Arts and Culture 1. General analysis of Arts and Culture In Baja California Sur, services related to arts and culture are being disseminated mainly by four sectors: The government sector with federal, state and municipal programs Research and higher education institutions Institutions in charge of particular social sectors Civil society organizations The federal government promotes arts and culture through Mexico‘s National Council for Culture and the Arts (CONACULTA) and the National Institute for Anthropology and History (INAH) that has a regional research center and a set of museums located in various parts of the country. The State Coordinating Office for Public Libraries, under the management of CONACULTA is in charge of forty-five libraries. Funding to undertake these programs is managed through special funds with federal and state contribution. In 2003, INAH allocated $2,464,600 USD to carry out these programs.1 The Secretariat of Public Education, a federal agency, has a broader mission beyond the diffusion of culture, because it is in charge of managing public as well as private sector services for education; it also has programs that help support cultural activities, particularly in remote areas of the state. 1 Government of the State of Baja California Sur, V Report on the State of the administration report, 2003-2004. Lic. Manuel Cota Montano. Doc. Socioeconomico, p.40 The state agency in charge of cultural programs is the Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura (ISC), which depends directly on the State Coordinating Office of Social Welfare Programs. From the administrative point of view, the ISC is head of: The State School of Music; The House of State Culture, Unit of Popular Cultures; The Cultural Unit ―Prof. Jesus Castro Agundez‖ (founded in 1987 in La Paz) that houses the ―Pablo L. Martinez‖ historical archives; The ―Carlos Olachea‖ Art Gallery; The City Theater House, the State Central Library ―Filemon C. Pineda;‖ and The Office of the State Network of Public Libraries. The ISC also participates administratively in the region’s Museum of Anthropology and History under the delegation of INAH in Baja California Sur. The state‘s Coordinating Office for Social Welfare Programs, under which the ISC works, manages resources obtained by the Institute to carry out its activities. For the year 2003, the amount allocated to the Institute was $1,958,676 USD.2 The Secretary for Economic Promotion and Development also implements training programs on regional arts and crafts in order to promote these as economic alternatives, promoting them also with the purpose of preserving regional culture. The Baja California Sur Institute for Youth (Instituto Sudcaliforniano de la Juventud) has a primary objective to offer young people alternatives for personal development and improving their quality of life. Although their political structure and programs depend directly on the Mexican Institute for Youth (Instituto Mexicano de la Juventud), they have achieved effective 2 Idem. means of communicating with youth from all over the state through the ―Cultural Forums for Youth Expression‖3 and the Municipal Councils on Youth (Consejos Municipales de atención a la Juventud-ConJuve). Presently, in the municipal government, there are some programs for cultural dissemination managed by the Directorate for Culture, Civic and Social Action that carries out activities directly in the municipalities. Management and functionality of these cultural activities in some cases are coordinated with other agencies of the state government, like the ISC and the state‘s Library Network. There is coordination with ISC to organize cultural activities during the La Paz carnival and the festivities to commemorate the founding of La Paz. In higher education institutions (IES) there are programs for cultural dissemination, both nationally and internationally. Among them are the Autonomous University of Baja California Sur (UABCS), the La Paz Technological Institute (IT), the World University, and the La Paz Campus of Tijuana University (CUT). These institutions are mainly concentrated in the city of La Paz, except UABCS and CUT that have foreign extensions where cultural dissemination works also take place. The higher education institution that is most concerned with culture in the state is the UABCS. The University has a Directorate of Culture Dissemination and University Extension. In turn, this Directorate has a culture dissemination department in charge of implementing and managing these programs. The budget allocated to the UABCS for culture dissemination programs in 2003 was $396,100 USD.4 As education centers that generate knowledge, higher education institutions are efficiently complemented by the presence of libraries, art galleries, 3 Interview with Juan Manuel Caballero, Coordinador de los Foros de Expresión Cultural Juvenil, ISC. 22-04-2004. 4 Government of the State of Baja California Sur, State of the Administration Report. theater houses, publishing programs, workshops, and promotion programs for artistic expressions in various disciplines where principal beneficiaries are the community in general. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security and Services for Government employees (ISSSTE), albeit not specifically culture- oriented institutions, have cultural programs and infrastructure that allows them to offer people registered to their services alternative means of personal development, through creativity and cultural activities. The ISSSTE allocated $559,723 USD to this purpose in the year 2003.5 Finally, civil society associations, better known as Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) are working to recover, recreate, disseminate and extend regional, national and international culture. In Baja California Sur, there are nineteen NGOs whose primary focus is culture related, twelve of which are in the municipality of La Paz, one in Loreto, three in Mulegé and three in the municipality of Los Cabos. Museums The International Council on Museums (ICOM) defines a museum as: ―a permanent non-profit institution that purchases, preserves, investigates, disseminates and exhibits material testimonies of humankind and their environment, for the education and delight of the visiting public. […] This definition […] shall apply without any limitation deriving from the type of ruling agency, the territorial character, the functioning system or the orientation of collections in the institution concerned.6 CONACULTA has 1,058 museums registered throughout Mexico that fall into the following categories: Museums of anthropology and history Art Museums 5 Government of the State of Baja California Sur, Lic. Leonel Cota . State of the Administration Report. 6 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural, CONACULTA, Mexico, Science and Technology Museums Museums for children Others (Wax museum, museum of incredible things, penmanship, etc.) Of the 643 anthropology and history museums (60.7% of the total),7 the state of Baja California Sur has one each in the towns of Mulegé, Loreto, La Paz, and Cabo San Lucas. Of these, the first three are under the custody of INAH.8 Baja California Sur only has two art museums: the Music Museum in the village of El Triunfo and the Whale Museum 9 in the City of La Paz The state also has two science and technology museums: the Natural History Museum (UABCS) and the Telecommunications Museum, both in La Paz.. Baja California Sur does not have any museum specifically designed for children. Although children, mainly students in primary and secondary school, visit the other museums, there is a need for a center with facilities and features specific to children. With a total of ten museums, Baja California Sur is considered one of the states in Mexico with the least number of museums, together with Quintana Roo (eleven) and Campeche (five).10 However, the national mean of inhabitants per museum is 92,139 while in Baja California Sur it is 42,40411 inhabitants per museum. According to assessments by CONACULTA, the states of Colima (with 28,559 inhabitants per museum) Yucatan (30,149 7 Idem, p.37 8 Regional Museum of Anthropology and History of Baja California Sur (La Paz), Museum of Jesuit Missions (Loreto), Museum of Cave Paintings of San Ignacio (Mulegé) 9 This museum emphasizes both art with a whale theme as well as scientific exhibits on the whales of the Baja California Peninsula. 10 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural, Op. Cit. p, 137 11 This figure was calculated from the total population figures for BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR for 2000. Anuario Estadístico, Edición 2003, Baja California Sur, INEGI-Gob. del Estado de Baja California Sur. México, 2003, p. 43. inhabitants per museum) and Nayarit (35,391 inhabitants per museum) are the best equipped. By contrast, Veracruz (186,729 inhabitants per museum), the State of Mexico (with 176,982 inhabitants per museum) and Tamaulipas (161,954 inhabitants per museum)12 are the worst equipped ones. Using the criteria of population per facility, Baja California Sur appears to be relatively well off. Thirty out of the thirty-two state capital cities in Mexico have four or more museums, one of which is La Paz.13 La Paz can be considered the best equipped city in the state so far as museums are concerned, which reflects the high degree of centralization of these services within the city, with little coverage in other municipalities. As a municipality, La Paz has one museum per 39,381 inhabitants. The municipalities with the largest number of museums are La Paz with five, and Mulegé with seven (including the museum and service units). Municipalities with the least number of museums are Los Cabos (one), Loreto (one) and Comondú (one). These figures are especially remarkable with the consideration that the municipality of Los Cabos, the second most populous in the state (105,469 inhabitants), has only one museum. The following are the state museums in Baja California Sur: - Regional Museum of Anthropology and History (INAH): This museum is in the city of La Paz and focuses on the history of the state, from pre-Columbian times to the first decades of the 20th Century. In the year 2002, this museum welcomed 24,335 visitors. During that same year, 332 pieces were donated to the museum as the result of a campaign.14 However, during the year 2003, the museum had fewer visitors (22,674).15 12 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural, Op. Cit. p.139. 13 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural, Op. Cit. p. 137. 14 From the 2002 INAH annual report. 15 Monthly reports from INAH from January to June of 2003. - Museum of Jesuit Missions (INAH): Located in Loreto and, as the name indicates, dedicated to the period during which the Jesuits built missions in Californian territory in the 17th and 18th centuries. In the year 2002, this museum welcomed 11,283 visitors and 15,918 in 2003,16 4,635 more than in the previous year.17 - Unit of INAH services Mulegé (INAH): This Unit is located in the building of the old Boleo mining company that functioned in the late 19th Century. This historical building contains a museum on mining in Santa Rosalia and in the year 2003, it welcomed 1,686 visitors.18 - Museum on cave painting (INAH): This museum, located in San Francisco de la Sierra, exhibits some painting samples of cave art of the Sierra de San Francisco and is also a general information source for the sierra region. In the year 2003, it welcomed 2,787 visitors.19 In the archaeological areas of Santa Marta and San Francisco, there were 2,023 visitors, and in Mulegé there were 1,189.20 - Museum of the Californias in Cabo San Lucas: This museum has a collection of pieces dating back to pre-Columbian and Mission times, mainly from the Cape region. The education and cultural values of this museum are significant as it is the only museum in the municipality. Visitors are mostly grade school children, as well as national and international tourists. 21 This museum is not under municipal administration and presently is not covered by any INAH conservation plan. 16 Government of the state of Baja California Sur, Hacia Los Programas Sectoriales con Enfoque regional. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, Secretaría de Desarrollo y Fomento Económico, Sep. 2001. p.180 17 Interview with Lic. Jorge Amao M. Director del Centro INAH BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR Junio-2004 18 Idem 19 Ibid. 20 Idem. 21 There was no specific data available with regards to the breakdown of national versus international tourists. - Community Museum in Todos Santos: The Community Museum of Todos Santos is mainly dedicated to the pre-Columbian, Mission, and revolution eras of the history of the community. The museum‘s charter was created under the supervision of the INAH, but at present is not under any agency conservation plan. It is located inside the 21st Century Cultural Center ―Prof. Nestor Agundez Martinez.‖ This Cultural Center also exhibits the photographic archives ―Clotilde Villanueva de Rodriguez‖ that includes a collection of photographs from the late 19th Century to the early 20th Century, and the ―Ignacio Tirch‖ painting collection that includes valuable works mostly from distinguished artists from California Sur, with four outstanding murals of historical importance. This cultural center has other attractions that complement the museum, including a replica of a Baja California Sur Ranch home, an ethno- botanic garden, and the municipal public library, ―Profesora Columba Salgado Pedrin.‖ - Community Whale Museum, La Paz: In 1966 the Whale Museum had pieces from thirty- one artists and it currently has fifty-seven pieces. It is dedicated not only to whales but to cetaceans in general. Apart from the fifty-seven works of art, the Whale Museum contains the conserved skeletons of a gray whale, with a length of 11.8 m (38.7 ft.), as well as a fin-back whale, approximately 25 m (82 ft.) in length, the only one in Mexico.22 - Natural history Museum: This museum is under the Autonomous University of Baja California Sur and was founded in 1994. It has scientific collections and is open both to the general public as well as researchers. Its topics encompass Geology, Paleo-botany and a broad sample of wildlife from the peninsula. It also has a section on paleo-anthropology containing replicas and reproductions of skulls of hominids and other archaeological pieces. 22 Gamez Vazquez Sandino, . “El Museo de la Ballena: Un esfuerzo colectivo” , interview with Víctor Ramos Pocoroba, en Revista Altenativa, La Paz, May 9, 2001. - Regional Museum of Telecommunications: Founded in 1991, this museum belongs to the Secretary of Communications and Transport. It has two show rooms with a collection of communication, radio and television devices from 1929 to the present day. One can also visit the Hall of Fame with oil paintings and biographies of major scientists in the media, such as Samuel Morse, Jose Maria Ampere, Thomas Alba Edison, and Juan de la Granja, a Mexican scientist who introduced the telegraph to Mexico. This museum is presently closed to the public. - Music Museum: Located in the historical mining town of El Triunfo, municipality of La Paz; this museum is dedicated to music and its history in the Southern part of the peninsula. It is housed in a renovated 19th century building and contains different musical objects and instruments that belonged to famous musicians from the state, as well as families that were instrumental in the dissemination of music in the region. It was founded on December 12th, 2003. The museum‘s guide walks us through the history of music in Baja California Sur, from the musical influence of the missionaries to the instruments that belonged to wealthy families in El Triunfo.23 Cultural Centers and Cultural Houses Mexico‘s national project to establish cultural houses begins in 1947 with the creation of the National Institute of Fine Arts (INBA). However, it was only in 1966 that the first House of 23 Interview with Issais Verdugo de Vazquez, June 15, 2004 Culture opened in the state of Aguascalientes and almost eleven years later the project expanded so that in 1977 five houses of culture were established throughout the country.24 Presently, the country has close to 1,600 cultural houses and cultural centers, managed both by public and private institutions. In most cases, they function with state and municipal government resources. Whether their name is Cultural House or Center, these are institutions dedicated to cultural dissemination, informal art education, cultural promoter training, and art creation workshops for students of all levels.25 The state has eighteen cultural houses and, according to CONACULTA‘s figures, is one of the best-equipped states in this type of resource. The national mean of inhabitants per cultural house is 61,233; in Baja California Sur, the figure is 24,943 inhabitants per cultural house (59% above the national mean). Other states that are well equipped are: Zacatecas with 27,624, Puebla with 30,039 and Yucatan with 30,149 inhabitants per cultural house. The least equipped states, that is, those with more inhabitants per cultural house or center, are Baja California with 276,374, Guerrero with 133,897, Chihuahua with 113,070 and Sinaloa with 110,297.26 Cultural houses and centers are distributed in the state as follows: Table 1: Names and Locations of Culture Houses in B.C.S. 24 Atlas de la Infraestructura Cultural, Op. Cit. p. 131. 25 Idem. P. 131. 26 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural. Op.Cit..p. 133. Cultural House Municipality Village Ascribed to Casa de la cultura del La Paz La Paz State estado Alianza francesa de La Paz La Paz Todos Municipal y Centro Cultural Roger Santos de Conynz Centro Cultural La Paz La Paz ISSSTE delegation in Baja FOVISSSTE sudcalifornia California Sur Unidad Cultural Jesús La Paz La Paz ISC- Gov. state of Baja Castro Agundez California Sur Centro cultural IMSS La Paz La Paz IMSS delegation in Baja California Sur Casa de la cultura de San Los Cabos San José del Municipal José del Cabo Cabo Casa de la cultura de Cabo Los Cabos Cabo San Municipal San Lucas Lucas Casa de la cultura de Los Cabos Miraflores Municipal Miraflores Casa de la cultura de Los Cabos Santiago Municipal Santiago Casa de la cultura de Loreto Loreto Municipal Loreto Casa de la cultura de santa Mulegé Sta. Rosalía Municipal Rosalía Casa de cultura Prof. Mulegé Mulegé Municipal Federico Galas Ramírez Casa de la cultura de Mulegé Guerrero Municipal Guerrero Negro Negro Casa de la cultura de Mulegé Mulegé Municipal Mulegé El Boleo Centro Cultural Mulegé Santa Rosalía Municipal de Santa Rosalía Casa de la cultura de Cd. Comondú Cd. Municipal Constitución Constitución Centro cultural ISSSTE Comondú Santa Cecilia ISSSTE delegation in Baja Santa Cecilia California Sur Source: Instituto sudcaliforniano de la Cultura. As may be seen in Table 1, there are eighteen Cultural Houses and Centers in the state and the highest concentration of this service is found in the La Paz municipality, having six in La Paz and five in Mulegé. These two municipalities are among the fifty-two better-equipped municipalities in the country.27 In the year 2002, 820 visitors (126 adults, 407 youth, 127 children) attended cultural houses in remote communities and municipalities with less infrastructure.28 These figures do not correspond at all with the activity, for instance, of the state Cultural House located in La Paz city. Table 2: State House of Culture Activities in 2003 Activity No. of activities No. of participants Regular workshops 18 274 Summer workshops 16 234 Festivals 6 7,273 Thursdays for children 30 1,038 Presentation of books 2 90 Courses ―tele-class room‖ 5 55 Concerts 9 5,205 Shows 12 1,440 Total 98 15,609 Source: Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura Notwithstanding the scoring that CONACULTA‘s standards have given Baja California Sur, reality is less positive. Indeed, there are a sufficient number of cultural houses and centers in the state, but most of them do not have sufficient economic resources to help them provide quality cultural services. The main deficiencies in these centers include adequate art education teachers and instructional workshops, because of an inability to pay proper wages. 27 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural. Op.Cit..p. 133. 28 Government of the State of BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, Hacia Los Programas Sectoriales con Enfoque regional. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, Secretaría de Desarrollo y Fomento Económico, Sep. 2001.p.174. Art galleries According to the CONACULTA‘s Cultural Information System (SIC), the country has 570 art galleries, of which twelve are in Baja California Sur and thirty-four in Baja California.29 Although this is official (although preliminary), after fieldwork, it was possible to visit more than twelve art galleries in Todos Santos alone. It should be noted that not all of them are galleries devoted only to art exhibits, but most sell works of art by both Mexican and foreign artists. There is currently not an accurate registry of the total number of art galleries in the state. Among art galleries that are dedicated to art exhibitions and cultural dissemination is the ―Mtro. Carlos Olachea‖ gallery. It is located inside the ―Prof. Jesus Castro Agundez‖ Cultural Unit in La Paz, and ascribed to and managed by the Instituto Sudcaliforniano de la Cultura. This gallery is dedicated to the exhibition and promotion of visual arts by state, regional, national, and international artists. To this end, the ―Carlos Olachea‖ gallery is a particularly good place for young artists to show their work. Younger, less experienced artists, in addition to well-consecrated state and national artists, have been able to show their work there. One cannot say that this gallery focuses on any one particular medium, and exhibits range from cartoons to conceptual art. In 2003, there were seventy-nine shows; three were collective and the rest were individual shows. Different activities associated with the shows taking place in this gallery in 2003 were fifty-two in total, with 10,553 visitors.30 Summer workshops for children and teenagers in the ―Carlos Olachea‖ Gallery take place in coordination with the Directorate of Municipal Culture. 29 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural. P. 131. 30 Interview with Víctor Ramos Pocoroba, cultural promoter of the Galería “Carlos Olachea” May 20, 2004. The workshops are offered as an option to strengthen informal artistic education for children and young people. Workshops taught there are painting, modeling, and performing arts. The other art gallery belonging to ISC and located in La Paz city is the one found in the facilities of the State Cultural House. In this gallery, there were twelve art shows in the year 2003, welcoming 1,440 visitors.31 Under the UABCS there are four art galleries, located in: 1. The hall of the Teatro Juarez (downtown La Paz city) 2. The hall of the central library. 3. The corridors of the building of Cultural Dissemination. 4. The University gallery. In these four halls, dedicated to artistic promotion, the UABCS had ten shows in 2003 and fifteen in the first semester of 2004.32 There are no accurate records about the number of visitors to these shows, but organizers predict that between 150 and 200 visitors attended each show.33 Theater Houses CONACULTA has records of 544 theater houses in the country including facilities which, regardless of their primary use, are technically equipped for performances. Among the areas of the country with a larger number of theater houses, highlights include Mexico City with 129, Guerrero and Nuevo Leon, with twenty-four each, Tamaulipas with twenty-three, Sonora with twenty-two, and Guanajuato and Baja California with twenty-one each. Baja California Sur 31 Anexo estadístico del 5º Informe de Gobierno de Baja California Sur, 2003 (Consulted in the archives of the ISC). 32 Interview with Víctor Ramos Pocoroba, cultural promoter of the Galería, “Carlos Olachea” , May 20, 2004. 33 Anexo estadístico del 5º Informe de Gobierno de Baja California Sur, 2003 (consulted in the arhives of the ISC). only has eight theater houses, of which only three have the minimum equipment for performances and three are outdoor theaters. The national mean of inhabitants per theater house is 179,19734 and even though the state has a total of 53,005 inhabitants per theater, theater-oriented activities in each location are lacking. Local performance groups use only two of the theater houses in La Paz city. Theater productions from outside the town are very expensive and the small budgets for cultural activities do not allocate enough for this expense. The situation of theater houses in Baja California Sur is the following: El Teatro de la Ciudad, located in the “Jesus Castro Agundes” Cultural Unit in La Paz city, managed by the ISC. In the year 2002, this theater hosted 176 activities, seventy of which were drama, thirty-one dance, eighteen music and fifty-seven various.35 In 2003, there were 174 performances, sixty-two of which were drama, thirty-eight dance, twenty-four music and fifty various, with an attendance of 92,217 people. In the year 2003, there was an increase of 15.3% in the number of people attending cultural activities (of which there was only a slight decrease - 1.1% - in comparison to the previous year.36 El Teatro Juarez, located in downtown La Paz, managed and renovated by an organization of civil society. This theater house is 830 m2 (8,934 ft2) of which only 240 m2 (2,583 ft2) are dedicated to drama performances. The stage of the Teatro Juarez has 168.08 m2 (1,809 ft2) and the hall (40 m2 or 431 ft2)) and is used as an art gallery. The upper floor has a multiple use room that is 40 m2 (431 ft2). The hall increased in capacity to 350 people37 since July of 2004, thanks 34 Information obtained in the Activity Briefs section of the archives of the Dept of Cultural Diffusion (Consulta 01). 35 Interview with Martha Carmenza, Director of the Department of Cultural Diffusion de la UABAJA CALIFORNIA SUR. May 20, 2004. 36 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural. Op. Cit. 149 37 Statistical annex of the 4º informe de Gobierno de Baja California Sur. 2002 (Consulted in the archives of ISC). to arrangements by the International Community Foundation (ICF) with the participation of the UABCS to import and install seats. Also, there are the following theater houses, about which we were unfortunately unable to obtain information, since they do not have regular performance activities: Teatro-Auditorio Ricardo Chato Covarrubias in the municipality of Comondú Teatro General Manuel Marques de León in Todos Santos, municipality of La Paz Teatro al Aire Libre (Outdoors theater) Profra. Rosaura Zapata Cano, located in La Paz city and under the custody of the ISC Teatro Prof. Manuel Torre Iglesias. Located in La Paz city, belonging to the Instituto Sudcaliforniano de la Juventud y el Deporte. Teatro de la Casa de la Cultura de Los Cabos, which does not have the basic equipment for theater productions. It is only used for some special events, such as folkloric dance workshops and closing events of summer courses. Libraries Libraries in Baja California Sur are of four kinds: Public School libraries Those belonging to higher education institutions, also public Public, specialized The total number of libraries in the state of Baja California Sur is fifty-one, holding a total of 413,649 books. With these figures we have a total of 8,314.5 inhabitants per library and a rate of 0.9 books per inhabitant. Public Libraries Libraries grouped as public are ascribed to the General Directorate of Libraries (under CONACULTA), which coordinates the functions of the National Network together with the State coordinating office of Public Libraries. The National Network of Public Libraries was founded in the year 1983 as a result of an agreement between the Secretary of Public Education and the governments of the states of the Federation, and in 1988 the General Law on Libraries was enacted. This Law is the legal framework for this Network. The National Network is made up of the State Public Libraries Network, which, in turn, manages state, regional, central or municipal libraries. Central public libraries act as functioning models of the other libraries managed by the networks. These libraries, including Baja California Sur‘s central library, were initially given 10,000 volumes.38 One library was founded in each capital city in Mexico. Presently, the Public Library National Network operates 6,610 libraries,39 of which only forty-five are in the state of Baja California Sur. The state is considered among those with the least number of libraries in the country, together with Quintana Roo (forty-seven), Colima (fifty-one) and Campeche (fifty-three).40 The national mean of inhabitants per library is 14,748. Better-equipped states in terms of inhabitants per library are Tabasco (3,360), Zacatecas (6,415), Tlaxcala (7,826) and Oaxaca 38 Atlas of Cultural Infrastructure, Op.Cit. p.84 39 This figure does not include libraries belonging to higher education institutions. 40 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural , Op. Cit. p. 86. (7,923). States with the largest number of inhabitants per library are Guanajuato (38,222), Baja California (29,968), Tamaulipas (26,730) and Jalisco (26,563). This rate is, therefore, not related to the extent of economic and social development of the states, nor with levels of schooling. With forty-five libraries in five municipalities, Baja California Sur has a mean of 10,096 inhabitants per library, 31% above the national mean.41 If we take into account the number of inhabitants per library of the best and worst equipped states, Baja California Sur is in the middle, much better that its neighbor, Baja California that is 103% below the national mean, regarding number of inhabitants per library. Among the main functions of public libraries, reading promotion activities and book collections are organized into four groups: general collection, reference collection, children‘s collection, and periodicals collection. Of the forty-five public libraries existing in Baja California Sur that are managed by the state network, there are fifteen in urban areas and thirty in rural ones. One of them is the state‘s central public library ―Filemon C. Pineda,‖ established in the capital of the state to provide library services to the community and act as model library. The Coordinating office of the state libraries network uses this outpost to operate the other libraries of the agency.42 This library was inaugurated on January 26th, 1987. During its initial operation it had approximately 9,401 volumes. Presently, it has 26,662 volumes.43 The other forty-four libraries are distributed in the five municipalities of the state as follows in Graph 1: 41 Idem, p.92 42 Galván Gaytán, Columba. Historia de las Bibliotecas en Baja California Sur, CONACULTA, México, 1992. p.144 43 Interview with Lic. Hilda de la Cruz Fematt. May 27, 2004, 2:20 pm. Graph 1 Percentage of Libraries in Baja California Sur by Municipality Los Cabos Loreto La Paz 17.8% 2.2% 28.9% Mulegé 22.2% Comondú 28.9% Source: elaborated by the author with information from the State Network of Public Libraries. The total number of volumes that existed amongst all the state‘s public libraries in the year 2003 were 253,198. This number reveals an index of 0.59 books per inhabitant, higher than the national average of 0.33 books per inhabitant.44 As Graph G-1 shows, the municipalities with the most public libraries are La Paz and Comondú with thirteen each. La Paz has an index of 15,146 inhabitants per library (398 individuals above the state average) and Comondú has 4,912 people per library (9,836 below the state average). 61.5% of the total state population lives in these two states.45 The municipality with the largest number of libraries is Mulegé, with ten (4,598 people per library), Los Cabos with eight (13,183 people per library) and Loreto, which only has one (11,812 people per library.). Public libraries‘ capacity and activities are not the same throughout the state. Tables 3 and Table 4 show how the communities used libraries in the years 2002-2003. 44 Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural. Op. Cit. p. 54. 45 Idem. p. 92. Table 3: Number of visitors in libraries, by semester in 2002. Municipality First semester Second Semester Accrued Comondú 22,717 63,518 86,235 Mulegé 20,669 52,689 73,358 La Paz 85,375 165,368 250,743 Los Cabos 31,763 48,600 80,363 Loreto 2,990 5,518 8,508 B.C.S. 163,514 335,693 499,207 Source: Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura Table 4: Number of visitors in public libraries, compared to years 2002 and 2003 Municipality 2002 2003 Percentage variation Comondú 86,235 97,233 12.75% Mulegé 73,358 55,265 -24.66% La Paz 250,743 247,987 -1.09% Los Cabos 80,363 105,601 31.405 Loreto 8,508 5,662 -33.45% B.C.S. 499,207 511,748 2.51% Souce; Estimates made by the author Graph 2: Number of Activities to Promote Reading in BCS Libraries by Municipality in 2003 Among Children Among Youth Among Adults 1600 1,505 1400 1200 1000 800 601 600 347 400 259 180 110 89 99 135 200 15 8 15 79 2946 0 os dú gé o az et ab le on P r Lo u La C om M s Lo C Source: Baja California Sur Public Libraries State Network. Of the total number of visitors in 2003, the following variations were found regarding the use of different services provided by public libraries: Graph 3 Change in Books Taken Out from Local Libraries by Municipality from 2002 to 2003 % Change in Books from General Collection % Change in Books from Children's Collection 80 55 60 40 18 20 1 8 0 -20 Comondú -9 La Paz Loreto Los Cabos Mulegé -18 -26 -40 -41 -42 -60 -57 -80 Source: Baja California Sur Public Libraries State Network. In the year 2003, there is a regrettable drop in the total number of books consulted, both in the general and the children‘s collection, compared to the amount reported in 2002. The decrease in consultation of the general collection was 9.01% and 12.14% in the children‘s collection. Those municipalities that showed a drop in the amount of consultations in 2003, compared to 2002, are Mulegé with 42.44% in general collection and 25.71% in children‘s; similarly in La Paz where consultation of the general collection went down 18.15%, while the children‘s dropped 16.56%. Variations in the number of consultations in both collections are not consistent. Thus, Comondú showed an increase of 17.64% in the number of consulted books in the general collection and a slight decrease of 9.11% in the children‘s collection. Los Cabos showed an increase of 0.99% in the general collection and 8.24% in the children‘s collection. Loreto showed an increase of 55.06% in the general collection and a decrease of 57.26% in the children‘s collection. One of the probable causes for the increase in book consultation in the municipality of Comondú is the opening of a new library in early 2003. The number of users in this municipality surpassed those reported in the same period in the municipality of Los Cabos, notwithstanding the fact that the latter is the second most populous municipality in the state. Library coverage in urban centers of Baja California Sur, as well as existence of cultural centers is adequate, but there remains the challenge of many rural communities having neither a library nor access to any existing library. Among additional or alternate services of the central library in La Paz city, there is a children‘s room with capacity for eighty children that has five well-trained people in charge of planning and implementing cultural promotion programs. It has 4,500 volumes and special furniture (twenty tables and eighty chairs) .46 Among the programs that supplement book lending in Public Libraries, there is the program entitled,―My Holidays in the Library,‖ directed towards children from five municipalities who can attend workshops on writing, art, and environmental education. In Baja California Sur, in 2003, 36,795 children and young people from five municipalities were active in the program.47 Specific reading promotion activities and guided tours are divided into three main target groups: children, teenagers ,and young people and adults. The number of these reading promotion activities in 2003, by municipality, are as follows in Table G-5: 46 Interview with Lic. Hilda de la Cruz Fermatt. 47 Government of the State of Baja California Sur, Report on the state of the administration. Table 5: Reading promotion activities Municipality Children Young Adults No. of people attendants Comondú 259 110 89 16,624 La Paz 1,505 99 601 49,646 Loreto 15 8 15 1,114 Los Cabos 347 79 135 17,265 Mulegé 180 29 46 6,919 Total Baja 2,306 325 886 91,568 California Sur Source: Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura.48. State Library Network. 49 48 Government of the State of Baja California Sur, Hacia Los Programas Sectoriales con Enfoque regional. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, Secretaría de Desarrollo y Fomento Económico, Sep. 2001.p. 183 49 Concentrados estadísticos 2003, from the files of the State Library Network Graph 4 Number of Participants in Reading Promotion Activities by Municipalities in 2003 49,646 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 16,624 17,265 20,000 15,000 6,919 10,000 1,114 5,000 0 La Paz Comondú Mulegé Los Cabos Loreto Source: Elaborated by the author with information from the Baja California Sur Public Library State Network. As shown in Graph 2, the largest number of activities to promote reading are targeted towards children, thanks to the coordinated efforts of primary and secondary school teachers during holidays and the Centers of Basic Education. The least number of activities to promote reading is among young people—a concern that should be addressed. From the analysis of the above tables and graphs, one can conclude that La Paz is the community that has the largest number of reading promotion activities and the largest population to attend to (54% of the state). This is due to the high concentration of population living in La Paz and Todos Santos and to the fact that La Paz is one of the municipalities with the largest number of public libraries (thirteen). Comondú has a smaller population but it also has thirteen libraries, hence it is not surprising to see that it is second place (at 18%) in the state in the number of people involved in reading promotion activities. It also explains why the municipality of Loreto shows little participation in this kind of activity, since it only has one public library. A program was launched in 2001 in order to provide all public libraries in the National Network with one computer station and free access to the Internet. Initially, this service was considered only for central libraries, located in the capital cities of the states. In 2001, Baja California Sur‘s central library was given equipment for five Internet computing stations, capable of providing service to 2,986 users. In 2002, only 522 users were attended to because there was a problem with the central server. In 2003, there were 1,519 users and at the beginning of 2004 another fifteen computers were added.50 During the second stage of the program, in early 2004 Cabo San Lucas‘ libraries were given three computer stations, San Jose del Cabo‘s was given six and Ciudad Constitucion‘s received three. It would be beneficial to make an assessment in the near future as to the acceptance and impact of the service provided by the public libraries network in the state. In a subsequent stage, another six libraries are expected to provide this service, and by late 2004 and early 2005 the state of Baja California Sur will have a total of ten rooms with access to the Internet.51 In summary, in 1999 the Network provided for a population of 356,435 users. By the year 2003, the number of people serviced by these centers was 510,855 users—an increase of 43%.52 To support activities for the promotion of reading undertaken by public libraries, the special Fund to Promote Reading in the state of Baja California Sur –whose annual budget is 50 Interview with Lic. Hilda Alejandra de la Cruz Fematt, May 27, 2004, 2:20 pm 51 Idem. 52 Diagnosis of the various activities undertaken in the state of Baja California Sur, with the participation of CONACULTA and the government of the state. CONACULTA-ISC, La Paz, Baja California, March 2004. $100,000 – carried the first module in February 2004 to train reading hall coordinators, and approved twenty-six reading hall projects. These halls are all located in social development centers of the DIF‗s System for Integral Family Development, located in neighborhoods in La Paz. There is no data about the population that has benefited from these reading halls.53 Libraries belonging to higher education institutions Higher education institutions (IES) in the state that have a library, research centers, and bibliographic collections include the Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur (UABCS), the Technological Institute of La Paz (ITLP), the Center of Biological Research of the North East (CIBNOR), the Interdisciplinary Center of Marine Science (CICIMAR), the Urban Teachers‘ School, and the Higher Teachers‘ School of the State of Baja California Sur. Libraries at the UABCS have the following services: a) Internal and external consultation of bibliographic material (materials can be checked out for home use) b) Inter-library loans c) Newspaper library d) Map library e) Virtual library (Internet consultation) f) Study cubicles g) Printing and photocopying services 53 Idem. The central library of the UABCS has 28,098 book titles and 64,931 volumes, 479 titles and 171,589 volumes of periodicals (journals and newspapers), 1,421 titles of thesis and 8,923 maps and geographic charts.54 This library has Internet service and access to databases such as Oceano and E-Libro (this virtual library has more than 20,000 electronic volumes on different subjects, both in English and Spanish). The ITLP library is located in the information center that holds both the library and the consultation center of INEGI plus access to the Internet. Currently, the ITLP library has a collection of 9,529 titles and 35,350 issues. The map library has a total of 1,160 maps and geographical charts. This library has an average of eight copies per title, four titles per student and fourteen issues per student. The student population in 2003 at the ITLP was almost 6,000.55 Services provided by this library both to internal and external populations are the following: a) Book consultation in-house and home loans b) Consultation of theses c) Newspaper library d) Map library e) Reference material (dictionaries, encyclopedias, and manuals) f) CD‘s and data base consultations g) Internet consultation In order to have access to Internet and to the Technological Virtual Library (BiViTec), ITLP is installing twenty computer stations. The total number of consultations in the year 2003 54 Monthly statistics of services provided by the library of the UABCS August 20, 2004 . 55 Interview with the head of the Information Centerat the ITLP, Carmen J. Angulo Chinchillas, August 31 st, 2004, 11:00 a.m. was 7,769; it should be noted that this figure does not represent the total number of users, since it does not include the number of book consultations as there is no reliable system to count users.56 Mexico‘s national System of Technological Institutes (SNIT) established the Technological Virtual Library (BiViTec) system as a support tool for learning processes in the Institutes and Centers that are part of the System. Databases of comprehensive and reference texts that make up the system have been chosen to cover all the areas of engineering, plus technical-administrative ones that are offered as academic programs in the System. There is access to forty databases, of which eight are complete text and thirty-two are references. The contents of BiViTec includes works from more than 39,000 journals, as reference, 105 encyclopedias and dictionaries, and more than 100,000 international patents.57 CIBNOR‘s library has 21,632 book titles and provides internal and external consultation. Of these, 14,567 are specialized articles in different articles, 4,869 books, 527 maps, 629 specialized journals and 1,040 theses. Approximately 3,000 internal and 900 external uses are recorded per year. There are six terminals for exclusive use and consultation of the library‘s catalog. It is also possible to consult bibliographic catalogs via the Internet page dedicated to library services. This library has six computing stations for Internet use. The book and newspaper collection of the CICIMAR library specializes in marine science and related areas, such as oceanology, ecology, and aquaculture and is organized in six collections. The journal collection is the largest one, it has 27,000 issues of scientific journals corresponding to different universities and research centers in Europe, Asia, Africa, Central and 56 Idem 57 http/www.itlp.edu.mx/ consultation, Sunday, May 23 rd ,2004, 02:13:58 p.m. South America, the United States, and Canada, and from international organizations such as UNESCO and FAO. Presently it has 100 titles. The book collection is made up of more than 4,000 volumes, especially on sea biology, ichthyology, ecology, statistics, and fisheries. The offprint collection is formed from approximately 7,700 documents, among them those published by CICIMAR, UABCS, CICESE and UABC researchers. The thesis collection is comprised mainly of theses written by postgraduate students from CICIMAR, UABCS, CICESE, and UABC, and there are more than 400 different titles. The map collection has 180 topographic charts, scale 1:50 000, of the state of Baja California Sur. Books, journals and offprint that were part of Dr. Reuben Lasker‘s private collection form the Lasker collection. The ―Reuben Lasker‖ library serves all research, teaching, or service institutions with which it has entered bilateral cooperation agreements. The main services it provides are internal and external consultation (check-outs for home use), inter-library exchange, and consultation of databases via Internet. The databases that may be consulted via Internet are Aquatic Sciences & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biological Sciences Database and the Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management Database.58 The Benemerita Escuela Normal Urbana (BENU) has in its library a collection made up of 31,677 volumes. This collection is divided into a general collection, a specialized collection, and a reference collection. The student community of BENU, the Baja California Sur Higher Teacher‘s School, and the general population use all three collections. This library has internal and external consultation services, home loans, and an electronic file to be consulted by 58 www.cicimar.ipn.mx/ consultation, May 23rd, 2004, 02:40 p.m. computer. There is no Internet service, nor a newspaper library with regular publications. The library had 35,000 users in 2003.59 59 Interview with Mr. Jose Luis Nuno Guido,, in charge of BENU’s library, on August, 31 st, 2004 Bookstores and cultural publishing There was no information provided by administrative agencies, or information and publishing centers, creating a great challenge to obtain a clear, objective view of what is happening in this field. Apparently, the lack of information on bookstores is present not only in Baja California Sur. According to CONACULTA‘s reports, the lack of statistical information about bookstores is a national phenomenon that is reflected in the lack of knowledge about this sector throughout the country.60 Regardless of the lack of documentation, one can recognize that bookstores are an instrumental factor in marketing books in the country. The system is made up of premises dedicated only to sell published goods (mainly books). This does not include shopping malls that have a small vending point for books, amid all the other products they sell.61 Besides large bookstores and exclusive establishments, in Mexico there also exist ―small book stores‖ dedicated to selling books and text books for primary and secondary schools, stationary, gifts, etc. These are located mainly in urban residential centers. Specialized bookstores mainly sell religious, esoteric, medical, or applied sciences books.62 The records of the Cultural Information System show 1,146 bookstores across the country, of which eight are in Baja California Sur. The national mean of number of inhabitants per bookstore is 85,064. The best figures for Mexico City, 20,343 inhabitants per bookstore, then Querétaro with 48,424 inhabitants per bookstore, Baja California Sur with 53,005 60 Atlas de la Infraestructura Cultural, p. 152 61 This definition of bookstore is the one issued according to the criteria proposed by the Regional Center for the Promotion of Books in Latina America and the Caribbean (CERLALC), international organization created in August 1984, quoted in the Atlas de Infraestructura Cultural, Op. Cit. Page 152. 62 Atlas de la Infraestructura Cultural, Op. Cit. P. 152-153 inhabitants per bookstore, and Aguascalientes with 59,017 inhabitants per bookstore. The worst figures, that is the states that have more inhabitants per bookstore, are Tlaxcala with 320,882 inhabitants per bookstore, Colima with 271,313 inhabitants per bookstore, Oaxaca with 264,520 inhabitants per bookstore, and Chiapas with 217,827 inhabitants per bookstore.63 Only three municipalities have bookstores in Baja California Sur: La Paz, four, Los Cabos, three, and Mulegé, one. The inhabitants per bookstore ratio in those municipalities is the following: La Paz with 49,226 inhabitants per bookstore, Los Cabos with 35,156 inhabitants per bookstore, and Mulegé with 45,989 inhabitants per bookstore. Although Baja California Sur is one of the four best-equipped states in the country bookstores in terms of inhabitants per bookstore, this figure does not reveal the entire situation in Baja California Sur. The high ranking is due more to the small population than to the appropriate number of bookstores. Besides, the three municipalities that have bookstores have 82.1% of the total population in the state. Therefore, in order to attend to 82.1% of the total population in the state, there are only eight medium or small bookstores. One of the most important roles of a bookstore is to promote access to books of significance for education, particularly those needed in higher levels. But books are more expensive in Baja California Sur than in the rest of the country, because one has to add the cost of transportation to the actual cost of the item. To this date, there is only one institution whose efforts are geared to selling books at a lower cost. This is the Patronato Sudcaliforniano that has a bookstore to help the student sector. It would, therefore, be of great help to create a fund to establish affordable bookstores 63 Idem. P.153 across the state, even in remote communities, as well as a scholarship system that helps outstanding students buy the necessary books. Institutions with publishing services are the Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura and the Autonomous University of Baja California Sur. The ISC has a state publishing program and the subprogram ―one book, one month.‖ This program co-published eleven titles in the year 2003 with an investment of $191,545 USD. Of these eleven titles, two were about historic topics, three fiction, four poetry, one essay, and one human rights; it undertakes co-publishing works with other education and publishing entities, such as UABCS, Editorial Praxis, the Secretary of Education, La Paz‘ City Hall, UABC (University of Baja California) and the Seaport‘s Integral Administration, among others. The production of the current state publishing program has surpassed the results of the previous ones, because in 2001, only six titles were published, and in 2002, there were only two.64 Music In Baja California Sur, the State School of Music offers a workshop of initiation to music, and formal courses of guitar, piano, double bass, trumpet, drums, french horn, violin, electronic bass, and viola. In the first semester of the year 2003, 441 students enrolled but 152 were dismissed. In the second semester of the same year, there were 217 enrolled students, of whom 214 remained active and three dropped out. Students of the State School of Music organize presentations and concerts across the state to promote and publicize the activities and quality of the school. In 2003, the following presentations were organized: 64 www.itlp.edu.mx Consultation, Sunday, May 23rd, 2004, 02:148 p.m. Table 6: Presentations by the School of Music students Locality No. of presentations Audience that attended Guerrero Negro 1 80 Todos Santos 2 150 El Triunfo 1 80 La Paz 72 600 Loreto 1 200 Total 77 1,110 Source: Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura The State School of Music is the seat of the Youth Orchestra of the state of Baja California that, three years after its creation, was classified by the National System for the Promotion of Music of CONACULTA, as the orchestra with the greatest growth in number of performances in 2003. This resulted in nine children being chosen to be part of the National Children and Youth Orchestra. Baja California Sur Youth Orchestra tours the whole state giving concerts; in 2003, the following results were achieved: Table 7: Presentations of Baja California Sur Youth Orchestra in 2003 Locality No. of presentations Audience that attended Todos Santos 2 600 El Triunfo 1 200 San Antonio 1 170 Los Barriles 1 100 La Paz 18 15,000 Cabo San Lucas 2 500 San José del Cabo 2 800 Santiago 1 800 Total 29 17,570 Source : Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura One of the most important events for the Youth Orchestra is the Northwest Youth Orchestra convention. In 2004, this event was held in La Paz with 140 talented youth. The activities were mostly public, as well as two concerts on ―music in Mexico.‖ This event had two positive consequences – bringing awareness of the youth orchestra to people in Baja California Sur, as well as the importance of artistic expression for the youth of the state.65 The State Unit of Folklore Cultures, in coordination with municipal governments, organizes the 20th Century Song Festival of Baja California Sur. In the 2003 edition, there were six awards given worth a total amount of $43,000 USD. This festival has a first elimination stage at the municipal level; but unfortunately there are no records of participation at this stage.66 According to the ISC yearbook of musicians, there are fifty-eight musicians in the municipality of La Paz, one in Guerrero Negro, one in Santa Rosalia, one in Ciudad Constitución, and two in San Jose del Cabo (in addition to one duet and one trio).67 It is important to underscore that this yearbook does not include the total number of musicians who live in the five municipalities of the state; the list includes only those who provided their data on a voluntary basis. However, considering this list as a sample, one may conclude that since the largest number of musicians 65 Noticiero Panorama Informativo. Promomedios California. Conductor: Miguel Ángel Ojeda, (13-04-04). La Paz, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR. 66 Idem. 67 Musicians Yearbook. From the Archives of the Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura. Consulted August 4, 2004. are in La Paz city and La Paz municipality that people living there have the greatest chance to participate in cultural activities conducted by the ISC. The lack of data about musicians in the municipality of Loreto is remarkable, since this community has a strong tradition of musical performance and is representation of ranchera music Most musicians are more interested in music as a source of income than as a means of cultural promotion.68 In regards to civil society organizations specifically devoted to music in the state, examples include the Club Musicos Amigos, A.C., and the Asociación Filarmónica de La Paz (Philharmonic Association of La Paz). The Club Músicos Amigos organizes activities and musical performances to raise funds for the Museum of Music, as well as for musicians with limited income. However, their principle objective is to host events in Baja California Sur that contribute to popular musical education and familiarize the public to artistic expressions. La Paz‘ Philharmonic Association works to best fulfill the needs of the Youth Philharmonic Orchestra. The principal need of this orchestra is to purchase musical instruments, which tend to be very expensive and unaffordable for young musicians. The Philharmonic Association also supports tours and presentations through assistance with transportation, accommodation and meals for young musicians, apart from uniforms and formal attire needed in some musical shows.69 These two societies are in constant need of support, either financial or volunteer, and their work shows serious commitment to the population of Baja California Sur. 68 A large number of musicians work in bars, cafes, and restaurants as this is often more lucrative than teaching or cultural performance. 69 Interview with the chairman of La Paz’ philharmonic society, Mr. Gustavo Francisco Silva Ledesma. Theater Arts In Baja California Sur, there are several theater groups: Altaira, the IMSS theater workshop, La Hostería, ―A Camanchi,‖ ―Cóndor,‖ La Prisa de Cronos, the Traveling Theater (Teatro Itinerante), Colectivo Chunique, and La Raza. Each of these is made up of ten to twenty people, mostly teenagers and young people. The number of participants varies depending on the time of school year because most participants are students. Educational institutions that host theater groups are UABCS, la Preparatoria Morelos (Morelos Senior High School), and Baja California Sur‘s Escuela Normal Superior. The ISC has a roster of twenty-seven individuals who are dedicated to the theater of whom only two are in the municipality of Los Cabos and the rest live in La Paz city.70 As is the case with musicians, there are data only about people dedicated to the theater who live in La Paz. The ISC has no information about those living in other municipalities. In the year 2002, the ISC organized the State Theater Show, the Region‘s Theater festival and the State‘s Theater Competition with the participation of eleven companies in La Paz city. One of the main results of these events was to underscore the need to improve organization amongst the participating companies. This led the ISC to arrange for training courses geared towards cultural promoters and especially people dedicated to drama. As a result, the courses shown in Table 8 were given in 2003: 70 Theater Directory . Instituto Sudcaliforniano de la Cultura. Consulted on August, 4, 2004. . Table 8: Training courses for cultural and theater promoters Name of the course Modality Hours Participants Improvisation and Workshop 15 31 production ―From idea to action, from Workshop 60 40 word to the stage‖ Seminar on dramatic Seminar 20 35 theory and playwright texts Total 95 106 Source: Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura. Dance A variety of dance forms and activities have occurred in Baja California Sur in the last few years. The most developed of these forms is Mexican folkloric dance, both as regional dance and as a national symbol. Folkloric dancing is usually taught in elementary schools as part of school festivals. In higher-level schools, dancing is taught more intensively and with improved organization. Most senior high schools in the state have dance workshops. In higher education institutions (Universities and the Technological Institutes) there are dance workshops, mainly folkloric dancing, even though there is a very limited budget. The other dancing genres that are taught in the state are ballet, modern, Polynesian, Hawaiian, Spanish, and Arab. These dance forms are mainly taught in private schools, and are neither free nor open to the public; the same is true regarding their performances. Some Cultural Houses and Centers in the state have workshops that teach the same genres, and these are usually geared toward children and teenagers. Municipalities that offer these courses are La Paz and Los Cabos, and La Paz has the majority of the Centers in the state that offer such workshops. Nevertheless, since Los Cabos has more tourism inflow, Mexican folkloric dance shows are more prevalent there than in La Paz. Baja California Sur has no comprehensive registry of dance teachers or dance schools, and it is thus not possible to track the promotion, creation, and teaching of dance. The only registry is a list of fifteen groups who belong to the Association of Dance Teachers of Baja California Sur, A.C.,71 that annually organizes the Festival for the International Day of Dance in the month of April.72 In addition to this festival, in October 2003 the national performance ―All the Children Dance‖ took place with the support of CONACULTA. This event had the objective of encouraging children to dance one Sunday in a public plaza from noon until three in the afternoon. More than 200 children participated.73 Another important dance event in the state was ―Dance the Sea‖, an event in which ISC organized five spectacles with dance companies from the interior of Mexico and was attended by 1,800 spectators.74 Folk Art In order to stimulate the creative work of artists from Baja California Sur, the ISC held the First Biennial Show of South Californian Painting ―Carlos Olachea.‖ Thirty-six artists 71 Presently, this association has no legal record of existence. Official legal recognition ceased after problems with the Board of Directors, but the gropu continues to uste the name for social identification. Interview with Rosa Maria de Mendoza de Uribe, ex-president AMDBAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, A.C. June 20, 2004. 72 Interview with Prof. Marco Antonio Jedi, organizer of the Festival for the International Day of Dance, May 9 th, 2004. 73 Report on the variety of activities in Baja California Sur that have had the participation of the National Council for Culture and the Arts and the State Government. CONACULTA-ISC, La Paz , BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, March 2004. 74 Ibid. participated in this contest presenting fifty-seven works, of which twenty-five were selected to be shown across the state.75 As part of the activities of cultural promotion in folk arts, the state government initiated a program called ―Manos a la Brocha‖ (Hands to the brush) through the ISC. This program was mainly aimed at decorating two monumental banners, twenty-five meters in length (82 ft.) by two meters width (6.6 ft.), with the participation of fifty children and more than twenty cultural promoters. These were shown in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, during the Meeting of Promoters of Children‘s Culture in the Northern Zone, under convocation of CONACULTA. One of these two banners was chosen to travel across the country and to be exhibited in the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City. The theme in the banners was a sample of cultural topics in each state.76 In November 2003, an ―Art Camp‖ was held for the second consecutive time, gathering twenty-five South Californian artists in the mining town of El Triunfo to share their aesthetic perspectives related to landscapes and sceneries. Painters, draftsmen, engravers and photographers exhibited and marketed the results of this camp during the festivities of the patron saint of El Triunfo.77 Indigenous Art – Artisan Handicrafts Culture in Baja California Sur is a mosaic made up of contributions from different native ethnic groups: originally the guaycuras, pericues, and cochimies. Then later, during the acculturation process, the Spaniards and mestizos. Also, seris, yaquis, and mayos from the 75 Idem. 76 Idem. 77 Press bulletin, November 28th, 2003. Boletines Informativos Originales, año 2003(ISC). mainland coast have settled in the peninsula, attracted by pearl fishing and mining. Also, groups from Asia and Europe came to live in the area during the times of natural resources exploitation, primarily metal ores. Currently there are many foreigners living in the state, with a variety of interests that influences the local culture. Unfortunately, there are no ethnic groups in the state that are identified as direct heirs of the ancient native Indians that existed before the arrival of the Spaniards. The acculturation process initiated by the Jesuits unfortunately resulted in epidemics and the disintegration of much of these groups‘ cultural heritage.78 This is primarily why Baja California Sur has no handicraft traditions that may be defined as native. However, there does exist a deeply rooted craft tradition originating from ranch owners in Baja California Sur. The ranch culture absorbed Western forms of subsistence, as well as the lifestyles and ways of the ancient people of Baja California Sur. This synthesis resulted in residents‘ use of resources provided by the environment. They created leather pieces, wicker works (mainly palm), rudimentary pottery, and the use of regional woods (palo de arco, choya, pitaya, cardon, palo fierro, palo adan, palma, etc.). In order to make the best use of available materials and to decrease waste, various other elements were integrated in the manufacture of crafts, among them: bovine bones and horns, remains of animal hide, stones, sand, coral, conch shell, abalone, clams and mother of pearl. Currently, the government sector and several civil organizations are in charge of dissemination, preservation, and recovery of crafts in Baja California Sur. The 78 Maxhieux Susana, Hambleton Enrique (coord.) Diagnóstico Ambiental de Baja California Sur, Sociedad de Historia Natural Niparajá- UABAJA CALIFORNIA SUR- Fundación Mexicana para la Educación Ambiental, México, 1998, P. 13 Bureau of the Secretary of Economic Promotion and Development manages the program to promote crafts, with an aim to encourage crafts manufacturing as an alternative economic activity, mainly in remote communities through training courses in manufacturing techniques and ways to open marketing avenues that aim at making crafts a feasible means of community development.79 This program has a register of 451 craftsmen from the five state municipalities: thirty-eight in Los Cabos, 242 in La Paz, sixty-five in Comondú, twenty-one in Loreto, and eighty-eight in Mulegé. Of these, sixty-nine are silversmiths, seventy-one work with sea shells, thirty-three specialize in tin and embossing, twenty-nine in stone engraving, forty-five in leather work, eighty-nine in regional woodwork, four in textiles, fifty-four in palm and fifty-six in new applications.80 In order to help market the crafts produced, the government of the state, together with the Association of South Californian Craftsmen, created the House of the South Californian Craftsmen on March 8th, 2003, whose role is to bring the crafted products closer to the potential consumer. By the month of July 2004, this marketing house had received items from 220 craftsmen from all five municipalities, including twenty inmates of the center of social re- adaptation in La Paz city and Ciudad Constitución. In the month of July 2004 alone, a total of 2,256 items were sold with a total price of $144,124 USD.81 The demand for crafts in the 79 Interview with Mr. Jose Luis Aranda de Luque, Coordinator of the Program in Support of Handi-Crafts, May, 9 2004. 80 Information obtained from the registry of craftsmen:Padrón de Artesanos del Estado de Baja California Sur, México, 2004. From the archives of the Directorate of Investment Promotion. State Government of BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR. Consulted May 19, 2004. 81 Interview with Dora Grimalda Burgoín, manager of the House of South Californian craftsman, September 20, 2004. House of the Craftsman varies during the year. Highest sales are reported in the months of February and March, and July and August, which are holiday months. Festivals and Traditional Festivities In Baja California Sur there are thirty-nine festivals and holidays, distributed among the five municipalities as follows: Mulegé, seven celebrations/festivals and one carnival; Loreto: four celebrations/festivals and one carnival; La Paz: nine celebrations/festivals and one carnival; Los Cabos: six celebrations/festivals and one carnival.82 Of these celebrations and festivals, the most important ones by regions in the states are: Festivals of the Gray Whale held in Guerrero Negro, Puerto Adolfo Lopez Mateos, and Puerto San Carlos. These attract a big inflow of tourists, both national and foreign. These festivals are enriched by principle artistic expressions from the northern part of the state: music, dance, food, and activities that integrate the whale theme into the community. Art Festival in Todos Santos, La Paz municipality, held during the first week of February. This festival gathers renowned artists from Mexico and abroad. In the 2003 Festival, the ISC organized seven activities: two theater performances, one animation exhibition, one documentary, one musical concert, and two lectures. 1,000 people in total attended these events.83 There was a festival of Latino cinema with movies from Mexico, Argentina and Cuba. 82 Archives of the State Unit on Popular and Indigenous Cultures, ISC, Popular Festival File consulted August, 2 2004. 83 Government of the State of Baja California Sur, Annual report of progress made in services: Culture Sector, Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura. 2004. Among the documentaries shown were Oasis Marino, Golfo de California, and other shorts about past art festivals and carnivals in La Paz.84 Carnival and festivities to commemorate the founding of La Paz city: an occasion for artists, writers, lecturers and orchestras to offer high quality shows. In the La Paz carnival, there are many expressions of folkloric culture such as dances, ―palenques,‖ horse racing, parades, folkloric dance performances, as well as local and national musical performers. In the South, the two most important festivals are the Patron Saint Celebrations in San Jose del Cabo and Cabo San Lucas. There are cultural programs, musical composition contests, and other special events. One event that has recently fostered the dissemination of the history and culture of the state was the meeting of chronicle writers that took place in San Jose del Cabo. In this meeting, chroniclers from the five municipalities and the state met and, among other things, spoke about the expansion of journals throughout Baja California Sur. Related to Missions, there are two celebrations in the municipality of Loreto: the Missions Festival and the celebration to commemorate the founding of Loreto city. In the former, there are lectures by researchers and writers about the Missions. There are also art shows and baroque and religious music performances reminiscent of the music that was taught by missionaries upon their arrival to the area. These concerts take place in the buildings of the Missions of Loreto and San Javier, and therefore attract a large attendance.85 84 Press Release, “From February 1st to 8th, Art Festival in Todos Santos, Baja California Sur. Original folder of information bulletins. Archivo of the ISC. 85 Interview with Prof. Guillermo del Valle, in charge of the State Unit for folklore and indigenous cultures, August 8, 2005. The ISC participates in the organization, promotion and funding of some of the cultural festivals that take place in the state. In the year 2003, it helped organize the festivals shown in Table 9: Table 9: Cultural Festivals in Baja California Sur in 2003 Name Resources granted No. of attendees Festival Amar la Danza (Dance) $70,000 1709 Festival del Dia de Muertos (Day of the $20,000 3000 Dead) Festival de la ballena gris (Gray whale) $50,000 2128 Concert by the B.C. orchestra $119,376 2000 Festival of San Jose del Cabo $25,000 1000 Festival for the founding of La Paz $750,000 6000 Festival of Todos Santos $43,200 1700 Whale Festival (Puerto Lopez Mateos) $15,600 1500 XXIV Anniversary of AHPLM $25,626 350 Presentation of the National Dance $34,000 1062 Company Total $1,152,800 20,449 Source : Instituto Sudcaliforniano de la Cultura It is important to clarify that the amounts spent by the ISC do not cover the total costs of the festivals, but only part of it, since festivals are organized and supported by non- profit organizations, the Office of Festivals in La Paz city, and the Directorates of Culture in the five municipalities. From 1999 to 2003 there has been an increase in investment for cultural festivals, as can be seen in Table 10. Table 10: Investment in Baja California Sur Festivals, 1999-2003 Year Amount spent No. of attendants 1999 $18,000 300 2000 $38,000 2,300 2001 $655,000 23,100 2002 $1,287,050 22,469 2003 $1,152,802 20,449 TOTAL $3,150,852 68,618 Source: Instituto Sudacliforniano de la Cultura As seen in the above table, the amount spent on festivals by the ISC has been increasing every year, except in 2003 when it decreased slightly. Public Art Public art is usually present in festivals, founding celebrations, carnivals, and patron saint festivities. During these events people have access to view exhibits by artists who are mostly from the region. Common in these spaces are outdoor presentations of art pieces, different genres of music, folkloric, and other dance groups including Hawaiian, Polynesian, or Tahitian. Public sculpture art, had not been promoted by the state government prior to the recent pier beautification program in La Paz city. This project included placing several sculptures along the Paseo Alvaro Obregón. Aside from the fact that this project is important for promoting public art, local artists have not welcomed it. They are not pleased with the way it has prioritized funding for works by local artists. The artists‘ opinions underscore the manner in which the state has selected the sculptures considering the broad range of artists in the area.86 Popular Culture Popular culture is defined as ―the set of creations from a cultural community, founded on tradition and expressed by a group or by individuals, and that respond to the community‘s expectations of cultural and social identity; norms and values are conveyed orally, by imitation or other ways. Its forms include, among others, language, music, dance, games, mythology, rites, customs, crafts, architecture and other arts.‖87 Guided by the need to give a general idea of popular culture in Baja California Sur, we will focus on the elements of the quoted definition that are not included in other parts of this document: Respect for language The current linguistic configuration in the state has three significant features. First, the loss of native languages of the groups living in the region (Cochimies, Guaycura, and Pericues) upon the arrival of the conquistadors. Epidemics and missionary culture greatly altered the linguistic make up as European control of the peninsula resulted in the decimation of the native population, along with its culture and language. The ranch society either had no chance to incorporate former linguistic forms, or there is no register of it ever having occurred. Second, in modern times the linguistic complex was woven with input from frequent migrations. Thus, the influence of French, English, and languages from China and Korea is strong. The third characteristic is the fact that migration patterns in the last decades have pulled labor for 86 Interview with Efrén Odalde, author of “La Paloma de la Paz”, August 2004. 87 See, “UNESCO and immaterial heritage” in Oralidad, to the rescue of agriculture and construction from various states in the south of Mexico. Thus, several pre- Columbian languages, especially from Oaxaca and Guerrero, are now in use in the state. The presence of gambling in the state is closely linked to traditional festivals and patron saint celebrations in the communities. These include horse racing and rooster fights. Beginning in the 1960s, car and bike racing became popular via the influence of northern Baja California. The biggest race, known as the ―Off Road,‖ assembles neighboring communities along the road throughout a large portion of the Baja peninsula, allowing for fun and interaction for those fond of gambling and sport.88 Although the topic of dance expressions is dealt with previously in this chapter, it is important to mention the presence of regional dances created and done by inhabitants of Baja California Sur. Among the most important dances, and as evidence of the cultural wealth of the state, are ―la Danza de los cañeros‖ and ―La Flor de la Pitahaya.‖ Both are considered to be expressions of the ingenuity, sensitivity, and talent of Baja California Sur artists. Accordingly, it is worth mentioning that Baja California Sur residents have a special taste for folklore dances that is closely linked to traditional and popular celebrations. Community committees organize these dances where people enjoy music played by regional and nationally recognized bands, particularly ―norteño bands‖ and bands from Sinaloa. Regional folk music comes through the mix of expressions from several influences and tastes that have come to the area with each socio-cultural group. The young, urban population is fond of such different genres as Cuban ballad and the recently adopted ―ska.‖ Rural 88 www.offroad.com.mx communities have adopted ―norteño‖ songs that have become part of the tradition and given rise to the new genre, known as ―ranchera‖ music.89 Myths and legends are not absent from Baja California Sur folklore. The general feature of local folklore expression is the relationship of the communities with their environment. Hence, legends involving the sea, the desert, and, in general, the surrounding geography of the community are most frequent. The Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) tradition has been adopted in the state, as a result of the influence of migrants coming from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero. On November 1st and 2nd each year, Dia de los Muertos activities take place that range from shows, lectures and workshops to the very popular ―Altar for the Dead‖ contests. These activities have promoted knowledge, dissemination, and research among locals about this celebration that dates back to pre-Colonial times. Approximately 90% of education institutions across the state undertake some kind of Dia de los Muertos activity. One of the most important contests is organized by the UABCS, and in the year 2003 had the participation of thirty groups made up of fifty to seventy students each. This contest impacts the entire university community, which in 2004 consisted of around 5,000 students. The ISC also organizes a Dia de los Muertos Festival with the participation of 3,000 people. The festival hosted an Altar for the Dead contest, with twenty-two contestants, the ―Guelaguetza‖ show coming from the state of Oaxaca, and the presentation of a well-known Mexican folklore singer.90 89 The name “ranchera”music is used, because that is how people in the ranches call it, not necessarily because it refers to “música ranchera” as such. 90 Idem. Route of Missions The Society of Jesus founded fifteen missions in the territory that is now Baja California Sur. Each mission consisted of churches, chapels, and other buildings where clergymen and lay people lived. This system of architectural complexes is one of the main cultural heritages in the state and in the whole peninsula. The first mission was Nuestra Señora de Loreto Concho, founded in 1697 by father Juan Maria de Salvatierra.91 Accordingly, Loreto is considered to be the municipality with the most important historical heritage in the state. Missions established in the Californias generated a set of economic and cultural activities that are now expressed through a cultural heritage and a way of life that is in need of rehabilitation. This heritage includes geographic aspects, archeological sites, handwritten documents, painting, sculptures, original plans, crafts, fruits, and vegetables growth, livestock ranch exploitation, as well as an intangible heritage including beliefs, oral traditions, and religious festivities.92 Two main institutions safeguard this cultural heritage: the Coordinating Office of the State Program Route of the Missions (CPERM) and INAH, both federal institutions. CPERM is ascribed to the State Coordinating Office of Social Welfare Programs. This program was launched in order to plan, together with the Secretary for Tourism, the promotion of tourism for architectural and cultural sites in the old Jesuit missions, by creating a corridor called the ―Route of the Missions.‖ The activities organized by this Coordinating Office include baroque music concerts, plastic art workshops with a mission theme, and the publication of books and education 91 Government of the State of Baja California Sur. Directorate of Planning. Regional Development Programs in 2001. La Paz, Baja California Sur, p.20 92 Government of the State of Baja California Sur. Directorate of Planning. Regional Development Programs 1999-2005. material for children in basic and special education programs. The Office has a traveling photo exhibition of mission buildings, one iconographic show of ―Women in Ancient California‖ and the show of works done in plastic arts workshops by children from marginalized neighborhoods. The general program of the Coordinating Office includes activities focused on the sustainable development of the communities that still exist and were under the direct influence of the mission complexes. However, due to the small operational capability and low budget, it has been very difficult to reach isolated communities in order to include them in these alternative tourism projects. The public response to these programs has been positive, t and the three exhibitions on Women in Ancient California have had 600 children visit, and concerts and conferences with up to 400 people in attendance. Approximately thirty children attend the plastic arts workshops each summer. Publications and teaching materials issued in 2003 by the Coordinating Office of the Route of the Missions included: ―Memoria de Colores de Baja California Sur,‖ [Color Memories of Baja California Sur], a coloring book for handicapped children who may or may not need special education, and ―Ruta de Misiones: Historia de una entrega,‖ [Route of Missions: History of a Commitment], a spoken book, written also in the Braille system. Additionally, the Office produced information videotape, in English and Spanish entitled ―Ruta de las Misiones‖ 93 [Route of the Missions] that includes photographs and texts by Miguel Mathes, in collaboration with the 93 Government of the State of Baja California Sur, V Report on the state of the administration 2003-2004, Lic. Leonel Cota Montaño (Socioeconomic document, Vol. I), p. 43 State Tourism Trust and the State Coordinating Office for Tourism Promotion in Baja California Sur94. The State Fund for Culture and the Arts, managed by the South Californian Institute for Culture, gave support to the Baja California Sur Missions-related projects shown in Table 11. Table 11: Funded projects in order to contribute to the Route of the Missions Year Project Expected product Amount (pesos/USD) 2000 Baja California Sur en Four piano concerts in four $24,000/ concierto different missions. US$2,270 Internet site of the Missions in A web page with historic $25,000/ Baja California Sur95 information, photographs. US$2,365 2001 Audio book for children Publication of CDs telling stories $55,000/ telling the story of the about the missions; 1,000 copies. US$5,203 missions. Book in Braille about the Publication of 1,000 copies of the $45,000/ history of the missions for book in the Braille system. US$4,257 children 2002 ―Testamentos del Sol‖ Poetry book, including 45 poems $37,200/ [Testament of the Sun] about the rebellion of Californians US$3,519 in the year 1743. ―Una Mirada a Baja California Internet Multimedia page including $37,000/ Sur‖ [A view of Baja photographs, historic data and US$3,500 California Sur] reports of history publications. It includes a map of the Route of the Missions. Internet page with cartoons Interactive page in Internet about $37,000/ about the Missions the missions in Baja California Sur, US$3,500 for children, including historic data, photographs and cartoons. 2003 Stories about Baja California Three stories about Baja California $30,000/ Sur Sur in different times. US$2,838 94 La Ruta de las Misiones, Fideicomiso Estatal de Turismo – CEPTUA BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, Baja California Sur, México. 95 http://www.descubrebajacalifornia.com/misiones/ruta.htm Esthetic and historical analysis Ten paintings in watercolor and $30,000/ of buildings in La Paz and acrylic with images of the buildings US$2,838 proposals for their eligible for restoration. restoration and use. ―Ruta de las Misiones: A CD documentary including $30,000/ laberinto del tiempo‖ [Route historical and graphic information US$2,838 of the Missions: Time about the missions of Baja labyrinth] California Sur. Source: Instituto Sudcaliforniano de la Cultura According to reports by INAH, the mission buildings are currently at different stages in the conservation project, as described in the following list: a) Churches in good conditions and working production center: San Ignacio de Kadakaaman, San Jose de Comondú, San Luis Gonzaga Chiriyaqui, Santiago de los Coras, San Javier Vigge Biando. b) Churches in excellent condition, with no production center: San Jose del Cabo Añuiti, Nuestra Señora de Loreto, Nuestra Señora del Pilar de La Paz. c) Churches in good condition and about to lose their production center: Santa Rosalia de Mulegé, Santa Rosa de Todos Santos. d) Missions and mission sites where there is no building or production center: Santa Señora de los Dolores and San Bruno. e) Missions and mission sites where there is no building, but there is a production center: La Purísima Concepción de Cadegomo.96 96 Government of the state of Baja California Sur, Planning Directorate. Programas de Desarrollo Regional 2001 [Regional Development Programs] , La Paz, Baja California Sur, p. 20 Challenges for the Route of the Missions Program are mainly financial. The annual budget allotted to it by the Directorate of Social Welfare of the Government of the state is not enough to implement those projects aimed at the rescue and cultural promotion of communities near the historic and mission sites. The loss of some historic monuments has, regrettably, already occurred. The main goals of the program include the restoration of mission architectural complexes and works of art that date back to the seventeenth century. According to reports by the state government, the most urgent needs in this area are: Thorough restoration of altarpieces in the San Javier mission. Thorough restoration of the San Javier church, as well as recovery of immediate environs. Recovery of the original site ruins of the mission. Conservation of the visit towns for the presentation and Santa Rosalillita. Restoration of the archeological site of Cueva Pintas. Elaboration of the catalog of archeological sites in the San Javier mission. Classification of the archives of the Loreto Municipality. Rescue and study of the remains of Jesuit missionary, Juan de Ugarte. Restoration of the mission building in Mulegé and dissemination of the cultural wealth of the immediate environs in the community. 2. Problems in Art and Culture Museums One of the main challenges for the cultural service of Museums in Baja California Sur is a lack of financial resources for the conservation, restoration, and acquisition of collections and individual pieces. The regular occurrence of hurricanes has caused severe damage to buildings housing the museums, resulting in the loss of some very significant collections in the state. The distance between the communities and museum locations makes it difficult for the public to reach them. A program for the diffusion and extension of this service to these 1,569 communities is needed.97 The museums system, under INAH, does not encompass all the state anthropology and history museums. Such is the case for Todos Santos and Cabo San Lucas, which, because of this, do not get any technical, administrative, or financial support. As a result, the collections in these museums grow very slowly and there are no projects to do research about the pieces they house. Cultural Houses and Culture Centers Although it appears that CONACULTA‘s support of Baja California Sur‘s culture houses and culture centers is adequate, the reality is less positive. As is the case with museums, the main problem for cultural houses and culture centers is that they cannot render their services to distant communities. Scarce financial resources received from government agencies are 97 Government of the state of Baja California Sur, Programa Estratégico de Ordenamiento Territorial [Strategic Program of territorial management] (PEOT), preliminary digital version, p.90. insufficient for cultural programs or art classes that help with the development, dissemination, and recovery of artistic expressions among this sector of the population. Additionally, there is not enough personnel or sufficient training. Low wages and a lack of incentives discourage promoters from learning for themselves. Culture houses and centers have poor infrastructures and unfavorable conditions for the teaching of quality artistic expression. Often it has been necessary to use less-than-desirable spaces for art workshops. Art Galleries The lack of information on art galleries in the state does not allow for a judgment about the social impact of this cultural asset. Hence, there is a need for list of gallery locations. Along with this effort, owners of art galleries that sell works of art must be made aware of the significance of the information they give to potential buyers. According to experts and art and culture promoters, one of the main problems in the field of art galleries is the lack of an educated public, due mainly to the lack of art education among children and young people, together with a lack of interest on the part of parents. Theater Houses Problems pertaining to theater houses in the state go beyond the existence of officially recognized buildings. Interest in theater by the general public in Baja California Sur is lacking, mainly due to the absence of a regulatory and promotional agency that can give financial support to people interested in related activities. Theater productions are generally quite expensive to execute, which adds to the problems with a lack of training on the part of performers and executioners. Accordingly, the general population shows little interest in the theater. Libraries The main problem facing libraries is the lack of space available for the large number of users, which has increased in the last few years. Most libraries are still functioning in their original buildings that were erected when demand for library services was scarce. The small budget they are allotted and the lack of a State Directorate for Libraries to manage government resources directly results in deferral of all projects aimed at improving service. Children in Baja California Sur do not have enough spaces to initiate reading activities, such as toy libraries or children‘s rooms with adequate facilities. Most libraries in the Public Libraries Network do not have computers with access to the Internet. And, unfortunately, the national program for informatics equipment has been postponed because of a lack of resources and a lack of attention to the Network. Bookstores One of the most important functions of a library is to make reference and study books available to students, particularly at higher levels. However, the high cost of bibliographic materials, increased by the cost of importation to the Peninsula, make it difficult for students to purchase the books they need and, therefore, bookstores are not in abundance. Currently, only a single institution in the state is devoted to selling books at prices below commercial ones: the Patronato Sudcaliforniano, (South Californian Fund) which owns one book store to help students. Worth mention is the fact that there is no NGO devoted to helping bookstores be able to provide books at lower prices, or to create a fund to set up bookstores that sell new or used books at lower prices. Neither is there a network of national and international donations to provide help to outstanding students and students from remote communities. Music The ISC, the government agency that oversees art diffusion, has not had the financial or operational capacity to create a registry of general data of musical promoters, creators, interpreters, and representatives. The presence of different cultural groups, due to migration from other parts of the country to the Peninsula, has given rise to a wealth of different musical genres. In order to know and evaluate this intangible heritage, it is necessary to implement culture recovery projects to revive or prevent the death of the musical wealth found in the communities. Younger generations have no sense of this portion of their cultural heritage and history, a problem that is likely to lead to the loss of an important part of their culture. There is no formal musical education in rural communities. The lack of promoters and local art education centers combined with the small capacity of cultural bureaus has made this problem more and more evident as communities have increased in size. It has been very difficult to obtain resources to keep up the activities of the Youth Philharmonic Orchestra of the state of Baja California Sur; ISC does not have enough resources to cover the high expenses associated with this and similar classical music projects in the state. Customs procedures have hindered the reception of donations and purchases of musical instruments, directly affecting both the development of the orchestra as well as the diffusion of interest in classical music. Theatrical activity The presence and concentration of most theater groups in La Paz, combined with high production costs, have not permitted the extension of drama performances to other municipalities, particularly to remote communities. In Baja California Sur, there is no financing of theater production, and scholarships granted by ISC are insufficient for the diffusion of drama. There is no school of dramatic art in the state that may help improve the quality both of acting and productions. Dance The state does not have a complete roster of dance teachers or dance schools and it is therefore impossible to entirely know and understand the efforts being made by agents working in the diffusion, creation, and teaching of dance. One of the most serious problems is the lack of a school or university program offering formal education in dance or dance instruction. The lack of high quality teachers in basic education schools is mainly due to the high cost of moving outside the state to receive a basic dance education. The lack of formal dance programs has resulted in an attitude by the general population of not considering art education in general, and dance in particular, as an important part of child development. Dancing and dance instruction is still considered a simple hobby or secondary activity. Folk Arts The main problem in this area is the lack of teaching programs for plastic arts in primary and secondary education institutions. Art workshops given in school do not include this discipline because there are not enough teachers or resources. The former is due mainly to the fact that there is no advanced school of art. None of the state universities include art education as a major degree option. There are no agreements between the Secretary of Public Education and cultural agencies of the state government, and this has prevented any joint efforts to implement art education programs in basic education schools. Cultural houses and centers that have plastic arts workshops are mostly found in La Paz; however, there are none in the other municipalities and this has resulted in a lack of interest on the part of students. Artisan Handicrafts Although appropriate actions have been undertaken to strengthen and promote the growth of crafts manufacturing, the sector still has many problems that hinder it from achieving its true potential. Upon closer consideration, it becomes clear that the distance between craftsmen and the consumer market is a problem in need of urgent attention. One solution could be to open more marketing centers located in tourist locations. In order to guarantee the competitive quality of crafts, it is necessary to optimize production processes by implementing training programs in the villages where craftsmen reside. Craftsmen in Baja California Sur do not have marketing avenues abroad because of the high production cost of exporting the goods, the lack of opportunities to raise the level of regional crafts to international standards, and the problems to overcome customs barriers. Since there is no permanent consumer, craftsmen are dedicated exclusively to crafts manufacture. This results in inconsistent production. In order to make people aware of the value of regional crafts, it would be helpful to organize competitions, both municipal and state, and promote the participation of craftsmen in national competitions. Festivals Because of a lack of resources, many local groups cannot participate in festivals. Often, organizing committees do not have the resources to pay for transportation, meals, or production in general of the shows for these festivals. The majority of the public prefers folk culture shows (mass dances, rooster fights, horse racing, etc.), which weakens the efforts for diffusion of more formal cultural expressions. Selling alcoholic drinks in most regional festivals and ―fiestas‖ also weakens the interest of the public sector in cultural shows. Public Art There is the need to further promote public art, particularly in the municipalities that have the areas of stone engraving and monumental cave paintings. This heritage is not being enjoyed by the society of the state, who has not appreciated the world known works of art. No project has been formulated to incorporate this cultural heritage in the education and tourism sectors. Visits to the area are still not regulated and are restricted due to a lack of surveillance, because there is no infrastructure for mass access to the sites without causing damage to paintings and stone engravings. Inside the 21st Century Cultural Center, located in Todos Santos, there are two murals dating back to the middle of the nineteenth century. These murals are still waiting for restoration, but there are no funds for their rescue. Diffusion of public art in the state of Baja California Sur is almost non-existent; there are extraordinary murals and sculptures still virtually unknown to the public at large. Folk Culture Consumption of alcoholic beverages is usually linked to folk culture expressions, which can become a serious problem. During most of these events there is an indiscriminate sale of alcoholic beverages, both to adults and minors, by brewing companies who are in charge of organizing the events during patron saint festivities or festivals, and who extensively advertise alcoholic beverage consumption. To a large extent, this situation is due to the monopoly held by large brewing corporations in the organization of traditional dances and festivities. The other problem related to regional expressions of folk culture is the high impact on the environment due to off-roading in areas crossed by car and motorbike races, in addition to the large amounts of water being used to irrigate racetracks for the Off Road event. Route of the Missions The Route of the Missions program suffers from a lack of financial resources. The annual budget from the State Government Directorate for Social Welfare is not enough to implement projects to recover and promote cultural diffusion in communities neighboring historical and mission sites. The loss of some historical monuments has been a regrettable result of the lack of financial resources in government agencies to implement projects for the recovery and publicity of the sites‘ historical value. It has of yet not been possible to implement the projects needed to link cultural tourism to communities neighboring cultural sites. This is mainly due to the lack of cooperation between economic development planning agencies and those agencies in charge of safeguarding architectural sites in the mission system. 3. Problem solution capacity 3.1 Government response and joint ventures In Baja California Sur, CONACULTA holds most of the responsibility for coordinating cultural activities, and does so by enlisting the efforts of the three levels of government (federal, state, and municipal). In the present state administration, the strategy is to create participatory financial funds98 that allow for the availability and better management of resources for cultural projects. This strategy is similar to the one followed in other parts of the country. The funds and their functions are as follows: State Fund for Culture and the Arts At the beginning of the present state government administration (1999) the fund had $405,000 pesos ($37,564 USD) and increased 68% by 2003 to grant scholarships for 98 Mainly federal and state resources create these funds, municipal participation is usually based on materials and logistics, and financial contribution from the municipality depends on the kind of activity or cultural promotion to which funds are destined. By and large, municipalities receive the benefits from federal and state funds. cultural creation and diffusion. In that same year, twenty incentives to artistic creation were given, the total amount being $681,800 pesos ($63,238 USD). In 2001, sixteen scholarships were granted, nineteen in 2002, twenty in 2003 and fifteen in 200499. *Programs to support Municipal and Community Culture (Pacmyc) This federal program has shown gradual increments, since in 1991 only five cultural development projects received assistance in the amount of $125,000 USD, while in 2003, fourteen projects received assistance in an amount of $313,000 USD, which is 180% increment.100 The goals of this program are, by and large, to encourage the research, diffusion, and recovery of cultural wealth in the municipalities and communities, which did not have any direct and specific attention before this program was implemented. Thus, it is in charge of prioritizing efforts to recover crafts, cuisine, dance, music, and the oral history of the people. *Special Program for Children’s Culture in the state of Baja California Sur “Alas y Raíces a los Niños y Niñas Sudcalifornianos” (Wings and Roots for Boys and Girls in Baja California Sur). In 2001, assistance was given to nine projects, but in 2002 only six projects were approved and funded.101 The Commission to Plan the Special Fund for Children‘s Culture in the state was reinstated in December 2003; this fund began with $175,000 USD. During the first 99 Diagnóstico de las Diferentes actividades que se han realizado en el Estado de Baja California Sur con la participación del Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes y el Gobierno del Estado. (Diagnosis of the different activities carried out in the state of Baja California Sur with the participation of Mexico’s National Council for Culture and the Arts and the Government of the state) CONACULTA-ISC, La Paz, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR March 2004. 100 Ibid. 101 Idem. period, eleven children‘s cultural development projects were evaluated and only seven were approved; these projects are expected to benefit 2,800 children in urban and rural areas of the municipalities of La Paz, Comondú, Loreto, Mulegé and Los Cabos. Among the priorities of these funds are assistance programs to creators and artists whose production is mainly geared toward cultural diffusion among children in the state. From 2000 to 2003, the following assistance has been given: Year Number of participants Number of awards Resources given (USD) 2000 220 15 $163,000 2001 248 37 $710,500 2002 225 42 $1,074,800 2003 198 33 $1,100,740 Total 891 127 $2,614,040 Source: made by the author from information from the Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura 102 * Program to train art promoters and creators. In 1999, 160 hours of cultural training were provided to 136 participants; in 2000, eighty hours of training were provided to sixty-eight participants; in 2001, 268 hours to 360 participants; in 2002, 208 hours to 575 participants; and in 2003, 52 hours to 221 participants. During this administration in the state, a total 768 hours training have been provided to 1,360 participants. In 2003, 620 hours of training were provided in disciplines such as theater, dance, literature and music. To achieve this, there was coordination between CONACULTA, the 102 Idem. National Institute of Fine Arts, and the Program of Creators in the States. All of the above contributed with grants to undertake the different activities related to the training of creators and artists. In 2003, the government sector expended a total of $2,092,416 USD for arts and culture, of which the federal government provided US$908,533 USD, and $1,182,982 USD was expended by the state government.103 With financial funds for culture and the arts it has been possible to regulate, monitor and optimize the inflow of resources for the different areas of art diffusion and creation in the state and its municipalities, but much is still to be done. The lack of a state Council for Culture and the Arts, which do exist in other parts of the country, jeopardizes the management of economic resources both in the public and private sectors. One of the main problems for cultural management, due to the fact that there is no such agency, is the way in which the amount is presently apportioned and received by the agency to which the Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura is ascribed.104 There is no cultural policy in the state encouraging joint participation of other sectors such as civil society and the private sector. The participation of other non-governmental sectors in cultural management is incipient, and this results in a dispersion of efforts and a lack of vision for common goals and ends. There is no agency that receives, coordinates, promotes, or contributes to the citizenry or voluntary participation that may be key to cultural development in Baja California Sur. 103 Statistical concentrate of the Annual Closing of the Progress of Works, 2003, Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura. 104 As mentioned, at the beginning of this document, the ISC is ascribed to the state Coordinating Office for Social Welfare, which is not specialized in cultural management, nor is this its only function. These problems result in the lack of an overall, converging project, or of a well-defined policy with clear objectives of the cultural development that is being pursued by the government and society in Baja California Sur. 3.2 Response from NGOs Some of the problems related to the lack of resources for music diffusion in the state are being attended to by the following non-profit organizations: La Paz Philharmonic Association takes care of funding and promotion for the state Youth Philharmonic Orchestra. This association endeavors to provide instruments to young musicians that are part of the orchestra. Donations are mostly in kind. In order to bring into Mexico instruments donated abroad, the Philharmonic Association has undertaken difficult importation procedures. The Friendly Musicians Club works mainly in the diffusion of different music genres in low-income neighborhoods in La Paz city. The goal is to call the attention of young people to this art expression as a means of personal fulfillment. Similarly, the association has organized seminar-presentations of the history of music in Mexico. The strategy of seminar-presentations has helped raise funds to assist musicians who live in difficult situations. The Association of People from Oaxaca Living in Baja California Sur is taking care of the diffusion of folk dance in Baja California Sur and, to this end, every year it coordinates the presentation of shows with ―la Guelaguetza‖ (dances from seven regions in the state of Oaxaca) in the five municipalities of the state. This association seeks to organize workshops that promote the manufacturing of crafts, the dissemination of dance, music and, in general, the recovery of culture by extending its presence throughout the state. The Association of Craftsmen in Baja California Sur, and Craftsmen Land, Sea, and Desert manages training courses and workshops for craftsmen in different communities of the state. The association previously consolidated a crafts marketing center known as the House of the Baja California Sur Craftsman. The main work undertaken by these two associations is to link crafts with production and cultural recovery projects. Friends of the Regional Anthropology and History Museum in Baja California Sur helps organize cultural activities in the Museum of the Regional History of La Paz, and promotes new cultural activities for the community of that city. Their activities consist mainly of the promotion of courses, exhibitions, etc., thus contributing to the recovery of the historical memory of the region and the country, using as central resource the collections saved and exhibited in the Regional Museum. Baja California Sur Writers work to propagate writers‘ literary works, particularly those that deal with topics related to Baja California Sur. They respond to the need for materials promotion among social sectors that have not for any reason received literary education. They are in close contact with the reading promotion programs of public libraries and basic and middle education institutions. To be able to comply with this obligation, their main goals are to manage, publish and distribute literary works by writers, members of their association, and by other authors significant to the region. The Palapa Society, A.C., located in Todos Santos, is responding to the needs for the promotion of cultural, artistic, musical and social activities. The association aims at generating artistic values and art appreciation educations – particularly among artists – from a community perspective. Presently, this association is managing human and economic resources for the restoration of the murals inside the 21st Century Cultural Center ―Prof. Nestor Agúndez Martínez,‖ which are rapidly deteriorating. Whale Museum of Baja California Sur. This association is in charge of the whale museum. It combines environmental education with the creation of spaces for the promotion of works of art by regional and national artists that deal with the topic of cetaceous, mainly whales. It has an environmental education program whose main goal is to promote artistic activities, mainly among children. To attain this goal, the association generates convivial spaces for the public at large in order to be initiated in art appreciation and execution. Presently, they are managing human and economic resources to enlarge and optimize the facilities of the museum. 4. Needs in Art and Culture 4.1 Needs of the municipality of Los Cabos In the municipality of Los Cabos there is no NGO making any efforts for the diffusion, promotion and creation of cultural activities. The little information there is about the process and the complicated logistics needed in order to create civil society organizations has been one of the main hurdles for people who have shown some interest in doing this. The following are the needs of the municipality of Los Cabos in the field of arts and culture: - Renovation of spaces in the Cabo San Lucas Culture House in order to have workshops for theater and puppet theater. - Renovation of a mirror room in Cabo San Lucas Culture House for the dance workshop. - The building of a multiple use hall to show films and present the results of workshops in the Culture House of Cabo San Lucas. - Waterproofing of the roof in San José del Cabo‘s Culture House. - Creation of an audiovisual hall to show films, documentaries, videos, etc. - Creation of an Internet room for the San José del Cabo library. This community does not have a theater house or a forum. It would be most useful for it to have at least an open-air forum to hold cultural events. - Creation of arts and crafts schools for Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo. - Provision of adequate facilities for the Culture Houses in the communities of Miraflores and Santiago. This includes furniture, cultural programs, workshops and trained teachers to give them. - Establishment of a funding program to provide basic education schools with art education teachers. - Creation of a program of scholarships for artists, creators and culture promoters. - Creation of reading rooms for remote communities and low-income neighborhoods. People living in this municipality express the urgent need to provide children and young people with more options for recreation and leisure to counteract the negative effects of an indiscriminate use of television. On the other hand, there is the need to establish a program to research, publicize, and value the wealth of heritage found in the mission system. Also, a museum with the theme of the missions is required in San José del Cabo, Santiago, or Miraflores, since it would help attract tourism to benefit the economic development of these communities. 4.2 Needs of the municipality of La Paz The main needs of the municipality of La Paz are the following: - Culture propagation campaigns - Agreements between civil society organizations and government agencies to open up management opportunities. - An interactive museum for children - Audiovisual halls. - Open air centers on environmental education. - Open air theater houses for mass shows. - Resources to rescue the Library of the Californias and CONTUMEN, and of other spaces. - A bus for a roving library and culture shows. - Re-establishment of cultural radio and television. - Regular and affordable high quality shows. - Funds to recruit art education teachers to work directly with schools, without the need for them to be paid by the Secretary of Public Education. - Creation of an arts school, with infrastructure, teachers and programs. - Crafts promotion and creation projects and funding are needed; as well as specific programs to attend to the demands of rural communities. - Inter-institution agreement to expedite the import of equipment for culture diffusion and the export of crafts. - Creation of a state Council for Culture and the Arts. 4.3 Needs of the municipality of Mulegé One of the main needs in the municipality of Mulegé is the management of resources earmarked for projects aimed at the recovery of the cultural and oral history of Santa Rosalía. This need could be satisfied if an NGO or inter-disciplinary committee is organized to recover local culture. If a research group is considered, it is indispensable that some higher education institution be involved in this difficult task. A program in the UABCS could be created. To look after art education in basic education institutions, there is a need for economic resources for room, materials, and recruitment of teachers that are not necessarily paid by the Secretary of Public Education. For culture diffusion, help is needed to publish books on the history of Santa Rosalía and to publish the research made on archeological sites, as well as a culture center with art courses and workshops, an audiovisual hall, and a theater house. A trust fund must be established for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the buildings that have some historical value that are being lost, both those that belong to the mission complex and those in the mines historical zone. Guerrero Negro has a need for closed recreational areas that are suitable to the temperate weather which prevails most of the year, where cultural and sports events, coordinated by the education sector, could take place; these events could also help in the integration of the community. 4.4 Needs of the municipality of Loreto Loreto only has one library to serve the entire municipality, therefore there is urgent need to create community libraries in rural areas; these libraries must have special rooms and materials for children and young people. To diminish the severe lack of cultural infrastructure present in this municipality, it is necessary to create a culture center offering art education workshops, and devoted to the diffusion of culture, prioritizing overall culture promotion programs specially geared toward children and young people. In the field of culture recovery, economic resources are needed to implement a project aimed at the recovery of the culture of the missions in the municipality, as well as for oral history and folk tales. Regarding the rehabilitation of the architectural-historical heritage, it is urgent to complete the restoration of altarpieces in San Javier‘s mission, the overall restoration of the church, and the recovery of the immediate environs. If the heritage of ancient Californians and of the old Rancho society is to be kept alive, the archeological site of Cuevas Pintas will need to be conserved and publicized. Also, the archeological sites of the San Javier mission and of the historical archives of the municipality of Loreto need to be catalogued. Recovery and study of the remains of the Jesuit missionary Juan de Ugarte are needed. It is necessary to train music, plastic art, theater and dance teachers to work directly in primary and secondary schools of the municipality, to build a theater house in Loreto, and an open-air forum in San Javier to hold the Festival of the Missions.