the 2.1 needed for replacement. Remove all the immigrants, and
   Americans’ birthrate drops to suicidal French levels. It‘s true that the United States has experienced a
   massive increase in her foreign-born population since 1965, when Congress liberalized immigration laws. Contrary to what you
   might think, most immigration into the United States is legal, accounting for about one
   million new residents a year. The Census Bureau estimates that ―only” 500,000 illegal immigrants
   settle in the United States annually—although this may have gone up in the past few years as illegal immigration
   increases. Right now, about 35 million residents of the United States are foreign-born, a high 11.7% of the population.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                          MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                               27


                      AFF A2 Illegal Immigrants Hurt The Economy
Illegal Immigrants Perform Important tasks that are key to the US economy
Aversa 09 (Jeannine Aversa. AP Economics Writer. ―Experts: Illegal immigrants help
economy.‖ April 4, 2009.
http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:Xo2JtccaHWYJ:www.ggu.edu/about/headlines/attachment/
04-04-06%2BBusiness%2BWeek%2B-
%2BConnelly.pdf+economy+hurt+by+illegal+aliens+site:.edu&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)
    They pick fruit and vegetables and clip hedges. They hang drywall and clean houses, hotels
    and office buildings. The millions of illegal workers in the United States have come under a fresh spotlight as Congress and
    President Bush grapple with revamping the nation's immigration policies. Illegal workers' relationship to the
    economy is intricate. They are willing to work for lower wages than legal workers,
    helping to keep down prices. But illegal immigrants also can depress wages for unskilled, legal workers and strain local
    hospitals and schools. "There is not a simple economic case here. It iscomplex. It is
    interwoven, and it is very hard to extract," said Terry Connelly, dean of the Ageno School of Business at
   Golden Gate University in SanFrancisco. "It is like pulling some sort of piece ofthread out of a fabric. If you pull that thread out, you
   don't know to what degree you have weakened the fabric. "


Immigrants Boost Businesses and Economic Activity
Aversa 09 (Jeannine Aversa. AP Economics Writer. ―Experts: Illegal immigrants help
economy.‖ April 4, 2009.
http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:Xo2JtccaHWYJ:www.ggu.edu/about/headlines/attachment/
04-04-06%2BBusiness%2BWeek%2B-
%2BConnelly.pdf+economy+hurt+by+illegal+aliens+site:.edu&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)
   From lawn services to meat packing, you name it. The primary benefit to consumers
   from illegal workers is lower prices," said Nariman Behravesh, chief economist at Global Insight. For
   businesses, cheap labor can translate into fatter profits. If owners use those profits to
   expand their businesses, it would boost economic activity. While consumers and businesses may
   benefit from such cheap labor, the U.S. born-worker could be hurt by it, according to some research. Between 1980 and 2000, legal and
   illegal immigration reduced the average annual earnings of U.S.-born men by an estimated $1,700 or roughly 4 percent, according to
   research done in 2004 by George Borjas, economics professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. The
   situation was worse if one considers only the 10 million U.S.-born men who lack a high school degree. For them, the increased supply of
                                                                     Atlanta found no
   workers depressed wages by 7.4 percent, he found. Economists at the Federal Reserve banks in Dallas and
   evidence in 2003 that wages of higher-skilled U.S.-born workers were hurt by
   immigration,although lower-wage workers were affected
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                     MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                          28



                                             AFF A2 Overpopulation
There is no Basis to American Overpopulation arguments
D'Agostino 06 (Joseph A. D'Agostino, “300 Million and Immigration: Separating the Issues.” 10/17/2006.
http//www.humanevents.com/millionandImmigrationseparatingtheissues)
   And now, says CIS, ―The annual arrival of 1.5 million legal and illegal immigrants, coupled with 750,000 annual births to immigrant
                                                             who complain that
   women, is the determinate factor—or three-fourths—of all U.S. population growth.‖ Those
   Americans have too many children haven’t looked at the facts. Our birthrate is low
   and most of our population growth has come from increased longetivity—Americans have
   never lived longer—and immigration. As baby boomers‘ children finish graduating from school, the proportion of school-age children
   who are offspring of immigrants will rise, providing the next pool of American taxpayers.


Overpopulation is not caused by Immigrants-Suburban Sprawl has alt causes
D'Agostino 06 (Joseph A. D'Agostino, ―300 Million and Immigration: Separating the Issues.‖
10/17/2006. http//www.humanevents.com/millionandImmigrationseparatingtheissues)
   So America‘s population growth problems—suburban sprawl, crowded roads and schools,
   environmental degradation—are due to immigrants? Not at all. Immigrants have
   worsened some of America’s problems, but none are due to population growth per se.
   The problems of suburban sprawl and the accompanying congestion have come
   because of local governments’ halt to planning properly for growth more than anything
   else, but also because of America’s divorce revolution doubling many households, the
   movement of people away from rural areas, and Americans‘ desire for ever-larger homes.
   Yet, by 2050 at current rates of consumption, only 5.7% of America‘s land will be built up
   (currently 4.7% is). Discovered natural resources and environmental quality have been
   increasing in the United States for decades, but that will be the subject of a future article.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                         MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                              29



                                                          A2 California
Immigrants Are not to blame for California’s Problems
Weintraub 6/21 (Daniel Weintraub. The Sacramento Bee. ―The Conversation: Immigration &
America: State problem but a federal responsibility.‖ June 21, 2009.
http://www.sacbee.com/740/story/1962163.html)
   As California struggles to wrestle its budget back into balance, an ever-louder chorus
   of critics suggests there is an easy answer to the state's troubles: End all services to
   illegal immigrants. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger waved away these concerns June 5 when he told
   the Bee editorial board that it is a "myth" that illegal immigrants are to blame for the
   state's budget problems. "Our budget is out of whack because we have self-inflicted
   wounds that the Legislature and this state has never really sat down and had the will
   to go and make the necessary changes that have to be made," he said. But the governor's answer
   did not satisfy the critics, if The Bee's comment boards, letters and phone calls are any indication. Why not end those services, these
   people ask, before shutting down state parks, laying off public employees or cutting the safety net for U.S. citizens? It's a legitimate
   question, and its answer is more complicated than the governor's easy brush-off. People who disagree with him deserve to know more
   about which services illegal immigrants receive, how much those services cost, and what, if anything, can be done about it. According
   to the best information I could find, state government spends about $5 billion from its $91 billion general fund each year on services to
   illegal immigrants. The biggest share of that, about $1.2 billion, is in the public schools. The schools don't track immigration status, but
   reliable estimates of the number of illegal immigrants in the state and the number of children they have suggests that about 3.6 percent of
   California school children are in this country illegally.
Immigration Disadvantage                                                                                          MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                                                               30



                                                           A2 Spending
    1. Children growing up in the United States will someday become citizens, workers, and
          taxpayers themselves, so current taxpayers can ensure a healthy future by insuring these
          children.
    2. Immigrants are good for the economy
    Illegal Immigrants Perform Important tasks that are key to the US economy
Aversa 09 (Jeannine Aversa. AP Economics Writer. ―Experts: Illegal immigrants help
economy.‖ April 4, 2009.
http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:Xo2JtccaHWYJ:www.ggu.edu/about/headlines/attachment/
04-04-06%2BBusiness%2BWeek%2B-
%2BConnelly.pdf+economy+hurt+by+illegal+aliens+site:.edu&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)
   They pick fruit and vegetables and clip hedges. They hang drywall and clean houses, hotels
   and office buildings. The millions of illegal workers in the United States have come under a fresh spotlight as Congress and
   President Bush grapple with revamping the nation's immigration policies. Illegal workers' relationship to the
   economy is intricate. They are willing to work for lower wages than legal workers,
   helping to keep down prices. But illegal immigrants also can depress wages for unskilled, legal workers and strain local
   hospitals and schools. "There is not a simple economic case here. It iscomplex. It is
   interwoven, and it is very hard to extract," said Terry Connelly, dean of the Ageno School of Business at
   Golden Gate University in SanFrancisco. "It is like pulling some sort of piece ofthread out of a fabric. If you pull that thread out, you
   don't know to what degree you have weakened the fabric. "


Immigrants Boost Businesses and Economic Activity
Aversa 09 (Jeannine Aversa. AP Economics Writer. ―Experts: Illegal immigrants help
economy.‖ April 4, 2009.
http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:Xo2JtccaHWYJ:www.ggu.edu/about/headlines/attachment/
04-04-06%2BBusiness%2BWeek%2B-
%2BConnelly.pdf+economy+hurt+by+illegal+aliens+site:.edu&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)
   From lawn services to meat packing, you name it. The primary benefit to consumers
   from illegal workers is lower prices," said Nariman Behravesh, chief economist at Global Insight. For
   businesses, cheap labor can translate into fatter profits. If owners use those profits to
   expand their businesses, it would boost economic activity. While consumers and businesses may
   benefit from such cheap labor, the U.S. born-worker could be hurt by it, according to some research. Between 1980 and 2000, legal and
   illegal immigration reduced the average annual earnings of U.S.-born men by an estimated $1,700 or roughly 4 percent, according to
   research done in 2004 by George Borjas, economics professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. The
   situation was worse if one considers only the 10 million U.S.-born men who lack a high school degree. For them, the increased supply of
                                                                             found no
   workers depressed wages by 7.4 percent, he found. Economists at the Federal Reserve banks in Dallas and Atlanta
   evidence in 2003 that wages of higher-skilled U.S.-born workers were hurt by
   immigration,although lower-wage workers were affected
Immigration Disadvantage                                                   MBHS Debate
Payne Griffin                                                                        31




                         AFF A2 Utilitarianism Overview
   1. There is no way to measure the various degrees of happiness obtained from an action.
           Since humans have different perceptions and derive various amounts of happiness
              from different situations, then there is no possible way to tell which action causes
              the greatest amount of happiness and therefore Utilitarianism cannot function.
   2. Contemplating consequences takes too much time.
           Since the possible outcomes of a situation are infinite, and the amounts of
              possible situations are infinite, then humans subjected to Utilitarian principles
              would spend all of their lives contemplating on the outcomes of their actions,
              rendering it impossible for society to function or for life to exist.
   3. Human rights-violations
             Utilitarianism advocates the violations of human rights to achieve the greater
              good. However, rights-violations hold more weight than utils.
   4. Utilitarianism cannot differentiate between right and wrong.
                     Since Utilitarianism holds that an action that results in the most happiness
                      is the only “right” action, and all other actions are “wrong”, then it also
                      advocates that other actions that are considered moral that do not achieve
                      as much happiness as the other action are also “wrong”.

								
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