# Theory of CPH - PDF

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```							Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH
Section One Logical Foundation of CPH Theory

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F=

dP d(mv) dm dv = =v +m dt dt dt dt

m =

m 1−

0

v c

2 2

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. E=mc٢ m=E/c٢ . .

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:
( dR 2 C ) − +K =0 dt R

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α´

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D=٤
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D
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: IIB : heterotic SO(٣٢) " – " . heterotic E٨×E٨ IIA I

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– d . – .

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– . . . . – . . – . . – .

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L = 2π R

" T – duality "
– . R

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. . "Higgs boson"

Observed? Not yet Yes Indirectly Yes Yes Yes Not yet >

Mass

Electric Spin charge

Name Graviton Photon Gluon

GeV GeV GeV GeV

+

W+ WZ Higgs

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" Higgs field "

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F=-dU/dx => dU= - Fdx

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W = dE = ∆mC 2
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٢٣

Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH
Section Two Experimental Foundation of CPH Theory

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mg = hν g c2

m=

hν c2

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y

hν / = hν + mgy = hν + (
ν / = (1 +
gy )ν c2

hν ) gy c2

∆ν/ν=(ν'-ν)/ν=gy/c٢ . , . . ( ) .

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c = c (1 +

MG ) Rc 2

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(

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ν = ν 0 (1 −

MG ) RC 2

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ν =0

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c

E=mc٢ , m=E/c٢

m=

m0 1− v2 c2

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m

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(

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W = ∆E = ∆mc 2

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Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH
Section Three Definition, Principle and Explanation of CPH Theory

1

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻭ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻳﮏ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳـﺖ. ﻫﺮﭼﻨـﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﮕـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺻﻞ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺳﺪ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻧﮕﺮﺵ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺍﻱ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ، ﺩﺭﮎ ﺷﻬﻮﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺍﻱ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮐﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺰﻳـﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻻﺕ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﻡ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﻡ. ﻟﺬﺍ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃـﻪ ﺿـﺮﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻱ ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻢ.‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻫﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺭﺍ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻢ. ﺍﻣﻴﺪﻭﺍﺭﻡ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ.‬ ‫‪CPH , Creation Particle Higgs‬‬

‫ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﻱ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ‬ ‫‪C : Creation‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﺶ )ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ( ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫‪P : particle‬‬ ‫‪Higgs‬‬

‫ﺫﺭﻩ‬

‫ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫‪Theory of CPH or CPH Theory‬‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﻢ.‬
‫2‬

‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﺪﺍﻧﺎﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﭼﺎﻟﺶ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺑﻴﺴـﺖ ﻭ ﻳﮑـﻢ ﺑـﻪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘـﺎﺕ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﻴﮕـﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺻﻮﻻ ﻫﻴﮕﺰ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﻫﻴﮕﺰ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 0691 ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﺘﺮ ﻫﻴﮕﺰ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺫﺭﺍﺗﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﮐﻨﺶ ﻭ ﻭﺍﮐﻨﺶ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ، ﮐﻨﺶ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﻴﮕﺰ ﺑﻮﺯﻭﻥ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺫﺭﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻣﻴﺨﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﮐﺴﺐ ﺟﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﻫﻴﮕﺰ ﺑﻮﺯﻭﻥ "‪ "Higgs boson‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ ‐ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ‐ﺭﻧﮓ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺩﻫﻴﺪ ﻳﮏ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﺪﺍﺯﻳﻢ، ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺮﺵ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧـﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺣـﻞ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﺎ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻪ ﺫﺭﺍﺗﻲ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ، ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ. ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ ﻣـﻲ ﺩﺍﻧـﻴﻢ ﻳـﮏ ﻣـﻮﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﻫﻢ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄـﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺑـﺮ ﺑـﺎ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﻧـﻮﺭ ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ‬

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‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻫﻴﮕﺰ ﻭ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﺎﻟﺒﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ، ﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻳﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻫﻴﮕـﺰ، ﺍﻳـﻦ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﻴﮕﺰ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻨﺪ، ﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺫﺭﺍﺗـﻲ ﺍﻳﺠـﺎﺩ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ، ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑـﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ، ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺤـﻮﺭ ﻋﻤـﻮﺩ ﺑـﺮ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴـﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ ﺍﺳـﺖ. ﻟـﺬﺍ ﻣﺠﻤـﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻴﺮﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻃﻲ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺳﻪ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﻤﻖ ﺍﺳﺖ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫1 – ﺍﻳﻦ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ﭼﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ )ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ( ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ،‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﻢ. ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴـﻲ ﻭ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺸـﮑﻴﻞ ﺩﻫﻨـﺪﻩ ﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻴﺘـﻮﺍﻥ ﭼﻨـﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮓ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ .‬ ‫2 – ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺖ، ﻳﮑﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘـﺎﻝ ﻣـﻮﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ )ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ(، ﺩﻭﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ )ﺩﺭ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ( ﻭ ﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ. ﻟﺬﺍ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﮐـﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﺎ ‪ Vc‬ﻧﺸـﺎﻥ ﻣـﻲ ﺩﻫـﻴﻢ. ﺑﻄـﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‪ Vc > c‬ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ‪ Vc, c‬ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴـﺐ ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﻧـﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺑـﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧـﮓ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮓ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫3 – ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺫﺭﺍﺗﻲ )ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ( ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ‐ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮕـﻲ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ. ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺷﺪ، ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﺳـﺖ، ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ )ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴـﻤﺖ ﺁﺑـﻲ(، ﻟـﺬﺍ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬـﺎ‬ ‫)ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮓ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮓ( ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻞ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺭﺍ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ. ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑـﻪ ﺫﮐـﺮ ﺍﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ:‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﻱ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻱ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﮔﻮﻳﺎﻱ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻧﺪﻳﺪﻡ. ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻐﺖ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪ. ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﻞ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ. ﻟﺬﺍ ﻫﺮ ﮐﺲ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻭ ﺳﻠﻴﻘﻪ ﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﻳﺶ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺠﺴﻢ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬

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‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ‪CPH‬‬
‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ m‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻟﺨﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑـﺖ ‪Vc‬ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﻭ‬ ‫‪c, is speed of light Vc>c‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ‪ mVc‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ‬

‫اﺻﻞ‪CPH‬‬ ‫ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻳﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑـﺖ ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ ﻣـﻲ ﮐﻨـﺪ. ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻟﺨﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﮐﻨﺶ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴـﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻧﻤـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ،‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ :‬ ‫‪gradVc=0 in all inertial frames and any space‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ: ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘـﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺑـﻪ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧـﻲ )ﻳـﺎ ﺑـﺎﻟﻌﮑﺲ (‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪ Vc‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ. ﻳﻌﻨـﻲ ﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ ﺧﻄـﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﮑﺲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴـﺰ ﻫﻤـﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺛﺎﺑـﺖ ﺍﺳـﺖ. ﺗﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﮑﺲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺬﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ‪ Spin‬ﺍﺳﺖ،ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﻣﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﻢ.‬ ‫‪When CPH has Spin, It calls Graviton‬‬

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‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ‬
‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺷـﻮﻧﺪ ﮐـﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻋﻠﺖ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﮐـﻪ ﺑﺎﻳـﺪ ﺑـﺎ ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑـﺖ ‪Vc‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ‬ ‫‪gradVc=0 in all inertial frames and any space‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺎﺕ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺣﺎﻝ ﺩﻭ ﺳﻲ. ﭘـﻲ.‬ ‫ﺍﭺ. ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ‬

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‫ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻭ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻡ‪ m‬ﻭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ‪ ، P =mVc‬ﺩﺭﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‪ r‬ﺗﺤـﺖ ﺗـﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺑـﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮕـﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ، ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ، ﺍﻣـﺎ ﭼـﻮﻥ ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﺛﺎﺑـﺖ ﺍﺳـﺖ، ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ‪Spin‬ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺗـﺎ ﺟـﺎﻳﻲ ﻣـﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧـﺪ ﮐـﺎﻫﺶ ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ ﮐـﻪ ﺑـﺎﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﮑﻨﻨﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻨﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ، ﺍﺯ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻢ )ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ( ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﺗـﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻧﺮﺳﻨﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻃﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﻱ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺍﻧﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﭘﺮﺍﮐﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﻳﮑﺒﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺁﻭﺭﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻃﻲ ﺁﻥ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺍﺳـﺖ.‬ ‫)ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﺋﺮ ﻭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﭘﻮﻧﺪ – ﺭﺑﮑﺎ(. ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ‪ hν‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ‪y‬ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻱ‬ ‫‪ mgy‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ'‪ hν‬ﻣﻲ ﺭﺳﺪ‬ ‫‪hν'=hν+mgy‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻭ ﺟﺮﻡ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻴﺎﺑﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ )ﺟﺮﻡ(، ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﻭ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺪ.‬

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‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ‬

‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﮔﺮﺍﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺣﺮﮐﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ:‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ، ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴـﺰ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣـﺎ ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ )ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ(، ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺻﻞ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺑﻴﺸـﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﻧـﻮﺭ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ، ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﻭ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ، ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻨﻲ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺳـﻬﻢ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ، ﺟﺮﻡ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﺁﻧـﺮﺍ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣـﻲ ﺩﻫﻨـﺪ. ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻓﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﻟﺬﺍ ﺑﺴﺎﺩﮔﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺒـﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ، ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﻫـﺎ ﺗﺒـﺪﻳﻞ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻭ ﺳـﺮﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺑـﺎ ﺗﺒـﺎﻩ ﺷـﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ، ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺩﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﭘﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ.‬

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‫ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻳﮏ ﺯﻳﺮ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻱ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ.‬ ‫‪CPH is Sub Quantum of existence in Nature‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻳﺮ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﭘﺲ ﺟﻠﻮﻩ ﻱ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﮐـﻪ ﺑﻴـﺎﻥ ﮐﻨﻨـﺪﻩ ﻱ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻳﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘـﻮﻡ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌـﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ.‬ ‫ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﭼﺮﺍ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﮑﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ، ﺯﻳـﺮ ﻳـﮏ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺷـﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ )ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ‐ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎ( ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ ﮐـﻪ ﺧـﻮﺩ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺯﻳـﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮓ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﺩﻭ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻟﺨﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ‪Vc‬ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﮐـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻟﻴـﻞ ﺧـﻮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ‐ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫0=‪gradVc‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻮﺷﺖ.‬

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‫=‪gradVc=0 => axi+ayj+azk‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﮐـﻪ ﺳـﻲ ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ) ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﺗـﻮ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴـﻲ( ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺤـﻮﺭ‪ x‬ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘـﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺑـﺮ ﺑـﺎ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻣـﻮﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ)ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ( ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ‪ y, z‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ‪ x‬ﺻﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫0=‪ax‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ:‬ ‫0=‪ayj+azk‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ‬ ‫0=‪ay=0 => az is maximum. And ay is maximum when az‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮﺗﻮ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ‪y‬‬

‫01‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮓ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ )ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ‐ﺭﻧﮕﻬـﺎ( ﺩﺍﺋﻤـﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺣـﺎﻝ ﺷـﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴـﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ، ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ‪ y‬ﮐـﺎﻫﺶ ﻣـﻲ ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ ﻭ ﺑـﺎ ﮐـﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸـﻲ ﺛﺎﺑـﺖ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ، ﻣﺎﻧﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﮔﺎﻥ، ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻣﺎﻧﺪ. ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣـﻲ ﮐﻨـﻴﻢ ﮐـﻪ ﻫﻤـﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ ﮐـﻪ ﻧﺴـﺒﻴﺖ ﺧـﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ، ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺗﻬﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻱ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﺨﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‪ C‬ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ‪ Z‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴـﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮓ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻳﻴﺪ،‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﺎﮐﺰﻳﻤﻢ ﻭ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮓ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻮﺷﺖ. ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ، ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺣﺮﮐﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﺏ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﻱ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻧﻮﺷﺖ:‬ ‫)‪Ec=EcmCosω(t-x/c‬‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ Ec‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ‪ Ecm‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎﺯﻳﻤﻢ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ‐ﺭﻧﮓ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻮﺷﺖ:‬ ‫)‪Bc=BcmCosω(t-x/c‬‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ Bc‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ‐ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ‪ Bcm‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎﮐﺰﻳﻤﻢ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨـﻴﻢ ﻳـﮏ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ n‬ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮓ ﻭ‪ m‬ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫)‪E=nEcmCosω(t-x/c‬‬ ‫)‪B=nBcmCosω(t-x/c‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ. ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ، ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ.‬

‫11‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ‬

‫ﻫﻤﺠﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪ، ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﻧﺸﯽ، ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮕـﯽ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨـﺎﻃﻴﺲ‐‬ ‫ﺭﻧﮕﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﯽ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ. ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﺮ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷـﻮﺩ. ﺑﻨـﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﮏ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﯼ ﺗﻨﮕﺎﺗﻨﮓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﯽ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴـﯽ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻣﺎﮐﺴﻮﻝ ﭘﻴﺮﻭﯼ ﻣـﯽ ﮐﻨﻨـﺪ. ﻟـﺬﺍ ﻭﺍﺑﺴـﺘﮕﯽ ﮔـﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﺍﻣـﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴـﯽ ﻧﻴـﺰ ﺑﺎﻳـﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟـﻪ ﺍﯼ ﺷـﺒﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻣﺎﮐﺴﻮﻝ ﺗﺒﻌﻴﺖ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﺭﺍ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﻳﻢ؟‬ ‫ﻳﮑﺒﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ. ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬـﺖ ﺷـﺘﺎﺏ ﮔـﺮﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ. ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻫﻤﺠﻬﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻘﻲ )ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ( ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ. ﺑﺎ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ، ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣـﻲ ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨـﺎﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷـﺪ. ﻳﻌﻨـﻲ ﺗﻌـﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺑـﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧـﮓ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ)ﺷـﮑﻞ ﺯﻳـﺮ(. ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺷـﻮﺩ ﮐـﻪ ﻣﺠﻤـﻮﻉ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﻓﻀـﺎﻳﻲ ﮐـﻪ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﺑـﺎ ﻫﻤـﺎﻥ ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ.‬

‫21‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ. ﻳﮑﻲ ﺷﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ:‬

‫‪g and E‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ، ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ:‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ، ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ ‫‪Point A; Photon contains k1 CPH‬‬

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‫‪Point B; Photon contains k2 CPH‬‬ ‫1‪k2 > k‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ، ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ:‬

‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻧﻨﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﮑﻮﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ، ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ، ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺳﺮﺥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ. ﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ. ﻟﺬﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ:‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﻠﻲ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻣﺎﮐﺴﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﻢ،‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺷﺶ ﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﻱ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﮑﺎﺭ ﺑﺒﺮﻳﻢ.‬

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‫ﻫﺮ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ.‬

‫ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ؟‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﮏ ﺗﺸﻌﺸﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﮐﻼﺳﻴﮏ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﮐـﻪ ﻫﺮﮔـﺎﻩ ﻳـﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑـﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺷـﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﮕﻴـﺮﺩ، ﺗﺸﻌﺸـﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑـﺪﺍﻧﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺗـﻢ ﺍﻧـﺪﮎ ﺑـﻮﺩ، ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﮑﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﺪ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺭﺍﺗﺮﻓﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺗﻢ ﺍﺯ ﻳـﮏ ﻫﺴـﺘﻪ ﻧﺴـﺒﺘﺎ ﺳـﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﺗﺸـﮑﻴﻞ ﺷـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺍﺗﻢ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻋﻤـﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺗـﻢ،‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ .‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺍﺗﻤﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ. ﻃﺒﻖ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺍﺗﻤﻲ ﺑﻮﺭ، ﺍﺗـﻢ ﺍﺯ ﻳـﮏ ﻫﺴـﺘﻪ ﻧﺴـﺒﺘﺎ ﺳـﻨﮕﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﻲ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣـﺎﻝ ﭼـﺮﺧﺶ ﻫﺴـﺘﻨﺪ. ﺍﻳـﻦ ﻣـﺪﻝ ﻧﺸـﺎﻥ ﻣـﻲ ﺩﺍﺩ ﮐـﻪ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗـﺎﺑﺶ ﮐﻨـﺪ. ﭘـﺲ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﺍﻧﺮﺯﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺑﺪﻫﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺳﺮﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﮐﻼﺳﻴﮏ ﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﻧﺒﻮﺩ. ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﺿـﻤﻦ ﺁﻧﮑـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻫﺴـﺘﻪ ﻣـﻲ ﭼﺮﺧﻨـﺪ‬ ‫)ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ( ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﺑﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﻓﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﮐﺮﺩ ﺍﺗﻢ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﮊﻥ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻥ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﻼﻧﮏ، ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻲ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﮐـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﺗﺎﺑﺸـﻲ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮﻱ ﺑـﺎ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﮐﻤﺘـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﻜﻪ‬ ‫1‪hf=E2-E‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ‪.hf‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺍﺗﻤﻲ ﺑﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻧﺎﺭﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﮐـﻮﺍﻧﺘﻴﺰﻩ ﺑـﻮﺩﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟـﺐ ﻓﻴﺰﻳـﮏ ﮐﻼﺳـﻴﮏ ﺑـﺎ ﺑﻴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ.‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﻣﻮﺟﻲ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺍﺗﻤﻲ ﺑﻮﺭ ﺷﺪ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﮐﺴﺐ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻨﺘﺮ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ. ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﮐﻼﺳﻴﮏ ﭘـﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨـﻲ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺑﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻧﺘﻦ ﻳـﮏ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺳﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻭ ﺟﻠﻮ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ، ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨـﺪ. ﺷـﮑﻞ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﮐـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧـﺘﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳـﻮ ﺑﻮﺳـﻴﻠﻪ ﻳـﮏ ﻧﻮﺳـﺎﻥ ﮐﻨﻨـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ .‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﻳﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﺍﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﮑﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴـﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘـﻮﻡ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺮﺽ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻴﭽﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﺪﻫﻴـﺪ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﭘﺪﻳـﺪﻩ‬ ‫)ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺭ( ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﻠﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ. ﺁﻳﺎ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﭘﺪﻳـﺪﻩ ﺣﺎﻟـﺖ ﮐﻠـﻲ ﻭ ﻋﻤـﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﻳﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ ﺗﺸﻌﺸﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨـﺪ ﻳـﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣـﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺧﺎﺻـﻲ ﭼﻨـﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻮﻻ ﭼﺮﺍ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ؟‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻫﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﺟﺴﻤﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ )ﻳﺎ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ( ﮐﻨﺪ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ. ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻳـﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ؟‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﻳﮏ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﮐﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻫﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﻳﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﭼﻮﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻧﻴـﺮﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻲ ﻧﺘﻮﺍﻧﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﻧﺪ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﻲ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺍﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﺪ ﻧﺎﻇﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ .‬

‫ﺗﺸﻌﺸﻊ ﻭ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ‬
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‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ. ﻫﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺴﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫـﺪ، ﻧﻴـﺮﻭ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺒـﺪﻳﻞ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﮔﺮ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ‬
‫2 ‪W = ∆E = ∆mc‬‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺟﺴﻢ )ﻳﺎ ﺫﺭﻩ ( ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺒـﺪﻳﻞ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ. ﺍﮔـﺮ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺑﺪﻫﺪ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴـﺮﻭ ﺗﺒـﺪﻳﻞ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ. ﺁﮔـﺮ ﮐـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻫﻴﭻ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﻢ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ، ﻫﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻣـﺎ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑـﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘـﺮﻭﻥ ﺷـﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﮕﻴـﺮﺩ،‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﮑــﻪ ﮐــﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺻــﻔﺮ ﻧﺒﺎﺷــﺪ ، ﺍﻣــﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ـﻲ ﺗــﺎﺑﺶ ﻣ ـﻲ ﮐﻨــﺪ. ﻳﻌﻨ ـﻲ ﺗــﺎﺑﺶ ﺍﻣــﻮﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﮐﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐـﻪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺑﺤـﺚ ﻫﻨـﻮﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻧﮑﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺍﺻﻮﻻ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴـﻲ ﺗﻮﺳـﻂ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑـﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺷـﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﺑـﻞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﺳﺖ؟ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﭼﺮﺍ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ )ﺁﻧﭽﻨﺎﻥ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﭘﻴﺶ ﮔﻮﻳﻲ ﮐـﺮﺩﻩ(‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻱ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﻳﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﺖ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﮔـﺮ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑـﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﻋـﻼﻭﻩ ﺑـﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ، ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ، ﺍﻣـﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴـﻲ ﺗـﺎﺑﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﻢ ﺟﻮﻥ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ، ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﮐﻠﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﮔﻔﺖ‬ ‫‪W(on electron or proton)=E‬‬ ‫0=‪W=0 => E‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻳﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺮﻡ ﻧﺎﭼﻴﺰ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻱ‬ ‫‪W=F.d=mgh‬‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻱ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﺎﭼﻴﺰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻗﻴﻘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻃﻴﻒ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﺫﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺝ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺁﺷـﮑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﻱ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻱ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬

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‫ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻳﮏ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺴـﺎﻡ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺑـﻪ ﻋﻨـﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ. ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺑﻬﻲ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ.‬ ‫)ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ( ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﭘﺲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻧﻴـﺰ ﺗﻌـﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﻴﺸـﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ ﺗﺸـﮑﻴﻞ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺑﻴﻨﺪﺍﺯﻳﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ، ﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺯﻣـﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮﻱ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸـﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻩ. ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺳﺪ، ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺮﮎ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻟﻴـﻞ ﺍﻳﻨﮑـﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﮏ ﺯﻳﺮ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ، ﺁﻧﺮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣـﻲ ﮐﺸـﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮓ )ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ( ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺪ ﻭ ﺑـﻪ ﻳـﮏ ﺍﺗـﻢ ﺯﻣـﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷـﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻬﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﺬﮐﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺭﺳـﺎﻝ ﺑـﺎﺭ‐ ﺭﻧـﮓ ﻣﺸـﺎﺑﻬﻲ )ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ( ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮓ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﺴـﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ. ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮓ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﻋﻼﻣـﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ )ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ( ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ. ﻓـﺮﺽ ﮐﻨـﻴﻢ ﺑـﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧـﮓ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺟﺬﺏ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺑﺎ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺑﺎﺭ‐ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ، ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑـﺎﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﺗـﻮﻥ ﺑﻬـﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺧﻮﺭﺩ. ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺑـﺎﺭ –‬ ‫ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯ ﭘﺲ ﻣﻲ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮓ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ، ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺮﮎ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ، ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺸﺪ. ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻨﺶ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ، ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺸﺪ.‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﮔﻠﻮﺋﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ)ﮔﻠﻮﺋﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﭼﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ( ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﮐﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﮐﻮﺍﺭﮐﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ. ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻮﺍﺭﮐﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑـﻲ ﮐﺴـﺮﻱ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺍﻧـﺪ، ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗـﻊ ﺑـﺎﺭ – ﺭﻧـﮓ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ )ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ( ﺑﺎ ﮐﻮﺍﺭﮐﻬﺎ ﮐﻨﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ. ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺩﺍﺩ.‬

‫ﻓﻀﺎ‐ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ؟‬

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‫ﻳﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺳﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫـﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮑـﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﮐـﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪ)ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ( ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺭﻭﻳـﺪﺍﺩ ﻫﻨﮕـﺎﻣﻲ ﺭﺥ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪ ﮐﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻱ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﮔﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﭼﮕـﺎﻟﻲ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﺳـﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ. ﻗﻄـﺮ ﻳـﮏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺑﺮﺑﺮ 81‐ 01 ﻣﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﮔﺎﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺯﻭﺝ، ﻳﮏ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﭘﻮﺯﻳﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﮔﺎﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺣـﺎﻝ ﻓـﺮﺽ ﮐﻨـﻴﻢ ﭼﮕـﺎﻟﻲ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫3‪De(cph)=n per m‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﮐﻪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ، ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﭘﻴﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﮕﺮﺍﻝ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺍﺯ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺗﺎ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ، ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻓﻀﺎ‐ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫) ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ( ﺍﺳﺖ.‬
‫3 ‪De ( cph ) = nperm‬‬

‫‪∫ dDe(cph) = E‬‬
‫0‬

‫‪Integration of gravitons‬‬ ‫‪is a projection to production electromagnetic energy‬‬

‫02‬

‫ﺟﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫـﺪ ﮐـﻪ ﭼﮑـﺎﻟﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬـﺎ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴـﺪ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ. ﭼﻨـﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻳﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺮﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻻ، ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺟﺎﻟﺒﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻳﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣـﺎﺩﻩ – ﭘـﺎﺩ ﻣـﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻫﺎﻭﮐﻴﻨﮓ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ‬

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‫ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ Vc‬ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ . ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻥ ﮐـﺎﻫﺶ ﻣـﻲ ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ ﺑـﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ‬

‫‪gradVc=0, in all inertial frames and any space‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ، ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ.‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺤﻨﺎﻱ ﻓﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻫﻴﭽﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺛﺮ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ ﺭﺍﺳـﺖ ﺧـﻂ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨـﺪ ﺩﺍﺷـﺖ)ﻗﺴـﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ(. ﺍﻣﺎ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻭﺟـﻮﺭﺩ ﻧـﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﮐـﻪ ﺑـﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺛـﺮ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﺭﺍﺳﺖ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻤﺖ ﭼﭗ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻻ، ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻭ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ:‬

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‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪، Energy E, Frequency f ، A‬ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ ﮐـﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ ﻣـﻲ ﺩﻫـﺪ. ﺗﻌـﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘـﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ. ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪ ، Energy E1, Frequency f ، B‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﺳـﺖ، ﻓﺎﺻـﻠﻪ ﻱ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻱ‪ G‬ﺑﺮﺳﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺤـﺚ ﻣـﺎﮐﺰﻳﻤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻭ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ’‪ A‬ﺑﺮﺳﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘـﺎﻁ ’‪ A and A‬ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ)ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻳﮑﻨﻮﺍﺧﺖ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ(. ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸـﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻳﮏ ﺳـﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟـﻪ( ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺴـﻢ ﻋﺎﻣـﻞ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸـﻲ ﺳـﻘﻮﻁ ﻣـﻲ ﮐﻨـﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﻏﻴـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻳﮏ ﻋﺪﺳﻲ ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺷـــﮑﻞ ﺯﻳـــﺮ ﻧﺸـــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷـــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳـــﺖ ﮐـــﻪ ﻧـــﺎﻇﺮ ﺩﺍﺧـــﻞ ﻭ ﺧـــﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﺴـــﻴﺮ ﻧـــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﭼﮕﻮﻧـــﻪ ﻣـــﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﻨـــﺪ‬

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﺎﻇﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.‬

‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻬﺒﺎﻧﮓ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻫﺎ‬

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‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺑﻴﮓ ﺑﻨﮓ، ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ 41 ﺑﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻝ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﺗﻮﺩﻩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺍﻍ ﻭ ﭼﮕـﺎﻝ ﺁﻏـﺎﺯ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺍﺳـﺖ.‬ ‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﻡ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺟﻬـﺎﻥ ﺳﺮﺷـﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﺭﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬﺒﺎﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻧﻮﺭﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺍﮐﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺳﺪ، ﺣﺪﻭﺩ 41 ﺑﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨـﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺑـﻪ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫـﺪ ﮐـﻪ ﺍﺯﺩﻝ ﺯﻣـﺎﻥ ﻋﺒـﻮﺭ ﮐـﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﮕـﺎﻫﻲ ﺑـﻪ ﮔﺬﺷـﺘﻪ ﺑﻴﻨـﺪﺍﺯﻳﻢ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﺘـﺪﺍﻳﻲ ﻋـﺎﻟﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺒﻴﻨـﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﮐﻤﮏ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﭘﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ‬

‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ‬

‫‪Age of universe‬‬ ‫‪Universe is 13.7 billion years old‬‬ ‫‪T=13.7x1012 years =4.3x1020 s‬‬

‫ﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ‬

‫‪Volume of universe‬‬ ‫3‪V=17.1x1078m‬‬

‫ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﭼﻬﺎﻥ‬
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‫‪Density of universe‬‬ ‫3‪D=10-18 kg/m‬‬

‫ﺟﺮﻡ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪Mass of universe‬‬ ‫;‪M=(density)x(volume), so‬‬ ‫‪M= 17.1x1060 kg‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺍﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﻣـﻲ ﺧـﻮﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﮕﻴـﺮﻳﻢ، ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺘـﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻫﻤﻴـﺖ ﺩﺭﺳـﺘﻲ ﻳـﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺘﻲ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬

‫ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻢ ﻓﺮﻭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺭﻳﺨﺖ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻮﺵ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ. ﺣﺎﻻ ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓـﺮﻭ ﺭﻳﺨـﺘﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺧـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ. ﭼﻪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩ؟‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﺍﺳﺖ.ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳـﺘﺎﺭﮔﺎﻥ ﺑـﻪ ﻃـﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺁﺑﻲ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ، ﻣﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﺳـﻘﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ. ﺧﻮﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﻭﺳﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺁﻟﻔﺎ ﻗﻨﻄﻮﺭﺱ )ﻧﺰﺩﻳﮑﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺭﺳـﻴﺪ( ﻳﮑـﺪﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺟﺬﺏ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ. ﺣﺠﻢ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﮐـﺎﻫﺶ ﻣـﻲ ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ ﻭ ﺷـﺪﺕ ﮔـﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﻓﺸـﺎﺭ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ.‬

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‫ﭼﻪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺗﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﺪ؟‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺗﻤﻬﺎ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ. ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣـﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨـﺪ. ﻫﻤﭽﻨـﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻴﭽﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻱ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻳﻢ. ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺟـﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﺪﻫﻴـﺪ ﺑـﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺤﺚ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫3‪2x1017 kg/m‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺩﺭﻫـﻢ ﻓـﺮﻭ ﺭﻳـﺰﺩ. ﺑﻨـﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺑـﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﭼﮕـﺎﻟﻲ ﻫﺴـﺘﻪ ﺣﺠـﻢ ﺟﻬـﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺣﺴـﺎﺏ ﻣـﻲ ﮐﻨـﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ3‪ Vo=M/D=8.5x1043 m‬ﺁﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫‪ Ro=2.7x1014 m‬ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻱ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬

‫ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ. ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻨﺎﺭ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ‬ ‫‪gradVc=0 in all inertial frames and any space‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ‪ v, s‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺪ، ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﮐﺰﻳﻤﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺳﺪ. ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ، ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫـﺎ ﮐـﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ. ﻫﻴﭻ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺣﺘﻲ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔـﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺁﻥ ﺑﮕﺮﻳـﺰﺩ. ﺷـﮑﻞ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬

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‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻧﺰﺩﻳﮏ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻣﻬﺒﺎﻧـﮓ )ﺑﻴـﮓ ﺑﻨـﮓ ( ﺍﺯ ﺳـﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟـﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻧﻈﻴـﺮ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺑـــــﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـــــﻪ ﺑـــــﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟـــــﻪ ﺯﻳـــــﺮ ﻣـــــﺎ ﻣـــــﻲ ﺗـــــﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺩﺭﮎ ﺧـــــﻮﺑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬﺒﺎﻧـــــﮓ ﺩﺍﺷـــــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷـــــﻴﻢ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﺕ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫـﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳـﻄﺢ ﻳـﮏ ﺳـﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﺣـﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻣﻤﮑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺳﻨﺪ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻴﻞ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻳـﮏ ﺳـﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟـﻪ ﻱ ﻣﻄﻠـﻖ ﺍﺳـﺖ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺤﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺁﻥ، ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺯ ﻧﻴـﺮﻭﻱ ﺧـﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻌﻴﺖ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻱ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻔﺠﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬

‫72‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻟﺤﻈﺎﺕ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ Vc‬ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﻳﺰﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺟﺎ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻣـﻲ ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ. ﺑـﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫‪Ro<<2.7x1014 m‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﺒﺴﻂ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﻧـﺪﺍﺭﺩ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ‪ Vc‬ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻣﻨﺘﺸـﺮ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ. ﺍﻣـﺎ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ . ﺍﭺ. ﻫـﺎ ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﮐﻨﺶ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺟﺬﺏ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘـﻮﻡ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ. ﺁﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺴـﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﺪ. ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺕ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺗﺮﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺑـﺰﺭﮒ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻳﻴﺪ. ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺳـﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﺟﺴـﺎﻡ ﺑـﺰﺭﮒ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻭ ﻓﺸـﺎﺭ ﮔـﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ )ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ( ﻣﻨﻔﺠﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ، ﻣﺮﮐـﺰ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺤـﺖ ﻓﺸـﺎﺭ ﺷـﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻪ ﻱ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ. ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﮐﻨﺶ ﻭ ﻭﺍﮐﻨﺶ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺑﻬﻲ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺩ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﮔﺮﺩ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺍﺗﻤﻬـﺎ ﻧﻴﺰﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ.‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬

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Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH
Section Four Analysis of CPH Theory

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Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH
Section Five Opinios About CPH Theory

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Spin
Creation Particle Higgs . . . Spin . Conservation of momentum ) .( Inertial frame

Conservation of mass and energy . . . . . . ." " : . .

" simples . . . . http://www.ghandchi.com/ -MonadsCPH.htm . . . .

http://www.ghandchi.com/

-falsafehElmEng.htm

Welcome to One of the Largest and Most Visited Sources of Philosophical Texts on Visitors Each Day and Still Rising – the Internet.

Sam Ghandchi
After the revolution, Sam Ghandchi, as a co-founder and member of the editorial

board of Nedaye Azadi, co-published this daily afternoon paper in Tehran, till the paper

and all other free papers of the time, were shut down by the Islamic Republic in

.

Nedaye Azadi was a democratic paper similar to Peyghame Emrooz, Ayandegan and other similar papers of those three years of semi-democracy in Iran of . The back issues of Nedaye Azadi may still be available in the archives of Library of Congress.http://www.ghandchi.com/ -MonadsCPHEng.htm Persian Version: http://www.ghandchi.com/ -MonadsCPH.htm

Recently I had the pleasure of studying a new TOE (Theory of Everything) called CPH [http://www.ghandchi.com/iranscope/Anthology/hjavadi/CPH-English.htm]. CPH has been proposed by an Iranian physicist by the name of Hossein Javadi. [http://www.ghandchi.com/iranscope/Anthology/hjavadi/index.html]. Mr. Javadi's theory reminds me of Leibniz's Monadology, a model of the world with a tilt to pluralism [http://www.ghandchi.com/ -PluralismEng.htm]. Leibniz's pluralism is closer to the pluralism of atomists (from Democritus to Russell), than to the pluralism of Aristotle.

Metaphysics[http://www.ghandchi.com/

-AristotleEng.htm],

Aristotle, in contrast to the atomists, as I have discussed in details in my paper The Status of Monism and Pluralism in Aristotle's views pluralism as a conceptual notion, where the "order of explanation" is monistic, whereas the "order of sense", is pluralistic. In that paper I summarized Aristotle's view as follows: "...[For Aristotle,] there is a hierarchy of concepts that refers to concrete things and in the order of explanation, the universals are first and particulars are last, whereas in the order of sensation, the particulars come first and universals are the last. In the order of sensation, the most fundamental concept is substance which is followed by the concepts of unity (or being) and first principles. In the order of explanation, it is the opposite and first principles are the primary concepts followed by unity (or being) and substance...To discover whether plurality or unity are primary in Aristotle’s metaphysics, we should ask which one is prior in the order of sensation, because Aristotle, in all his philosophy, gives primacy to the sensible things rather than to the abstract ideas...Aristotle writes in his Physics “The universal is more knowable in the order of explanation, the particular in the order of sense [Book I, a , BW, p. ].”

Based on the two interpretations of Aristotle’s metaphysics in this paper, plurality is next to particulars and unity is next to the universals. Therefore, plurality has primacy in the world as it is, and unity has primacy in our ideas and explanations. In other words, unity is the farthest from the perceptive reality and may be even subjective, and plurality is the closest to the perceptive reality and is the state of objective reality. Thus I can conclude that pluralism is what is defended in Aristotle’s Metaphysics, though as I explained, with all the intricacies of Aristotle’sunique metaphysical scheme [http://www.ghandchi.com/ -AristotleEng.htm]." Leibniz's Monadology has fascinated me for years, ever since reading about it the first time in Bertrand Russell's works twenty five years ago. I thoroughly discussed Bertrand Russell's own philosophy of Logical Atomism in Logical Atomism: A Paradigm or a Lost Cause [http://www.ghandchi.com/ -RussellAtomismEng.htm]. The following is what I wrote in that paper about the similar challenge of Leibniz's Monadology and Russell's Philosophy of Logical Atomism: "...the subjective notion of truth is objectified when he [Bertrand Russell] claims that the truth of the world can be reduced to “facts that make up the truths of the world.” This was very similar to Leibniz’s Monadology where the subjective notion of mind was *objectified* by monads. The atoms relating to the truth in the objective world, according to logical atomism, are not particulars, relations, or qualities; but a unique unity of them corresponds to the truth, i.e. the atomic facts. Thus, these atomic facts, though complex, are not reducible to their parts as if the objectification of truth is a ghost holding them together [http://www.ghandchi.com/ -RussellAtomismEng.htm]." It is interesting to remember how Leibniz was so much perturbed with the concept of *action at a distance* in Newton's gravitational theory to the point of ending up in the wicked arguments with Newton. In fact, their fight about calculus was not a difference about theory, but was rather about who invented calculus first, whereas their disputes about action at a distance were their real *disagreements* which were even raised to a theological dispute. Javadi is also trying to answer the issue of action at a distance by his theory of transformation of the vector quantity force and the scalar quantity energy, when he shows a quantum of work can be defined by a quantum of force multiplied by Planck's Length (Wq=Fg.Lp). Thus just like Leibniz, for Javadi, there is no action at a distance, and the space is filled with gravitons, that interact with each other. For Javadi, the gravitons are nothing but the CPH when it has a spin, and CPH (Creation Particle Higgs) is the basic particle of the world with constant mass moving at constant speed in an inertial frame. In other words, the whole world is a simple five dimensional world (spin is considered a dimension). Javadi's model, not only explains the inconsistencies of quantum mechanics and relativistic theory, it even explains classical issues better than the -dimensional model of string theory. For example, force being a vector quantity, means that the

conservation of momentum conserves in all three physical directions at the same time, whereas mass and energy being scalar quantities, means the conservation of mass and energy conserve one-dimensionally, at least when dealing with them in classical mechanics. Javadi's model, through the transformation of force and energy, makes these fundamental concepts of physics identical. Eventually the CPH Theory, makes the main challenge of modern physics, the unification of the three forces of nature possible. Of course, I should also note that from the technology standpoint, the success of nanotechnology (http://www.ghandchi.com/ -NanoEng.htm) is one of the best corroboration of atomism, because nanotechnology is nothing but rebuilding the whole nature artificially "atom by atom" as Feynman said it in his speech. Moreover, let's remember what Bertrand Russell wrote of analysis: "One purpose that has run through all that I have said, has been the justification of analysis, i.e. the justification of logical atomism, of the view that you can get down in theory, if not in practice, to ultimate simple, out of which the world is built, and that those simples have a kind of reality not belonging to anything else [Russell, Bertrand, The Philosophy of Logical Atomism, LK, p. ]." Below I present my own analysis of Leibniz's Monadology, from the viewpoint of philosophy of science, hoping that while the discussions of CPH theory continue in the physics community, I can help similar discussions about the philosophical model of CPH theory to start in the circles of philosophy of science [http://www.ghandchi.com/ falsafehElm-plus.htm].

Overview of Leibniz's Monads from a Philosophical Perspective In the opening of "Principles of Nature and Grace" [Leibniz, G.W., Philosophical Papers and Letters, Leroy Loemkev Edition, University of Chicago, , Vol. II, p. ], Leibniz defines ‘substance’ in a Cartesian style as ‘a being capable of action;’ and ‘simple substance’ as ‘that which has no parts.’ Then Monads are introduced as equivalent to ‘simple substances’ and he continues by asserting “Monas is a Greek word signifying unity or that which is one.’ Plato refers to Mind as *the* Monad [Aristotle, De Anima, The Basic Works of Aristotle, Richard Mc Keon Edition, , P. ] and most commentators think that Leibniz, contrary to Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes (his principle inspirers), has actually made mind divisible in his metaphysic and has presumed its parts as Monads. Thus, it is believed that the nature of Monads is mental. On the other hand, Leibniz’s referring to Monads as ‘true Atoms of nature’ [Leibniz, Monadology, George Montgomery's Translation, Open Court Publ, Illinois, , P. ] bears a certain resemblance to ancient Greek atomism. Nevertheless, most commentators agree that Leibniz’s Monads differ from the atomists’ atoms insofar as the former do not embody

extension whereas the latter do, i.e. the Monads are not geometrical points and are metaphysical points [Copleston, Frederick, A History of Philosophy, Vol. IV, The Newman Press, Maryland, , P. ]. Therefore, despite the undeniable resemblance of Monadology to atomism is undeniable, the nature of these "atoms" (i.e. the Monads) remains to be investigated separately and I will do this scrutiny in the following lines. Revealing the differences and similarities of Leibniz' s Monads with Plato’s Forms, Aristotle’s substances, and Descartes' simple substances is not enough to fathom the nature of Monads. Various commentators stressing the different qualities of Monads alleged in Leibniz’s numerous works have mostly proposed these elements to be mental and some even believed them to be material elements. In my opinion, the problem of these commentators is that they are limited to the framework of Western philosophy in which ultimate reduction is either mental or material and this fact has been the reason for futile attempts to classify Leibniz as an idealist or a materialist. Although Leibniz was essentially familiar with Western philosophy and certainly Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes had great influence on his thought, nonetheless his speculations about the nature of simple substances (Monads), is unique and in a sense resembles some of the Eastern philosophies. I think it is evident from the book Monadology that Monads are the basic blocks or the atoms of the world. That this reductionism was accepted by Leibniz can be gathered from his presumption of the world to have ‘true atoms.’ Thus, the question is what is the nature of his reductionism-is it materialist, idealist, or is it something else? Materialists reduce all reality to some kind of material principle and synthesize the world from this principle, e.g. some of the modern atomists presume the atomic particles (or sub-atomic particles) as the basic blocks of the world and biological elements (like DNA or RNA) or mental elements (neurons) are assumed to be ultimately comprised of material sub-atomic particles (i.e. electrons, mesons, etc.). The idealists reduce all reality to some kind of mental principle and synthesize the world from this principle, e.g. the subjective idealists consider everything to be in our mind and some quantum physicists similarly believe that the existence of electrons depends on our thought. The foregoing may be regarded as a brief sketch of materialism and idealism in Modern philosophy and science. In the East, especially in Indian philosophy (e.g. Vedanta philosophical systems), there is another kind of reductionism, almost unbeknownst to Western concepts, which we may call biological reductionism. In this thought, the ultimate biological elements are not molecules of ultimate material elements. Instead, the ultimate material elements (e.g. electrons) are comprised of ultimate biological elements (whatever they may be called). From such a perspective, electrons are even more "biologically" ultimate than RNA/DNA, and still the ultimate biological elements are to be found in the elements comprising electrons, in short the ultimate biological element are the building blocks of even the electron and sub-atomic particles. Probably, if we would like to express such an ideology today, the best word for the ultimate element would still be Entelechy, the word that Leibniz used interchangeably for Monad. I think the above is the crux of Leibniz’s theory of the nature of Monads. The Monads are neither mental nor material, but rather they are biological, that is the ultimate blocks of the world are biological elements--Entelechies. Entelechy was postulated by Aristotle in his biology, but for Aristotle, Entelechy was not prior to material elements. Leibniz

borrowed the word but changed its status, elevating it to the supreme position of the ultimate constituent of the world. Using this conception of basic elements of the world, he views ‘matter’ as described below: "Every portion of matter may be conceived as like a garden full of plants, and like a pond full of fish. But every branch of a plant, every member of an animal, and every drop of the fluids within it, is also such a garden or such a pond [Leibniz, G.W., Monadology, ibid, P. ]."

The above perspective is so common among many pantheistic schools of the East that occasionally some mystic philosophers can be found *talking* to stones or other inanimate objects. Actually, the above obliterates the distinction between inanimate and animate objects by making everything animate. Moreover, Leibniz considers Entelechy as being also the basic element of Soul or Mind and clarifies it: "If we wish to designate as soul everything which has perceptions and desires in the general sense that I have just explained, all simple substances or created Monads could be called souls. But since feeling is something more than a mere perception I think that the general name of Monad or Entelechy should suffice for simple substances which have only perception while we may reserve the term Soul for those whose perception is more distinct and accompanied by memory [ibid, P. ]." In other words, Soul is just a kind of Entelechy and he later assumes it to be the ‘dominating Entelechy’ of animals [ibid, P. ]. The above thoughts have led to Leibniz’s fantastic belief that "...animals and souls begin from the very commencement of the world [ibid, P. ]". Also his belief in metamorphosis [ibid, P. ], and his final word which very much resembles the Eastern immortality of organism rather than the Western immortality of the soul. He writes: "I believe, therefore, that if the animal never actually commences in nature, no more does it by natural means come to an end. Not only is there no generation, but also there is no entire destruction or absolute death [ibid, P. ]." The biological nature of Monads makes their essential qualities to be *apperception* and *appetition* and even motion itself [Leibniz, G.W., Principles of Nature and ]. Moreover, their relations are Grace, Philosophical Papers and Letters, Vol. II, P. not by efficient causes (monads are ‘windowless’) and they are related by final causes. This is why he considers final causes as the principle of efficient causes and gives priority to final causes [ibid, P. ]. His God is *not* the Unifier but rather the Harmonizer of the world of Monads. Even this concept in Leibniz, which separates him

from his colleague and contemporary Spinoza, very much approaches some Eastern pantheists’ beliefs in Harmony rather than a Western view of Unity of the world. The views that give primacy to final causes and their refutation by Spinoza have been discussed in details in Sufism and Fatalism [http://www.ghandchi.com/ SufismEng.htm]. The intricacies of Leibniz’s metaphysical scheme and its relations to the nature of Monads shows why he arrived at the picture of the world as the "City of God" with a dominant monarch, God, as the ultimate Monad and the Creator of this world.

Sam Ghandchi, Editor/Publisher IRANSCOPE http://www.iranscope.com April , Related Articles: The Status of Monism and Pluralism in Aristotle's Metaphysics http://www.ghandchi.com/ -AristotleEng.htm Logical Atomism: A Paradigm or a Lost Cause http://www.ghandchi.com/ -RussellAtomismEng.htm Pluralism in the Western Thought http://www.ghandchi.com/ -PluralismEng.htm ------------------Other Articles http://www.ghandchi.com/SelectedArticles.html

Source:

Philosophical Texts on the Internet
http://evans-experientialism.freewebspace.com/ghandchi.htm

, Muahdeeb Saladin teamwork_cph@yahoogroups.comIn mu_ahdeeb@yahoo.com ....just curious...if he were not Iranian...would he then be "not polite?" Arak is a eautiful place in Iran, most are polite there...but then again...so are many other peoples in other countries as well...are you then Iranian, since you are polite? I believe Hossein/Amir Javadi is "polite" because he is who he is, not because he lives in Tehran...Please, do not

take this personally, I am just a curious type of person.

Kindest regards, Muahdeeb

Tom KeithFrom: cph_theory@yahoogroups.comTo: absoluteaether@yahoogroups.com ; InfoPhysics@yahoogroups.comCc: Sent: Friday, July , : AM

Subject: Re: [cph_theory] Fw: [InfoPhysics] Einstein Defends Classical Physics and Quantum Theory

Allen, It is great that gravity particles acting like a homing beam to self-powered particles servo-feedback make sense to you. Hossein's CPH_theory GUT was started years before the Keith-Motorola Mechanical Energy Relativty and GUT. Hossein assumed particles emit particles to shift mass. The Keith-Motorola GUT assumed particles emit particles to shift mass also. It is uncanny how much Hossein's CPH-theory GUT and the Keith-Motorola Mechanical Energy Relativity and GUT have in common.

Tom

>light_rock@yahoo.comFrom: "Allen Francom" < >InfoPhysics@yahoogroups.comTo: < Sent: Friday, July , : AM

Subject: Re: [cph_theory] Fw: [InfoPhysics] Einstein Defends Classical Physics and Quantum Theory

Yes, I see now why you are hanging out here. How do you see the "two slits" experiment "working" in your view Tom? In Hossein's model, I think CPH simply have to be everywhere, "making up 'empty' space" and then the two slits deal has a "medium" in which to operate still rather classically. Although I still don't see for sure how to make a particle like an electron with CPH. An electron would be some sort of self standing cluster, either that or a "hole" in the "soup" that is simply propogating... ? -AEF

John ObrienFrom: javadi_hossein@hotmail.comTo: Sent: Friday, July Subject: TOE , : AM

I've missed your writings. How are you doing? I hope all is well. I need more good Idea's. These groups are talking too much about Individuals and not enough about Idea's. I've done some calculations on your Plank's Gravity formula and it is very close to Hubble's constant. How did you Know? Can you expand please? I Thank you for your good Idea.

John

Allen FrancomFrom: cph_theory@yahoogroups.comTo: Robert O'Keeffe ; Wave-Structure-Matter ; AbsoluteaetherCc:

Sent: Saturday, July

,

:

AM

Subject: Re: [cph_theory] Fw: G.S .. Sandhu's Elegant "The Elastic Continuum of Nature" IMHO "elasticity" is "necessary" for an Aether. It is the equivalent of "computational overhead". As any primal "goop" that is "kinetic" and "makes everything else" ( reductionist ), the "goop" must present a "tax" of itself as it performs "this" vs. "that". Spin vs. Velocity(CPH), heat vs. cold, attraction vs. repulsion... The "archetype" is simply "as you get more of this, you have less of that". Seems to work rather nicely... everywhere. This "archetype" is "elastic" in any measurable "reality". Beneath reality, or "whatever is actually real and makes reality go", some sort of something is the archetype of this archetype and viewable - WELL, as also "elastic" in this sense. Seems to be inescapable. And add the "path of entropy"... like a rubber-band unwinding... Nowhere to run.

-AEF

> wrote:light_rock@yahoo.com--- Allen Francom < > > wrote:jim@xanthus.net> --- Jim Whitescarver < > > Allen, > > Special relativity does not limit the proper > > velocity of the traveler. Special Relativity, IMHO is some of that unfortunate "platonic philosophy", it is "ideal" not exactly "real". Now, I am NOT saying it is wrong. I'm saying it is stated "idealistically" and is in fact failing to take into consideration discrete space and ALL of its implications. What I like about Hossein's CPH... There is Grad Vc= There is Spin/Velocity each granted a Division of a Total. As spin increases, velocity must decrease, and vice versa. CPH in this way capture the principle that I would stress... Matter cannot do both extreme velocity and also continue to be matter...The "fabric" or "state space" that the matter is, is in, has limits to how much of one thing it can do at once vs. how much of another thing it can do at the same time. There seems to be a relationship here. Such that it precludes achieving or

exceeding c... and still allowing enough "clocking" to stand up matter without it falling to pieces... disintegrating, radiating, performing the E conversion of E=Mc^ ...

-AEF

>light_rock@yahoo.comFrom: "Allen Francom" < >InfoPhysics@yahoogroups.comTo: < Sent: Monday, March , : AM

Subject: Mike - one more - CPH - Re: [InfoPhysics] Rhythmic Time as de Broglie Eigenstates

Hi Mike, One more, this time focusing on Hossein's CPH. Hossein's principle issue is the conversion of force and energy and I feel that he has proposed something very good. However, CPH appear to live in a background such as space and time or spacetime GR. It is very clear to me that in order for Hossein's CPH to work ultimately and perform "unification" that the CPH must also "make spacetime". On that, I have numerous times tried to call attention to the fact that CPH are completely lacking a concept of "computational adjacency". The whole of spacetime and matter must be a fabric of CPH for GR to work and CPH to "stand". Therefore CPH must be in constant daisy-chain contact with each other, even if they exchange relative "position" --soup-like-So far Hossein has neglected to provide a model or basic proposal of adjacency. If and when he does, CPH become a "brane" of discrete elements. Physical mathematics become easily scaled against that sort of background, where all scales would by "some sort of network" if we leave "spin network" to that which is "matterial". Bottom line, without a computational adjacency, CPH are phantom particles that can never interact with each other because currently they do so by assumption of space/distance and "collision detection". This whole thing led to me thinking about "lattice" or "fabric". Ultimately, CPH must be "going" which gets to

both Jim's vague "signal clock thingness" and Qi Gong cosmology and as stated qabbalistically, "The Kinetic Principle". ----> Jim describes this as self-crossing and therefore self-state-spacing. CPH are missing out on the self-referential something. That is as best as I can word it. Makes sense ? I don't know what to suggest to Hossein, but I believe he has heard me clearly on this one and has said so. Maybe it is too much to chew at once. Maybe Hossein with CPH has "half the picture". With a little help, I think CPH can do something more fun so far than InfoPhysics, and that is, yield a model that we can run in a computer because all the little details necessary to "run a model" are almost in there. InfoPhysics, on the other hand, has not so clearly defined a "momentum" and seems to require "the whole signal of the universe of bits" in order to operate. No offense to anyone. But it would be fun to "run something" on a desktop computer. -AEF

>wilmac@aapt.net.auFrom: "Mike" < >InfoPhysics@yahoogroups.comTo: < Sent: Monday, March , : AM

Subject: Re: Mike - one more - CPH - Re: [InfoPhysics] Rhythmic Time as deBroglie Eigenstates Right. I have this admittedly vague sort of synthesis buzzing in my head that takes a bit of loop theory, sets up your adjacency, and somehow then produces Hossein's Higgsy things...... The beauty of loop theory is that it creates space by adjancy of clocks! Exactly what you've been saying all along! Then the spin networks can make waves and particles..... it's great stuff and sooooo close to your own concept.....

mac

From: Allen Francom To: Sent: Wednesday, May

,

:

PM

Subject: Hey Hossein... CPH

I think I see very clearly now why force and energy conversion is so very important. This is a result of thinking about Jim's theory and bits, and what could possibly process them. I don't know when I will have the time, but it shouldn't take too long, but I'll have a program that runs. Do you have Windows or Linux? http://www.prismnet.com/~aef/yinyang.html

THX -AEF

SEANFrom: mailto:cassinihuygens@yahoogroups.comTo: Sent: Saturday, June , : PM

Subject: Re: [Cassini Huygens] Desgin of CPH

Dear Hossein, Thanks for your postings and welcome to our group. I'm really glad you could join us. Allow me, if you will, to introduce you to the group. Hossein (Amir) Javadi is a quantum Scientist/Theorist and is a world leader in his field. His brilliant CPH theory is not an easy read. I've been following it's progress for some time now and although I can't claim to truly understand all of it's concepts, I suspect We will hear a great deal more of it in the future. Hossein is Iranian, and has endured a long fight for recognition in his own country. SEAN

"Jose Molina" <chepemolina@yahoo.com> Dear Amir

I want to Know how the cph theory explain the interaction at distance (like a changing polarization ,to a pair of photon the other mathc the same polarization instantly even at far distancy ) the information betwen the two particles travel at high speed more than the light .In the cph theory you have Vc that is >> c :How much greather is VC than c. String Theory implies more than (space and time) dimensions to explain this interaction( dimensions).

sincerely Jose

Jose MolinaFrom: Hossein JavadiTo: Sent: Thursday, April , : PM

Subject: Re: Joe; Entangled PArticles interaction at distance Dear Amir I have studied the cph theory recently .I think it would be a consistency theory.specially when you see the conversion from energy to force You can count with my help .We'll be in communication

sincerely Jose

Jose MolinaFrom: Hossein JavadiTo: Sent: Monday, June , : PM

Subject: Re: I need Your Help

Dear Hossein Sorry for not answer you as soon as posible but i was sick "dengue " and i revisited my mail until now . I glad that this group is very active an they are working in cph theory .I was thinking in cph and I believed for the moment you can utilizate diagrams (like Feynman diagrams) to explain the interaction of cph and force . And I was thinking to use tensor and vector calculus to explain the interaction between force and energy but only is a idea i will in contact with you an Allen sincererly

Jose MolinaFrom: cph_theory@yahoogroups.comTo: Sent: Thursday, June , : PM

Subject: [cph_theory] casimir effect and CPH

the quantum field theory predict a vacum density energy the evidence of this energy is the cassimir effect this is a small atractive force betwen two conductive neutral plates placed parallel each other betwen a small vacum space distance.this force is consecuence to quantum vacum fluctuation F = pi. h.c .A/( a ) where A=area,h=plack conts,c light speed

quantum mechanic atribute this force to the interaction of virtual particles aniquilation this concer to chp study interaction covertion to force in energy if we have a piston "empty of vacum"(or empty)and we pull from the piston to incresing the volume of vacum we increse the vacum energy because the increase in volume by the force applied to the sistem into the piston.we increase space and flux of cph

Sent: Wednesday, April

,

:

PM

Subject: Re: Joe; Entangled PArticles interaction at distance Dear Amir I see an analogy betwen the cph theory and the string theory in cph carry gravity force and have a external force applied to it it take spin and convert or can be see like graviton .or cph can transform in a different particle depending what circuntstance or external force interac with it . In string theory depending of the vivration of the string.it can see with some quantum properties like spin and momentum and the string function or transform in the respective particle .I dont know if the observation is agree with the cph theory Sincerely Jose

SEANFrom: Hossein JavadiTo: Sent: Thursday, August Subject: Re: Thanks. , : PM

Hi Hossein, I've been thinking a little about your situation. I'm very pleased to have your friendship, but I am also very impressed with CPH theory. It needs to be promoted. I see your problem here. On one hand, you are faced with old, stubborn men who simply do not wish to understand anything new. Not only do they not understand, they actively oppose you. And yet, you need the backing of your government to properly promote your theory. The only way forward here would seem to be promotion in the West. The more popular you theory becomes here, the harder it be for your government to continue ignoring you. What can I do to help promote CPH theory here in England? Who are the people I need to talk to? How do I go about this?

I have a fear that one day, some western scientist will simply copy your work, call it something new and claim credit for it. That would be a great shame. Besides, CPH theory is important, and I'd like to help a little more.

Sincerely, SEAN.

From: Mike To: Sent: Monday, July

,

:

PM

Subject: Re: [NPA_Dissidents] OK Hossein, I visited the site. > J Raymond Redbourne wrote: >However Hossein, you discuss matters like a gentleman, and I very much appreciate > that. I certainly wish you well in your endeavors. If you are proven right, then you will > be my teacher, as long as you don't try Mike's riveting gun teaching technique.

Best regards, Ray.

The riveting gun technique only works while the kids are too small to fight back. I know. I still bear the scars - but man, I DID learn those basics, even though my old physics eacher was a truly hated man... He got the job done though.... BTW. You're right. Hossein is a real gentleman, and I like him heaps, even when I'm not sure what the heck he's on about........... mike

From: Mike To: Sent: Monday, June

,

:

PM

Subject: Re: [cph_theory] Actually - Let's do this only (tx,ty,tz) forgetF, and T is macroscopic.

newton

@cox.netTom Keith

Hossein,

We will never forget our humble and brilliant physics pioneer.

From: Mr Jim Stevenson To: Sent: Sunday, May , Subject: Your post today

:

AM

Dear Javadi Hossein, I was very pleased by your post today in our forum. I am pleased to see you are willing to use the word "force" as so many that have studied the spaghetti of superstring are afraid of the word now.I agree with much of your concepts. I have thought for many long hours on the amazing congealed energy that lies within every particle. An incredible energy that is not only able to continue the spin ,but in escience, able to effect it's positon and behavior in the universe, virtually forever... Consider the lonely photon which has traveled "billions" of years through the universe, and still hits our collector and is able to release energy. Amazing. How is this possible. What an incredible universe we are in... Thankyou, James Stevenson

My Very Dear Friend Hossein:

Thank you for you kind reception to my come back. I often think of you and wonder what you are doing. I apologize if I have repeated any of your original theories, but lease understand that I totally lack the mathematical concept of theories and am reliant upon logic as my only source of understanding. Perhaps this is a blessing in some ways, but it is liken to sailing a ship at full anchor.

Hossein, I would be interested to know what your specialty is. I feel like an ant among giants because of my inability to pursue the mathematical aspects of Theoretical Quantum Physics. I deeply appreciate your friendship and the friendship of the entire group.

Dear Hossein!' You are welcome. I disagree with your assessment about the incompatiobility of cph-theory with other theories of an unification nature. cph--theory has somevery good premises, the most important one, which I tried to Iydescribe to you and Allen, but which you both either misunderstood or ignored. This is illustrated on your homepage and involves the CHANGING of cph-Higgs-Energy THROUGH COLOUR into all of the other particles of the Standard Model. George and I are NOT competing with your brainchild Hossein; we are trying to help you to get all the good aspects of cph-theory (there are some bad ones in my analysis of it) out in the open and linking them up with other models. You seem to be unable to see the parallels, Allen seems to less prejudiced in that regard, maybe because his scientific training is unpretentious. You are too defensive about your own position Hossein, you seek acknowledgment (don't we all) and you attempt to further the case of the cph-model in raising certain issues and then download the most advanced supporting material from other sites (say kiarashniknejad). You have an unique and valid premise with cph-theory Hossein, you do not need the indirect acknowledgment of the 鸰erts'' to bolster your case- stand on your own convictions. This is not to say, that you shouldn't use the expert's work. Use it whenever you can, but indicate just where the experts agree (and disagree) with you. The ɸplosion of Black Holes ◊a furphy, for example.All the expert papers you have downloaded would

strongly disagree with your analysis of exploding Black Holes.They admit microprimordial Black Holes (which are very very hot) to explode after having shrunk to Hawking Entropy Limits; but they now make a clear distinction between microscopic and extremal Black Hoiles and the Cosmological Ones (limited to a minimum mass of a little over tons). Now many researchers (remember those are the papers you are downloading as files), even take issue with calling those 'Black Holes', they (Susskind, Strominger, Vafa) would prefer a link to say magnetic monopoles or Cosmic Rays or Gamma Bursters - a more fundamental particle origin, perhaps. But enough of this; your basic ideas are very good and deserve further investigation. Your best avenue is to investigate the mechanism of transformation. How does the Graviton change in gauge association into the weak-interaction weakons for example. This engages the Higgs-Restmass-Induction Mechanism and relating the masses of the weak- vector bosons (W and Z) to the Higgs-Boson . If you use your physical intuition and describe the cph-particle as a chromodynamically unified colourcharge (such as is done in QCD); then you will make rapid progress. Some mathematical application will however be required.

Best of Wishes and many Greetings to you Oh, I should clarify when I'm being especially dumb.When I said "Higgs Particle" I meant "CPH". It's not quite the same thing. In retrospect, it seemed like it is important to make this distinction. I'll try not to goof like that anymore. -AEF

> wrote:rnboyd@mip.net--- Robert Neil Boyd < Millenium Twain, (Now I understand your name better.) I have never seen this brilliant work before! And it is such a pleasure for me to read :) Looks like I was on the right track with everything! I'm so happy you published it. This is VERY important work! From my perspective... I hope that some of my expressions have found equal favor with you. Best Wishes,

Neil

Robert Neil Boyd wrote: I figured I should add this: The deal is this... "Theory" is the search for an expression of rules. Rules such that when we "operate" the rules, they "predict" experiential results. Higgs Particles fall out of Higgs Field "or compose it" and this is very interesting, how they 'got there', if memory is working this fell out of electro-weak unification ( ex post einstein ) Hossein has come up with CPH Theory and it honors the name "Higgs" as it is quite Higgs-like. CPH Theory has two significant properties and one of the two properties has two expressions. One property that Hossein has written is a "Total Internal Value" and this is divided between two sub-values in proportion, those being "Spin" and "Velocity". The unwritten property required is "reason to exist one moment to the next" or "internal time" inside the CPH 'particle'. The reasoning behind all this has to do with a very good question, how does force convert to energy and how does energy convert to force. "No unified theory will succeed unless it answers this question" - Hossein Hossein is brilliant, this is a fantastic observation, and is a gauntlet laid before the physics community. Whereas General Relativity is a "description" of what happens Macroscopically... QM, QED, QCD are all descriptions of what happens microscopically. The "Higgs Particle" is a theory that is very suggestive of "forming space and gravity and everything else in space and gravity". CPH Theory ultimately does this same thing. The "dimensionless elements of fabric" are a clear expression of the same required "rules", Spin/Velocity become "send/receive" against a total internal "cpu speed". Grad Vc= in all reference frames, and in the computational model "cpu speed" is constant and must be divided proportionally between send/receive. CPH have constant velocity, computational CPH have constant ticking rate. -AEF

"Gary S." <garys_ k@yahoo.com> wrote: --- In free_energy@yahoogroups.com, vcrepair@j... wrote:

Dave's theory has to accommodate Hossen Javadi's CPH theory ;-) ****************************************************

Date: Sat, Sep

: :

+

From: "Hossen Javadi" <javadi_hossein@h...> > Subject: The Limits in Universe > > The Limitations in Universe > ... willmac@austarnet.com.auMike

I've been "Aha"ing for quite a while now on that one. Random thought - try close acking CPHs like little ball bearings.. Each one touches others. Information can move through such a "structure" without anything happening "at a distance". No distance. Indeed without anything even moving! Funny you should mention that Mike.I've been trying for a while now to make a case for this sort of thing in CPH_Theory, and earlier this evening I sent an email that is summarized pretty much exactly: "What if CPH don't move like particles, what if they are only 'adjacent' and communicate'" Then mass is a standing signal and gravity is the necessary adjacent trough. All via higgs ocean. Higgs particles then are not something to detect, as they don't move. They are "fabric", only signals "move" in the fabric. This would make Jim smile. > Just information transfer. Take a bunch of CPHs, > and whack one on one side of the bunch, and another > pops out on the other side, but there has > been no movement between them. Yes. > Space as a concept in which objects move isn't

> required at this level, BUT time is, because the > information takes time to get from one side to > the other. Yep. > The only question is, how fast? Is it c > or does that emerge later? I have good reason to think it is probably times c. Computational issues. times c allows a higgs particle to "be" and also allows it

to "signal". The signal is at least / the internal computational clock cycle, if not / rd, / th, etc., > If it's not c, what is it? Instantaneous? > Just very very very fast? Uncertain? Hmmmmmmm..... I think HUP is ready for this explanation.A standing wave/signal has "adjacency", it is "propogating". Meanwhile, back at the ranch, more signals are propogating too. A -dimensional CPH-like "element" in an ocean, necessarily has the internal force of change, or "tick tock". It CANNOT tick AND tock at the same exact instant. If it ticks another "element", and a third element ticks IT before it goes "tock"... Automatic "uncertainty" due only to lots of information processing happening very quickly but only from our perspective. I am almost certain that "fluid" or "fabric" CPH are computationally less intensive than free-moving-in-relation CPH as 'particles'. That means Occam's Razor. If it is computationally less intensive... then... "Hmn..."

> Funny how there's always a "Hmmm" after an "Aha" > isn't it.....?! Yep. Thank you again so very much Mike for going "Aha !" It means I'm not totally onkers. A little only!

-AEF

Hi Hossein, Regarding "signals": Let a CPH be an "object": Private "hidden" TotalChange_ergy = Constant Private "hidden" PercentSpin = ' initially ' initially Private "hidden" PercentVelocity/Swim =

Private "hidden" List_Of_Adjacent_CPH ' at least two Public Function CollideSpin(adjacent_cph) return spinpercent_exchanged Public Function CollideVelocity(adjacent_cph) return velocitypercent_exchanged Public Thread_Execute Live_Run_Go Any time a CPH "bumps" another CPH it has to do so by "calling a function". Any time a function is called on a CPH by another CPH both CPH change. Any time there is change there is "signal", and "exchange" of information. So... CPH are constantly "signaling" each other, that is all that they do actually. So far in CPH Theory, we assume that CPH actually "move" or "exchange adjacency" also, relative to one another. ( I am presenting a sharp contrast for the purpose of considering what "signaling" means ) IF, however, CPH do NOT "move" in relation to one another... THEN...

Mass has to be a "standing wave" of CPH, made mostly of the signal and leastly of the CPH involved. In order for a model like this to work, it is necessary to consider what might possibly happen to the "total" of each CPH. At first glance, the total might need to be flexible. What might need to remain constant is the "clock speed" of the heart of a CPH, Public Thread_Execute Live_Run_Go() A standing wave by signaling is computationally more efficient than "particle exchange" or sub-quantum "motion" of sub-quantum "particles". A standing wave of CPH in the form of mass necessarily draw upon the Clock-Cycle-Orientation of "space cph" to continue standing. There is automatic/inherent "gravity" that way, and there is also a "reason" for acceleration and deceleration of a standing wave in the "field" of a larger standing wave ( of course, it goes both ways ) This is more elegant than particle exchange all the way from the earth to the moon and vice versa. Also, the standing wave of earth, makes a standing trough ( through ) the moon, and on to the other side, without necessarily being 'blocked' - or at least not necessarily very much so, or perhaps instead "added to". I think this is possibly simpler than what you have been describing so far. Also it "fits" nicely the concept of "higgs ocean". Also it makes it possible to have less than

^

+/- CPH in a photon or electron. A lot less.

The details are eventually important. However, My description is the way it is for right now just for the basic idea only, and to draw a contrast. ? -AEF

>E=Mc^ Well, I kinda like Hossein's CPH and inherent consideration of how force converts to energy and vice versa. Based on the simple properties of a common sub-quantum "higgs" particle...Powerful question to ask. How exactly does force convert to energy and vice versa and the bottom-most layer of reality ? Hmn...

From: SEAN. To: "Ali Ghasempouri" Cc: "Hossein Javadi" Subject: Re: TeamWork Sent: Wednesday, August My Dear Friends,

,

:

PM

Thank you for your mail. Indeed, Hossein is a great friend and a very great scientist. I am not myself a professor, or even a scientist. I am simply a passionate amateur. My primary interest is in helping to promote CPH theory here in England and anywhere else I can. Is there any way in which you can help here? Do you have any contacts in England who may be able to help? Do you have any ideas or thoughts as to how promotion is best achieved? These are the areas I hope to work on and I would appreciate your help.

It is a pleasure to hear from you all. You are the next generation of Iranian's and your dedication to promoting knowledge and culture in your country is very much to your credit. I will look forward to working with you in the future. Sincerely, SEAN.

From: Jose Molina To: Ali Ghasempouri Subject: Re: TeamWork Sent: Thursday, August ,

:

AM

I Glad to hel you .and excuseme to answer as soon as posible

sicerely Jose Molina

riott_nyte@yahoo.com Riott:

> Imagine an independent object spinning freely, and > this object is in the shape of a rod. We'll give > this object points. > B-----A-----B > C----------B-----A-----B----------C > Now, if point B rotation is at the speed of light, C > is now at ^ that speed. What happens to point C? > Does the structure break down before this can > happen? My opinion, for what it may be worth, is that there will be an explosion long before B reaches light speed. My reasoning is legion ;) Not only classical mechanics... > I realize this seems as if I'm pushing thresholds > which can not be done, but imagine that the line > above is not a rod but rather the imaginary line

> through the center of a photon or CPH. Through a single CPH, and maybe a photon, it doesn't matter. Time and space result from CPH, they are self-consistent at their own scale. Time and distance do not effect CPH, CPH have the effect of producing time and distance. ( My opinion, not necessarily Hossein or anyone else's ) What then would it mean to do as you suggest with a single CPH ? It would mean Hawking Radiation, and what would appear to be quantum tunelling, that sort of thing, at that scale, and things could look really wierd, time and distance-wise, but only at that scale, only using time and distance as we tend to think of them, not resulting from something more fundamental, both of them, from the same "goop". > Now, to explain Independent Rotation. > > Independent Rotation Theory: Is the combined forces > on a free unattached object which produces a > rotation in which counteracts overbearing forces so > that the object remains in balance. What is an example of this ? > Rotation Chain Theory: is that Independent Rotation > is the flexible variable/force that brings all > things into balance from the atomic > level to the astronomic level. > Picture Independent Rotation as the flexible law > that gives and takes to balance others. What is flexing ? > Knowing that an object has a "flexible" point which > can be manipulated. We now have the power to > speed/slow down this rotation by exposing the object > to various forces. For example: Heat. And > thus causing the above "rod" scenario to be feasibly > attempted. > I can't recall any names at the moment (to lazy to > look it up), but there are several failed attempts at > causing a photon to enter a time travel state. The > procedure behind this project is by placing > the photon in a sealed cylinder and applying laser > (heat) wrapped around the inside of this cylinder. > The lasers serve purposes: . It traps the photon

> inside the cylinder. . It causes the photon to > increase in speed. The reason this experiment fails > is because they did not take in account for > Independent Rotation. What about calling it, something more along the lines of, but not quite exactly "Internal Propulsion" or "Internal Clock"... > Even though the Photon increases in speed, its > Independent Rotation shifts to balance itself. Look again at CPH and see the relationship between Spin and Velocity, or as we can maybe call it now, Spin and Swim. Also lookup "Moebius Strip" on google. Nice spinning type dealy-bob stuff. What if a teeny tiny CPH looks like one of those ?

-AEF

MCorey

@aol.comFrom:

To: javadi_hossein@hotmail.com Subject: Re: Accelerating Universe Date: Fri, Nov : : EST

Thanks so much for this very interesting article. The universe is always more clever than we can ever imagine. God's Power and Providence is SO incredibly evident to me throughout all of cosmology. Humdilla! I'm presently in Dallas, TX visiting a medical clinic. Do you live anywhere near here? Did I happen to meet you last August at a camp in Massachusetts? How did you hear about me? Warmly, Michael A Corey, Ph.D.

joe.russo@us.army.milJoe Russo Dear Hossein Javadi Great posting, Bravo; I can see some very interesting feedback on this posting, and I can see it now, the words at NASA. "Huston, we have a life force amongst us."

newton

@cox.net

To: President Mohammad Khatami - President of Iran, Subject; Your research and analysis on photons are brilliant.

Mr. President,

Hossein Javadi is an Iranian physician who is a genius. Hossein has done years of theoretical physics research.

Hossein has developed brilliant classical physics relativity and classical physics grand unified theory.

I, Tom Keith, am a retired engineer with Motorola. I have done years of theoretical physics research.

I also came up with a Keith-Motorola classical physics relativity and classical physics grand unified theory. All physics empirical data show Hossein Javadi and myself have an important proven classical physics relativity and proven classical physics grand unified theory.

I know you will understand the importance of these physics theories to Iran and the world science community. Hossein Javadi's physics papers and the Keith-Motorola physics concepts are published on the yahoo non-political science group absoluteaether. I hope you or your assistant can join absoluteaether yahoo discussion group and review and support this major breakthrough in physics. Hossein Javadi joined absoluteaether the first week of September, . President

Mohammad Khatami, you only need to start reading yahoo group absoluteaether messages and above to review the physics discussions between Hossein Javadi, myself Tom Keith, and other members of absoluteaether. Sincerely Tom Keith, Mesa, Arizona

Anthony L. PerattFrom: Dear Hossein, I have very briefly read through you letter and find your work fascinating. Unfortunately programmatic responsibilities at Los Alamos at the present time but when I call for papers for the next journal on this topic, I can send your manuscript to referees for comments. Sincerely, Anthony L. Peratt

REP From: Hossein JavadiTo: Sent: Monday, August , : PM

Dear Hossein; One of my dearest friends was Hossein Firouzi of Iran. We worked together at SMU on fabricating solar cells/theory. I quit just shy of completing paper for Phd in Physics ... at Texas A&M University: previously in Phd program in plasma and nuclear physics at MIT. So it's not herr professor or herr doctor: just plain ol' Bob. Therefore I cannot advise you: you know more I'm sure. I am studying the history of physics, esp. through the turn of the past century, in order to write a book on same. My belief is that the so-called Lorentz contraction -- discovered through experiment ... and not by Lorentz or Fitzgerald, -- is really at the heart of the problem. It in itself predicts the limiting velocity of light: and this limiting value was conceptually used by Michaelson and Morley, n.b., the interferometer experiments (incl. nd order effects), to dispute aether drag or even its presence. I think a big error was made here but can't prove it. Perhaps they showed constancy in the speed of light as measured by moving observers: but (to my mind) did not disprove the concept of the aether! In fact, they may have given an indirect proof of it. Your ideas about the structure of the photon are new: are they not? Perhaps you are on the trail of the link that binds quantum to classical mchanics and ... shows the aether as a possible substrate! Good luck and best wishes ... Bob

prodos@prodos.com Dear Hossein, Good morning. Thank you for your reply. I think we can have two look on subatomic. Wave theory and particle theory are same. At end these two theories must reaches to unify results. In my theory any inertial frame has an especially constant limitation speed and it is speed of light on that frame. Cause force acts on speed of light and limitation of speed in an inertial frame depends to its force. Sum of two velocities never can be over than the limitation of speed. In my theory there is not any infinity in the universe. I accept TEW, but I think a questionable problem in TEW is the effect of external force. I think the external force cannot change the amount of speed. by applying the speed of photons can be altered Are you saying that TEW claims force to photons? If so, that is incorrect. TEW does not make any such claims.

Best Wishes, PRODOS

zeoez@comcast.net I have great interest in physics and astronomy, but unfortunately I’ m not in the position to discus these subjects in extensive detail. I have to say that this here in my opinion is the best theory of gravity-unification I’ve ever heard of. Although this is not the first individual to come up with this theory, it seems to explain mysteries of the universe in a much less complex way. many great

Regards Zeoez ragnarok@cytechcis.net Good Morning Hossein, I'm just getting up, so I will email later on this morning, but I am glad to see that we agree on the uselessness of the geometrical topography of the universe. Both Einstein and Wheeler were just trying to give a more comprehensive picture of what they were seeing mathematically when developing this "theory." It is of NO practical use otherwise and many, who didn't understand why this theory was developed, misused it and led many astray. Have you ever read the works of Gustaf LeBon? His books "The Evolution of Matter" and "The Evolution of Energy" are part of my collection and even Einstein sent LeBon's daughter a letter telling her that her father was more correct than he in understanding things on an atomic level than he. Even though I have not read your CPH Theory yet, I would think that the two may have some things in common. Do you have a web site with your theory stated? I will share my theory later today as well. Must go now, but I'll drop you an email later on today. Oh, and yes, mathematics is a great "tool" to use when working on these secrets of the universe, but that is all they should be, not as the main determinant of theory as it is used by many theoretical physicists of today. I think we both agree on this. Even the illustrious Michael Faraday shied away from mathematics and his theories are more solidly based on observation. Once Maxwell arrived on the

scene, Maxwell then added some mathematics...which are still debated today...yet Faraday's observations are not, they are accepted for the most part. Take care.

Regards, Sig

Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH

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Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH
Section Seven New Ideas of CPH Theory

.‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. ﺍﭺ‬

1

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ:‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪ، ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺗﻲ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﺭﺗﺴﺸﻴﻠﺪ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷـﺖ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺧـﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺴـﺒﻴﺖ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻟﺒﻨﺪﻱ ﻭ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﮐﺮﺩ. ﺍﻧﻴﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﮐﺮﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻫﻪ ﻱ 0691 ﺑـﻪ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺳـﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟـﻪ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺟﺪﻱ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﮑﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺗﻲ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﺪﺍﻧﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ. ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻱ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗـﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻱ ﻓﺘﻮﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮏ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻧﻴﺸـﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺸـﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﮐـﺮﺩ. ﺍﻧﻴﺸـﺘﻴﻦ ﺗـﻼﺵ ﮐـﺮﺩ ﺑـﺎ ﺩﻳـﺪﮔﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﭘﻼﻧﮏ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻱ ﻓﺘﻮﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮏ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺵ ﭘﻼﻧـﮏ ﻧﺒـﻮﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﮑـﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﻴـﻪ ﺍﻧﻴﺸـﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﺟـﺐ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﭘﻼﻧﮏ ﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﻴﺪﻭﺍﺭﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﺸﮑﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺩﻱ‬

‫2‬

‫ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ‬

‫‪Time Revolution and Spin‬‬ ‫) ‪( TRS Theory‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﺯ: ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﭘﻮﺭﺍﻳﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫‪Hamed@iwp.ir‬‬ ‫) ‪( The General Science Journal , www.wbabin.net‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ، ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﻭ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺩﻭ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺟﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺮ ﮐﺪﺍﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ.‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻣﻬﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﺪﺍﻧﺎﻥ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻓﮑﺮ ﻭﺍﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻤﻨﺪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﯼ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ؟ ﻭ ﺁﻳﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ، ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮐﺮﺩ؟‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺮﻱ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﺳﻌﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﻭ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﺳﻴﻢ. ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺫﮐﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺩ ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎ ﻣﺎﺭﺍﻳﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪ)ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ( ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ‬ ‫) ‪TRS (Time Revolution and Spin‬‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ.‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ‬

‫3‬

‫ﺩﺭﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ.ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ ﻓﻀﺎ‐ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﻣﻴﮕﺮﺩﺩ.ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺭﻭﻳﺪﺍﺩ ‪ds‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻱ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ:‬
‫2 ‪ds 2 = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 − c 2 dt‬‬

‫) 1(‬

‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﮐﻤﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺭﺥ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺩﻭ ﺭﻭﻳﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﻣﻴﮕﺬﺍﺭﺩ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻬﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ، ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ.ﻭ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﺭ ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻤﻴﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ ﻭﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ .‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﮐﻤﻴﺖ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮐﺮﺩ ﭘﺲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻣﻴﺪﻭﺍﺭ ﺑﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻳﮏ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺸﺮﺑﺎﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺬﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﭘﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺮﺩ ﭘﻴﺪﺍﻳﺶ ﺷﺐ ﻭﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭﭘﻴﺪﺍﻳﺶ ﺷﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺯﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ .ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮔﺬﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﮐﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ ﭘﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺮﺥ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ، ﮔﺬﺭﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﭘﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ.ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻭﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ ،ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻭﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﭘﻲ ﺑﺮﺩ؟‬ ‫ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻳﮏ ﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
‫‪r r‬‬ ‫‪− i J .n ϕ‬‬ ‫(‪exp‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪h‬‬

‫، ﻭﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻱ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ:‬ ‫)2 (‬
‫‪r‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ‪ j‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﺮﮐﻴﺒﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ ﻭ ﺗﮑﺎﻧﻪ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ‪ n‬ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ ‪ s‬ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ ‪ z‬ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ :‬
‫(‪exp‬‬ ‫‪− iS zϕ‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪h‬‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫)3(‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬

‫4‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ .ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺎﻣﻴﻠﺘﻮﻧﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫‪ H‬ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ:‬
‫(‪exp‬‬ ‫‪− iHt‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪h‬‬

‫)4 (‬
‫‪− iHt‬‬ ‫)0, ‪)ψ (r‬‬ ‫‪h‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻳﮑﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ )0, ‪ ψ (r‬ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ 0 = ‪ t‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ‪ t‬ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ :‬
‫(‪ψ (r , t ) = exp‬‬

‫)5 (‬

‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ، ﻳﮏ ﻫﺎﻣﻴﻠﺘﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺁﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻨﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ‬

‫‪r‬‬ ‫‪r‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻨﻲ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ‪ a) M = aS‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ( ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ‬

‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻫﺎﻣﻴﻠﺘﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ:‬ ‫)6(‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺤﺚ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ a‬ﮐﺎﺭﻱ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻳﻢ.‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ)4( ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ :‬
‫(‪exp‬‬ ‫‪− iHt‬‬ ‫‪− iaS .Bt‬‬ ‫(‪) = exp‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪h‬‬ ‫‪h‬‬

‫‪r r‬‬ ‫‪r r‬‬ ‫‪H = − M .B = aS .B‬‬

‫)7(‬

‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﻝ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺁﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭼﺮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﺍﻍ ﻳﮏ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻣﻴﻠﺘﻮﻧﻲ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻳﻢ؟‬ ‫ﻋﻠﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ )ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ(ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ،ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻣﻴﻠﺘﻮﻧﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ، ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺫﮐﺮ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ )3( ﻭ )7( ﺑﻨﮕﺮﻳﻢ ، ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ ﮐﻪ ‪ . ϕ ∝ t‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﮔﺬﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺁﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﭘﺲ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ، ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﻝ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺁﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻳﻢ!‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮔﻔﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ)ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻠﻮ(ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ، ﭘﺲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻧﻴﺰ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻋﻼ ﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ.‬ ‫ﭘﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪ ‪ TRS‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ، ﮐﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﮑﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﭼﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ؟‬
‫5‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﮏ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺗﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺎﺗﻴﺪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺯﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺗﻼﺵ ﻳﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺗﮑﺎﻣﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ.‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻱ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ v‬ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺳﺎﮐﻦ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ:‬
‫= ‪T‬‬ ‫0‪T‬‬ ‫‪v‬‬ ‫2) ( − 1‬ ‫‪c‬‬

‫)8(‬

‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺘﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﻫﺪ.‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ‪TRS‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ v‬ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ )7( ﻣﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﮔﺬﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺮﺗﺮﺍﺳﺖ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ.‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ‪ v‬ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ،‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺯﺍﺛﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻃﺒﻖ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ . ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ‪v‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﭼﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻳﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ، ﮔﺬﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﺮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ )ﮔﺬﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ( ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﻫﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ‪TRS‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻳﺪﻳﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ‪ TRS‬ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻭﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ، ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ‪ CPH‬ﺑﻨﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪ CPH‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻭ ... ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻭﺍﭘﺎﺷﻲ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ‐ ﭘﻮﺯﻳﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ. ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ، ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ‪ E = hν‬ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ‐ ﭘﻮﺯﻳﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﺪ. ﭘﻮﺯﻳﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺫﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﻪ ﻱ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﮔﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺁﻥ، ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﭘﻮﺯﻳﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬

‫6‬

‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ - ﭘﻮﺯﻳﺘﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺯﻭﺝ، ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﮑﻮﺳﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺎﺑﻮﺩﻱ ﺯﻭﺝ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻳﮏ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﭘﻮﺯﻳﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﺠﺎﻭﺭ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ،‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻢ ﺍﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺑﺸﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ.‬

‫ﻧﺎﺑﻮﺩﻱ ﺯﻭﺝ‬

‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻭﺍﭘﺎﺷﻲ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ‐ ﭘﻮﺯﻳﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺭﻭﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 5591 ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ‐ ﭘﺎﺩ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺗﺮﻭﻥ ‐ ﭘﺎﺩ ﻧﻮﺗﺮﻭﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺁﻓﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺩﮔﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺯﻭﺝ، ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﭘﺎﺷﻲ ﺯﻭﺝ، ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫) 8(‬

‫= ‪T‬‬

‫‪T‬‬ ‫− 1‬

‫0‬

‫‪v‬‬ ‫‪c‬‬

‫2‬

‫2‬

‫7‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺎﮐﻴﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺘﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ. ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭﻛﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺟﺴﻢ،‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻱ ﺑﺎﻻ، ﺁﻫﻨﮓ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺩﻻﻟﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ،ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ) ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ( ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ )ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ( ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻒ ﻭ ﺏ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ.‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻭﻝ : ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺏ ﺗﻨﺪﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻒ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺏ ﺗﻨﺪﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻒ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺏ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻒ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻒ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺏ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻲ ﺭﻭﺩ ) ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﮐﻤﺘﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ ( ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﮐﻪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻱ ﮐﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﺳﻴﺎﻫﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﺪ ﻧﺎﻇﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﻫﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻲ ﻧﮕﺮﺩ، ﮔﺬﺷﺖ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﭼﺮﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﻫﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺮﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩﻭﻡ : ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺏ ﮐﻨﺪﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻒ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ ﺁﻫﻨﮓ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺏ ﮐﻨﺪﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻒ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺏ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻒ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ، ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎ، ﺗﮑﺎﻧﻪ ﻱ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺗﮑﺎﻧﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫)ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﻲ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ( ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺏ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺁﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ. ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﺯ ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺖ!‬

‫ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ؟‬ ‫ﮐﻞ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻗﻀﻴﻪ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺯﻱ)ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﮎ( ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫﻢ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫﻢ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ) ﮐﻨﺸﻲ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ (.‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ‪ CPH‬ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﺪﺗﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﻨﺪﺗﺮﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ، ‪ CPH‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ‪ CPH‬ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﭼﺮﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻭﺭﻭﺩ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬
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‫‪ ، CPH‬ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ، ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺒﺴﻂ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ.ﭼﺮﺍﮐﻪ ﻣﻨﺒﺴﻂ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ، ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺷﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ. ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺮ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ‪ CPH‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﭼﻪ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺪ؟‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﻔﺒﺾ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻞ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮐﻞ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ.ﭼﺮﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﺨﻮﺵ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻧﺪ ،ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻨﺒﺴﻂ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻮﺽ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻨﻘﺒﺾ، ﻭ ﮐﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﺨﻮﺵ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ .‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﺑﺤﺚ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﺤﺖ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ.ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻭ ﺷﺘﺎﺑﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﺳﺖ، ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻔﺒﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ!!! ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻣﻨﺒﺴﻂ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻘﺒﺾ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺑﻮﺩﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺎ ﻭ"‪" Multi Universe‬ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺫﮐﺮ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ :‬ ‫1‐ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮔﻔﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻟﺰﻭﻣﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻫﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ، ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ ﻱ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ‪ CPH‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ، ﻳﮏ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﮕﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ‪ CPH‬ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ ﻱ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﻲ.ﭘﻲ.ﺍﭺ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ، ﻫﺮ‬ ‫‪ CPH‬ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺁﻥ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ)ﻫﺮ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ، ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ( ﻭ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻱ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻫﺎ ، ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﮐﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ) ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ( ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ‪ CPH‬ﺍﺳﺖ ،ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ، ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ.) ﮐﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ (.ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻫﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫2‐ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﮔﺬﺷﺖ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ، ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺩﻭ ﺗﻦ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻴﻬﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﭘﺮﻳﻨﺴﺘﻮﻥ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪﻩ ،ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ‪ CPH‬ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ‪ CPH‬ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ، ﺑﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻏﻠﺒﻪ ﮐﻨﺪ.ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ،‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ‪ CPH‬ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﮐﻨﻮﻧﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻳﺴﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻟﻬﺎ، ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻮﻧﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫3 – ‪ CPH‬ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﻮﺩﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺩﻫﺪ ، ﭼﺮﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ‪CPH‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ، ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ، ﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ. ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﺩﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ.‬

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‫4 – ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ‪ CPH‬ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﺯ ‪ CPH‬ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻟﻲ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ،‬ ‫ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ‪ CPH‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻫﺮ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺎﻫﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ) ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ‪CPH‬‬ ‫ﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ( ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫" ‪ " Multi Bang‬ﻭ "‪ " Multi Universe‬ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ ، ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺑﻮﺩﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﻭ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻲ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ‪ CPH‬ﺑﺎ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ.‬

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‫ﻧﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻱ ﮐﻴﻬﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﺯ: ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﺭﺿﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍﺩ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﻧﻚ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 0091 ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳـﻚ، ﺫﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻱ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺮﺵ ﻧﻮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﻣﺘﻌـﺪﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﭘـﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻱ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﺩﺍﺷﺖ. ﻭﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻱ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﻳﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ، ‪c‬ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺫﺭﻩ ﻱ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺟـﺮﻡ ﺣﺎﻟـﺖ ﺳـﮑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺮ، ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ:‬

‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ﻧﺎﺑﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺫﺭﺍﺗﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺫﺭﻩ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪ. ﺑﺎ ﺍﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻱ ﻛﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻭ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﻳﻞ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺑﻴﺴﺘﻢ، ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺑـﻪ ﺧـﻮﺑﻲ ﻓـﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮔﺮﺩﻳـﺪ.‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻃﻴﻒ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺬﺑﻲ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﮔﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻛﻬﻜﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺩﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﭘﻲ ﺑﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺧﻄـﻮﻁ ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻢ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ )ﮐﻬﮑﺸﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﮔﺎﻥ( ﻳﻚ ﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮﻱ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﻃﻴﻒ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫)ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﮔﺮﺍﻳﻲ( ﺭﺍ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺍﺭ ﻛﻬﻜﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔـﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﺑـﻪ ﻗﺮﻣـﺰ ﺑـﺎ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻱ ﻛﻬﻜﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺍﺩﻭﻳﻦ ﻫﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺭﺍﻳﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻬﻜﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰﺷﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻬﻜﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺰﺩﻳـﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﮔﺮﺍﻳﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ. ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺟﻬـﺎﻥ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴـﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺣـﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺒﺴـﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ. ﺍﻳـﻦ ﮔﻮﻧـﻪ ﺑـﻮﺩ ﻛـﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺑﻴﺴﺘﻢ )ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ( ﺭﻗﻢ ﺧﻮﺭﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﻚ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﻳﻨﺴﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻳﺰ ﻛﻬﻜﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺠﺎ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ؟ ﺗﺎ ﻛﻬﻜﺸﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ؟‬

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‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﻫﻪ ﻱ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ. ﺑـﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴـﺐ ﻣﺴـﺌﻠﻪ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﺗﺮ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺳﺮﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﮏ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧـﺪ، ﻋﺎﻣـﻞ ﺍﻧﺒﺴـﺎﻁ ﻭ ﺷـﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻧﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ.‬ ‫ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﮐﺠﺎﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﮑﻮﻥ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺗﻮﺿـﻴﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻱ ﺁﻥ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﻨﺪ؟ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ. ﺍﻓﺰﻭﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻳـﺮﺍﮎ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﮏ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻱ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐـﻪ ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﺩﻳﺮﺍﮎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺭﻳﺴﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪ. ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻱ ﺭﻳﺴﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗـﻮﻥ ﺑـﻲ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺍﺳـﺖ، ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﮑـﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳـﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ، ﺑﺤﺚ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻢ.‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻛﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺳـﺖ، ﮐـﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ:‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪ n‬ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ، ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﭘﺮ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌـﺪﺍﺩ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺑﻴﺸـﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﻨﻨـﺪﻩ ﻱ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺗـﺎﺑﺶ ﺍﺳـﺖ. ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻨـﺎ ﺑـﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻱ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ ﻫﻴﭽﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫـﻴﭻ ﺩﺳـﺘﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺑـﻪ ﺣﺎﻟـﺖ ﺳـﮑﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻤـﻲ ﺁﻳﻨـﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺩﻭ ﺣﺮﮐـﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘـﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﺍﻧﻲ )ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ( ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ، ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ. ﺳﻲ ﭘﻲ ﺍﭺ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻨﻲ )ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ( ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺍﻧﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻓﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ. ﺭﻭﻧـﺪ ﺧـﺮﻭﺝ ﺳـﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﻲ ﺍﭺ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻢ ﺷﺪﻥ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺝ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺧـﺮﻭﺝ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺖ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬

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‫ﺑﻌﻀﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻳﺎ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ.‬ ‫ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﺥ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ. ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺍﻧﻨﺪ، ﺁﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺖ ﮐـﻪ ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ، ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﻃﻲ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﺴـﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ )ﻭ ﮔﺬﺷﺖ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ( ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ.‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﮔﺎﻣﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ‪ n‬ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻃﻲ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ‪ dl‬ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻋـﺪﺩ ﺳـﻲ.‬ ‫ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌـﺪﺍ 1‪ n‬ﺳـﻲ .ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺗﺸـﮑﻴﻞ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺍﺳـﺖ، ﺍﺣﺘﻤـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ) ‪( P(exit) , cph‬ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺯ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻱ ‪ dl‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺁﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ‪ d‬ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬

‫ﺩﺭﻳﻚ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﭘﺮ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﺮﺗﻮ ﮔﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﻲ ﭘﻲ ﺍﭺ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻳـﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭﻭﻳﻮ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﻲ ﭘﻲ ﺍﭺ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺳﻲ ﭘﻲ ﺍﭺ ﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻨﻲ )ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ( ﺳﻲ ﭘﻲ ﺍﭺ ﻫﺎ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣـﻲ ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ. ﺑـﺮ ﺍﺳـﺎﺱ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﮔﺮﺍﻳﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ ﺳﺘﺎﺭ ﮔﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻛﻬﻜﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺝ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﻧﺴـﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺝ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ..ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﺮﭼﻪ ﭼﺸﻤﻪ ﻱ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻱ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣـﺎ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺷـﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﻲ ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ.‬

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‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘـﺎﻝ ﺑـﻪ ﻗﺮﻣـﺰ ﻃﻴـﻒ ﺳـﺘﺎﺭﮔﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻛﻬﻜﺸـﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳـﺪ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ .ﺍﭺ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﻣﻘﻮﻟـﻪ ﻳﻴﭽﻴـﺪﻩ ﻱ ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﻚ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ، ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺖ. ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻃﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺁﻥ ﻛﻬﻜﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺩﺭ ﺣـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﻲ ﭘﻲ ﺍﭺ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻃـﻮﻝ ﻣـﻮﺝ ﺗـﺎﺑﺶ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻛﻴﻬـﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ. ﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ.‬

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‫ﺑﻴﮓ ﺑﻨﮓ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻨﮓ؟‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﺯ: ﻋﻠﯽ ﻗﻴﺼﺮﯼ‬
‫‪Ali.qeisari@gmail.com‬‬

‫ﺁﻳﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻄﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ؟‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺎ ﺁﻳﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺳﺨﻦ ﺑﮕﻮﻳﻴﻢ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺍﺯﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻲ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﺟﻬـﺎﻥ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣـﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺻـﺤﺒﺖ ﮐﻨـﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺷـﺎﻳﺪ ﺭﻭﺯﻱ ﺑﺘـﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻲ ﺳﻔﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﺤﺚ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻔﺮ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺗﺨﻴﻠـﻲ ﺑـﻪ ﻧﻈـﺮ ﻣـﻲ ﺭﺳـﺪ، ﺭﻭﺷـﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻭ ﻓﻨﻲ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﻲ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻱ ﮐﻼﻡ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻭ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﺪﺍﻧﺎﻥ ﺑـﺰﺭﮒ ﺗـﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻭ ﺧﻮﻱ ﺧﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺎﻃﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻊﮔﺮﺍ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺷﻨﺎﺳـﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﻌـﺖ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻧﺪ، ﻗﺪﺭﺩﺍﻧﻲ ﮐﻨﻢ.‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺗﮑﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﮕﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﻡ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﺎﻗﺎﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻲ ﮐﺸﻒ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ ﺗـﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺩﻩ ﻱ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﻱ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﻲ ﮐﻨﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﻧﻨﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻼﺵ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﻡ ﻭ ﻃﺎﻗﺖ ﻓﺮﺳـﺎ، ﻫـﺮ ﻧﮕـﺎﻩ ﺗـﺎﺯﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺑـﻪ ﺟﻬـﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻴﺮﺕ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﮕﺎﻥ ﻳﺎﺭﻱ ﺟﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩ. ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﻧﻴﻮﺗﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﺎﻟﻴﻠﻪ ﻭ ﮐﭙﻠـﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﻮﺍﺭ ﮔﺸـﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ‐ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﻴﺸﺘﻴﻦ، ﻗﺎﻭﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻧﻴﻮﺗﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺗﮑﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺨﺸﻴﺪ. ﮐﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺎﺭﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺳﺘﺪ ﻭ ﺁﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﮐﺴﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺛﻤﺮ ﻧﺸﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻣﻴﺪ. ﺗﻼﺵ ﻫـﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺠـﺎﺭﺏ ﻗـﺮﻥ ﺑﻴﺴـﺘﻢ ﺯﻣﻴﻨـﻪ ﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮐﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﻱ ﺍﺑﺮ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ، ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﺪﺍﻧﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﻱ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﮐﻨﺠﮑـﺎﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﺮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺻﺪﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺗﻼﺵ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﺕ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﺸﺪﺕ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺯﻳـﻢ ﺗـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﻱ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ. ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺑﻮﻳﮋﻩ ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺑﻴﺴﺘﻢ، ﻧﻈﺮﻳـﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺒـﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻟﻮﭖ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺮ ﺭﻳﺴﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ. ﻫﻤﻪ ﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﺪﺩﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﻱ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ )ﺑﻴـﮓ ﺑﻨـﮓ( ﻭ ﻳﮑﺴـﺎﻥ ﺳـﺎﺯﻱ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫـﺎ ‪ Big Bang and Unification‬ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺿـﻴﺢ ﺩﻫﻨـﺪ. ﺍﻣـﺎ ﻧﮕـﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﻮﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﻱ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ ‪ Theory of Creation Particle Higgs‬ﺑـﺎ ﻣﻄـﺮﺡ ﮐـﺮﺩﻥ ﻫـﻢ ﺍﺭﺯﻱ ﺟـﺮﻡ،‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ، ﺑﺎﺏ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺸﺎﻳﺪ. ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻓﻀـﺎ‬

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‫ﺑﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺗﻮﺭﻡ ﻣﻬﺮ ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ. ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ، ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﻙ ﺷﻬﻮﺩﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﮐـﻪ ﺑﻴـﮓ ﺑﻨـﮓ ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﻴﻢ ﺭﻫﻨﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ، ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ )ﺑﻴﮓ ﺑﻨﮓ( ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻟﺤﻈﻪﺍﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻳـﻚ ﺳـﻴﺎﻩﭼﺎﻟـﻪ ﻣﻄﻠـﻖ، ﻳـﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ، ﺗﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺣﺪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ )1( ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﺘـﻲ ﺣﺮﻛـﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧـﻲ‬ ‫)ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ( ﺁﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻋﮑﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﻮﻱ، ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸـﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.) ﺷﮑﻞ 1(‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ1‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺲ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ، ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺩﺭ ﻛﻨﺎﺭ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ، ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ )ﺷﻜﻞ 2( ﻛﻪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻇﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﻌﻨـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺩ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ، ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻫﺴﺘﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺗـﻢﻫـﺎ ﺑﻮﺟـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺁﻳﻨﺪ.‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ 2‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ 1 ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﻳﻢ. ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪﻩ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻔﺠـﺎﺭ ﺑـﺰﺭﮒ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘـﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺎﺕ ﻛﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﺤﺚ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺣﻠﻘـﻪ ﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻀﻮﻱ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﭘﻴﺪﺍﺳﺖ، ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫـﺎ ﺑـﻪ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻥ ﮔـﺮﺍﻧﺶ‬

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‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺧﻮﺩﺷﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺍﻓﺘﺪ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﻠﻲ ﻣﺮﻛـﺰ ﮔـﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻛـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺑﻮﺳـﻴﻠﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳـﻪ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﮐـﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﻲ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺟﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ، ﮐﻪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﺗﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﭘﺲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺑﺎﺯ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻭ ﺷﮑﻞ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻭ ﻓﺮﻭﺭﻳﺰﺵ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﮔﺎﻥ ﺑـﺮ ﺍﺛـﺮ ﮔـﺮﺍﻧﺶ، ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄـﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻱ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ، ﭼﮕـﺎﻟﻲ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ، ﻫﺮ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻮﺯﻩ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﺁﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣـﻲﺑﻠﻌـﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺑﺤﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑـﺰﺭﮒ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺪﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻄﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ﻳـﻚ ﺟﻬـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﺰﻧﻴﻢ. ﭘﺲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ، ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ )ﺑﻴﮓ ﺑﻨﮓ( ﻣﺨﺘﺺ ﺧـﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﭙﺬﻳﺮﻳﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﺛﺎﺑـﺖ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻭ ﻫـﻴﭻ ﺳـﻲ. ﭘـﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺯ ﺑـﻴﻦ ﻧﻤـﻲﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﻟـﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ، ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻧﻤـﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧـﺪ ﺍﺩﺍﻣـﻪ ﭘﻴـﺪﺍ ﻛﻨـﺪ ﭼـﺮﺍ ﻛـﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻈﻪﺍﻱ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻧﻤﻲﺭﺳﺪ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻧﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻴﻨﺪﺍﺯﻳﻢ، ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻳﻢ ﻛﻪ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻫـﺮ ﺟﻬـﺎﻥ، ﻟﺤﻈـﻪ ﻱ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﻳـﻚ ﺳـﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﭘﺲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪﻫﺎ )ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ( ﺭﻫﻨﻤﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺁﻳـﺎ ﻣـﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻳـﮏ ﺳـﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ؟‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺗﻮﺭﻡ ﻧﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﻣﻲﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻳﻢ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑـﺎ ﺷـﺘﺎﺏ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺣـﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺒﺴـﺎﻁ ﺍﺳـﺖ. ﺗﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺭﻭ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﺳـﺖ، ﭘـﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻥ ﮔـﺮﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﺬﺑﻲ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻳﻢ.‬ ‫ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺤﺚ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺑﺮﺳﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺟﻬـﺎﻥ ﻋـﻼﻭﻩ ﺑـﺮ ﺣﺮﻛـﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧـﻲ ﻭ ﺧﻄـﻲ ﺍﺟـﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻓﻀﺎ‐ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻭ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﻚ ﻣﻲﻧﺎﻣﻴﻢ، ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬
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‫ﺷﮑﻞ 3‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻭﺍﺯﻩ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﮔﺮ ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﺮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﻱ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻧﺪﻩ، ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﻳﻚ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ﺁﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺯﻣـﺎﻥ ﺧـﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﺿﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻫﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺗﻮﺭﻡ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﻓﺖ.‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ.‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺗﺸﮑﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺳﺖ ﻋﺰﻳﺰ ﺁﻗﺎﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻗﻴﺼﺮﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻢ ﻣﺘﺬﮐﺮ ﺷﻮﻡ ﮐﻪ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫـﺎ ﻫﻨﮕـﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﻔﺠـﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. ﺍﭺ. ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻻﻳـﻪ ﻱ ﮐﻨـﺎﺭﻱ ﺳـﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟـﻪ ﻱ ﻣﻄﻠـﻖ ﺑﻄـﺮﻑ ﻣﺮﮐـﺰ ﺟﻬـﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ.‬ ‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﺳﺨﻦ ﺑﮕﻮﻳﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﻣﺤـﺪﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺑﻌـﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺯﻫـﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐـﻪ ﻣـﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌـﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﺑـﻲ ﺍﻃـﻼﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩﺵ ﻧﺎﻣﺘﻨﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﻫﺴﺘﻲ ﺳﺨﻦ ﮔﻔﺖ.‬

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‫ﻧﮕﺎﻫﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﺯ: ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺭﺿﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﯽ‬
‫‪pixycrazy@yahoo.com‬‬

‫ﻳﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﭼﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ‐ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؟‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﻀﺎ‐ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻧﮕﺮﺵ ﮔﺴﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﻧﺎﻣﺎﻧﻮﺱ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻼﺵ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺍیﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﻣﺪﺭﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺭﻳﺴﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺷﺎﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﯼ ﺍیﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﯽ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺷﮑﻞ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻧﺪ. ﻳﮑﯽ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﻴﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. ﺍﭺ. ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺗﻼﺵ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﮐﻨﻢ.‬ ‫ﻣﯽ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫‪F=dp/dt‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫)‪d(mv)/dt= (v.dm/dt)+(m.dv/dt‬‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﻼﺳﻴﮑﯽ‬ ‫‪F=ma‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺩﻫﻴﺪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ‬ ‫)‪d(mv)/dt= (v.dm/dt)+(m.dv/dt‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻧﮕﺮﺵ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻣﯽ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ. ﮐﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ، ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﭘﻼﻧﮏ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ:‬
‫‪Tplanck=5.39x10-44 sec‬‬

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‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﯼ )1( ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ‬
‫‪dt=Tplanck‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ‪ Tp‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﯽ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ. ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻓﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﭘﺲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻴـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ. ﭘﺲ ‪ dp‬ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻢ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ‪ Pq‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣـﯽ ﺩﻫـﻴﻢ. ﻭ ﺍﮔـﺮ ﻳـﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘـﻮﻡ ﻧﻴـﺮﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎ‪ Fg‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﻩ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ:‬
‫‪Fg.Tp=pq , Fg= pq/Tp‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺑﺪﻳﻨﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﯼ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺶ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻭﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬

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Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH
Section Eight Realization Hawking End of Physics by CPH

‫ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ از دﻳﺪ هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ و ﻧﻘﺪ ﺁن از دﻳﺪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪﯼ ﺑﺮ دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ هﺎﯼ هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ: ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﯽ ﮐﻪ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻨﻮان دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺑﻴﺎن ﺷﺪﻩ، ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﯽ از ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﯼ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺼﻮل ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ.‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻴﻮن وﻳﻠﻴﺎم هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ اﺳﺘﺎد آﺮﺳﻲ ﻟﻮآﺎﺷﻴﻦ‬ ‫در 92 ﺁورﻳﻞ 0891 در ﺳﺎﻟﻦ آﻨﻔﺮاﻧﺲ آﻮآﺮاﻓﺖ در آﻤﺒﺮﻳﺞ اﻧﮕﻠﺴﺘﺎن ﺟﺎﻳﻲ آﻪ ﻋﺮﺻﻪ ﺏﺎﻟﻴﺪن ﺕﺎﻡﺴﻮن و راﺕﺮﻓﻮرد‬ ‫ﺏﻮد، داﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪان و ﻡﻘﺎﻡﺎت داﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ روي ﺻﻨﺪﻟﻲهﺎي ردﻳﻒﺵﺪﻩ ﺏﺮ آﻒ ﺵﻴﺐدار ﺳﺎﻟﻦ آﻪ ﻡﻘﺎﺏﻞ دﻳﻮاري ﭘﻮﺵﻴﺪﻩ از‬ ‫واﻳﺖﺏﺮد و ﭘﺮدﻩ اﺳﻼﻳﺪ ﺏﻮد، ﮔﺮدهﻢ ﺁﻡﺪﻩ ﺏﻮدﻧﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﺟﻠﺴﻪ ﺏﺮاي وﺿﻊ اوﻟﻴﻦ ﺧﻄﺎﺏﻪ ﻳﻚ ﭘﺮوﻓﺴﻮر ﺟﺪﻳﺪ آﺮﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻮآﺎﺵﻴﻦ رﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﺏﺮﻗﺮار ﺵﺪﻩ ﺏﻮد. اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮوﻓﺴﻮر اﺳﺘﻔﻦ وﻳﻠﻴﺎم هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ رﻳﺎﺿﻲدان و ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚدان 83 ﺳﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻮد.‬ ‫آﺮﺳﻲ ﻟﻮآﺎﺵﻴﻦ ﻳﻚ ﻡﻘﺎم ﺁآﺎدﻡﻴﻚ ﻡﻤﺘﺎز اﺳﺖ کﻪ زﻡﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﺮ ﺁﻳﺰاك ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ ﻋﻬﺪﻩدار ﺁن ﺏﻮد.‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان ﺧﻄﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺌﻮال ﺑﻮد: ﺁﻳﺎ دورﻧﻤﺎﯼ ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚ ﻧﻈﺮي دﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد؟‬ ‫و هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﺏﺎ اﻋﻼم اﻳﻦ کﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ او ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺳﻮال ﻡﺜﺒﺖ اﺳﺖ، ﺵﻨﻮﻧﺪﮔﺎن را ﺵﮕﻔﺖزدﻩ آﺮد. او از ﺣﻀﺎر دﻋﻮت‬ ‫آﺮد ﺕﺎ ﺏﻪ او ﺏﭙﻴﻮﻧﺪﻧﺪ و ﮔﺮﻳﺰﯼ ﺵﻮراﻧﮕﻴﺰ از ﻡﻴﺎن زﻡﺎن و ﻡﻜﺎن ﺟﺎمﻡﻘﺪس ﻋﻠﻢ را ﺏﻴﺎﺏﻨﺪ. ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪاي آﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن و‬ ‫هﺮ ﭼﻪ را آﻪ در ﺁن روي ﻡﻲدهﺪ، ﺕﺒﻴﻴﻦ آﻨﺪ.‬ ‫هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ هﻤﻮارﻩ در ﺕﻼش ﺏﺮاي دﺳﺘﻴﺎﺏﻲ ﺏﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ اﻳﻦ ﺳﻮال اﺻﻠﻲ آﻴﻬﺎنﺵﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺏﻮدﻩ اﺳﺖ کﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺎن از آﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﻡﺪﻩ و ﺏﻪ آﺠﺎ ﻡﻲرود؟ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ او ﺕﻼﺵﻲ ﻡﺴﺘﻤﺮ و ﭘﻴﮕﻴﺮ در راﻩ آﺸﻒ ﺣﻘﺎﻳﻖ اﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺎن اﺳﺖ. او ﺏﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫»هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ« اﺳﺖ. ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺟﺎﻡﻌﻲ آﻪ ﺏﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ ﺣﺎآﻢ ﺏﺮ ﺟﻬﺎن را در ﻳﻚ ﺳﺮي ﻡﻌﺎدﻻت و ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ آﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻡﻮﻗﻌﻲ آﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﻤﻮﻡﻲ اﻧﻴﺸﺘﻴﻦ را ﺏﺮاي ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺏﺮﺧﻲ وﻳﮋﮔﻲهﺎي ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻲ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪهﺎ ﻧﺎﺕﻮان ﻡﻲﺏﻴﻨﺪ، ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ ﻡﺘﻮﺳﻞ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﺳﻌﻲ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ اﻳﻦ دو را درهﻢ ﺁﻡﻴﺰد. ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪاي ﻡﻄﺮح ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ. ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪاش را‬ ‫ﻡﻮرد ﺳﻮال ﻗﺮار ﻡﻲدهﺪ. در راﻩ آﺸﻒ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻮالهﺎﻳﻲ ﺏﺮﻡﻲﺧﻮرد. ﻓﻀﺎي ﺧﺎﻟﻲ، ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ، ﺳﻴﺎﻩﭼﺎﻟﻪهﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﺁﻏﺎزهﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﺎﻳﺎنهﺎ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ و ... ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ و ﮔﺮﻳﺰان اﺳﺖ. ﺁﻳﺎ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ و داﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪان‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮ روزي ﺏﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ دﺳﺖ ﺧﻮاهﻨﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ؟‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫اﻳﻦ کﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ دﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﺏﯽ ﺏﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺕﺌﻮرﯼ ﺏﺮاﯼ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ اﻡﮑﺎن ﭘﺬﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻪ، ﺏﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ دارد کﻪ ﻡﺎ از اﻳﻦ ﺕﺌﻮرﯼ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ اﻧﺘﻈﺎرﯼ داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ. اﻡﺎ ﺕﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﻴﮑﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺁﻏﺎز و ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﺟﻬﺎن ﻡﺮﺏﻮط ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺕﺌﻮرﯼ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دهﺪ‬ ‫کﻪ ﺁﻏﺎز ﺟﻬﺎن ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺏﻮدﻩ و ﺳﺮاﻧﺠﺎﻡﺶ ﭼﻪ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺵﺪ، ﺏﺎز هﻢ ﺏﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ دارد کﻪ ﻡﺎ از ﺁﻏﺎز ﺟﻬﺎن را از ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻡﮑﺎﻧﯽ و زﻡﺎﻧﯽ ﭼﻪ ﺕﺼﻮرﯼ داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ. اﻡﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺕﻼش ﺏﺮاﯼ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ اﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮال ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﺒﻴﻨﻴﻢ کﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺟﻬﺎن‬ ‫ﻡﺤﺪود ﺏﻪ ﺵﻌﺎع دﻳﺪ اﻡﺮوزﯼ ﻡﺎ )هﻤﺮاﻩ ﺏﺎ اﺏﺰارهﺎﻳﯽ کﻪ اﻡﺮوزﻩ ﺏﻪ ﻧﻌﻤﺖ ﺕﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮژﯼ از ﺁﻧﻬﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻴﻢ( هﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﻧﻪ؟‬ ‫در اواﺉﻞ ﻗﺮن ﺏﻴﺴﺘﻢ، ﺟﻬﺎن ﻗﺎﺏﻞ روﻳﺖ اﮔﺮ ﻓﺮاﺕﺮ از کﻬﮑﺸﺎن راﻩ ﺵﻴﺮﯼ هﻢ ﺏﻮد، اﻧﺒﻮﻩ کﻬﮑﺸﺎﻧﻬﺎ و کﻮزارهﺎ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ‬ ‫ﺕﺼﻮر ﻧﺒﻮد. ﭼﻪ ﺕﻀﻤﻴﻨﯽ وﺟﻮد دارد کﻪ اﺏﺰارﺁﻻت اﻡﺮوزﯼ ﻡﺎ در 05 ﺳﺎل دﻳﮕﺮ در ﻡﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺏﺎ اﺏﺰارﺁﻻت ﺁﻧﺮوزﯼ‬ ‫ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ زﻡﺎن ﮔﺎﻟﻴﻠﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻋﺼﺮ هﺎﺏﻞ ﻧﺒﺎﺵﺪ؟‬ ‫هﺮﭼﻨﺪ هﻴﭻ دﻟﻴﻠﯽ ﻧﺪارد کﻪ ﺕﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮژﯼ ﻓﺮدا ﺟﻬﺎن ﻗﺎﺏﻞ روﻳﺖ را ﺏﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ اﻋﺠﺎب اﻧﮕﻴﺰﯼ ﮔﺴﺘﺮش ﻧﺪهﺪ، اﻡﺎ دﻟﻴﻠﯽ‬ ‫هﻢ ﻧﺪارﻳﻢ کﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻗﺎﺏﻞ دﻳﺪ، ﮔﺴﺘﺮش زﻳﺎدﯼ ﺏﻴﺎﺏﺪ. ﻟﺬا ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻡﺸﺎهﺪات اﻡﺮوزﯼ ﺏﺎﻳﺴﺘﯽ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﺎﯼ ﺧﻮد را ﭘﯽ‬ ‫رﻳﺰﯼ کﻨﻴﻢ.‬

‫ﺣﺎل ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮال هﺎوکﻴﻨﮓ ﺏﺮﮔﺮدﻳﻢ کﻪ ﻡﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﺪ:" اﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺎن از آﺠﺎ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ و ﺑﻪ آﺠﺎ ﻣﻲرود؟" ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮال ﺻﺮﻳﺢ و روﺵﻦ اﺳﺖ، ﺟﻬﺎن از ﺟﺎﻳﯽ ﻧﻴﺎﻣﺪﻩ و ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﯽ هﻢ ﻧﻤﯽ رود. ﺟﻬﺎن از ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺵﺪﻩ کﻪ هﻴﭻ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ اﯼ از ﻋﻤﺮ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻤﯽ ﮔﺬرد. ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎ در ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﺮو ﻡﻴﺮﻳﺰﻧﺪ، ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻡﻄﻠﻘﯽ را ﺏﻮﺟﻮد ﻡﯽ ﺁوردﻧﺪ، ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﯼ ﻡﻄﻠﻖ ﻡﻨﻔﺠﺮ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد و ﺟﻬﺎﻧﯽ ﺏﻮﺟﻮد ﻡﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‬ ‫از دﻳﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.، اﻳﻦ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت اوﻟﻴﻪ )ﺳﻨﮓ ﺏﻨﺎﯼ( هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﻧﺪ. ﺧﻮد ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ کﻪ‬ ‫زﻡﺎﻧﯽ را ﻧﺸﺎن دهﻨﺪ، اﻡﺎ هﻤﻪ ﯼ ذرات و اﺟﺴﺎم ﻡﻮﺟﻮد ﺟﻬﺎن را ﺵﮑﻞ ﻡﯽ دهﻨﺪ و ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﺏﻤﻨﺰﻟﻪ ﯼ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺏﻮﺟﻮد ﻡﯽ ﺁورﻧﺪ. ﭘﺲ هﺮ ﭼﻴﺰﯼ در اﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ اﺳﺖ. در ﻟﺤﻈﻪ اﯼ ﺧﺎص ﺳﺎﻋﺘﯽ ﺵﮑﻞ ﻡﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد، ﺕﻴﮏ‬ ‫ﺕﺎﮎ هﺎﻳﺶ ﺵﻨﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد و در ﻟﺤﻈﻪ اﯼ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻡﺘﻼﺵﯽ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد و ﻋﻤﺮش ﺏﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﻡﯽ رﺳﺪ و ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﺎزﻧﺪﻩ ﯼ ﺁن در ﻡﮑﺎﻧﯽ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﯼ را ﺏﻮﺟﻮد ﻡﯽ ﺁورﻧﺪ و اﻳﻦ داﺳﺘﺎن ﻡﮑﺮر هﻤﭽﻨﺎن اداﻡﻪ ﺧﻮاهﺪ داﺵﺖ.‬ ‫و ﺟﻬﺎن ﻗﺎﺏﻞ روﻳﺖ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ اﺳﺖ، ﻧﻪ کﻤﺘﺮ و ﻧﻪ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ. و ﻡﺎ )هﺮ اﻧﺴﺎﻧﯽ( ﺧﻮد ﺳﺎﻋﺘﯽ اﺳﺖ کﻪ در دل‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺏﺰرکﺘﺮﯼ ﺕﻴﮏ ﺕﺎﮎ ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺵﺎﻳﺪ اﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮال کﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن از کﺠﺎ ﺁﻡﺪﻩ و ﺏﻪ کﺠﺎ ﻡﯽ رود، ﻧﺎﺵﯽ از هﻤﻴﻦ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ کﻪ ﻡﻦ )ﺳﺎﻋﺖ( در ﻟﺤﻈﻪ اﯼ ﺏﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺁﻡﺪم و دﻧﺒﺎل ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ اﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮال ﺏﻮدم کﻪ از کﺠﺎ ﺁﻡﺪﻩ ام، ﺏﻪ کﺠﺎ ﺧﻮاهﻢ رﻓﺖ و ﺁﻡﺪﻧﻢ از ﺏﻬﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺏﻮد. و ﻗﻴﺎس ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺁدﻡﯽ، اﻳﻦ ذرﻩ ﯼ کﻮﭼﮏ ﺟﻬﺎن هﺴﺘﯽ، ﻡﯽ ﺧﻮاهﺪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ را ﺏﺎ ﺧﻮد ﻡﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ کﻨﺪ و هﻤﻪ ﯼ ﺟﻬﺎن را‬ ‫ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دهﺪ. اﺻﻮﻻ هﻤﻪ دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻡﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ هﺴﺘﯽ ﻧﺎﺵﯽ از هﻤﻴﻦ )ﺧﻮد ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺏﻮدن( اﺳﺖ. ﺳﺎﻋﺘﯽ کﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ را‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻡﯽ ﺏﻴﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ دﻳﺪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. درﺳﺖ اﺳﺖ کﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ اﺳﺖ، اﻡﺎ اﺟﺰاﯼ هﻤﻪ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻳﮑﯽ اﺳﺖ )ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎ( کﻪ ﺧﻮد ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ و هﻴﭻ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ اﯼ از ﻋﻤﺮ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻤﯽ ﮔﺬرد. و ﺟﻬﺎن هﺴﺘﯽ‬ ‫)ﻧﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﻡﺸﺎهﺪﻩ( ﻧﻴﺰ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ و هﻴﭻ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ اﯼ از ﻋﻤﺮ ﺁن ﻧﻤﯽ ﮔﺬرد. اﻡﺎ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﻡﺸﺎهﺪﻩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﯽ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺧﻮد روزﯼ از ﺕﻴﮏ ﺕﺎﮎ ﺏﺎز ﺧﻮاهﻨﺪ ﻡﺎﻧﺪ.‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - ﻗﻮاﻋﺪي ﭘﺸﺖ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ذرات ﻡﺎدي را آﻪ هﻤﮕﻲ ﻡﻲﺵﻨﺎﺳﻴﻢ. ﭘﺮوﺕﻮنهﺎ و ﻧﻮﺕﺮونهﺎ در هﺴﺘﻪ اﺕﻢ و اﻟﻜﺘﺮونهﺎ آﻪ ﺏﻪ دور هﺴﺘﻪ ﻡﻲﭼﺮﺧﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ذرات ﻡﺎدي اﺕﻢ را ﺏﻪﻧﺎم آﻠﻲ ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮنهﺎ ﻡﻲﺵﻨﺎﺳﻴﻢ. ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮنهﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﻴﺎمرﺳﺎﻧﻲ دارﻧﺪ آﻪ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺁن ذرات رد و ﺏﺪل‬ ‫ﺵﺪﻩ و ﺏﻪ راﻩهﺎي ﻡﻌﻴﻨﻲ ﻡﻮﺟﺐ اﻳﺠﺎد ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮاﺕﻲ در ﺁنهﺎ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. ذراﺕﻲ وﺟﻮد دارد آﻪ اﻳﻦ ﭘﻴﺎمهﺎ‬ ‫را ﺏﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮنهﺎ در ﺏﺮﺧﻲ ﻡﻮارد ﺣﺘﻲ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺧﻮد رد و ﺏﺪل ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ. ذرات ﭘﻴﺎمرﺳﺎن ﺏﻪﻃﻮر ﻡﺸﺨﺺ ﺏﻮزون ﻧﺎﻡﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. ﭘﺲ هﺮ ذرﻩاي آﻪ در ﺟﻬﺎن وﺟﻮد دارد ﻳﺎ ﻓﺮﻣﻴﻮن اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻮزون.‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲهﺎي ﭘﻴﺎمرﺳﺎن 4 ﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﻴﺮو ﻧﺎﻡﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. ﻳﻜﻲ از اﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ اﺳﺖ. ﺣﺎﻡﻞ اﻳﻦ ﭘﻴﺎم ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﺏﻮزون‬ ‫اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن ﻧﺎﻡﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﻧﻴﺮوي دوم ﻳﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﭘﻴﺎمهﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﺏﻪوﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺏﻮزونهﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺏﻪﻧﺎم ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺏﻴﻦ ﭘﺮوﺕﻮنهﺎي درون هﺴﺘﻪ ﻳﻚ اﺕﻢ و اﻟﻜﺘﺮونهﺎي ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺏﻪ ﺁن، ﻳﺎ ﺏﻴﻦ اﻟﻜﺘﺮونهﺎ رد و ﺏﺪل ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﭘﻴﺎمهﺎ ﻡﻮﺟﺐ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ آﻪ اﻟﻜﺘﺮونهﺎ دور هﺴﺘﻪ ﮔﺮدش آﻨﻨﺪ. در ﻡﻘﻴﺎسهﺎي ﺏﺰرگﺕﺮ از اﺕﻢ، ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺧﻮدﺵﺎن‬ ‫را ﺏﺼﻮرت ﻧﻮر ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﻲدهﻨﺪ. ﺳﻮﻡﻴﻦ ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ ﭘﻴﺎمرﺳﺎن ﻧﻴﺮوي ﻗﻮي اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﻡﻮﺟﺐ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد هﺴﺘﻪ اﺕﻢ ﻳﻜﭙﺎرﭼﮕﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻮد را ﺣﻔﻆ آﻨﺪ و ﭼﻬﺎرﻡﻴﻦ ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﺿﻌﻴﻒ اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﻡﻮﺟﺐ رادﻳﻮاآﺘﻴﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد.‬ ‫درك آﺎﻡﻞ اﻳﻦ ﭼﻬﺎر ﻧﻴﺮو ﺏﻪ ﻡﺎ اﻡﻜﺎن ﻡﻲدهﺪ ﺕﺎ اﺻﻮﻟﻲ را آﻪ ﻡﺒﻨﺎي هﻤﻪ روﻳﺪادهﺎي ﺟﻬﺎن هﺴﺖ، درك آﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮوي ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ و ارﺕﺒﺎط ﺏﻴﻦ ﺏﺴﻴﺎري از آﺎرهﺎي ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚداﻧﺎن ﻗﺮن ﺏﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺏﺮاي ﺁﮔﺎهﻲ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ﻃﺮز ﻋﻤﻞ اﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺎر‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺵﺪ. ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚدانهﺎ ﺕﺎ ﺣﺪودي ﺏﺎ ﻡﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﺳﻌﻲ آﺮدﻧﺪ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻳﮕﺎﻧﮕﻲ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎ را اﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎط آﻨﻨﺪ. ﺁﻧﻬﺎ اﻡﻴﺪوار‬ ‫ﺏﻮدﻧﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪاي ﺏﻴﺎﺏﻨﺪ آﻪ در ﻏﺎﻳﺖ اﻡﺮ هﺮ ﭼﻬﺎر ﻧﻴﺮو را ﺏﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻳﻚ اﺏﺮﻧﻴﺮو ﺕﻮﺟﻴﻪ آﻨﺪ. ﻧﻴﺮوﻳﻲ آﻪ ﺧﻮدش را‬ ‫ﺏﻪﮔﻮﻧﻪهﺎي ﻡﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﻲدهﺪ. ﻧﻴﺰ ﻡﻮﺟﺐ ﻳﮕﺎﻧﮕﻲ ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮنهﺎ و ﺏﻮزونهﺎ در ﻳﻚ ﺧﺎﻧﻮادﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚدانهﺎ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ را ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻳﮕﺎﻧﮕﻲ )اﺕﺤﺎد ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎ( ﻧﺎم دادﻧﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ دﻧﻴﺎ را ﺕﻮﺟﻴﻪ آﻨﺪ. ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻗﺪم ﭘﻴﺶﺕﺮ ﺏﺮود و ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺳﻮال ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﺪ: دﻧﻴﺎ در ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺁﻏﺎز ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻳﻦ آﻪ زﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﮕﺬرد، ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻮدﻩ اﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺏﻪ ﻋﺒﺎرت دﻳﮕﺮ: ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ اوﻟﻴﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺮزي در ﺁﻏﺎز ﺟﻬﺎن ﭼﻪ ﺑﻮدﻩ اﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫درك آﺎﻣﻞ اﺑﺮﻧﻴﺮو ﻣﻤﻜﻦ هﺴﺖ آﻪ درك ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺮزي را هﻢ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺎ اﻣﻜﺎنﭘﺬﻳﺮ آﻨﺪ. از ﻃﺮف دﻳﮕﺮ ﻡﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ آﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺮوري ﺏﺎﺵﺪ آﻪ ﻡﺎ ﺵﺮاﻳﻂ ﻡﺮزي را ﺏﺪاﻧﻴﻢ ﺕﺎ ﺏﺘﻮاﻧﻴﻢ اﺏﺮﻧﻴﺮو را ﺏﻔﻬﻤﻴﻢ. اﻳﻦ دو ﺏﻄﻮر ﺕﻨﮕﺎﺕﻨﮕﻲ ﺏﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ارﺕﺒﺎط‬ ‫دارﻧﺪ. و ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﭘﺮدازان هﻢ از هﺮ دو ﻃﺮف ﻡﺸﻐﻮل آﺎر هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺕﺎ ﺏﻪ »ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻤﻪﭼﻴﺰ« دﺳﺖ ﭘﻴﺪا آﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬

‫زﻡﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ اﻧﻴﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﺕﻼش کﺮد ﻳﮏ اﺕﺤﺎد ﺏﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎ ﺏﻮﺟﻮد ﺁورد )دهﻪ ﯼ 0291( ﺏﺤﺚ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎ از ﻧﻈﺮ کﻤﯽ و کﻴﻔﯽ ﺏﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺻﻮرت ﻧﺒﻮد. در ﺁﻧﺰﻡﺎن ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎﯼ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ و اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﻡﻄﺮح ﺏﻮدﻧﺪ و ﻋﻼوﻩ ﺏﺮ ﺁن ﺏﻪ ﻧﻴﺮو ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان ﻳﮏ ذرﻩ ﺕﺒﺎدﻟﯽ )ﭘﻴﺎم رﺳﺎن( ﻧﮕﺮﻳﺴﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺵﺪ. اﺕﺤﺎد ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎ )هﺮ ﭼﻬﺎر ﻧﻴﺮو( ﻳﺎ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﻳﮏ اﺏﺮ ﻧﻴﺮو هﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ﻡﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ هﺎﻳﯽ هﻤﺮاﻩ ﺏﻮدﻩ، اﻡﺎ ﺕﺎ ﺏﻪ ﺣﺎل ﺏﻪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﯼ رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺏﺨﺸﯽ ﻧﺮﺳﻴﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. اﺵﮑﺎل در‬ ‫اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻡﻮرد ﺧﺎص ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺵﻮد کﻪ ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮﻧﻬﺎ، ﺧﻮد ﺏﻮزوﻧﻬﺎ را ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. هﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺏﻮزوﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺏﻪ ﻧﻮﺏﻪ ﺧﻮد، ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮﻧﻬﺎ را ﺏﻮﺟﻮد ﻡﯽ ﺁورﻧﺪ. ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﯼ ﻡﻬﻢ، ﺧﻮد ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دهﺪ کﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻗﺎﺏﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺸﺎهﺪﻩ در ﺁﻏﺎز ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺏﻮدﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺏﺎ اﻳﻦ دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮان دو ﻡﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﯼ ﺟﺪا از هﻢ، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ اﺏﺮ ﻧﻴﺮو و اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺵﺮاﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﻡﺮزﯼ ﭼﮑﻮﻧﻪ ﺏﻮدﻩ اﺳﺖ را ﺏﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻡﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺕﻘﻠﻴﻞ داد و ﺏﺮاﯼ ﺁن ﺏﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻡﻨﺎﺳﺐ رﺳﻴﺪ. ﻡﺴﺌﻠﻪ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﭼﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺮزﯼ را ﺑﻮﺟﻮد ﺁورد؟ از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺮزﯼ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ از اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. اﺳﺖ کﻪ در ﺳﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﯼ ﻡﻄﻠﻖ اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺏﻪ ﺣﺪاکﺜﺮ ﺧﻮد ﻡﯽ رﺳﺪ و ﻋﺎﻡﻞ اﻧﻔﺠﺎر ﻡﯽ ﮔﺮدد و اﻳﻦ روﻧﺪ ﻡﮑﺮر اﺳﺖ و اداﻡﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاهﺪ داﺵﺖ.‬

‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪهﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪاي در ﺏﺎرﻩ ﺟﺮمهﺎي ﺁﺳﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺏﺰرگ ﻡﺜﻞ ﺳﺘﺎرﮔﺎن، ﺳﻴﺎرات و آﻬﻜﺸﺎنهﺎﺳﺖ آﻪ‬ ‫ﺏﺮاي ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در اﻳﻦ ﺳﻄﻮح ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﺧﻮب اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮنهﺎ)ذرات ﻡﺎدﻩ( رد و ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪاي اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎي ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖ را ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﻴﺎمهﺎﻳﻲ ﻡﻲداﻧﺪ آﻪ ﺏﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺏﺪل ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﺻﻞ ﻧﺎاﻡﻴﺪآﻨﻨﺪﻩاي را ﻧﻴﺰ آﻪ اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ ﻧﺎم دارد در ﺏﺮ ﻡﻲﮔﻴﺮد. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮ اﻳﻦ اﺻﻞ‬ ‫هﻴﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﻡﺎ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ هﻤﺰﻡﺎن ﻡﻜﺎن و ﺳﺮﻋﺖ)ﺕﻨﺪي و ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮآﺖ( ذرﻩ را ﺏﺎ دﻗﺖ ﺏﺪاﻧﻴﻢ. ﺏﺎ وﺟﻮد اﻳﻦ ﻡﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ‬ ‫آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ در ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ اﺵﻴﺎء، در ﺳﻄﻮح ﺏﺴﻴﺎر رﻳﺰ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻡﻮﻓﻖ ﺏﻮدﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﻳﻚ راﻩ ﺏﺮاي ﺕﺮآﻴﺐ اﻳﻦ دو ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺏﺰرگ ﻗﺮن ﺏﻴﺴﺘﻢ در ﻳﻚ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ واﺣﺪ ﺁن اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را هﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر آﻪ در ﻡﻮرد ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎي دﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﺎ ﻡﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﺏﻪ ﺁن‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻡﻲآﻨﻴﻢ، ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﻴﺎم ذرات در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ. ﻳﻚ راﻩ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﺎزﻧﮕﺮي ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ در ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫اﻡﺎ اﮔﺮ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﻴﺎم ﺏﻴﻦ ذرات )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن( در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ، در اﻳﻨﺼﻮرت ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ ﺏﺎ روش‬ ‫ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ ﺏﻴﺎن ﻡﻲﺵﻮد، اﻡﺎ ﺏﺎ ﻡﺸﻜﻼﺕﻲ ﻡﻮاﺟﻪ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻳﻢ. ﭼﻮن هﻤﻪ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺧﻮد ﻧﻴﺰ رد و ﺏﺪل‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ، ﺣﻞ اﻳﻦ ﻡﺴﺎﻟﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ رﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﺏﻐﺮﻧﺞ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖهﺎﻳﻲ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ آﻪ ﺧﺎرج از ﻡﻔﻬﻮم‬ ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﻡﻌﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ. ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪهﺎي ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚ واﻗﻌﺎ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺏﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖهﺎ ﺳﺮ و آﺎر داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻨﺪ. ﺁنهﺎ اﮔﺮ در‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪهﺎي دﻳﮕﺮ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ، ﺕﺌﻮرﻳﺴﻴﻦهﺎ ﺏﻪ روﺵﻲ آﻪ ﺁن را رﻳﺘﺮﻡﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺸﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺏﺎزﺏﻬﻨﺠﺎرش ﻡﻲﻧﺎﻡﻨﺪ، ﻡﺘﻮﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. رﻳﭽﺎرد ﻓﺎﻳﻨﻤﻦ در اﻳﻦ ﺏﺎرﻩ ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ: اﻳﻦ آﻠﻤﻪ هﺮ ﭼﻘﺪر زﻳﺮآﺎﻧﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺏﺎز ﻡﻦ ﺁن را ﻳﻚ روش دﻳﻮاﻧﻪوار‬ ‫ﻡﻲﻧﺎﻡﻢ. ﺧﻮد او هﻨﮕﺎﻡﻲ آﻪ روي ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪاش در ﻡﻮرد ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ آﺎر ﻡﻲآﺮد، از اﻳﻦ روش ﺳﻮد‬ ‫ﺟﺴﺖ. اﻡﺎ او ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ آﺎر زﻳﺎد راﻏﺐ ﻧﺒﻮد. در اﻳﻦ روش از ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖهﺎي دﻳﮕﺮي ﺏﺮاي ﺧﻨﺜﻲ آﺮدن ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖهﺎي‬ ‫ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ، اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﻧﻔﺲ اﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ اﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﻡﺸﻜﻮك اﺳﺖ وﻟﻲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ در ﺏﺴﻴﺎري از ﻡﻮارد آﺎرﺏﺮد ﺧﻮﺏﻲ دارد.‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪهﺎﻳﻲ آﻪ ﺏﻪآﺎرﮔﻴﺮي اﻳﻦ روش ﺏﻪدﺳﺖ ﻡﻲﺁﻳﻨﺪ، ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺧﻮب ﺏﺎ ﻡﺸﺎهﺪات هﻤﺨﻮاﻧﻲ دارﻧﺪ.‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از روش ﺏﺎزﺏﻬﻨﺠﺎرش در ﻡﻮرد ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ آﺎرﺳﺎز اﺳﺖ وﻟﻲ در ﻡﻮرد ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ اﻳﻦ روش‬ ‫ﻡﻮﻓﻖ ﻧﺒﻮدﻩ. ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖهﺎ در ﻡﻮرد ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ از ﺟﻬﺘﻲ ﺏﺪﺕﺮ از ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖهﺎي ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و‬ ‫ﺣﺬﻓﺸﺎن ﻡﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. اﺏﺮﮔﺮاﻧﺶ هﺎوآﻴﻨﺰ ﺏﺪان اﺵﺎرﻩ آﺮد و ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﺏﺮرﻳﺴﻤﺎن آﻪ درﺁن اﺵﻴﺎء ﺏﻨﻴﺎدي ﺟﻬﺎن،‬ ‫ﺏﺼﻮرت رﻳﺴﻤﺎنهﺎي ﻧﺎزآﻲ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺖهﺎي اﻡﻴﺪوار آﻨﻨﺪﻩاي داﺵﺘﻪاﻧﺪ، اﻡﺎ هﻨﻮز ﻡﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺣﻞ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﭼﺮا ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﺎ هﻤﺎن دﻳﺪ ﺳﻨﺘﯽ )اﻋﻢ از کﻼﺳﻴﮑﯽ ﻳﺎ ﻡﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﯽ( ﺏﻪ ﻡﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ کﻨﻴﻢ؟ واﻗﻌﻴﺖ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺵﻮاهﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﯼ و‬ ‫ﺕﺠﺮﺏﯽ زﻳﺎدﯼ وﺟﻮد دارد کﻪ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﯽ دهﺪ ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮﻧﻬﺎ و ﺏﻮزون هﺎ دو ﺟﻠﻮﻩ ﯼ ﻡﺘﻔﺎوت از ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮﻧﺪ. ﺏﻮزﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫را ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ و ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ کﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﯼ ﺏﻮزوﻧﻬﺎ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. در ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﯽ )دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﻨﺘﯽ( ﺏﻮزون ﻓﻮﺕﻮن‬ ‫کﻪ ﺣﺎﻡﻞ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ اﺳﺖ، ﺏﻴﻦ ذرات ﺏﺎردار رد و ﺏﺪل ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد. در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﮑﻪ از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﺏﺎرهﺎﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ داﺉﻤﺎ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻡﺠﺎزﯼ )ﺏﻮزوﻧﯽ کﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ را ﺣﻤﻞ ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ( را ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ و در ﻓﻀﺎ ﻡﻨﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. ﻡﻮاد اوﻟﻴﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ، ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ )ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ( هﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬

‫ذرات ﺏﺎر ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ و اﻧﺘﺸﺎر ﻓﻮﺕﻮن )ﺏﻮزون( ﻳﮏ ﻡﻴﺪان اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ در اﻃﺮاف ﺧﻮد اﻳﺠﺎد ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﻡﻴﺪان از‬ ‫ذرات ﺣﺎﻡﻞ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﭘﺮ ﺵﺪﻩ کﻪ ﺏﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﻮاص اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ کﻪ دارﻧﺪ ﺏﻄﺮف ﺏﺎر ﻡﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺧﻮد ﺣﺮکﺖ ﻡﯽ‬ ‫کﻨﻨﺪ. ﺏﺎر اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻡﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺁن را ﺟﺬب ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ، وﻟﯽ ﺏﻘﺎﯼ ﺁن ﺕﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﻟﺬا ﻓﻮﺕﻮن درﻳﺎﻓﺘﯽ را ﺏﻪ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺕﺠﺰﻳﻪ کﺮدﻩ و ﻡﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ. ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺖ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﯽ ﻡﻮﺣﺐ کﺸﺶ ﺏﺎر اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﻟﺬا در ﺣﺪ زﻳﺮ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﯽ‬ ‫کﻪ ﻧﮑﺎﻩ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﯼ اﺳﺖ ﺏﻪ ﻡﻔﺎهﻴﻢ ﺏﻨﻴﺎدﯼ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖ، ذرات ﺏﺎردار ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ کﻨﻨﺪﻩ و ﻡﻨﻬﺪم کﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎﯼ ﻡﺠﺎزﯼ )ﺣﺎﻡﻞ‬ ‫ﺏﺎر اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ( هﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫از اﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ، ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن هﻢ ﻳﮏ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ اﺳﺖ و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ هﻤﺎن ﺧﻮاص اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ از ﺧﻮد ﺏﺮوز ﻡﯽ دهﺪ. ﻟﺬا‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎزﯼ ﺏﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از ﺏﺎزﺏﻬﻨﺠﺎرش هﺎ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺕﻨﻬﺎ کﺎﻓﻴﺴﺖ دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺧﻮد را ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ ﺏﺎرهﺎﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ و کﻨﺶ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺕﻐﻴﯽ دهﻴﻢ و در ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ رﺳﻴﺪ کﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن( هﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن )ﺏﻮزون ﺣﺎﻡﻞ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ‬ ‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ( اﺳﺖ در ﻡﻘﻴﺎس ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﺿﻌﻴﺘﺮ.‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ- راﻩ دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫از ﻃﺮف دﻳﮕﺮ اﮔﺮ ﻡﺎ ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ را ﺏﺮاي ﻡﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ اﺟﺴﺎم ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﺏﺰرگ در ﻗﻠﻤﺮوﻳﻲ آﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻓﺮﻡﺎﻧﺮواي‬ ‫ﺏﻲﭼﻮن و ﭼﺮا اﺳﺖ، ﺏﻜﺎر ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ، ﭼﻪ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺵﺪ؟ ﺏﻪدﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﺨﻦ اﮔﺮ ﻡﺎ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ را آﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم در ﺏﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ، در ﭘﺮﺕﻮ اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ ﺏﺎزﻧﮕﺮي آﻨﻴﻢ، ﭼﻪ اﺕﻔﺎﻗﻲ ﺧﻮاهﺪ اﻓﺘﺎد؟‬ ‫هﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر کﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ ﻃﺒﻖ اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮان ﺏﺎ دﻗﺖ ﻡﻜﺎن و ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻳﻚ ذرﻩ را هﻤﺰﻡﺎن اﻧﺪازﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ. ﺁﻳﺎ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺏﺎزﻧﮕﺮي ﻡﻮﺟﺐ ﺕﻔﺎوت زﻳﺎدي ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺵﺪ؟ اﺳﺘﻔﻦهﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ در اﻳﻦ زﻡﻴﻨﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺵﮕﺮﻓﻲ دﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪهﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ: ﺵﺮاﻳﻂ ﻡﺮزي ﻡﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻡﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺵﻮد آﻪ ﻡﺮزي وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻻ آﻪ از ﺿﺪ و ﻧﻘﻴﺾهﺎ ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ ﻳﻜﻲ دﻳﮕﺮ هﻢ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ آﻨﻴﻢ:‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎي ﺧﺎﻟﻲ، ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم هﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺏﻪ ﻡـــﺎ ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ کﻪ وﺟﻮد ﻡﺎدﻩ ﻳـــﺎ اﻧﺮژي ﺳﺒﺐ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻳــﺎ ﺕﺎبﺧﻮردن ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﺁﺵﻨﺎ ﻡﻲﺵﻨﺎﺳﻴﻢ. ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﺏﺎرﻳﻜﻪهﺎي ﻧﻮر ﺳﺘﺎرﮔﺎن دور هﻨﮕﺎﻡﻲ آﻪ از ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﻲ اﺟﺴﺎم ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺮم ﺏﺰرگ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ ﻡﻲﮔﺬرﻧﺪ.‬ ‫اﻳﻦ دو ﻡﻮﺿﻮع را ﺏﻪﻳﺎد داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ:‬ ‫1 - ﻓﻀﺎي »ﺧﺎﻟﻲ« از ذرات و ﭘﺎدذرات ﭘﺮ ﺵﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺟﻤﻊ آﻞ اﻧﺮژي ﺁنهﺎ ﻡﻘﺪاري ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻡﻘﺪاري ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ از‬ ‫اﻧﺮژي اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫2 - وﺟﻮد اﻳﻦ اﻧﺮژي ﺏﺎﻋﺚ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن ﻡﻲﺵﻮد.‬ ‫ﺕﺮآﻴﺐ اﻳﻦ دو اﻳﺪﻩ ﻡﺎ را ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻡﻲرﺳﺎﻧﺪ کﻪ آﻞ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻡﻲﺏﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ در ﻳﻚ ﺕﻮپ آﻮﭼﻚ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﺵﺪﻩ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﺰي روي ﻧﺪادﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺏﺪﻳﻦﺳﺎن ﻡﻮﻗﻌﻲ آﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪهﺎي ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم و ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ ﺕﻮاﻡﺎن اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد،‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﺁنهﺎ اﺵﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻡﺤﺾ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم و ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ هﺮ دو ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪهﺎي ﻓﻮقاﻟﻌﺎدﻩ ﺧﻮب و از ﻡﻮﻓﻖﺕﺮﻳﻦ دﺳﺘﺎوردهﺎي ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚ در ﻗﺮن‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺵﺘﻪ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. از اﻳﻦ دو ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﻪﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﺏﺮاي هﺪفهﺎي ﻧﻈﺮي ﺏﻠﻜﻪ ﺏﺮاي ﺏﺴﻴﺎري آﺎرﺏﺮدهﺎي ﻋﻤﻠﻲ، ﺏﻪﻧﺤﻮي‬ ‫درﺧﺸﺎن اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﺏﺎ وﺟﻮد اﻳﻦ اﮔﺮ ﺁنهﺎ را ﺏﺎ هﻢ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ، ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ هﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر آﻪ دﻳﺪﻳﻢ ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖهﺎ و‬ ‫ﺏﻲﻡﻌﻨﻲ ﺏﻮدن اﺳﺖ. ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﻪﻧﺤﻮي اﻳﻦ ﺏﻲﻡﻌﻨﺎ ﺏﻮدن را ﺣﻞ آﻨﺪ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﺏﺎز اﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺮش ﺳﻨﺘﯽ ﺏﻪ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﻡﺸﮑﻞ ﺳﺎز ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﻡﺎ ﺏﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﻴﺎز دارﻳﻢ کﻪ دو ﻡﺴﺌﻠﻪ را در اﻳﻦ‬ ‫زﻡﻴﻨﻪ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دهﺪ. ﻳﮑﯽ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ و دﻳﮕﺮﯼ ﻧﮕﺮش کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﯽ ﺏﻪ ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن و اﻧﺒﺎﺵﺖ اﻧﺮژﯼ در ﻓﻀﺎ. از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ‬ ‫کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﯽ و ﺏﻬﺮﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ از اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻡﯽ رﺳﻴﻢ کﻪ ﻓﻀﺎ از ﻡﺎدﻩ و ﭘﺎد ﻡﺎدﻩ اﻧﺒﺎﺵﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ. ﭼﺮا‬ ‫ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﯼ را ﺏﺮاﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ در ﻓﻀﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺮش ﺳﻨﺘﯽ ﻧﮑﻨﻴﻢ؟‬

‫واﻗﻌﻴﺖ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﻓﻀﺎ از ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن( اﻧﺒﺎﺵﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ را ﺣﻤﻞ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﺏﺎر-‬ ‫رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺏﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﻀﻴﺖ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﯽ کﻪ دارﻧﺪ، ﺏﺎ هﻢ ﺕﺮکﻴﺐ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ و کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻬﺎﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ را ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. هﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﯽ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺏﺮ ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ اﺙﺮ ﮔﺬاﺵﺘﻪ و ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﺁن را ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. اﻡﺎ ﻡﻴﺰان ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﺮ‬ ‫ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ، ﺕﺎﺏﻊ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ در ﻓﻀﺎ اﺳﺖ. در اﻃﺮاف اﺟﺮام ﺏﺰرگ، ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ و در ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺏﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎرﮔﺎن، ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ کﻤﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫هﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺏﺮاﯼ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻡﺎدﻩ و ﭘﺎدﻡﺎدﻩ در ﻓﻀﺎ از ﻧﻴﺎزﯼ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ کﻪ ﺁن را در ﺳﺎﻳﻪ اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ ﺕﻮﺟﻴﻪ کﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﺏﻠﮑﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﻡﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﺏﻪ ﺧﻮاص ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻡﺮاﺟﻌﻪ کﺮدﻩ، هﻢ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ را ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دهﻴﻢ و هﻢ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻡﺎدﻩ‬ ‫و ﭘﺎدﻩ را.‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺎ ﭘﻴﺶﮔﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻤﻪﭼﻴﺰ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﺘﻮاﻧﺪ اﻳﻦ اﻡﻜﺎن را ﺏﻪﺵﺨﺼﻲ آﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻡﺎ را ﻧﺪﻳﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ، ﺏﺪهﺪ آﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ را ﭘﻴﺶﮔﻮﻳﻲ آﻨﺪ. ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪاي ﺵﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﺸﻮد ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪهﺎ و ﺳﻴﺎرات و آﻬﻜﺸﺎنهﺎ و ﺳﻴﺎﻩﭼﺎﻟﻪهﺎ و آﻮزارهﺎ را ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ آﺮد. اﻡﺎ ﺁﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺵﻮد ﺏﻪوﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺁن ﺏﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﻡﺴﺎﺏﻘﻪ اﺳﺐدواﻧﻲ ﺳﺎل أﻳﻨﺪﻩ اﻳﺎﻟﺖ آﻨﺘﺎآﻲ را ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ آﻨﻴﻢ؟ ﺁﻳﺎ اﻳﻦ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫اﺳﺖ؟ ﻧﻪﭼﻨﺪان.‬ ‫آﺎﻡﭙﻴﻮﺕﺮ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﺕﺼﻮري ﻡﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت ﻻزم ﺏﺮاي ﺏﺮرﺳﻲ هﻤﻪ دادﻩهﺎي ﺟﻬﺎن ﺏﻄﻮر ﻡﻀﺤﻜﻲ ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﻓﺮاﺕﺮ از ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ هﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺕﺌﻮرﯼ ﻡﺎ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ رواﻳﻂ ﺏﻴﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ هﺎ را ﺕﻮﺿﺢ دهﻴﻢ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺣﺪس ﺏﺰﻧﻴﮏ‬ ‫کﻪ وﺟﻮد دﻧﻴﺎهﺎﯼ دﻳﮕﺮ اﻡﮑﺎن ﭘﺬﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ. اﻡﺎ ﻟﺰوﻡﺎ اﻳﻦ ﻡﻌﻨﺎﯼ ﺁن ﻧﻴﺴﺖ کﻪ ﺏﺘﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺕﻤﺎم ﺳﺎﻋﺖ هﺎﻳﯽ را کﻪ در ﺁﻧﺠﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺏﮑﺎر اﻓﺘﺎدﻩ اﻧﺪ )ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﺵﻮد کﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺕﺌﻮرﯼ هﺮ ﭼﻴﺰﯼ در ﺟﻬﺎن ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ اﺳﺖ( را ﭘﻴﺶ ﺏﻴﻨﯽ کﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫و ﺁهﻨﮓ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﺪاﻧﻴﻢ. از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺕﺌﻮرﯼ ﻡﺎ ﺣﺘﯽ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺟﻬﺎن ﺧﻮدﻡﺎن را ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﻪ هﻤﺎن ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫کﻪ هﺴﺖ ﺏﺒﻨﻴﻢ. ﻡﯽ داﻧﻴﻢ ﻡﺸﺎهﺪات ﻡﺎ از ﺟﻬﺎن کﺬﺵﺘﻪ ﯼ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﯽ دهﺪ ﻧﻪ ﺣﺎل را. زﻳﺮا ﻧﻮر ﻡﺴﻴﺮﯼ را کﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﯽ ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ ﺕﺎ ﺏﻪ ﺏﺮﺳﺪ، زﻡﺎن ﻡﯽ ﺏﺮد، ﭘﺲ ﻧﻮر از ﮔﺬﺵﺘﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن ﺁﻡﺪﻩ و اﻡﺮوز ﺏﻪ ﻡﺎ رﺳﻴﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺣﺎل ﺳﺌﻮال اﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﻧﻮرﯼ کﻪ از ﻳﮏ کﻬﮑﺸﺎن ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺵﺪﻩ و ﻡﻴﻠﻴﺎردهﺎ ﺳﺎل در ﺣﺮکﺖ ﺏﻮدﻩ، در ﻃﻮل ﻡﺴﻴﺮ دﺳﺖ ﺧﻮش‬ ‫هﻴﭽﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮﯼ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ؟ زﻡﺎﻧﯽ ﻡﺎ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺏﺎ ﺻﺮاﺣﺖ و اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮال ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﻴﻢ کﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ را‬ ‫در ﻡﻮرد ﻧﻮر ﺏﺪاﻧﻴﻢ و ﺣﺘﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﺁﻧﺮا ﻧﻴﺰ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دادﻩ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ. اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﻧﻮر در ﻡﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻧﺮژﯼ دارد،‬ ‫ﺧﻮد دﻟﻴﻞ ﺏﺮ ﺁن اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﻧﻮر ﻳﮏ ﭘﻴﺎم ﺏﺴﻴﻂ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ کﻪ از کﻬﮑﺸﺎن ﺏﻤﺎ ﻡﯽ رﺳﺪ، ﺏﻠﮑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﺧﻮش ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﺮار ﻡﯽ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮد. ﺳﺌﻮال اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ کﻪ اﮔﺮ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ، ﺁﻳﺎ ﺕﻤﺎم ﺕﻴﮏ ﺕﺎکﻬﺎﯼ ﺁن ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﺕﺤﺖ ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ ﻋﻮاﻡﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯽ اﺳﺖ، ﻳﺎ ﻋﻮاﻡﻞ داﺧﻠﯽ کﻪ ﻧﺎﺵﯽ از ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن اﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﺮ ﺁن اﺙﺮ دارد ﻳﺎﺧﻴﺮ؟‬ ‫هﺮﭼﻨﺪ کﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﯽ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻳﮏ ذرﻩ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن اﺳﺖ، اﻡﺎ در ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮم ﻧﻴﺰ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ هﺎﻳﯽ‬ ‫ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دادﻩ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ)از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺙﺮ ﻡﻮﺳﺬوﺉﺮ، اﺙﺮ کﺎﻡﭙﺘﻮن...( کﻪ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﯽ دهﺪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان از ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻏﺎﻓﻞ ﺵﺪ. ﻟﺬا از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﻡﺎ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ هﻤﻪ ﯼ ﺵﺮاﻳﻂ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﯽ را کﻪ ﻧﺪﻳﺪﻩ اﻳﻢ ﭘﻴﺶ ﮔﻮﻳﯽ کﻨﻴﻢ،‬ ‫ﺏﻠﮑﻪ ﺣﺘﯽ ﻗﺎدر ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻴﻢ ﺟﻬﺎن ﺧﻮدﻡﺎن را ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﻬﻤﺎن ﮔﻮﻧﻪ کﻪ هﺴﺖ ﺏﺒﻴﻨﻴﻢ. اﻡﺎ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺏﮕﻮﻳﻴﻢ کﻪ ﭼﻪ ﻧﻮع ﺳﺎﺣﺖ‬ ‫هﺎﻳﯽ در ﺟﻬﺎﻧﯽ دﻳﮕﺮ اﻡﺎن وﺟﻮد دارﻧﺪ. و اﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ هﺎ ﭼﻪ ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮﯼ روﯼ هﻢ ﻡﯽ ﮔﺬارﻧﺪ. ﭘﻴﺶ ﮔﻮﻳﯽ ﻡﺎ در هﻤﻴﻦ ﺣﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎزﻧﮕﺮي در هﺪف ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺏﺎ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻡﺤﺪودﻳﺖهﺎﻳﻲ آﻪ از ﺁنهﺎ ﻳﺎد ﺵﺪ، ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚداﻧﺎن ﺕﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺟﺪﻳﺪي را از ﻋﻠﻢ اراﺉﻪ آﺮدﻩاﻧﺪ. ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﺰ ﻡﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪاي از ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻨﻲ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد آﻪ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ روﻳﺪادهﺎ را ﺕﺎ ﺣﺪي آﻪ اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ ﻡﻌﻴﻦ آﺮدﻩ اﺳﺖ،‬ ‫اﻡﻜﺎنﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻡﻲﺳﺎزد. اﻳﻦ ﺏﺪان ﻡﻌﻨﻲ اﺳﺖ آﻪ در ﺏﺴﻴﺎري ﻡﻮارد ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﻪ اﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻت راﺿﻲ ﺵﻮﻳﻢ و از ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻡﺸﺨﺺ و دﻗﻴﻖ ﺻﺮفﻧﻈﺮ آﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫اﮔﺮ ﻡﻨﺼﻒ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ، ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﮕﻮﻳﻴﻢ آﻪ هﻤﻪ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚداﻧﺎن ﮔﻤﺎن ﻧﻤﻲآﻨﻨﺪ آﻪ »ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ« وﺟﻮد دارد ﻳﺎ اﮔﺮ هﺴﺖ،‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻴﺎﺏﻲ ﺏﻪ ﺁن ﺏﺮاي ﻡﺎ ﻡﻴﺴﺮ اﺳﺖ. ﺏﻌﻀﻲ از ﺁنهﺎ ﺏﺮ اﻳﻦ ﺏﺎورﻧﺪ آﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺏﺎ ﺏﺎرﻳﻚﺏﻴﻨﻲ و اآﺘﺸﺎﻓﺎت ﭘﻲ در ﭘﻲ ﺏﻪ ﺏﺎز‬ ‫آﺮدن اﻃﺎقهﺎي ﺕﻮ در ﺕﻮي اﺳﺮار اداﻡﻪ ﺧﻮاهﺪ داد وﻟﻲ هﻴﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﺏﻪ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ اﻃﺎق ﻧﻤﻲرﺳﺪ.‬

‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﺏﺠﺎﯼ ﺣﺪس و ﮔﻤﺎن کﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ رﺳﻴﺪن ﺏﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺏﻪ ﻡﻌﻨﯽ کﺎﻡﻞ ﺁن کﻪ هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ را ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دهﺪ و هﻤﻪ ﯼ‬ ‫روﻳﺪادهﺎ را ﭘﻴﺶ ﮔﻮﻳﯽ کﻨﺪ، اﻡﮑﺎن ﭘﺬﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻪ، ﺏﻬﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ ﻧﮕﺎهﯽ ﺏﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﺎﻳﯽ کﻪ ﺕﺎ ﺏﺤﺎل ﻡﻄﺮح ﺵﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺏﻴﺎﻧﺪازﻳﻢ و ﺏﺒﻴﻨﻴﻢ کﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ از ﺁﻧﻬﺎ کﻤﮏ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻪ؟‬ ‫ﺕﺠﺮﺏﻪ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﯽ دهﺪ کﻪ هﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﯼ در ﺏﺪو ﻡﻄﺮح ﺵﺪن، اﺏﻬﺎﻡﺎﺕﯽ را ﺏﺎ ﺧﻮد هﻤﺮاﻩ دارد کﻪ ﻗﺎدر ﺏﻪ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ هﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﯼ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻼﺳﻴﮏ و ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ و ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮم کﻪ ﺏﺰرﮔﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﺎ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺏﻮدﻩ‬ ‫اﻧﺪ. اﻳﻦ اﺏﻬﺎﻡﺎت زﻡﻴﻨﻪ ﯼ ﺕﻼش و ﺕﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺁﺕﯽ را ﻓﺮاهﻢ ﻡﯽ ﺳﺎزﻧﺪ ﺕﺎ ﺏﺮاﯼ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﯼ کﺎﻡﻠﺘﺮ کﻮﺵﺶ کﻨﻴﻢ. ﺳﺌﻮال‬ ‫اﺻﻠﯽ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮان ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﯼ داد کﻪ ﺏﺎ اﺏﻬﺎم و ﻧﺎرﺳﺎﻳﯽ هﻤﺮاﻩ ﻧﺒﺎﺵﺪ؟‬ ‫اﮔﺮ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﯼ وﺟﻮد داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ و ﻡﺎ ﺏﺘﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺁﻧﺮا اراﺉﻪ دهﻴﻢ، دﻳﮕﺮ اﺏﻬﺎﻡﯽ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺨﻮاهﺪ داﺵﺖ کﻪ زﻡﻴﻨﻪ ﯼ‬ ‫ﺕﻼش ﺏﺮاﯼ اراﺉﻪ ﯼ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﯼ کﺎﻡﻠﺘﺮ را ﻓﺮاهﻢ کﻨﺪ. ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﻡﯽ ﻡﺎﻧﺪ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ کﺎرﺏﺮدهﺎﯼ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ را‬ ‫کﺸﻒ و ﻡﻮرد اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻗﺮار دهﻴﻢ. و اﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﯼ ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﺏﺮاﯼ اراﺉﻪ ﯼ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﺎﻳﯽ کﺎﻡﻠﺘﺮ. ﺁﻳﺎ ﺏﺸﺮ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺕﻮاﻧﯽ‬ ‫دارد؟‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮال را ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان در ﭼﺎرﭼﻮب ﻳﮏ ﺏﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﯽ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ داد، ﺏﻠﮑﻪ در ﻡﺤﺪودﻩ ﯼ ﺏﺤﺚ هﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﯽ و ﺏﺎورهﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﯽ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ اﻋﺘﻘﺎدﯼ دارد ﺕﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﯽ و ﺕﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕﯽ.‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - از ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ و ﻧﻮر ﭼﻪ ﻣﻲداﻧﻴﻢ؟‬ ‫ﺳﺮ اﻳﺰاك ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ، در ﺳﺎﻟﻬﺎي 0061 ﭘﺮوﻓﺴﻮر آﺮﺳﻲ ﻟﻮآﺎﺵﻴﻦ رﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت در آﻤﺒﺮﻳﺞ ﺏﻮد. وي هﻤﺎن ﻡﻘﺎﻡﻲ را داﺵﺖ‬ ‫آﻪ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ اﻡﺮوزﻩ دارد. ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻨﻲ را آﺸﻒ آﺮد آﻪ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را در ﺵﺮاﻳﻂ آﻢ و ﺏﻴﺶ ﻋﺎدي،‬ ‫ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻡﻲدهﻨﺪ. ﻧﺨﺴﺖ اﻳﻦ آﻪ اﺟﺴﺎم درﺟﻬﺎن درﺣﺎل ﺳﻜﻮن ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺏﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺁن اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﻓﻜﺮ آﻨﻴﻢ، در‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎن، هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ در ﺣﺎل ﺣﺮآﺖ اﺳﺖ. ﻡﺎ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮآﺖ ﺧﻮد را ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ اﺟﺴﺎﻡﻲ آﻪ در‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎن وﺟﻮد دارﻧﺪ، ﺏﺴﻨﺠﻴﻢ، اﻡﺎ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺁن را ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻜﻮن ﻡﻄﻠﻖ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻴﺰي ﻡﺜﻞ ﺵﻤﺎل و ﺟﻨﻮب، ﺏﺎﻻ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻡﻄﻠﻖ اﻧﺪازﻩﮔﻴﺮي آﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﺧﻂ راﺳﺖ ﺏﺪون ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻡﺜﺎل، اﮔﺮ آﺮﻩ ﻡﺎﻩ در ﻓﻀﺎ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﺏﻮد، در ﺣﺎل ﺳﻜﻮن ﻧﻤﻲﻡﺎﻧﺪ ﺏﻠﻜﻪ در اﻡﺘﺪاد‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ، ﺏﻪ ﺣﺮآﺖ ﺧﻮد اداﻡﻪ ﻡﻲداد. ﻧﻴﺮوﻳﻲ ﻡﻮﺳﻮم ﺏﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ، ﻡﺎﻩ را وادار ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ آﻪ ﺕﻨﺪي ﺣﺮآﺖ و ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺮآﺖ ﺧﻮد را ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ دهﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮو از آﺠﺎ ﻡﻲﺁﻳﺪ؟ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮو از ﻡﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺁراء ذرات ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺏﻪهﻢ )ﺟﺴﻤﻲ ﺏﺎ ﺟﺮم‬ ‫زﻳﺎد( ﻡﻲﺁﻳﺪ آﻪ هﻤﺎن زﻡﻴﻦ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. در هﻤﻴﻦ ﺣﺎل، ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻡﺎﻩ ﻧﻴﺰ روي زﻡﻴﻦ ﺕﺄﺙﻴﺮ ﻡﻲﮔﺬارد. ﻡﻲداﻧﻴﻢ آﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺏﺎرزش ﺟﺬر و ﻡﺪ اﻗﻴﺎﻧﻮسهﺎﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ و ﺟﺴﻢ دﻳﮕﺮ، ﺕﺄﺙﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ ﺏﻪ ﻡﺎ ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ آﻪ ﻡﻘﺪار ﺟﺮم ﻳﻚ ﺟﺴﻢ، ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺏﺮ ﺵﺪت ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺁن‬ ‫ﻡﻲﮔﺬارد. هﺮ ﻗﺪر ﺟﺮم زﻳﺎدﺕﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺟﺎذﺏﻪ ﺵﺪﻳﺪﺕﺮ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد.‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ، ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﻡﻮﻓﻘﻲ ﺏﻮد و ﺕﺎ 002 ﺳﺎل ﺏﻌﺪ، ﻡﻮرد ﺕﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ واﻗﻊ ﻧﺸﺪ. هﻨﻮز هﻢ ﻡﺎ از ﺁن‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻡﻲآﻨﻴﻢ در ﺣﺎﻟﻲ آﻪ ﻡﻲداﻧﻴﻢ، ﺏﻌﻀﻲ ﺵﺮاﻳﻂ، ﻡﺜﻼ اﮔﺮ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎي ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ ﻓﻮقاﻟﻌﺎدﻩ ﺵﺪﻳﺪ ﺏﺎﺵﻨﺪ)ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻡﺜﺎل در ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﻲ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ( ﻳﺎ زﻡﺎﻧﻲ آﻪ اﺟﺴﺎم ﺏﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﻡﻌﺎدل ﻧﻮر ﺣﺮآﺖ آﻨﻨﺪ، اﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺻﺎدق‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.‬ ‫ﺁﻟﺒﺮت اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ، در اواﻳﻞ اﻳﻦ ﻗﺮن، ﺏﻪ ﻡﺸﻜﻠﻲ در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ ﭘﻲ ﺏﺮد. داﻧﺴﺘﻴﻢ آﻪ ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ، ﺵﺪت ﮔﺮاﻧﻲ ﺏﻴﻦ دو ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫را ﺏﻪ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ، ﻡﺮﺏﻮط ﻡﻲداﻧﺴﺖ. در ﺻﻮرﺕﻲ آﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪ درﺳﺖ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، اﮔﺮ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ در ﻳﻚ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺏﻪ هﺮ‬ ‫دﻟﻴﻠﻲ ﺏﻪ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ دورﺕﺮ از زﻡﻴﻦ ﺏﺮود، ﻡﻲﺏﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﺟﺎذﺏﻪ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ و زﻡﻴﻦ در هﻤﺎن ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ آﻨﺪ. ﺁﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﭼﻴﺰي ﻡﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺧﺎص اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ آﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺙﺎﺏﺖ اﺳﺖ. در هﺮ ﻡﻜﺎن از ﺟﻬﺎن و ﺏﺎ هﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ آﻪ اﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫ﺣﺮآﺖ آﻨﻨﺪ، ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ و هﻴﭻ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ، ﺏﺎﻻﺕﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﻧﻮر ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ در زﻡﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻡﻌﺎدل 8 دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻡﺎ ﻡﻲرﺳﺪ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ، ﻡﺎ هﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ را ﺁن ﻃﻮر ﻡﻲﺏﻴﻨﻴﻢ آﻪ هﺸﺖ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺏﻮدﻩ اﺳﺖ. اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ از زﻡﻴﻦ دور ﺵﻮد، 8 دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺏﻌﺪ، ﻡﺎ ﺏﻪ هﺮ اﺙﺮي آﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﭘﻲ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ ﺏﺮد. ﺏﺮاي 8‬ ‫ً‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ،ﻡﺎ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ را در هﻤﺎن ﻡﺪار ﻡﻲﺏﻴﻨﻴﻢ آﻪ ﻗﺒﻼ دﻳﺪﻩاﻳﻢ. ﻡﺜﻞ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ ﺣﺮآﺘﻲ ﻧﻜﺮدﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺏﻪ ﻋﺒﺎرت‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮ، اﺙﺮ ﮔﺮاﻧﻲ ﻳﻚ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺏﺮ ﺟﺴﻢ دﻳﮕﺮ، ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﻓﻮرا ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ آﻨﺪ. زﻳﺮا ﺳﺮﻋﺖ اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ آﻪ زﻳﺎدﺕﺮ از‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. اﻃﻼع از اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ ﭼﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ دور ﺵﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ، ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﻓﻮرا از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺏﻪ ﻡﺎ ﺏﺮﺳﺪ.‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ اﻃﻼعرﺳﺎﻧﻲ، ﺏﻪ هﺮ وﺳﻴﻠﻪاي آﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﻧﺨﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد.‬

‫ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ روﺵﻦ اﺳﺖ آﻪ اﮔﺮ ﺏﺨﻮاهﻴﻢ در ﺏﺎرﻩ ﺣﺮآﺖ اﺟﺴﺎم در ﺟﻬﺎن ﮔﻔﺘﮕﻮ آﻨﻴﻢ، واﻗﻊ ﺏﻴﻨﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺨﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد آﻪ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻪ ﺏﻌﺪ ﻓﻀﺎ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ. اﮔﺮ هﻴﭻ ﭼﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ از ﻧﻮر ﻡﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺵﻮد، ﭼﻴﺰهﺎﻳﻲ در ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪهﺎي‬ ‫ﻧﺠﻮﻡﻲ، ﺻﺮﻓﺎ ﺏﺪون ﻳﻚ ﻋﺎﻡﻞ زﻡﺎن ﻧﻪ ﺏﺮاي ﻡﺎ وﺟﻮد دارﻧﺪ و ﻧﻪ ﺏﺮاي ﺧﻮد ﺧﻮد ﺁن ﭼﻴﺰهﺎ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ. ﺕﻮﺻﻴﻒ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎن در ﺳﻪ ﺏﻌﺪ هﻤﺎن ﻗﺪر ﻧﺎآﺎﻓﻲ اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﺏﺨﻮاهﻴﻢ ﻳﻚ ﻡﻜﻌﺐ را در دو ﺏﻌﺪ ﺕﻮﺻﻴﻒ کﻨﻴﻢ. ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﭘﺮﻡﻌﻨﻲﺕﺮ ﺧﻮاهﺪ‬ ‫ﺏﻮد آﻪ ﺏﻌﺪﯼ ﺏﻪﻧﺎم زﻡﺎن را ﺏﻪ اﺏﻌﺎد دﻳﮕﺮ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ آﻨﻴﻢ. ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺏﭙﺬﻳﺮﻳﻢ آﻪ در واﻗﻊ، ﭼﻬﺎر ﺏﻌﺪ وﺟﻮد دارد و ﺏﻪ ﺏﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن ﺏﭙﺮدازﻳﻢ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ دو ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ وﺟﻮد دارد، اول ﺁﻳﺎ در ﺕﻮﺟﻴﻪ و ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻡﺎ داراﯼ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺏﺨﺶ‬ ‫هﺴﺘﻴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻪ؟ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎت ﺏﺎﻻ در ﻡﻮرد ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ از دﻳﺪ ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮم و ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻧﺸﺎن داد کﻪ هﻨﻮز از ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻡﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﯼ ﺏﺮﺧﻮردار ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻴﻢ. اﻡﺎ ﻡﯽ داﻧﻴﻢ کﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺏﺮ ﻧﻮر ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ دارد. اﻳﻦ ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ کﻪ در ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﭘﻴﺶ ﮔﻮﻳﯽ ﺵﺪ،‬ ‫در ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮم هﻢ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺵﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ و ﺏﺎ ﺕﺠﺮﺏﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺳﺎزﮔﺎر اﺳﺖ. ﺣﺮکﺖ ﻧﻮر از ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ ﺕﺎ زﻡﻴﻦ در‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎﻳﯽ ﺁکﻨﺪﻩ از ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد.‬ ‫دوم اﻳﻨﮑﻪ در ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺧﺎص هﻴﭻ ﭘﻴﺰﯼ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺏﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﯽ ﺏﺎﻻﺕﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺣﺮکﺖ کﻨﺪ، ﺁﻳﺎ ﺵﺎﻡﻞ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ )ﻳﺎ‬ ‫از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﯽ ﺵﺎﻡﻞ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن( هﻢ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد ﻳﺎ ﺧﻴﺮ؟ زﻡﺎﻧﯽ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮال ﺟﻮاب ﻗﻄﻌﯽ ﺏﺪهﻴﻢ کﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را اﻧﺪازﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ کﻪ ﺁن هﻢ هﻨﻮز اﻧﺠﺎم ﻧﺸﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫اﻡﺎ دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺮﯼ و ﺵﻮاهﺪ ﺕﺠﺮﺏﯽ ﻗﻮﯼ وﺟﻮد دارد کﻪ ﻧﻮر و ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﻪ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﺏﺮ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ ﻡﯽ ﮔﺬارﻧﺪ، ﺏﻠﮑﻪ هﺮ‬ ‫دو ﺏﻪ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺟﺎﺏﺠﺎﻳﯽ ﺏﺴﻤﺖ ﺳﺮخ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﯽ دهﺪ کﻪ ﻓﺮکﺎﻧﺲ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن هﻨﮕﺎم ﺕﺮﮎ کﺮدن‬ ‫ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﺴﻤﺖ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻡﻴﻞ ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ هﻤﻪ ﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺧﻮد را از دﺳﺖ ﻡﯽ دهﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﺏﺤﺜﯽ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺏﻄﻮر ﻡﻔﺼﻞ ﺁن را ﻡﻮرد ﺏﺮرﺳﯽ ﻗﺮار دادﻩ و ﻧﺸﺎن دادﻩ کﻪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺧﻮد از ذرات زﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﯽ ﺏﺎر-‬ ‫رﻧﮕﻬﺎ )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ( ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﺳﺮﻋﺖ اﻳﻦ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ )ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﻃﯽ ﺵﺪﻩ در واﺣﺪ زﻡﺎن ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻟﺨﺖ(‬ ‫ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﯽ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن اﺳﺖ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻡﯽ رﺳﻴﻢ کﻪ وﻗﺘﯽ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻡﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﺪ هﻴﭻ ﭼﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ از ﻧﻮر ﺣﺮکﺖ کﻨﺪ، اﻟﺰاﻡﺎ ﺵﺎﻡﻞ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن )ﺁﺙﺎر ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ( ﻧﻤﯽ ﺵﻮد.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻻزم ﺏﻪ ﺕﮑﺮار اﺳﺖ ﺕﺎ زﻡﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻡﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﻧﺸﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ اﻳﻢ، ﺏﺎ ﻡﻌﻤﺎهﺎﯼ ﺏﺴﻴﺎرﯼ روﺏﺮو هﺴﺘﻴﻢ کﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺏﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻡﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺏﺪهﻴﻢ. اﻡﺎ در ﻡﻮرد ﺳﻪ ﺏﻌﺪ ﻓﻀﺎ و ﻳﮏ ﺏﻌﺪ زﻡﺎن، ﺏﺎﻳﺪ در ﻧﻈﺮ داﺵﺖ کﻪ ﺧﻮد ﻓﻀﺎ از ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ‬ ‫)ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ( اﻧﺒﺎﺵﺘﻪ ﺵﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺕﺎ زﻡﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻡﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﯼ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺣﻞ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ، ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان ﻓﻘﻂ ﺏﻪ ﭼﻬﺎر ﺏﻌﺪ ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن اکﺘﻔﺎ‬ ‫کﺮد. ﺧﻮد ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺏﺮ ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺏﺮ روﯼ رﻓﺘﺎر ﺳﺎﻋﺖ هﺎ ﺕﺎکﻴﺪ دارد، ﭼﮓ.ﻧﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ زﻡﺎن را ﻡﺴﺘﻘﻞ از‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻓﺮض کﺮدﻩ و ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﺏﻪ ﭼﻬﺎر ﺏﻌﺪ ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن ﻡﺤﺪود ﺵﻮﻳﻢ. واﻗﻌﻴﺖ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺕﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﻴﮑﻪ کﻪ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﻡﺘﺎﺙﺮ از‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را در ﻧﻈﺮ دارﻳﻢ، ﺏﺎﻳﺴﺘﯽ در اﺏﻌﺎد ﻡﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﺏﺎ اﺣﺘﻴﺎط ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد کﻨﻴﻢ. ﭼﻮن ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ را ﻡﺴﺘﻘﻞ از‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ واﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺳﺘﺎرﮔﺎن داراﯼ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺏﻌﺪ ﻡﯽ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺳﻪ ﺏﻌﺪ ﺏﺮاﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ، ﻳﮏ ﺏﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺏﺮاﯼ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ و ﻳﮏ ﺏﻌﺪ ﺏﺮاﯼ زﻡﺎن.‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم و ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻣﺎن‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﺎل ﺏﻲوﻗﻔﻪ در ﺕﻼش ﺏﻮد ﺕﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪاي در ﺏﺎرﻩ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺏﻴﺎﺏﺪ آﻪ ﺏﺎ ﺁنﭼﻪ ﺧﻮد او در ﺏﺎرﻩ ﻧﻮر و‬ ‫ﺣﺮآﺖ ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺏﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺏﻮد، هﻢﺧﻮان ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. او در ﺳﺎل 5191، ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم را اﻋﻼن آﺮد.‬ ‫ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻧﻴﺮوﻳﻲ ﺏﻴﻦ اﺟﺴﺎم، ﺏﻠﻜﻪ ﺏﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺵﻜﻞ و ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن ﭼﻬﺎر ﺏﻌﺪي، در‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. در ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم، ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ، هﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺏﺮ اﺳﺎس ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ، ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ، ﺏﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ وﺟﻮد ﺟﺮم و اﻧﺮژي اﻳﺠﺎد ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. هﺮ ﺟﺴﻢ ﭘﺮﺟﺮم ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﺏﺰرگ، در‬ ‫ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن، ﻧﻘﺶ دارد. اﺟﺴﺎﻡﻲ آﻪ در »اﻡﺘﺪاد ﺧﻄﻲ ﻡﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ در ﺟﻬﺎن ﺣﺮآﺖ ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ"، ﻡﺠﺒﻮر‬ ‫ﺏﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل آﺮدن ﻡﺴﻴﺮهﺎي ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩاي هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. زﻡﺎﻧﻲ آﻪ آﺮﻩ ﻡﺎﻩ روي ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﻡﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻲ در ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﻲ زﻡﻴﻦ ﻗﺮار‬ ‫دارد، روي ﻡﻲدهﺪ. زﻡﻴﻦ، ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن را اﻧﺤﻨﺎ ﻡﯽ دهﺪ و ﻡﺪار ﻡﺎﻩ، ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺏﻪ ﺧﻂ ﻡﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ، در‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن ﻡﻨﺤﺮف ﺵﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. از ﻧﻈﺮ اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ، ﻳﻚ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺏﺎ ﺟﺮم زﻳﺎد، ﻡﻮﺟﺐ اﻧﺤﺮاف ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﻤﻮﻡﻲ، ﻡﻴﺪان ﺟﺎذﺏﻪ، و ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﯽ دو ﻡﻔﻬﻮم ﻳﻜﺴﺎناﻧﺪ.‬ ‫اﮔﺮ ﻡﺪارهﺎي ﺳﻴﺎرات ﻡﻨﻈﻮﻡﻪ ﺵﻤﺴﻲ را ﺏﺮ اﺳﺎس ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪهﺎي ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ و ﺳﭙﺲ ﺏﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﻡﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ‬ ‫آﻨﻴﻢ، ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ، ﺏﺠﺰ در ﻡﻮرد ﻋﻄﺎرد، ﺕﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻳﻜﺴﺎن ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد. زﻳﺮا ﻋﻄﺎرد ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺎرﻩ ﺏﻪ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﺳﺖ و ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺕﺤﺖ ﺕﺄﺙﻴﺮ ﺟﺎذﺏﻪ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ، ﻗﺮار ﻡﻲﮔﻴﺮد. ﭘﻴﺶﺏﻴﻨﻲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﻲ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ،‬

‫اﻧﺪآﻲ ﺏﺎ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ ﺏﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻡﻲﺁﻳﺪ، ﻡﺘﻔﺎوت اﺳﺖ. ﻡﺸﺎهﺪات ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﻲدهﺪ آﻪ ﻡﺪار ﻋﻄﺎرد، ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶﺏﻴﻨﻲ اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ، هﻢﺧﻮاﻧﻲ ﺏﻬﺘﺮي دارد، ﺕﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ.‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ، ﭘﻴﺶﮔﻮﻳﻲ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ آﻪ ﭼﻴﺰهﺎي دﻳﮕﺮي ﺏﺠﺰ ﻡﺎﻩ و ﺳﻴﺎرات ﻧﻴﺰ، ﺕﺤﺖ ﺕﺄﺙﻴﺮ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن‬ ‫ﻗﺮار ﻡﻲﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ. ﻡﺜﻼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ )ذرات ﻧﻮر(، ﺏﺎﻳﺪ در ﻓﻀﺎي ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﺣﺮآﺖ آﻨﻨﺪ. اﮔﺮ ﺏﺎرﻳﻜﻪ ﻧﻮري آﻪ از‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎرﻩاي دور ﺳﻴﺮ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ، ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﺁن از ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﻲ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ ﺏﮕﺬرد، ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن در ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﻲ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻡﻮﺟﺐ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد آﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻡﺴﻴﺮ اﻧﺪآﻲ ﺏﻪ ﻃﺮف ﺧﻮردﺵﻴﺪ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﺵﻮد.‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎرﻩﺵﻨﺎﺳﺎن، ﺏﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از اﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ، ﺟﺮم اﺟﺴﺎم ﺁﺳﻤﺎﻧﻲ را ﺏﺎ اﻧﺪازﻩﮔﻴﺮي ﻡﻘﺪار اﻧﺤﺮاف ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر ﺳﺘﺎرﮔﺎن دور،‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ. هﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺟﺮم اﻳﻦ »ﺧﻢآﻨﻨﺪﻩ« زﻳﺎدﺕﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد. اﻟﺒﺘﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻡﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ آﻪ در ﺁن ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در ﺳﺘﺎرﮔﺎن، آﻬﻜﺸﺎﻧﻬﺎ و ﺣﺘﻲ ﺕﻤﺎم ﺟﻬﺎن ﺁﺵﻜﺎر ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. اﻡﺎ، ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را ﻡﻲﺕﻮان در‬ ‫ﻡﻘﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎي ﺏﺴﻴﺎر آﻮﭼﻚ، ﺣﺘﻲ ﺕﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻡﻮرد ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮار داد. در ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ، اﮔﺮ ﻡﺎ ﺏﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﻢ، هﺮﮔﺰ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺏﻪ ﻳﮕﺎﻧﮕﻲ ﺁن ﺏﺎ ﺳﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوي دﻳﮕﺮ آﻪ دوﺕﺎي ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ دراﻳﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ،‬ ‫دﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﺏﻴﻢ. روش ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ ﺏﺮاي در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻡﺎﻩ و زﻡﻴﻦ ﺁن اﺳﺖ آﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮو را ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ﺕﺒﺎدل ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ )ﺏﻮزوﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ذرات ﭘﻴﺎمرﺳﺎن ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ(، ﺏﻴﻦ ذرات ﺕﺸﻜﻴﻞ دهﻨﺪﻩ اﻳﻦ دو آﺮﻩ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم ﺏﺨﻮﺏﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺎﻳﯽ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺧﻮد را ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﻴﻮﺕﻦ در ﺕﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻡﺪار ﻋﻄﺎرد ﻧﺸﺎن دهﺪ. ﻋﻼوﻩ ﺏﺮ‬ ‫ﺁن ﺏﺮاﯼ اوﻟﻴﻦ ﺏﺎر ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﺪاﻧﺎن را ﺏﻪ ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﻡﻨﺤﻨﯽ ﺵﮑﻞ ﻧﻮر در اﻃﺮاف اﺟﺴﺎم ﭼﮕﺎل ﺟﻠﺐ کﻨﺪ. اﻡﺎ ﺏﺎ ﺣﺬف‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻳﮏ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﺳﺎﺳﯽ، ﻡﺴﻴﺮ اﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﯼ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﺪاﻧﺎن را ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ داد. در ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫هﻨﺪﺳﯽ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻡﻮرد ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮار ﻡﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. اﻡﺎ ﺏﻪ ﻋﻠﻞ اﻳﻦ اﻧﺤﻨﺎ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر هﻨﮕﺎم ﻋﺒﻮر از کﻨﺎر اﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫ﻡﻨﺤﺮف ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد و اﻳﻦ ﭼﻴﺰﯼ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺏﺎ ﺕﺠﺮﺏﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺳﺎزﮔﺎر اﺳﺖ. ﺁﻳﺎ زﻡﺎن ﺁن ﻧﺮﺳﻴﺪﻩ کﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ را‬ ‫ﻡﻮرد ﺕﻮﺟﻪ و ﺏﺮرﺳﯽ ﻗﺮار دهﻴﻢ؟ در ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ اﻳﻨﮕﻮن ﻋﻨﻮان ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد کﻪ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ، ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ وﺟﻮد ﺟﺮم و اﻧﺮژي‬ ‫اﻳﺠﺎد ﻣﻲﺷﻮد.‬ ‫اﻳﻦ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ را کﻪ ﻧﺎﺵﯽ از وﺟﻮد ﺟﺮم اﺳﺖ، ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دهﻴﻢ؟ اﮔﺮ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ اﻡﺮ ﺏﺴﻨﺪﻩ کﻨﻴﻢ کﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ داراﯼ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﺳﺖ و ﺏﺪﻧﺒﺎل ﻋﻠﺖ ﺁن ﻧﺒﺎﺵﻴﻢ، از روش ﻋﻠﻤﯽ در ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد ﺏﺎ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ هﺎ دور ﺵﺪﻩ اﻳﻢ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺏﺒﻴﻨﻴﻢ کﻪ وﺟﻮد ﻡﺎدﻩ ﺏﺮ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ اﻃﺮاف ﺁن ﭼﻪ ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮﯼ ﻡﯽ ﮔﺬارد کﻪ ﻡﻮﺟﺐ اﻧﺤﺮاف ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد. اﺟﺴﺎم در‬ ‫اﻃﺮاف ﺧﻮد ﺧﻮد ﻳﮏ ﻡﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ اﻳﺠﺎد ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﻡﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ در ﺳﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻼﺳﻴﮏ، ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺎم و ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮم ﻡﻮرد ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫در ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻼﺳﻴﮏ، ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ ﻡﺘﻘﺎﺏﻞ هﻤﻪ ﯼ اﺟﺴﺎم اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ را ﺟﺬب ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ، هﻴﭻ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺢ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ‬ ‫در اﻳﻦ زﻡﻴﻨﻪ اراﺉﻪ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. در ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ اﺙﺮ هﻨﺪﺳﯽ ﺟﺮم ﺏﺮ ﻓﻀﺎﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺁن را ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ. در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ‬ ‫هﻢ ﺕﻮﺿﻴﺤﯽ دادﻩ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ کﻪ ﭼﺮا ﺟﺮم ﻓﻀﺎﯼ اﻃﺮاف ﺧﻮد را ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ. در ﻡﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮم هﻢ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را ﻧﺎﺵﯽ‬ ‫از ﺕﺒﺎدل ذرات )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ( ﻡﯽ داﻧﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ ذرﻩ ﯼ ﺕﺒﺎدﻟﯽ ﻳﮏ ﮔﺎم ﺟﻠﻮﺕﺮ از دو ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﯼ ﻗﺒﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ. اﻡﺎ اﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺮش‬ ‫هﻢ ﻧﺘﻮاﻧﺴﺘﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻡﺸﮑﻼت ﻡﻮﺟﻮد ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دهﺪ. ﺏﻬﻤﻴﻦ دﻟﻴﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﺎﯼ ﻡﺨﺘﻠﻔﯽ از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ رﻳﺴﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ و ﻟﻮپ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮم‬ ‫ﺕﺌﻮرﯼ ﻡﻄﺮح ﺵﺪﻧﺪ. اﻡﺎ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﻡﺘﻔﺎوت از هﻤﻪ ﯼ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﺎﯼ ﻡﻮﺟﺪ اﺳﺖ. اﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺮش ﺏﺮ اﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻳﮑﺴﺮﯼ دﻻﺉﻞ ﻡﻨﻄﻘﯽ و ﻡﺸﺎهﺪات ﺕﺠﺮﺏﯽ ﺵﮑﻞ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ کﻪ در ﻓﺼﻮل ﻳﮏ و دو ﻡﻄﺮح ﺵﺪ. ﺏﺮ اﺳﺎس اﻳﻦ دﻻﻳﻞ، از‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.، ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻳﮏ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن داﺉﻤﯽ از ﺕﺒﺎدل ذراﺕﯽ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺧﻮاص اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ از ﺧﻮد ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﯽ‬ ‫دهﻨﺪ کﻪ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪﻩ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻳﮏ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن اﺳﺖ. اﻳﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن داﺉﻤﻲ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺕﻤﺎم ذرات و اﺟﺴ ﺎم وﺟ ﻮد دارد. ﺏ ﻪ ﻋﻨ ﻮان‬ ‫ﻡﺜﺎل ﺏﻪ زﻡﻴﻦ و ﻡﺎﻩ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ کﻨﻴﺪ. زﻡﻴﻦ داراي ﻡﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ اﺳﺖ. ﻳﮏ ﻡﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ از ﺕﻌﺪاد ﻡﺘﻨﺎﺏﻬﻲ ﺳ ﻲ. ﭘ ﻲ. اچ.‬ ‫)ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘ ﻮن( ﺕﺸ ﮑﻴﻞ ﺵ ﺪﻩ اﺳ ﺖ. ﭘ ﺲ ﻡﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﻲ زﻡ ﻴﻦ ﻧﻴ ﺰ ﺕﻌ ﺪاد ﺏﻴﺸ ﻤﺎري ﺳ ﻲ. ﭘ ﻲ. اچ ﺕﺸ ﮑﻴﻞ ﺵ ﺪﻩ اﺳ ﺖ در‬ ‫اﻃﺮاف زﻡﻴﻦ در ﺣﺮکﺖ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺎهﻲ ﺏﻪ زﻡﻴﻦ و ﻡﺎﻩ ﺏﻴﻨﺪازﻳﺪ. در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ دو ﻡﻴﺪان وﺟﻮد دارد، ﻳﮑﻲ ﻡﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﻲ زﻡ ﻴﻦ و دﻳﮕ ﺮي ﻡﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﻲ‬ ‫ﻡﺎﻩ. هﻨﮕﺎﻡﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن ﺏﻪ زﻡﻴﻦ ﻡﻲ رﺳﺪ، ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن دﻳﮕﺮي زﻡﻴﻦ را ﺕﺮﮎ ﻡ ﻲ کﻨ ﺪ ﺏ ﻪ دﻟﻴ ﻞ اﻳﻨﮑ ﻪ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘ ﻮن‬ ‫ﻳﮏ زﻳﺮ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮم ﺏﺎ ﺧﻮاص ﺏﺎر – رﻧﮕﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – رﻧﮕﻲ اﺳﺖ، هﻨﮕﺎم ﺕﺮﮎ زﻡﻴﻦ، ﺁﻧﺮا ﺏﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﺧﻮد ﻡﻲ کﺸﺪ.‬ ‫ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻡﺜﺎل ﻓﺮض کﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﺏﺎر – رﻧﮓ )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن( از ﻡﺎﻩ ﺏﻪ زﻡﻴﻦ ﺏﺮاﺳﺪ و ﺏﻪ ﻳﮏ اﺕﻢ زﻡ ﻴﻦ وارد ﺵ ﻮد و وارد‬

‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺵﻮد. ﺕﻌﺎدل اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺏﻬﻢ ﻡﻲ ﺧﻮرد و اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻡﺬکﻮر ﺏﺎ ارﺳﺎل ﺏ ﺎر- رﻧ ﮓ ﻡﺸ ﺎﺏﻬﻲ )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘ ﻮن‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮي( ﻡﻘ ﺪار ﺏ ﺎر اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﻲ ﺧ ﻮد را ﺙﺎﺏ ﺖ ﻧﮕ ﺎﻩ ﻡ ﻲ دارد. ﺏ ﺎر-رﻧ ﮓ ورودي و ﺧﺮوﺟ ﻲ از ﻧﻈ ﺮ ﻋﻼﻡ ﺖ ﻳﮑﺴ ﺎن‬ ‫هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺕﺎ ﺏﺎر اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺙﺎﺏﺖ ﺏﻤﺎﻧﺪ. هﻨﮕﺎﻡﻴﮑﻪ ﺏﺎر – رﻧﮓ ورودي وارد ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن اﺕﻢ ﻡﻲ ﺵ ﻮد، ﺏ ﺎ ﺕﻮﺟ ﻪ ﺏ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻡﺖ ﺁن )ﻡﻨﻔﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻡﺜﺒﺖ( ﺏﻄﺮف اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻳﺎ ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻡﺴﻴﺮ ﻡﻲ دهﺪ و ﺟﺬب ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻡﻲ ﺵﻮد. ﻓ ﺮض کﻨ ﻴﻢ ﺏ ﺎر –‬ ‫رﻧ ﮓ ورودي ﻡﻨﻔ ﻲ اﺳ ﺖ ک ﻪ ﺟ ﺬب ﭘﺮوﺕ ﻮن ﻡ ﻲ ﺵ ﻮد. ﺏ ﺎ ورود ﺏ ﺎر-رﻧ ﮓ ﻡﻨﻔ ﻲ ﺏ ﻪ ﺳ ﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﭘﺮوﺕ ﻮن، ﺕﻌ ﺎدل ﺏ ﺎر‬ ‫ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﺏﻬﻢ ﻡﻲ ﺧﻮرد. ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﻡﺰﺏﻮر ﺏﺮاي ﺣﻔﻆ ﻡﻘﺪار ﺏﺎر اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ کﻪ ﻡﻮﺟﻮدﻳ ﺖ و ﺧ ﻮاص ﭘﺮوﺕ ﻮن ﻡﺮﺏ ﻮط ﺏ ﻪ‬ ‫ﺁن اﺳﺖ، ﺏﺎر – رﻧﮓ ﻡﺰﺏﻮر را ﺏ ﺎز ﭘ ﺲ ﻡ ﻲ ﻓﺮﺳ ﺘﺪ و ﺏ ﺎر – رﻧ ﮓ ﺏ ﺎ ﺳ ﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﺏ ﺎﻻﺕﺮ از ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﻧ ﻮر، ﭘﺮوﺕ ﻮن را‬ ‫ﺕﺮﮎ ﻡﻲ کﻨﺪ. اﻡﺎ ﺏﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ ﺏﺎر – رﻧﮕﻲ ﻡﻨﻔﻲ کﻪ دارد، ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن را ﺏﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﺧﻮد ﻡﻲ کﺸﺪ. ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﻡﺰﺏﻮر در ک ﻨﺶ ﺏ ﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ذرات، ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﺏﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﺧﻮد ﻡﻲ کﺸﺪ.‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻘﺎ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﮔﻠﻮﺉﻮن هﺎ)ﮔﻠﻮﺉﻮن ﺏﻪ ﻡﻌﻨﻲ ﭼﺴﺐ اﺳﺖ( کﻪ ﻡﻮﺟﺐ کﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺵﺪن کﻮارکﻬﺎ ﺏﻄﺮف ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻡﻲ ﺵﻮد. ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﭘﺮوﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺧﻮد ﻧﻴﺰ از کﻮارکﻬﺎ ﺏﺎ ﺏﺎر اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ کﺴﺮي ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺵﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ، در واﻗﻊ ﺏﺎر – رﻧﮓ هﺎي‬ ‫ورودي )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ( ﺏﺎ کﻮارکﻬﺎ کﻨﺶ ﺧﻮاهﻨﺪ داﺵﺖ. در ﻡﻮرد اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﺤﺚ ﻡﺸﺎﺏﻬﻲ ﻡﻲ ﺕﻮان اراﺉﻪ داد.‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - اﮔﺮ روزي زﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﺸﺮدﻩ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﮔﺮ واﻗﻌﻪ ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﺵﮕﻔﺖاﻧﮕﻴﺰﺕﺮي روي دهﺪ ﭼﻪ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد؟ اﮔﺮ زﻡﻴﻦ ﺕﺎ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﻳﻚ ﻧﺨﻮد ﻓﺸﺮدﻩ ﺵﻮد، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺕﻤﺎم ﺟﺮم‬ ‫در ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ ﺁﻧﻘﺪر آﻮﭼﻚ ﺕﻤﺮآﺰ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ؟ ﮔﺮاﻧﻲ در ﺳﻄﺢ اﻳﻦ آﺮﻩ ﻧﺨﻮدي ﺁﻧﻘﺪر ﺵﺪﻳﺪ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد آﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﺁن،‬ ‫ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد. زﻡﻴﻦ ﺏﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﺣﺘﻲ ﻧﻮر هﻢ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ از ﺁن ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰد. ﺏﺎ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد اﻳﻦ، در ﺵﻌﺎﻋﻲ از ﻓﻀﺎي ﺧﺎرج ﺁن، ﺟﺎﻳﻲ آﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ زﻡﻴﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﺸﺮدﮔﻲ ﺏﻮدﻩ، آﺸﺶ ﮔﺮاﻧﻲ زﻡﻴﻦ هﻨﻮز‬ ‫هﻤﺎن اﺳﺖ آﻪ اﻡﺮوز اﺣﺴﺎس ﻡﻲآﻨﻴﻢ. آﺮﻩ ﻡﺎﻩ ﻡﺜﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ، روي ﻡﺪار ﺧﻮد در ﺣﺮآﺖ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد.‬ ‫ﺕﺎ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ آﻪ ﻡﺎ ﻡﻲداﻧﻴﻢ، ﭼﻨﻴﻦ داﺳﺘﺎﻧﻲ روي ﻧﺨﻮاهﺪ داد. ﺳﻴﺎرﻩهﺎ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﻤﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. اﻡﺎ اﺣﺘﻤﺎل ﺁن زﻳﺎد‬ ‫اﺳﺖ آﻪ اﻳﻦ واﻗﻌﻪ ﺏﺮاي ﺏﻌﻀﻲ از ﺳﺘﺎرﮔﺎن، روي دهﺪ. اآﻨﻮن هﻤﻴﻦ داﺳﺘﺎن را، در ﺏﺎرﻩ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺏﺎزﮔﻮ ﻡﻲآﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫از ﺳﺘﺎرﻩاي ﺵﺮوع آﻨﻴﻢ آﻪ ﺟﺮﻡﻲ در ﺣﺪود دﻩ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﺟﺮم ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ دارد. ﺵﻌﺎع ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺕﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ 3 ﻡﻴﻠﻴﻮن آﻴﻠﻮﻡﺘﺮ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ 5 ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﺵﻌﺎع ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از اﻳﻦ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺣﺪود 0001 آﻴﻠﻮﻡﺘﺮ در ﺙﺎﻧﻴﻪ و ﻋﻤﺮ ﺁن ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺏﻪ 001 ﻡﻴﻠﻴﻮن ﺳﺎل اﺳﺖ و و در اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻡﺪت زﻡﺎن، زﻧﺪﮔﻲ و ﻡﺮگ و آﺸﺎآﺶ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎ ﺏﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ اداﻡﻪ دارد. در ﻳﻚ ﺳﻮي اﻳﻦ آﺸﺎآﺶ، ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ اﺳﺖ. ﺟﺎذﺏﻪ‬ ‫هﺮ ذرﻩ ﻡﻮﺟﻮد در ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ، ﺏﺮاي ﺟﺬب ذرات دﻳﮕﺮ. ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ، در اﻳﻦ ﻡﺴﺎﺏﻘﻪ، ﺳﻌﻲ در رﻡﺒﻴﺪن)آﻮﻻﭘﺲ( ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ دارد.‬ ‫ﻃﺮف ﻡﻘﺎﺏﻞ اﻳﻦ آﺸﺎآﺶ، ﻧﻴﺮوي ﻓﺸﺎر ﮔﺎز در ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ اﺳﺖ. اﻳﻦ ﻓﺸﺎر از ﮔﺮاﻡﺎي ﺣﺎﺻﻞ از هﻤﺠﻮﺵﻲ هﺴﺘﻪهﺎي‬ ‫هﻴﺪروژن، و ﺕﺸﻜﻴﻞ هﺴﺘﻪ هﻠﻴﻮم ﻧﺎﺵﻲ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. اﻳﻦ اﻧﺮژي ﮔﺮﻡﺎﻳﻲ، ﻡﻮﺟﺐ درﺧﺸﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد و ﻓﺸﺎر آﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺏﺮاي ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺖ در ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ و ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از رﻡﺒﻴﺪن ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ اﻳﺠﺎد ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ. آﺸﺎآﺶ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎ، 001 ﻡﻴﻠﻴﻮن ﺳﺎل اداﻡﻪ‬ ‫دارد. ﺁﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺕﻤﺎم ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. دﻳﮕﺮ هﻴﺪروژن، ﺏﺮاي ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺏﻪ هﻠﻴﻮم ﻡﻮﺟﻮد ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﭘﺎرﻩاي از ﺳﺘﺎرﮔﺎن،‬ ‫ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ وﻟﻲ اﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻡﺪت آﻮﺕﺎهﻲ ﺏﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ هﻠﻴﻮم را ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﺎ هﻤﺠﻮﺵﻲ هﺴﺘﻪاي ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻨﺘﺮ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ. زﻡﺎﻧﻲ آﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻓﺸﺎري ﺏﺮاي ﻡﻘﺎﺏﻠﻪ ﺏﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﺟﺎذﺏﻪ ﻡﻮﺟﻮد ﻧﺒﺎﺵﺪ، ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﻡﻨﻘﺒﺾ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. در اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺣﺎل، ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در ﺳﻄﺢ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ، ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻗﺒﻼ در ﻡﻮرد داﺳﺘﺎن ﻓﺸﺮدﮔﻲ زﻡﻴﻦ دﻳﺪﻳﻢ، ﺏﻪ ﺕﺪرﻳﺞ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻡﻲﻳﺎﺏﺪ. ﻻزم‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ آﻪ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ، ﺏﺮاي ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺵﻮد، ﺏﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﻳﻚ ﻧﺨﻮد در ﺁﻳﺪ. زﻡﺎﻧﻲ آﻪ ﺵﻌﺎع اﻳﻦ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ آﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺮم ﺁن دﻩ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ ﺏﻮد ﺏﻪ 03 آﻴﻠﻮﻡﺘﺮ ﺏﺮﺳﺪ، ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﺁن 003 هﺰار آﻴﻠﻮﻡﺘﺮ در ﺙﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد. ﻡﻮﻗﻌﻲ آﻪ ﻧﻮر ﻧﺘﻮاﻧﺪ از ﺁن ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰد، ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد.‬ ‫ﭘﺲ از ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﻓﺰوﻧﻲ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ، ﻡﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﺮاي اﻳﻦ ﺳﻮال آﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺏﻪ ﻡﻨﻘﺒﺾ‬ ‫ﺵﺪن ﺧﻮد اداﻡﻪ ﺧﻮاهﺪ داد ﻳﺎ ﻧﻪ، ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻲ ﻧﺪارﻳﻢ. ﺣﺘﻲ اﮔﺮ ﻡﻨﻘﺒﺾ ﻧﺸﻮد، ﺏﺎز هﻢ ﻡﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ داﺵﺖ. ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎد داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ آﻪ در داﺳﺘﺎن ﻓﺸﺮدﮔﻲ آﺮﻩ زﻡﻴﻦ، ﮔﺮاﻧﻲ در ﺵﻌﺎع اوﻟﻴﻪ زﻡﻴﻦ هﻴﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻜﺮد. ﺧﻮاﻩ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺕﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺣﺪ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺏﺎ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻡﻨﻘﺒﺾ ﺵﻮد ﻳﺎ در ﺵﻌﺎﻋﻲ آﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﺁن ﻡﻌﺎدل ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر اﺳﺖ، ﺏﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺏﻤﺎﻧﺪ، در هﺮ دو ﺣﺎﻟﺖ، ﻡﺎداﻡﻲ آﻪ ﺟﺮم ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻜﺮدﻩ اﺳﺖ، ﮔﺮاﻧﻲ در اﻳﻦ ﺵﻌﺎع ﻳﻜﺴﺎن ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد. ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻳﺰ در ﺁن ﺵﻌﺎع، ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر اﺳﺖ و در ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺏﺎﻗﻲ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﻡﺎﻧﺪ. ﺏﺮاي ﻧﻮر، ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻡﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. ﺏﺎرﻳﻜﻪهﺎي ﻧﻮر ﻡﺠﺎور آﻪ از ﺳﺘﺎرﮔﺎن دور دﺳﺖ ﻡﻲرﺳﻨﺪ، ﻧﻪ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﻡﻨﺤﺮف ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ ﺏﻠﻜﻪ ﻡﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫دور اﻃﺮاف ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﭽﺮﺧﻨﺪ و ﺏﻌﺪ، از ﺁن ﮔﺮﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﻳﺎ در ﺁن ﺳﻘﻮط آﻨﻨﺪ. اﮔﺮ ﻧﻮر داﺧﻞ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺵﻮد، دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻳﺰي ﻧﺨﻮاهﺪ داﺵﺖ. هﻴﭻ ﭼﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﺏﻴﺶ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. ﭼﻪ »ﺧﺎﻡﻮﺵﻲ« ﻋﻤﻴﻘﯽ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ‬

‫داﺵﺖ. ﻧﻪ ﻧﻮر، ﻧﻪ ﺏﺎزﺕﺎﺏﺶ، ﻧﻪ هﻴﭻﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺕﺎﺏﺶ )رادﻳﻮﻳﻲ، ﻡﻴﻜﺮووﻳﻮ، ﭘﺮﺕﻮ اﻳﻜﺲ و ﻏﻴﺮﻩ(، ﻧﻪ ﺻﺪا، ﻧﻪ ﭼﺸﻢاﻧﺪاز،‬ ‫ﻧﻪ آﺎوﺵﮕﺮ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ، ﻡﻄﻠﻘﺎ هﻴﭻ دادﻩاي ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ از ﺁن ﺧﺎرج ﺵﻮد.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﺏﺎز اﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺮش ﺳﻨﺘﯽ و ﺏﺮداﺵﺖ اﻋﺘﻘﺎدﯼ از ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ اﺳﺖ. هﺎوکﻴﻨﮓ ﻡﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﺪ"اﮔﺮ زﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻘﺒﺾ و ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﻮد، آﺮﻩ ﻣﺎﻩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ، روي ﻣﺪار ﺧﻮد در ﺣﺮآﺖ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺑﻮد". ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﻡﺎﻩ هﻤﺎن ﺁﺙﺎر ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻧﺎﺵﯽ از زﻡﻴﻦ‬ ‫را درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺧﻮاهﺪ کﺮد کﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻧﻘﺒﺎض زﻡﻴﻦ درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻡﯽ کﺮد. ﺏﻌﺒﺎرت دﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﻮر ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ از ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰد، اﻡﺎ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ. در اﻳﻨﺼﻮرت ﺏﺎﻳﺴﺘﯽ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را ﺟﺪاﯼ از ﻋﻼﺉﻢ ﻧﻮرﯼ ﺏﺤﺴﺎب ﺏﻴﺎورﻳﻢ. در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﭼﻴﺰﯼ ﺟﺪاﯼ از ﻧﻮر اﺳﺖ، اﻡﺎ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ کﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد هﻴﭻ ﭼﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺏﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﯽ ﺏﺎﻻﺕﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر‬ ‫ﺣﺮکﺖ کﻨﺪ، ﺵﺎﻡﻞ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﻳﺎ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺏﻘﻴﻪ ﻋﻼﺉﻢ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﯽ ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد کﺮد کﻪ در‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺼﻮرت ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮان ﻗﺒﻮل کﺮد کﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ از ﻧﻮر ﺣﺮکﺖ کﻨﺪ، ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﺁﺙﺎر ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻡﺸﻤﻮل هﻤﻴﻦ ﻧﮕﺮش ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺵﺪ و در ﻡﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻪ دام ﺧﻮاهﺪ اﻓﺘﺎد و ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ از ﺁن ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰد. وﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺁﺙﺎر ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ)اﻡﻮاج ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ( را اﺳﺘﺜﺎء کﺮد کﻪ در اﻳﻨﺼﻮرت در ﻡﻮرد ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺁن ﻧﻴﺰ هﻤﻴﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺵﺪ‬ ‫و ﺁﺙﺎر ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺏﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﯽ ﺏﺎﻻﺕﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﻡﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺵﻮد. هﺎوکﻴﻨﮓ ﻡﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﺪ:" ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ هﻴﭻ دادﻩاي‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ از ﺁن ﺧﺎرج ﺷﻮد" ﺳﺌﻮال اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺁﺙﺎر ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ را ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان ﺟﺰو دادﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﺤﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﺁورد؟‬ ‫در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ هﻤﻪ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻟﺨﺖ ﺙﺎﺏﺖ و ﺏﺮاﯼ هﻤﻪ ﯼ ﻧﺎﻇﺮهﺎﯼ ﻟﺨﺖ ﻳﮑﺴﺎن‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. اﻡﺎ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ از ذراﺕﯽ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺵﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ کﻪ ﺏﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺣﺮکﺖ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. اﻡﺎ از اﺳﭙﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﻬﻢ ﻡﯽ ﺏﺮﻧﺪ و ﺧﻮدﺵﺎن ﻧﻴﺰ داراﯼ اﺳﭙﻴﻦ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ ذرات ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ و ﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ رﻧﮓ ﻧﺎﻡﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ و‬ ‫ﻡﻴﺪاﻧﻬﺎﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ و ﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﺏﻮﺟﻮد ﻡﯽ ﺁورﻧﺪ. ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن کﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ را ﺣﻤﻞ ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ، هﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﺏﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﯽ ﺏﺎﻻﺕﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺣﺮکﺖ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺏﺎ اﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺮش، هﻨﮕﺎﻡﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺵﻮد، ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﻡﺎﻧﻊ از ﻓﺮار ﻧﻮر ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﺳﭙﺲ ﺏﺎ ﺏﻠﻌﻴﺪن ﺳﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﺟﺴﺎم ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺘﺮ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد و ﺏﺘﺪرﻳﺞ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻓﺮار از ﺳﻄﺢ ﺁن اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻡﯽ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ ﺕﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﻴﮑﻪ ﺣﺘﯽ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ کﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﺏﺎﻟﺘﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر دارﻧﺪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻨﺪ از ﻡﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰﻧﺪ، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺁﺙﺎر ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ( ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺏﻠﻌﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ. در اﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺏﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻡﻄﻠﻖ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺵﺪﻩ و هﻴﭻ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﯽ از ﺧﻮد ﺏﺮوز ﻧﻤﯽ دهﺪ.‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - اﮔﺮ روزي زﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﺸﺮدﻩ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺵﻌﺎع آﺮﻩاي را آﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ ﺁن ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺏﺎﺵﺪ ﻡﺮز ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ، ﺵﻌﺎع ﺏﺪون ﺏﺎزﮔﺸﺖ ﻳﺎ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد‬ ‫ﻡﻲﻧﺎﻡﻨﺪ. هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ و ﭘﻦروز در اواﺧﺮ دهﻪ 0691، ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺟﺪﻳﺪي ﺏﺮاي ﺕﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ اراﺉﻪ آﺮدﻧﺪ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺕﻌﺮﻳﻒ، ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪاي از ﺟﻬﺎن ﻳﺎ »ﻡﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪاي از روﻳﺪادهﺎ«ﺳﺖ آﻪ از ﻳﻚ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻡﻌﻴﻦ، ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﺁن ﺏﺮاي‬ ‫هﻴﭻ ﭼﻴﺰ ﻡﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. در زﻡﺎن ﻡﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺕﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺵﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﺎ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪادش ﺏﻪﻋﻨﻮان ﻳﻚ ﻡﺮز‬ ‫ﺏﻴﺮوﻧﻲ، ﺵﻜﻠﻲ ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ آﺮﻩ دارد. ﻳﺎ اﮔﺮ در ﺣﺎل ﭼﺮﺧﻴﺪن ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺏﻪ ﻳﻚ آﺮﻩ آﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺵﺪﻩ ﻡﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ آﻪ از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺏﻴﻀﻲ ﺵﻜﻞ اﺳﺖ )ﻳﺎ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺴﺖ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺵﻜﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺎن ﺵﻮد، اﮔﺮ ﻡﺎ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺴﺘﻴﻢ ﺁن را ﺏﺒﻴﻨﻴﻢ(.‬ ‫اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد، ﺏﺎ ﻡﺴﻴﺮهﺎﻳﻲ در ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎي ﻧﻮري درﺳﺖ ﺏﺮ ﻟﺒﻪ ﺁن ﻡﻨﻄﻘﻪ آﺮوي ﺵﻜﻞ در ﺟﺎ ﻡﻲزﻧﻨﺪ،‬ ‫ﻡﺸﺨﺺ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎ ﻧﻪ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺏﻪ درون آﺮﻩ آﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ و ﻧﻪ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻨﺪ از ﺁن ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰﻧﺪ. ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺵﻌﺎع، ﺏﻪ ﺁن ﺵﺪت ﻧﻴﺴﺖ آﻪ اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎ را ﺏﻪ داﺧﻞ ﺏﻜﺸﺎﻧﺪ وﻟﻲ ﺏﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩاي اﺳﺖ آﻪ از ﮔﺮﻳﺰ ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ. ﺁﻳﺎ ﻡﺎ ﺁن ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎ را ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ آﺮﻩاي ﺏﺎ روﺵﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ دﻳﺪ؟ ﺧﻴﺮ. اﮔﺮ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ از اﻳﻦ ﺵﻌﺎع‬ ‫ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰﻧﺪ، رﺳﻴﺪن ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﻪ ﭼﺸﻤﻬﺎي ﻡﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ، ﻡﻴﺴﺮ ﻧﺨﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد. ﺏﺮاي اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺵﻤﺎ ﭼﻴﺰي را ﺏﺒﻴﻨﻴﺪ، ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﺁن ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﺸﻢ ﺵﻤﺎ ﺏﺮﺳﺪ.‬ ‫اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ را ﺟﺮم ﺁن ﻡﻌﻴﻦ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ. اﮔﺮ ﺏﺨﻮاهﻴﻢ ﺵﻌﺎع ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ )ﺵﻌﺎع ﺕﺸﻜﻴﻞ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد( را ﻡﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ آﻨﻴﻢ،‬ ‫ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﺮم ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪي ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ را در 3 آﻴﻠﻮﻡﺘﺮ ﺿﺮب آﻨﻴﻢ. ﺏﺪﻳﻨﺴﺎن، اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﺎ ﺟﺮم ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪي 01،‬ ‫ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﺏﺎ 03 آﻴﻠﻮﻡﺘﺮ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد. )ﺟﺮم ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ، ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﺏﺎ ﺟﺮم ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ رﻡﺒﻴﺪﻩ ﺵﺪﻩ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ ﺟﺮم ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ، ﺏﻪ ﺵﺮط ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺟﺮم ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ، در ﺟﺮﻳﺎن رﻡﺒﻴﺪﮔﻲ و ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺵﺪﻩ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ، آﻢ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ(. روﺵﻦ اﺳﺖ آﻪ اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺮم ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﭘﻴﺪا آﻨﺪ، ﺵﻌﺎع اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد و اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺧﻮاهﺪ آﺮد. در ﺏﺎرﻩ اﻡﻜﺎن ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻧﺪازﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ، ﺏﻌﺪا ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ ﮔﻔﺖ.‬ ‫ْ‬

‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﺕﻤﺎم اﻳﻦ ﺕﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﺕﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺏﺮ اﺳﺎس ﭘﺬﻳﺮش ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ )در ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ( اﻧﺠﺎم ﺵﺪﻩ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. ﺏﺎ اﻳﻦ وﺟﻮد ﻡﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ داراﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ روﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ کﺎر اﻧﺠﺎم دهﺪ. هﺎوکﻴﻨﮓ‬ ‫ﻡﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﺪ:"اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺗﻮهﺎ ﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ درون آﺮﻩ آﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و ﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ از ﺁن ﺑﮕﺮﻳﺰﻧﺪ. ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺎع، ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﺷﺪت ﻧﻴﺴﺖ آﻪ اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺗﻮهﺎ را ﺑﻪ داﺧﻞ ﺑﻜﺸﺎﻧﺪ وﻟﻲ ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩاي اﺳﺖ آﻪ از ﮔﺮﻳﺰ ﭘﺮﺗﻮهﺎ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫ﻣﻲآﻨﺪ". اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎﯼ ﻧﻮرﯼ ﺏﺎ هﻢ و ﺏﺎ ﺕﻤﺎم ذرات و اﺟﺴﺎم اﻃﺮاف ﺧﻮد از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ کﻨﺶ دارﻧﺪ. و ﺣﺘﯽ ﺧﻮد‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ روﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ دارد. ﻟﺬا ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان ﺏﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻳﮏ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺻﻠﺐ ﻡﺤﺒﻮس در ﻳﮏ ﻡﺤﻮﻃﻪ ﻧﮕﺮﻳﺴﺖ.‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - ﺗﺼﻮري از ﺟﻬﺎن ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺏﺎ آﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺵﺪن ﺣﻔﺎﻇﻲ ﺏﺮ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد، ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ در ﺕﻨﻬﺎﻳﻲ آﺎﻡﻞ ﻗﺮار ﻡﻲﮔﻴﺮد. هﺮ ﻧﻮري آﻪ ﺏﺘﺎﺏﺪ ﺏﻪ داﺧﻞ آﺸﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﭘﻦروز ﻡﻲﺧﻮاﺳﺖ ﺏﺪاﻧﺪ آﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺏﻪ رﻡﺒﻴﺪن ﺧﻮد اداﻡﻪ ﺧﻮاهﺪ داد، ﻳﺎ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ روﻳﺪاد دﻳﮕﺮي در اﻧﺘﻈﺎر‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد؟‬ ‫او آﺸﻒ آﺮد آﻪ در ﺳﺘﺎرﻩاي آﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺵﺮﺣﻲ آﻪ رﻓﺖ، رﻡﺒﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد، هﻤﻪ ﻡﺎدﻩ ﺁن ﺏﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮاﻧﻲ ﺧﻮدش، در‬ ‫داﺧﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺁن ﺏﻪ دام ﻡﻲاﻓﺘﺪ. ﺣﺘﻲ اﮔﺮ رﻡﺒﺶ آﺎﻡﻼ آﺮوي و هﻤﻮار ﻧﺒﺎﺵﺪ، ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺏﻪ ُﻡﺒﻴﺪﻩ ﺵﺪن اداﻡﻪ ﻡﻲدهﺪ.‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺳﺮاﻧﺠﺎم، اﻳﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ، ﺏﺎ هﻤﻪ ﻡﺎدﻩاي آﻪ هﻨﻮز در ﺁن ﻡﺤﺒﻮس اﺳﺖ، ﺁﻧﻘﺪر ﻡﻨﻘﺒﺾ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد ﺕﺎ ﺏﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺏﺮﺳﺪ. در اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت، ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﻋﻀﻴﻢ ﻡﻮرد ﺏﺤﺚ ﻡﺎ، ﺏﺎ ﺟﺮﻡﻲ دﻩ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﺟﺮم ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪي، ﭘﺲ از رﻡﺒﺶ ﺏﻪ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪاي ﺏﻪ ﺵﻌﺎع 03‬ ‫آﻴﻠﻮﻡﺘﺮ آﻪ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺁن اﺳﺖ ﻡﺤﺪود ﻧﻤﻲﺵﻮد، ﺏﻠﻜﻪ ﺵﻌﺎع ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ و ﻧﻴﺰ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺁن ﺏﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻡﻲرﺳﺪ. رﻳﺎﺿﻲداﻧﺎن اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻠﻪ را ﺕﻜﻴﻨﮕﻲ ﻡﻲﻧﺎﻡﻨﺪ. در ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺕﻜﻴﻨﮕﻲ، ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﻡﺎدﻩ، ﺏﻪ ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻡﻲرﺳﺪ. ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻓﻀﺎ ـ زﻡﺎن، ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺵﻮد، و ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎي ﻧﻮر ﺕﻨﻬﺎ در اﻃﺮاف ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻧﻤﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ، ﺏﻠﻜﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻃﻮري ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻓﺸﺮدﻩ، ﺏﻪ هﻢ ﻡﻲﭘﻴﭽﻨﺪ. ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺎم، وﺟﻮد ﺕﻜﻴﻨﮕﻲهﺎ را ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ وﻟﻲ در اواﻳﻞ دهﻪ 0691 آﻤﺘﺮ آﺴﻲ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ را ﺟﺪي ﻡﻲﮔﺮﻓﺖ.‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﺪاﻧﺎن ﻓﻜﺮ ﻡﻲآﺮدﻧﺪ آﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ اﮔﺮ ﺟﺮﻡﻲ ﺏﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ آﺎﻓﻲ ﺏﺰرگ داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ و ﺕﺤﺖ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ رﻡﺒﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺵﻮد، ﻡﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻳﻚ ﺕﻜﻴﻨﮕﻲ ﺏﻪ وﺟﻮد ﺁورد. ﭘﻦروز ﻧﺸﺎن داد آﻪ اﮔﺮ ﺟﻬﺎن از ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﭘﻴﺮوي آﻨﺪ، ﺏﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺕﻜﻴﻨﮕﻲ ﺏﻪ وﺟﻮد ﺁﻳﺪ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺏﺎ ﺳﻪ ﻡﺸﮑﻞ اﺳﺎﺳﯽ ﻡﻮاﺟﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻳﻢ، اول ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﯽ ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن کﻪ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﭘﺬﻳﺮش ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. زﻳﺮا ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﮔﺴﺴﺘﻪ ﻡﯽ ﭘﺮدازد، ﻳﺎ ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ داراﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﯽ اﺳﺖ. اﻡﺎ ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻡﺎن ﺏﺪون‬ ‫اﻧﺮژﯼ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﻓﻀﺎ را ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ اﻳﺠﺎد کﻨﺪ؟‬ ‫ﻡﺸﮑﻞ دوم ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ ﺏﻴﻨﻬﺎﻳﺖ اﺳﺖ. ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ ﺏﻴﻨﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺏﺎﻳﺴﺘﯽ هﻤﻪ ﯼ ﺟﻬﺎن را ﺕﺤﺖ ﺕﺎﺙﻴﺮ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺧﻮد ﻗﺮار دهﺪ و هﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. کﻪ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ زﻳﺮا در ﻡﻮرد اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﺟﻬﺎن کﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ اﻗﻠﻴﺪﺳﯽ اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻧﺎاﻗﻠﻴﺪﺳﯽ ﺏﺤﺚ زﻳﺎدﯼ وﺟﻮد‬ ‫دارد کﻪ هﻨﻮز ﺕﻮاﻓﻖ اﺻﻮﻟﯽ در اﻳﻦ زﻡﻴﻨﻪ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد.‬ ‫ﻡﺸﮑﻞ ﺳﻮم ﻓﺸﺮدﻩ ﺵﺪن ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺕﺎ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺻﻔﺮ اداﻡﻪ داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. زﻳﺮا ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻡﺎدﻩ و ﭘﺎدﻩ ﻡﺎدﻩ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻡﯽ دهﺪ کﻪ‬ ‫اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﺎﻳﺴﺘﯽ داراﯼ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. اﻳﻨﮑﻪ اﺕﻢ ﻓﺸﺮدﻩ ﺵﻮد، ﺧﺘﯽ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون و ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﻧﻴﺰ ﻓﺸﺮدﻩ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ، ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل‬ ‫اﺳﺖ، اﻡﺎ ﺕﺎ کﺠﺎ؟‬ ‫در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﻤﻪ ﯼ ذرات از ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺵﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ کﻪ داراﯼ اﺳﭙﻴﻦ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺏﻤﺤﺾ ﺕﻤﺎس ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺏﺮﺧﻮر، ﺏﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ اﺳﭙﻴﻨﯽ کﻪ دارﻧﺪ، ﺏﻪ اﻃﺮاف ﭘﺮاکﻨﺪﻩ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ کﺎهﺶ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺕﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﯽ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ‬ ‫اداﻡﻪ داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ کﻪ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﯼ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎ ﺏﻪ ﺻﻔﺰ ﻧﺮﺳﺪ. ﻟﺬا کﺎهﺶ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻡﺤﺪود اﺳﺖ و ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ‬ ‫اﯼ ﺏﺰرگ را در ﺣﺠﻤﯽ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺟﺎﯼ داد.‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - در ﻣﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺗﻜﻴﻨﮕﻲ وﺟﻮد دارد‬ ‫اﻳﺪﻩ ﭘﻦروز، ﺁﻧﺶ ﺏﻪ ذهﻦ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ اﻧﺪاﺧﺖ. هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﻡﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺵﺪﻩ آﻪ اﮔﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ زﻡﺎن را ﻡﻌﻜﻮس آﻨﺪ، ﺏﻪ ﻃﻮري‬ ‫ر‬ ‫آﻪ ُﻡﺒﺶ ﺏﻪ اﻧﺒﺴﺎط ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺵﻮد، هﻤﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﭘﻦروز ﺏﻪ ﺟﺎي ﺧﻮد ﺏﺎﻗﻲ ﻡﻲﻡﺎﻧﺪ. اﮔﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم ﺏﻪ ﻡﺎ‬ ‫ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ هﺮ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩاي آﻪ ﻓﺮاﺳﻮي ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻡﻌﻴﻨﻲ ﻡﻲ ُﻡﺒﺪ، ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺕﻜﻴﻨﮕﻲ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺵﻮد، در اﻳﻦ ﺻﻮرت ﻧﻴﺰ ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫آﻪ هﺮ ﺟﻬﺎن در ﺣﺎل اﻧﺒﺴﺎط ﺏﺎﻳﺪ از ﻳﻚ ﺕﻜﻴﻨﮕﻲ ﺁﻏﺎز ﺵﺪﻩ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ درﻳﺎﻓﺖ آﻪ اﮔﺮ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪﮔﻴﺮي درﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﻬﺎن از ﻡﺪﻟﻲ آﻪ داﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪان ﺁن را ﻡﺪل ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻡﺎن ﻡﻲﻧﺎﻡﻨﺪ، ﭘﻴﺮوي آﻨﺪ.‬

‫ﻣﺪل ﺟﻬﺎن ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻣﺎن ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫ﺕﺎ زﻡﺎﻧﻲ آﻪ هﺎﺏﻞ ﺙﺎﺏﺖ آﺮد ﺟﻬﺎن در ﺣﺎل اﻧﺒﺴﺎط اﺳﺖ، اﻋﺘﻘﺎد ﺏﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن اﻳﺴﺘﺎ )ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ آﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺁن ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻜﻨﺪ(،‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺵﺪﻳﺪ ﺏﻮد. زﻡﺎﻧﻲ آﻪ اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ، در ﺳﺎل 5191 ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم را اراﺉﻪ کﺮد، اﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﻧﺒﺴﺎط ﺟﻬﺎن را‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﻡﻲآﺮد. اﻡﺎ اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻘﺪر از ﻏﻴﺮ واﻗﻌﻲ ﺏﻮدن اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻡﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺏﻮد آﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺧﻮد را ﻡﻮرد ﺕﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺮار داد. او ﻳﻚ ﺙﺎﺏﺖ آﻴﻬﺎﻧﻲ، ﺏﺮاي ﻡﺘﻮازن آﺮدن ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺏﻪ ﺁن اﺿﺎﻓﻪ آﺮد. اﻡﺎ ﺏﺪون اﻳﻦ ﺙﺎﺏﺖ آﻴﻬﺎﻧﻲ، ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم ﺁﻧﭽﻪ را آﻪ ﻡﺎ اﻡﺮوزﻩ درﺳﺖ ﻡﻲداﻧﻴﻢ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﻡﻲآﺮد. اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺟﻬﺎن در ﺣﺎل ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﺳﺖ. ﻳﻚ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﺪان‬ ‫روﺳﻲ ﺏﻪ ﻧﺎم اﻟﻜﺴﺎﻧﺪر ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻡﺎن، ﺕﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ آﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ را ﺏﺪون ﺙﺎﺏﺖ آﻴﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺏﻪ آﺎر ﮔﻴﺮد. ﺏﺎ اﻳﻦ آﺎر، او‬ ‫ﺁﻧﭽﻪ را آﻪ هﺎﺏﻞ در 9291 ﺏﻪ اﺙﺒﺎت ﺁن دﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ، ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ آﺮد: ﺟﻬﺎن در ﺣﺎل اﻧﺒﺴﺎط اﺳﺖ. ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻡﺎن آﺎر ﺧﻮد‬ ‫را ﺏﺎ دو ﻓﺮض ﺁﻏﺎز آﺮد؟‬ ‫1 - ﺟﻬﺎن، در هﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ آﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺁن ﻧﮕﺎﻩ آﻨﻴﻢ، ﻳﻜﺴﺎن اﺳﺖ. )ﺏﻪ اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎي ﭼﻴﺰهﺎﻳﻲ آﻪ ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻡﺜﻞ ﻡﻨﻈﻮﻡﻪ‬ ‫ﺵﻤﺴﻲ و آﻬﻜﺸﺎن راﻩ ﺵﻴﺮي از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻡﺎ (‬ ‫2 - ﺟﻬﺎن از هﺮآﺠﺎ آﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺁن ﻧﮕﺎﻩ آﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﻜﺴﺎن اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺮض اول ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻡﺎن را ﻡﻲﺕﻮان ﺏﻪ ﺁﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺖ، وﻟﻲ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻓﺮض دوم ﻡﺸﻜﻞ اﺳﺖ. هﻴﭻ دﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﺎﻃﻌﻲ ﺏﺮاي اﺙﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻳﺎ رد ﺁن وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد. هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﻡﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﺪ: "ﻡﺎ ﺁن را ﺕﻨﻬﺎ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺕﻮاﺿﻊ ﻡﻲﭘﺬﻳﺮﻳﻢ: ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﺟﺎﻟﺐ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد اﮔﺮ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در هﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ از اﻃﺮاف ﻡﺎ ﻳﻜﺴﺎن ﺏﺎﺵﺪ اﻡﺎ ﻧﻪ در اﻃﺮاف هﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ از ﺟﻬﺎن!« ﺵﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﺘﻮان ﮔﻔﺖ آﻪ ﺟﺎﻟﺐ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫وﻟﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻡﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺏﺮاي ﺏﺎور داﺵﺘﻦ ﭼﻴﺰي، ﺕﻮاﺿﻊ، دﻟﻴﻠﻲ ﻡﻨﻄﻘﻴﺘﺮ از ﻏﺮور ﺏﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻤﻲرﺳﺪ. ﺏﺎ وﺟﻮد اﻳﻦ،‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﺪاﻧﺎن ﺕﻤﺎﻳﻞ دارﻧﺪ آﻪ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﻪ دوم ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻡﺎن را هﻢ ﺏﭙﺬﻳﺮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫در ﻡﺪل ﺟﻬﺎن ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻡﺎن، هﻤﻪ آﻬﻜﺸﺎﻧﻬﺎ از ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ دور ﻡﻲﺵﻮدﻧﺪ. هﺮ ﻗﺪر ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ از ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ زﻳﺎدﺕﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮي از هﻢ دور ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﻡﻮﺿﻮع ﺏﺎ ﻡﺸﺎهﺪات هﺎﺏﻞ هﻤﺨﻮاﻧﻲ دارد. ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻡﺎن، در هﺮ‬ ‫آﺠﺎي ﻓﻀﺎ آﻪ ﺣﺮآﺖ آﻨﻴﻢ، ﺏﺎز آﻬﻜﺸﺎﻧﻬﺎ را در ﺣﺎل دور ﺵﺪن از ﺧﻮد ﻡﻲﺏﻴﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫در ﻡﺪل اوﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻡﺎن، ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ، ﻓﻀﺎ را ﺏﻪ ﺳﻮي ﮔﺮداﮔﺮد ﺧﻮدش ﺧﻢ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ. ﺟﻬﺎن از ﺣﻴﺚ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺏﻲﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫وﻟﻲ ﭘﺎﻳﺎن و ﻡﺮزي هﻢ ﻧﺪارد. در ﻡﺪل ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻡﺎن، زﻡﺎن ﻡﺜﻞ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻧﺎﻡﺤﺪود ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﻡﻲﺕﻮان ﺁن را اﻧﺪازﻩﮔﻴﺮي آﺮد.‬ ‫زﻡﺎن ﺏﺮ ﺧﻼف ﻓﻀﺎ ﻡﺮزهﺎﻳﻲ دارد ﻳﻚ ﺁﻏﺎز و ﻳﻚ ﭘﺎﻳﺎن. اﻧﺒﺴﺎط ﺁﻧﻘﺪر ﺁهﺴﺘﻪ و ﺟﺮم ﺏﻪ ﻗﺪر آﺎﻓﻲ در ﺟﻬﺎن ﻡﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫اﺳﺖ آﻪ در ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ، ﺟﺎذﺏﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ، اﻧﺒﺴﺎط را ﻡﺘﻮﻗﻒ آﺮدﻩ و ﻡﻮﺟﺐ ﻡﻨﻘﺒﺾ ﺵﺪن ﺟﻬﺎن ﺵﻮد. آﻬﻜﺸﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﺎر دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺏﻪ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. در ﭘﺎﻳﺎن زﻡﺎن، ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﺎر دﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻡﻲرﺳﺪ. ﻡﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻡﺎ ﭼﻴﺰي ﺵﺒﻴﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫در اﻳﻦ کﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن )ﺟﻬﺎن ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﻡﺸﺎهﺪﻩ و هﺮ ﺟﻬﺎن دﻳﮕﺮﯼ( از ﻳﮏ ﺕﮑﻨﻴﮕﯽ ﺁﻏﺎز ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد، ﻡﻮرد ﭘﺬﻳﺮش اﺳﺖ. اﻡﺎ‬ ‫ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ داﺵﺖ کﻪ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﻡﺮﺏﻮط ﺏﻪ اﻧﺒﺴﺎط ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺟﻬﺎن و ﺣﺘﯽ ﺵﺘﺎب اﻳﻦ اﻧﺒﺴﺎط هﻤﻪ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻧﻮر درﻳﺎﻓﺘﯽ ﺏﻪ ﻡﺎ ﻡﯽ رﺳﺪ. زﻡﺎﻧﯽ اﻳﻦ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت اﻋﺘﻤﺎد کﺎﻡﻞ داﺵﺖ کﻪ ﻡﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر دوروﻧﯽ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﺧﻮب ﺵﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ. اﮔﺮ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن داراﯼ ﭼﻨﺎن ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ کﻪ ﺏﺪون ﻋﻮاﻡﻞ ﺧﺎرﺟﯽ و ﺏﺎ ﮔﺬﺵﺖ زﻡﺎن دﭼﺎر ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﮔﺮدد، ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺏﻪ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت درﻳﺎﻓﺘﯽ اﻋﺘﻤﺎد کﻨﻴﻢ. از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﻓﻮﺕﻮن از ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و ﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد. اﻳﻦ ذرات )ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و ﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ –رﻧﮕﻬﺎ( ﻡﻴﺪاﻧﻬﺎﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ و ﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﻡﯽ ﺳﺎزد و درون‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻧﻴﺰ داراﯼ اﺳﭙﻴﻦ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. اﮔﺮ ﺕﺪاﺧﻞ اﺳﭙﻴﻨﯽ وﺟﻮد داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ذرات ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ دهﻨﺪﻩ ﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد کﻨﻨﺪ، ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ را ﻡﯽ راﻧﻨﺪ و اﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻ ﺏﻌﻀﯽ از ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﺕﺮﮎ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. در‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺼﻮرت اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺏﺎ ﮔﺬﺵﺖ ﻳﮏ زﻡﺎن ﻃﻮﻻﻧﯽ کﺎهﺶ ﻡﯽ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ. ﺳﺌﻮال اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺕﺎ زﻡﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻡﺎ ﺏﻄﻮر‬ ‫کﺎﻡﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﻧﺸﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ اﻳﻢ، ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺏﻪ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت درﻳﺎﻓﺘﯽ در ﻡﻮرد ﺟﻬﺎن اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن کﺎﻡﻞ داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ؟‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ و ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ در ﺣﺎل ُﻡﺒﺶ، ﺏﻪ ﺵﻌﺎﻋﻲ ﻡﻲرﺳﺪ آﻪ در ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ ﺏﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ اﺳﺖ. ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ آﻪ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﭘﺲ از رﺳﻴﺪن ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺵﻌﺎع، ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ، ﭼﻪ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ؟ ﮔﺮاﻧﻲ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺁﻧﻘﺪر ﺵﺪﻳﺪ اﺳﺖ آﻪ اﻡﻜﺎن ﮔﺮﻳﺰ ﺏﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ را ﻧﻤﻲدهﺪ، وﻟﯽ ﺁﻧﻘﺪر ﺵﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ آﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﺏﻪ داﺧﻞ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻜﺸﺎﻧﺪ. ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺳﺮﮔﺮدان‬

‫ﻡﻲﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﺵﻌﺎع اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد اﺳﺖ. ﭘﺲ از ﺁن، ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺏﻪ ﻡﻨﻘﺒﺾ ﺵﺪن اداﻡﻪ ﻡﻲدهﺪ، هﺮ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﺵﺪﻩ، ﺏﻪ‬ ‫داﺧﻞ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺏﺎزﮔﺮداﻧﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد.‬ ‫ﻡﺴﻴﺮهﺎي ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎي ﻧﻮر آﻪ در اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺳﺮﮔﺮدان هﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﻡﺴﻴﺮهﺎي ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎي ﻧﻮر ﺏﺎﺵﺪ آﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. ﻡﺴﻴﺮهﺎي ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎي ﻧﻮر آﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ، ﺏﻪ ﺵﺪت ﺏﻪ هﻢ ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ، ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺳﺮازﻳﺮ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ و دﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﺮﮔﺮدان ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺏﺮاي اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد آﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﺵﻮد )و ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫آﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﺵﻮد(، ﻡﻲﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﻡﺴﻴﺮهﺎي ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎي ﻧﻮر در اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺏﻪ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ. وﻟﻲ اﮔﺮ اﻳﻦ ﻃﻮر ﺵﻮد، اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎ ﺏﻪ داﺧﻞ ﺳﺮازﻳﺮ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ، اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺏﺎز هﻢ درﺳﺖ در هﻤﺎن ﺟﺎ آﻪ ﺏﻮدﻩ اﺳﺖ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﻡﺎﻧﺪ و آﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻮاهﺪ ﺵﺪ.‬ ‫ﻳﻚ راﻩ دﻳﮕﺮ اﻧﺪﻳﺸﻴﺪن در ﺏﺎرﻩ اﻳﻦ ﻡﻮﺿﻮع، ﺁن اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﺏﭙﺬﻳﺮﻳﻢ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺏﺰرﮔﺘﺮ ﺵﻮد. دﻳﺪﻳﺪم آﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺟﺮم ﺁن ﺏﺴﺘﮕﻲ دارد. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮ اﻳﻦ، هﺮ زﻡﺎن آﻪ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺟﺪﻳﺪي در ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻓﺮود ﺁﻳﺪ، ﺟﺮم ﺁن ﻓﺰوﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻡﻲﻳﺎﺏﺪ و ﺏﺰرﮔﺘﺮ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. اﮔﺮ ﭼﻴﺰي از ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺧﺎرج ﺵﻮد آﺎهﺶ ﺟﺮم اﻡﻜﺎن ﻧﺪارد، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ‬ ‫آﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﺵﻮد.‬ ‫اﻳﻦ آﺸﻒ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﺏﻪ ﻧﺎم ﻗﺎﻧﻮن دوم دﻳﻨﺎﻡﻴﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺵﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺵﺪ: ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد )ﻡﺮز ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ( ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺙﺎﺏﺖ‬ ‫ﺏﻤﺎﻧﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺏﺰرﮔﺘﺮ ﺵﻮد وﻟﻲ هﻴﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ آﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﺵﻮد. اﮔﺮ دو ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻪ هﻢ ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد آﻨﻨﺪ و ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺕﺸﻜﻴﻞ دهﻨﺪ، ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻡﺴﺎوي، ﻳﺎ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ﺟﻤﻊ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪادهﺎي ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد. ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ، هﺮ ﻗﺪر هﻢ ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد ﺵﺪﻳﺪي داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، آﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﺵﻮد، از ﺏﻴﻦ ﺏﺮود ﻳﺎ ﺏﻪ دو ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺕﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺵﻮد. آﺸﻒ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ، ﻳﺎدﺁور ﻳﻚ »ﻗﺎﻧﻮن دوم« دﻳﮕﺮ در ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻚ اﺳﺖ: ﻗﺎﻧﻮن دوم ﺕﺮﻡﻮدﻳﻨﺎﻡﻴﻚ در ﻡﻮرد ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ.‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ، ﻡﻘﺪار ﺏﻲﻧﻈﻤﻲ اﺳﺖ آﻪ در ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ وﺟﻮد دارد. ﻡﻲداﻧﻴﻢ آﻪ ﺏﻲﻧﻈﻤﻲ، هﻤﻴﺸﻪ زﻳﺎدﺕﺮ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد و هﻴﭻﮔﺎﻩ‬ ‫آﺎهﺶ ﻧﻤﻲﻳﺎﺏﺪ. درﺟﻬﺎن ﻡﺎ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ )ﺏﻲﻧﻈﻤﻲ( هﻤﻴﺸﻪ اﻗﺰاﻳﺶ ﻡﻲﻳﺎﺏﺪ. ﻗﻄﻌﻪهﺎي ﻓﻨﺠﺎن ﭼﺎي ﺵﻜﺴﺘﻪ ﺵﺪﻩ، هﺮﮔﺰ‬ ‫ﺧﻮدﺵﺎن ﺏﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻓﻨﺠﺎن اوﻟﻴﻪ ﺏﺎزﺳﺎزي ﻧﻤﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ، در ﻡﻮرد ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ و اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﻧﻴﺰ آﺎر ﺏﺮد دارد. هﺮﮔﺎﻩ دو ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺏﻪ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﭙﻴﻮﻧﺪﻧﺪ، ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺏﻪ هﻢ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ، ﻡﺴﺎوي ﻳﺎ ﺏﺰرﮔﺘﺮ از ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ دو ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.، اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎ ﻧﻘﺶ کﻠﻴﺪﯼ ﺏﺮاﯼ ﺕﻤﺎم ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪهﺎﯼ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﯽ دارد. هﺮ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﻤﯽ در‬ ‫ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻧﺎﺵﯽ از ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎﯼ ﻡﻮﺟﻮد در ﺁن ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ اﺳﺖ. ﻓﻨﺠﺎن ﺳﺎﻟﻢ از ﺕﻌﺪادﯼ ﻡﻠﮑﻮل ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺵﺪﻩ کﻪ هﻤﻪ ﯼ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﻨﻮﺏﻪ ﯼ ﺧﻮد از ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺵﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ کﻪ ﺏﺎ اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﯽ در کﻨﺎر هﻢ ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ و‬ ‫ذرات زﻳﺮ اﺕﻤﯽ ﻡﻮﺟﻮد در ﻓﻨﺠﺎن را ﺵﮑﻞ دادﻩ اﻧﺪ. ﺣﺎل کﻪ ﻓﻨﺠﺎن ﺵﮑﺴﺘﻪ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد، اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻡﯽ کﻨﺪ. ﺁﻳﺎ ﻡﺎ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎ را ﺏﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺵﮑﺴﺘﻪ ﺵﺪن ﻓﻨﺠﺎن ﺏﺮﮔﺮداﻧﻴﻢ؟ اﮔﺮ ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺠﺎن ﺏﻪ ﻡﻨﺰﻟﻪ ﯼ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ کﻨﻴﻢ )کﻪ واﻗﻌﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ هﻢ هﺴﺖ( در اﻳﻦ اﻳﻨﺼﻮرت ﺏﺎ ﺵﮑﺴﺘﻪ ﺵﺪن ﻓﻨﺠﺎن،‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺖ از کﺎر اﻓﺘﺎدﻩ و هﺮﮔﺰ و ﺕﺤﺖ هﻴﭻ ﺵﺮاﻳﻄﯽ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان هﻤﺎن ﺳﺎﻋﺖ را ﺏﺎ هﻤﺎن کﻤﻴﺖ و کﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ.‬ ‫هﺎوﮐﻴﻨﮓ - ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ داﻧﺸﺠﻮي ﻓﻮق ﻟﻴﺴﺎﻧﺲ در داﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﭘﺮﻳﻨﺴﺘﻮن، ﺏﻪ ﻧﺎم ﺟﺎآﻮب ﺏﻜﻦﺵﺘﺎﻳﻦ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ آﻪ ﺏﺎ اﻧﺪاﺧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ در ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ، ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان ﺁن را از ﺏﻴﻦ ﺏﺮد. ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ، ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺁن ﻧﻴﺰ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ داﺵﺘﻪ و ﻓﻘﻂ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺏﻪ ﺁن‬ ‫اﻓﺰودﻩ ﺵﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺏﻜﻦﺵﺘﺎﻳﻦ اﻳﻦ ﻃﻮر ﻓﻜﺮ ﻡﻲآﺮد آﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﻡﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﺏﻠﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮد ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ اﺳﺖ. هﻨﮕﺎﻡﻲ آﻪ ﺵﻤﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد را ﻡﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻡﻲآﻨﻴﺪ، در واﻗﻊ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ را اﻧﺪازﻩ‬ ‫ﻡﻲﮔﻴﺮﻳﺪ. هﻨﮕﺎﻡﻲ آﻪ ﭼﻴﺰي ﻡﺜﻞ ﻳﻚ ﻗﻮﻃﻲ ﭘﺮ از ﻡﻮﻟﻜﻮل را ﺏﻪ داﺧﻞ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻡﻲاﻧﺪازﻳﺪ، ﺏﻪ ﺟﺮم ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻡﻲآﻨﻴﺪ، ﺳﻄﺢ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺏﺰرﮔﺘﺮ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد و ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻡﻲﻳﺎﺏﺪ. ﺕﻤﺎم اﻳﻦ ﻡﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت، ﻡﺎ را ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮف ﻧﻜﺘﻪاي ﻡﻌﻤﺎ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻡﻲآﺸﺎﻧﺪ. اﮔﺮ ﭼﻴﺰي ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، دﻡﺎ هﻢ دارد و آﻼ ﺳﺮد ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. اﮔﺮ ﭼﻴﺰي دﻡﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﻡﻲﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﺎ ﺕﺎﺏﺶ اﻧﺮژي هﻤﺮاﻩ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. اﮔﺮ ﭼﻴﺰي اﻧﺮژي ﺕﺎﺏﺶ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺏﮕﻮﻳﻴﻢ آﻪ هﻴﭻﭼﻴﺰ از ﺁن‬ ‫ﺏﻪ ﺏﻴﺮون ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﻧﻤﻲﺵﻮد. اﻳﻦ ﺏﺮﺧﻼف اﻧﺘﻈﺎري ﺏﻮد آﻪ از ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ داﺵﺘﻴﻢ: ﻗﺮار ﻧﺒﻮد از ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﭼﻴﺰي ﺏﻴﺮون‬ ‫ﺏﻴﺎﻳﺪ.‬ ‫هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﻓﻜﺮ ﻡﻲآﺮد آﻪ ﺏﻜﻦﺵﺘﺎﻳﻦ دﭼﺎر اﺵﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺵﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. او از ﺳﻮء اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻧﺎﻡﺒﺮدﻩ در آﺸﻒ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد‬ ‫هﻴﭻﮔﺎﻩ آﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﻧﻤﻲﺵﻮد، ﻧﺎراﺣﺖ ﺏﻮد. در 2791، هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﻡﻘﺎﻟﻪاي ﺏﺎ هﻤﻜﺎري دو ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﺪان دﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﻪ ﻧﺎم ﺟﻴﻤﺰ‬ ‫ﺏﺎردﻳﻦ و ﺏﺮاﻧﺪو آﺎرﺕﺮ اﻧﺘﺸﺎر داد. و در ﺁن ﺏﺎ اﻳﻦ ﻡﻮﺿﻮع اﺵﺎرﻩ آﺮد آﻪ ﺏﺎ وﺟﻮد هﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪﻳﻬﺎﻳﻲ آﻪ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ اﻓﻖ‬

‫روﻳﺪاد و ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ وﺟﻮد دارد. ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺕﺎ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ زﻳﺮا ﭼﻴﺰي ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ از ﺁن ﮔﺴﻴﻞ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺵﻮد. ﺏﻌﺪا ﻡﻌﻠﻮم ﺵﺪ آﻪ او و هﻤﻜﺎراﻧﺶ در اﺵﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺏﻮدﻩاﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫هﺎوکﻴﻨﮓ در ﺳﺎل 3791 ﺕﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﺏﺎ دﻳﺪ ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ ﻡﻮﺿﻮع ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ را ﺏﺮرﺳﻲ آﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ اوﻟﻴﻦ‬ ‫آﻮﺵﺶ ﺟﺪي و ﻡﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖﺁﻡﻴﺰ ﻳﻜﻲ از داﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪان ﻗﺮن ﺏﻴﺴﺘﻢ، ﺏﺮاي ﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪ دو ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺏﺰرگ اﻳﻦ ﻗﺮن ﺏﻮد. در ﺳﺎل‬ ‫ﻡﺬاآﺮﻩ 3791، هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ در ﻡﺴﻜﻮ ﺏﺎ دو ﻧﻔﺮ از ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﺪاﻧﺎن روﺳﻲ ﺏﻪ ﻧﺎم ﻳﺎآﻮ زﻟﺪووﻳﭻ و ﺁﻟﻜﺴﺎﻧﺪر ﺳﺘﺎروﺏﻴﻨﺴﻜﻲ‬ ‫آﺮد. ﺁﻧﻬﺎ او را ﻗﺎﻧﻊ آﺮدﻧﺪ آﻪ اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ اﻳﻦ ﻡﻌﻨﻲ را دارد آﻪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪهﺎي ﭼﺮﺧﻨﺪﻩ، ذراﺕﻲ ﺏﻪ وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺁورﻧﺪ و ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﺏﻪ ﺏﻴﺮون ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ. هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ از ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻡﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺁﻧﺎن در ﺏﺎرﻩ ﻡﻘﺪار ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ذرات راﺿﻲ ﻧﺒﻮد.‬ ‫او ﺳﻌﻲ آﺮد روش رﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﺏﻬﺘﺮي ﺏﺮاي اﻳﻦ ﻡﻮﺿﻮع ﭘﻴﺪا آﻨﺪ.‬ ‫هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ اﻧﺘﻈﺎر داﺵﺖ آﻪ ﻡﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت او، ﺕﺎﺏﺸﻲ را آﻪ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﺪاﻧﺎن روﺳﻲ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ آﺮدﻩ ﺏﻮدﻧﺪ، ﺕﺄﻳﻴﺪ آﻨﺪ. ﭼﻴﺰي آﻪ‬ ‫او آﺸﻒ آﺮد، ﻡﻮﺿﻮع ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﺵﮕﻔﺖاﻧﮕﻴﺰﺕﺮي ﺏﻮد: "ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺷﮕﻔﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻧﺎراﺣﺖ آﻨﻨﺪﻩ رﺳﻴﺪم آﻪ ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪهﺎي ﻏﻴﺮ ﭼﺮﺧﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ از ﺧﻮد ذراﺗﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺁهﻨﮓ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ دارﻧﺪ". اﺏﺘﺪا ﻓﻜﺮ آﺮد آﻪ ﻡﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت او‬ ‫ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﻏﻠﻂ ﺏﻮدﻩ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ و ﺳﺎﻋﺎت زﻳﺎدي را ﺏﻪ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮي اﺵﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺧﻮد ﭘﺮداﺧﺖ. او ﺏﻪ ﺧﺼﻮص دﻧﺒﺎل اﻳﻦ ﺏﻮد آﻪ ﭼﺮا‬ ‫ﺟﺎآﻮب ﺏﻜﻦﺵﺘﺎﻳﻦ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻡﻮﺿﻮع ﭘﻲ ﻧﺒﺮدﻩ ﺏﻮد ﺕﺎ از ﺁن ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان اﺳﺘﺪﻻﻟﻲ ﺏﺮاي اﻳﺪﻩ اﻓﻘﻬﺎي روﻳﺪاد و ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻮدش اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ آﻨﺪ. اﻡﺎ هﺮﭼﻪ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ راﺟﻊ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻡﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت ﻓﻜﺮ آﺮد، ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻡﺠﺒﻮر ﺏﻪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮش ﺁن ﺵﺪ آﻪ‬ ‫ﻡﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت او ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ از واﻗﻌﻴﺖ دور ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. ﭼﻴﺰي آﻪ او را در اﻳﻦ زﻡﻴﻨﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻳﻘﻴﻦ واداﺵﺖ، ﺵﺒﺎهﺖ دﻗﻴﻖ ﻃﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺕﺎﺏﺶ ذرات ﺏﺎ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ ﺏﻮد آﻪ از ﻳﻚ ﺟﺴﻢ داغ اﻧﺘﻈﺎر ﻡﻲرﻓﺖ.‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮ ﺏﻜﻦﺵﺘﺎﻳﻦ درﺳﺖ ﺏﻮد: ﺵﻤﺎ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﺏﺎ اﻧﺪاﺧﺘﻦ ﻡﺎدﻩ ﺣﺎﻡﻞ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ، ﺁن را ﻡﺜﻞ ﺳﻄﻞ ﺁﺵﻐﺎل در‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ را آﺎهﺶ دهﻴﺪ و ﻧﻈﻢ ﺟﻬﺎن را اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ دهﻴﺪ. زﻡﺎﻧﻲ آﻪ ﻡﻮاد ﺣﺎﻡﻞ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ رﻳﺨﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ، ﻡﺴﺎﺣﺖ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻡﻲﻳﺎﺏﺪ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ زﻳﺎدﺕﺮ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد، ﭘﺲ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺟﻬﺎن در داﺧﻞ و‬ ‫ﺧﺎرج ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ هﻴﭻ آﺎهﺶ ﻧﻴﺎﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫اﻡﺎ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ اﻡﻜﺎن داﺵﺘﻦ دﻡﺎ و ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ذرات را دارد در ﺣﺎﻟﻲ آﻪ هﻴﭻﭼﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ از اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰد؟‬ ‫هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ اﻳﻦ ﺳﻮال را در ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ.‬ ‫اﮔﺮ ﻡﺎ ﻓﻀﺎ را ﺧﻼ ﻓﺮض آﻨﻴﻢ، راﻩ درﺳﺘﻲ ﻧﺮﻓﺘﻪاﻳﻢ. در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻡﻲﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺁن را ﺏﻴﺎﺏﻴﻢ. اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ ﺏﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﻡﻌﻨﻲ اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﻡﺎ هﻴﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺏﺎ دﻗﺖ آﺎﻡﻞ، ﺏﻪ ﻃﻮر هﻤﺰﻡﺎن، ﻡﻜﺎن و ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻳﻚ ذرﻩ را ﺏﺪاﻳﻨﻢ. ﻡﻌﻨﺎي ﺁن‬ ‫از اﻳﻦ هﻢ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ: ﻡﺎ هﺮﮔﺰ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ آﻤﻴﺖ ﻳﻚ ﻡﻴﺪان )ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻡﺜﺎل ﻡﻴﺪان اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻡﻴﺪان‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ( و ﺁهﻨﮓ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮات ﺁﻧﺮا هﻤﺰﻡﺎن، ﺏﺎ دﻗﺖ آﺎﻡﻞ ﺕﻌﻴﻴﻦ آﻨﻴﻢ. هﺮ ﻗﺪر آﻤﻴﺖ ﻡﻴﺪان را ﺏﺎ دﻗﺖ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺏﺪاﻧﻴﻢ، دﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻡﺎ در داﻧﺴﺘﻦ ﺁهﻨﮓ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮات ﺁن آﺎهﺶ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ و ﺏﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ. در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ، ﺵﺪت ﻳﻚ ﻡﻴﺪان هﻴﭻ وﻗﺖ ﺏﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲرﺳﺪ. ﺻﻔﺮ هﻢ از ﻧﻈﺮ آﻤﻴﺖ و هﻢ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺁهﻨﮓ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮات ﻡﻴﺪان، اﻧﺪازﻩﮔﻴﺮي ﺏﺴﻴﺎر دﻗﻴﻘﻲ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد. آﻪ اﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ، ﺁن را ﻡﺠﺎز ﻧﻤﻲداﻧﺪ. ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮان ﻓﻀﺎي ﺧﺎﻟﻲ داﺵﺖ، ﻡﮕﺮ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺕﻤﺎم ﻡﻴﺪاﻧﻬﺎ دﻗﻴﻘﺎ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﻨﺪ. اﮔﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺵﻨﺪ، ﻓﻀﺎي ﺧﺎﻟﻲ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد.‬ ‫ﺏﻪ ﺟﺎي ﻓﻀﺎي ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺧﻸ آﺎﻡﻞ آﻪ اﻏﻠﺐ ﻡﺎ ﺕﺼﻮر ﻡﻲآﻨﻴﻢ در ﻓﻀﺎ هﺴﺖ، ﻡﻘﺪار ﺣﺪاﻗﻠﻲ از ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ، اﻧﺪآﻲ‬ ‫اﺏﻬﺎم ﻳﺎ ﻧﺎﻡﻌﻠﻮﻡﻲ ﺏﻪ ﺻﻮرﺕﻲ دارﻳﻢ. آﻪ ﻧﻤﻲداﻧﻴﻢ ﻡﻘﺪار ﻡﻴﺪان در »ﻓﻀﺎي ﺧﺎﻟﻲ« ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟ اﻳﻦ اﻓﺖ و ﺧﻴﺰ در ﻡﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﻡﻴﺪان، اﻳﻦ ﻟﺮزش اﻧﺪك ﺏﻪ ﺳﻮي ﺟﻮاﻧﺐ ﻡﺜﺒﺖ و ﻡﻨﻔﻲ ﺻﻔﺮ را آﻪ هﺮﮔﺰ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻧﻤﻲﺵﻮد، ﻡﻲﺕﻮان ﺏﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺕﺼﻮر آﺮد.‬ ‫زوﺟﻬﺎﻳﻲ از ذرات ـ زوﺟﻬﺎي ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ ـ ﻡﺪام ﻇﺎهﺮ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. دو ذرﻩ ﺏﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻳﻚ ﺟﻔﺖ در ﻡﻲﺁﻳﻨﺪ و‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺲ از هﻢ ﺟﺪا ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ. ﭘﺲ از ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ زﻡﺎﻧﻲ ﺏﺴﻴﺎر آﻮﺕﺎﻩ ﻏﻴﺮﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﺕﺼﻮري، ﺁن دو ذرﻩ ﺏﺎر دﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﻪ هﻢ ﻡﻲرﺳﻨﺪ،‬ ‫و ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ را ﻡﻨﻬﺪم ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ ﺣﻴﺎﺕﻲ آﻮﺕﺎﻩ وﻟﻲ ﭘﺮ ﻡﺎﺟﺮا دارﻧﺪ. ﻡﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ آﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻲ ﺏﻪ ﻡﺎ ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ آﻪ اﻳﻦ واﻗﻌﻪ هﻤﻴﺸﻪ‬ ‫و هﻤﻪ ﺟﺎ در ﻓﻀﺎي »ﺧﻸ« روي ﻡﻲدهﺪ.‬ ‫ﻡﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ آﻪ اﻳﻨﻬﺎ ذرات »واﻗﻌﻲ« آﻪ ﺏﺘﻮاﻧﻴﻢ وﺟﻮد ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﺏﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺁﺵﻜﺎرﺳﺎز ذرات، ﺕﺸﺨﻴﺺ دهﻴﻢ ﻧﺒﺎﺵﻨﺪ، وﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺕﺼﻮر آﺮد آﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ذرات ﺧﻴﺎﻟﻲ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺣﺘﻲ اﮔﺮ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ذراﺕﻲ »ﻡﺠﺎزي« ﺏﺎﺵﻨﺪ، ﻡﻲداﻧﻴﻢ ﺁﺙﺎر ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را روي‬ ‫ذرات دﻳﮕﺮ ﺕﺸﺨﻴﺺ دهﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﺏﻌﻀﻲ از اﻳﻦ زوﺟﻬﺎ، زوﺟﻬﺎي ذرات ﻡﺎدﻩ ﻳﺎ ﻓﺮﻡﻴﻮﻧﻬﺎ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. در اﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ، ﻳﻜﻲ از ذرات زوج، ﭘﺎدذرﻩ دﻳﮕﺮي‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. ﻡﻲداﻧﻴﻢ آﻪ ﻡﻘﺪار آﻞ اﻧﺮژي در ﺟﻬﺎن، هﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺙﺎﺏﺖ و ﺏﺪون ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﺳﺖ. اﻧﺮژي ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ از ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﺏﻪ ﻃﻮر‬ ‫ﻧﺎﮔﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺏﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن وارد ﺵﻮد. ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻡﺎ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﻡﺴﺄﻟﻪ اﻳﻦ زوج ﺕﺎزﻩ ﺏﻪ وﺟﻮد ﺁﻡﺪﻩ را ﺏﺎ اﻳﻦ اﺻﻞ ﺳﺎزﮔﺎر آﻨﻴﻢ؟ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫زوﺟﻬﺎ، ﺏﺎ »وام ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ« اﻧﺮژي، ﺏﻪ ﻃﻮر ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﻡﻮﻗﺘﻲ ﺏﻪ وﺟﻮد ﺁﻡﺪﻩاﻧﺪ. ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﻪ هﻴﭻوﺟﻪ داﻳﻤﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﻳﻜﻲ از‬

‫ذرات اﻳﻦ زوج اﻧﺮژي ﻡﺜﺒﺖ و دﻳﮕﺮي اﻧﺮژي ﻡﻨﻔﻲ دارد. ﺕﺮاز اﻧﺮژي ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ اﺳﺖ. ﺏﻪ ﻡﻘﺪار اﻧﺮژي آﻪ در‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎن وﺟﻮد دارد، ﭼﻴﺰي اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫زوج ذرﻩهﺎي ﺏﺴﻴﺎري ﺏﻪ ﻃﻮر ﻏﻴﺮ ﻡﻨﺘﻈﺮﻩ، در اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻪ وﺟﻮد ﻡﻲاﻳﻨﺪ و از ﺏﻴﻦ ﻡﻲروﻧﺪ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮ‬ ‫ﺕﺼﻮر او، اﺏﺘﺪا ﻳﻚ زوج از ذرات ﻡﺠﺎزي ﻇﺎهﺮ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺁﻧﻜﻪ اﻳﻦ زوج ﺏﻪ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﺮﺳﻨﺪ و ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ را ﻡﻨﻬﺪم‬ ‫آﻨﻨﺪ، ذرﻩاي آﻪ اﻧﺮژي ﻡﻨﻔﻲ دارد از اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﻋﺒﻮر آﺮدﻩ، وارد ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﺁﻳﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺏﺪان ﻡﻌﻨﻲ اﺳﺖ آﻪ‬ ‫ذرﻩ ﺏﺎ اﻧﺮژي ﻡﺜﺒﺖ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ هﻤﺘﺎي ﺏﺪﺏﺨﺖ ﺧﻮد را، ﺏﺎ هﺪف ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد و ﻡﻨﻬﺪم آﺮدن دﻧﺒﺎل آﻨﺪ؟ ﻧﻪ.‬ ‫ﻡﻴﺪان ﺟﺎذﺏﻪ در اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻗﺪر آﺎﻓﻲ ﻗﻮي اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﺏﺎ ذرات ﻡﺠﺎزي، ﺣﺘﻲ ﺏﺎ ذرات ﺏﺪﺏﺨﺖ ﺏﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﺮژي ﻡﻨﻔﻲ آﺎر ﺵﮕﻔﺖاﻧﮕﻴﺰي ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ: ﻡﻴﺪان ﺟﺎذﺏﻪ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را از » ﻡﺠﺎزي« ﺏﻪ » واﻗﻌﻲ« ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ آﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ، ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﻡﻼﺣﻈﻪاي در زوج ﺏﻪ وﺟﻮد ﻡﻲﺁورد. ﺁﻧﻬﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻡﺠﺒﻮر ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺏﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد آﺮدﻩ و ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫را ﻡﻨﻬﺪم آﻨﻨﺪ. ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﻨﺪ هﺮ دو ﻡﺪت ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻴﺘﺮي، ﺟﺪا از هﻢ وﺟﻮد داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻨﺪ. اﻟﺒﺘﻪ ذرﻩ ﺏﺎ اﻧﺮژي ﻡﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ در ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻴﻔﺘﺪ، وﻟﻲ ﻡﺠﺒﻮر ﺏﻪ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ آﺎري ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. او از ﻡﺸﺎرآﺖ ﺁزاد اﺳﺖ، ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰد.‬ ‫ﺏﺮاي ﻳﻚ ﻡﺸﺎهﺪﻩ آﻨﻨﺪﻩ از دور، ﺏﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻡﻲﺁﻳﺪ آﻪ از ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻴﺮون ﺁﻡﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. در ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ اﻳﻦ ذرﻩ، ﻧﻪ از‬ ‫ﺏﻴﺮون،ﺏﻠﻜﻪ از ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻡﻲﺁﻳﺪ. در اﻳﻦ ﺿﻤﻦ هﻤﺘﺎي او اﻧﺮژي ﻡﻨﻔﻲ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ وارد آﺮدﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺕﺎﺏﺸﻲ آﻪ‬ ‫ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺕﺮﺕﻴﺐ از ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد، ﺕﺎﺏﺶ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﻧﺎﻡﻴﺪﻩ ﻡﻲﺵﻮد. ﺕﺎﺏﺶ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﻧﺸﺎن داد آﻪ اوﻟﻴﻦ آﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻡﺸﻬﻮر او، ﻗﺎﻧﻮن دوم دﻳﻨﺎﻡﻴﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ )آﻪ ﻡﺴﺎﺣﺖ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد هﻴﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ آﺎهﺶ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ(، هﻤﻴﺸﻪ اﺳﺘﻮار‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺕﺎﺏﺶ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ اﻳﻦ ﻡﻌﻨﻲ را ﻡﻲدهﺪ آﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ آﻮﭼﻚ ﺵﺪﻩ و در ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ آﺎﻡﻼ از ﺏﻴﻦ ﺏﺮود،‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﭼﻴﺰي آﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻡﻔﻬﻮم واﻗﻌﺎ اﺳﺎﺳﻲ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺕﺎﺏﺶ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ را آﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ؟ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ، ﺏﻪ ﺕﺪرﻳﺞ آﻪ ذرﻩهﺎي ﻡﺠﺎزي را ﺏﻪ واﻗﻌﻲ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ اﻧﺮژي از دﺳﺖ ﻡﻲدهﺪ. اﮔﺮ هﻴﭻ ﭼﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ از اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺏﮕﺮﻳﺰد، ﭼﻪﻃﻮر ﻡﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﭼﻴﺰي‬ ‫روي ﺏﺪهﺪ؟ ﭼﻪﻃﻮر ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻡﻲﺕﻮاﻧﺪ ﭼﻴﺰي از دﺳﺖ ﺏﺪهﺪ؟ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺳﺆال ﻡﻲﺕﻮان ﭘﺎﺳﺦ زﻳﺮآﺎﻧﻪاي داد: زﻡﺎﻧﻲ آﻪ‬ ‫ذرﻩاي ﺏﺎ اﻧﺮژي ﻡﻨﻔﻲ اﻳﻦ اﻧﺮژي ﻡﻨﻔﻲ را ﺏﺎ ﺧﻮد ﺏﻪ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﻡﻲﺏﺮد، اﻧﺮژي ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ را آﻤﺘﺮ ﻡﻲآﻨﺪ. ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻡﻨﻔﻲ‬ ‫» ﻡﻨﻬﺎ« اﺳﺖ آﻪ ﻡﺘﺮادف آﻤﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫اﮔﺮ ﺕﺎﺏﺶ هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ از ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﺰرگ را آﻪ در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ُﻡﺒﺶ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ ﺏﻪ وﺟﻮد ﺁﻡﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ اﻧﺪازﻩﮔﻴﺮي آﻨﻴﻢ،‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﻧﺎاﻡﻴﺪ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ ﺵﺪ. دﻡﺎي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪاي ﺏﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺏﺰرﮔﻲ، آﻤﺘﺮ از ﻳﻚ ﻡﻴﻠﻴﻮﻧﻴﻢ درﺟﻪ ﺏﺎﻻﺕﺮ از ﺻﻔﺮ ﻡﻄﻠﻖ ﺧﻮاهﺪ‬ ‫ﺏﻮد. هﺮ ﻗﺪر ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﺰرﮔﺘﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، دﻡﺎي ﺁن آﻤﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ. اﺳﺘﻴﻮن هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ، »ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪاي ﺏﺎ ﺟﺮم دﻩ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ، ﻡﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﭼﻨﺪ هﺰار ﻓﻮﺕﻮن در ﺙﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ دارد، وﻟﻲ اﻳﻦ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻃﻮل ﻡﻮﺟﻲ ﺏﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاهﻨﺪ داﺵﺖ. و اﻧﺮژي ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺁﻧﻘﺪر آﻢ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد آﻪ ﺁﺵﻜﺎرﺳﺎزي ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻡﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﻡﻄﻠﺐ را ﻡﻲﺕﻮان اﻳﻦﻃﻮر ﺏﻴﺎن‬ ‫آﺮد: هﺮﻗﺪر ﺟﺮم زﻳﺎدﺕﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺳﻄﺢ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺏﺰرﮔﺘﺮ، هﺮﭼﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺏﺰرﮔﺘﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. هﺮﭼﻪ ﺁﻧﺘﺮوﭘﻲ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ دﻡﺎي ﺳﻄﺢ و ﺁهﻨﮓ ﮔﺴﻴﻞ آﻤﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺏﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺣﺎل، هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ، ﺧﻴﻠﻲ زود، در ﺳﺎل 1791 ﻧﻈﺮ داد آﻪ ﻧﻮع دﻳﮕﺮي از ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ وﺟﻮد دارد. ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪهﺎي‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻠﻲ رﻳﺰ آﻪ ﺟﺎﻟﺒﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﻪ اﻧﺪاز هﺴﺘﻪ اﺕﻢ اﺳﺖ. اﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪهﺎ ﺏﻪﻃﻮر ﻗﻄﻊ ﻡﻨﻔﺠﺮ ﻡﻲﺵﻮﻧﺪ و ﺕﺎﺏﺶ ﻡﻲآﻨﻨﺪ. ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎد داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ آﻪ هﺮ ﻗﺪر ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪ آﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، دﻡﺎي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺁن ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ. هﺎوآﻴﻨﮓ در ﻡﻮرد اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎهﭽﺎﻟﻪهﺎي ﺏﺴﻴﺎر رﻳﺰ ﻡﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ: اﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ هﺎ را ﺏﻪ زﺣﻤﺖ ﻡﻲﺕﻮان ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﻧﺎﻡﻴﺪ: ﺁﻧﻬﺎ در ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ داغ و ﺳﻔﻴﺪﻧﺪ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﺁﻧﭽﻪ کﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﺏﺨﺶ ﺏﻴﺶ از هﻤﻪ اهﻤﻴﺖ دارد، ﺕﺒﺨﻴﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﺮ اﺙﺮ ﺕﺎﺏﺶ هﺎوکﻴﻨﮓ اﺳﺖ. در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ.‬ ‫اچ. ﻟﺰوﻡﯽ ﻧﺪارد کﻪ از اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ ﻳﺎ ذرات ﺏﺎ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻡﻨﻔﯽ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ کﻨﻴﻢ ﺕﺎ ﻧﺸﺎن دهﻴﻢ کﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ هﺎ ﺏﺮ اﺙﺮ‬ ‫ﺕﺎﺏﺶ هﺎوکﻴﻨﮓ ﺕﺒﺨﻴﺮ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫در ﺳﻄﺢ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﻳﺎ ﻻﻳﻪ هﺎﯼ دروﻧﯽ )زﻳﺮ اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﺏﻄﺮف ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ( ﭼﮑﺎﻟﯽ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ )ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ( ﺁﻧﻘﺪر ﺏﺎﻻ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ کﻪ ﺏﺴﺎدﮔﯽ ﺏﺎ هﻢ ﺕﺮکﻴﺐ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ و کﻮاﻧﺘﻮم هﺎﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ را ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻬﺎﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ ﺏﺎﻻﯼ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﺏﺮﺧﻮردهﺎﯼ ﺵﺪﻳﺪﯼ ﺏﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ و ﺏﺎر –رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺧﻮاهﻨﺪ داﺵﺖ. در اﻳﻦ ﺏﺮﺧﻮردهﺎ ﺕﺠﺰﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺵﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺏﻪ ذرات ﻡﺎدﻩ – ﭘﺎدﻡﺎدﻩ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ و ﺏﻪ اﻃﺮاف ﭘﺮاکﻨﺪﻩ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ. ﺏﺮﺧﯽ از اﻳﻦ ذرات ﺏﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ ﻡﺠﺎورت ﺏﺎ اﻓﻖ‬ ‫روﻳﺪاد، ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺁﻧﮑﻪ هﻤﻪ ﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺧﻮد را از دﺳﺖ ﺏﺪهﻨﺪ، از اﻓﻖ روﻳﺪاد ﻋﺒﻮر کﺮدﻩ و ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ را ﺕﺮﮎ ﻡﯽ‬ ‫کﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﺎ ﻡﺎ ﺏﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر دروﻧﯽ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ هﺎ ﺁﺵﻨﺎ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻴﻢ. اﻡﺎ اﮔﺮ ﺏﭙﺬﻳﺮﻳﻢ کﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ هﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ از هﻤﺎن ﻡﻮادﯼ ﺏﻮﺟﻮد ﻡﯽ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪ کﻪ ﺏﻘﻴﻪ ﺟﻬﺎن را ﺵﮑﻞ دادﻩ )کﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ اﺳﺖ(، ﺁﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻡﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ روﻳﺪادهﺎﯼ اﻡﮑﺎن ﭘﺬﻳﺮ در ﺁﻧﺠﺎ را ﺕﺠﺰﻳﻪ و‬ ‫ً‬

‫ﺕﺤﻠﻴﻞ کﻨﻴﻢ. ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ از ﻳﮏ ﺕﻮدﻩ ﯼ ﻓﺸﺮدﻩ و ﭼﮕﺎل از ﻡﺎدﻩ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻡﯽ ﺵﻮد و ﻳﮏ ﻡﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﻗﻮﯼ‬ ‫در اﻃﺮاف اﻳﻦ ﻡﺎدﻩ ﯼ ﭼﮕﺎل وﺟﻮد دارد. اﻳﻦ ﻡﻴﺪان ﻓﻮق اﻟﻌﺎدﻩ ﻗﻮﯼ از ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺵﺪﻩ کﻪ در ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺕﻮن وﺟﻮد دارﻧﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺏﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ ﺏﺎﻻ ﺏﻮدن ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ ﺏﺴﻬﻮﻟﺖ ﺏﺎ هﻢ ﺕﺮکﻴﺐ ﺵﺪﻩ و کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻬﺎﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ را‬ ‫ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻡﯽ کﻨﻨﺪ. کﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻡﻬﺎﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﭼﻬﺮﻩ ﯼ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ از ﻡﺎدﻩ و ﭘﺎد ﻡﺎدﻩ، کﻪ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺏﻪ ﺵﺮاﻳﻄﯽ دارﻧﺪ ﺕﺎ ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﻡﺎدﻩ و ﭘﺎد ﻡﺎدﻩ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ. و اﻳﻦ ﺵﺮاﻳﻂ در ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﭼﺎﻟﻪ وﺟﻮد دارد.‬

Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH
Section Nine Maxwell Equations in gravitational Field

‫ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ در ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ‬
‫هﻤﺠﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ در ﺑﺎﻻ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪ، هﻨﮕ ﺎم ﺳ ﻘﻮط ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن در ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮﻧﺸ ﯽ، ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘ ﻮن ه ﺎ ﺧ ﻮاص ﺑ ﺎر-رﻧﮕ ﯽ و‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻨ ﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧﮕ ﯽ از ﺧ ﻮد ﻧﺸ ﺎن ﻣ ﯽ دهﻨ ﺪ. ﺑﻬﻤ ﻴﻦ دﻟﻴ ﻞ ﺑ ﺮ ﺷ ﺪت ﻣﻴ ﺪاﻧﻬﺎﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﯽ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ﯽ ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن‬ ‫اﻓﺰودﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﻳﮏ راﺑﻄﻪ ﯼ ﺗﻨﮕﺎﺗﻨﮓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ و اﻣﻮاج اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ وﺝﻮد دارد. اﻣﺎ ﻣﯽ‬ ‫داﻧ ﻴﻢ ﮐ ﻪ اﻣ ﻮاج اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ﯽ از ﻣﻌ ﺎدﻻت ﻣﺎﮐﺴ ﻮل ﭘﻴ ﺮوﯼ ﻣ ﯽ ﮐﻨﻨ ﺪ. ﻟ ﺬا واﺑﺴ ﺘﮕﯽ ﮔ ﺮاﻧﺶ و اﻣ ﻮاج‬ ‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﻪ اﯼ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﻣﺎﮐﺴﻮل ﺗﺒﻌﻴﺖ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺳﺌﻮال اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﻪ را ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﺁورﻳﻢ؟‬ ‫ﻳﮑﺒ ﺎر دﻳﮕ ﺮ ﺳ ﻘﻮط ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن را در ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﯽ ﻣ ﻮرد ﺑﺮرﺳ ﯽ ﻗ ﺮار ﻣ ﯽ ده ﻴﻢ. ﻣﺤ ﻮر ﻗ ﺎﺉﻢ را در ﺝﻬ ﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺘﺎب ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ. ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺑﻄﺮف ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ و ﺑﺎ ﺷﺘﺎب ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ هﻤﺠﻬﺖ اﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺝﻬﺖ ﻣﻴ ﺪان اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﯽ اﻓﻘ ﯽ )ﻋﻤ ﻮد ﺑ ﺮ ﺝﻬ ﺖ ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن( ﺧﻮاه ﺪ ﺑ ﻮد. ﺑ ﺎ ﺳ ﻘﻮط ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن، ﺷ ﺪت ﻣﻴ ﺪان‬ ‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﯽ اﻓ ﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣ ﯽ ﻳﺎﺑ ﺪ و ﺑﻨ ﺎﺑﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳ ﻪ ﺳ ﯽ. ﭘ ﯽ. اچ. هﻤ ﺎن ﻣﻘ ﺪار ﺗﻐﻴﻴ ﺮات روﯼ ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﮔ ﺮاﻧﺶ اﻳﺠ ﺎد‬ ‫ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺷﺪ. ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺗﻌﺪادﯼ ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ از ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔ ﺮاﻧﺶ وارد ﺳ ﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن ﺧﻮاهﻨ ﺪ ﺷ ﺪ)ﺷ ﮑﻞ زﻳ ﺮ(. ﺗﻮﺝ ﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد ﮐﻪ ﻣﺠﻤﻮع اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن در ﺁن ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ و اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﻣﻘﺪار ﺛﺎﺑﺘﯽ اﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ‬ ‫هﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﯼ روﯼ ﻳﮑﯽ از ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ هﻤﺎن ﻣﻘﺪار ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ روﯼ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ.‬

‫در اﻳﻨﺠ ﺎ دو ﺗ ﺎﺑﻊ ﺑ ﺮدارﯼ دارﻳ ﻢ. ﻳﮑ ﯽ ﺷ ﺪات ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﯽ و دﻳﮕ ﺮﯼ ﺷ ﺪت ﻣﻴ ﺪان اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﯽ. ﺡ ﺎل اﮔ ﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﮕﺮ‬

‫را ﺑﺼﻮرت ﺽﺮب ﺑﺮدارﯼ روﯼ ﻣﻴﺪان ﺑﺮدارﯼ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ اﻋﻤﺎل ﮐﻨﻴﻢ، ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪان ﺑﺮدارﯼ ﻋﻤﻮد ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ و ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ داﺷﺖ:‬

‫هﻨﮕﺎم ﺳﻘﻮط ﻓﻮﺗﻮن، ﺷﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ و ﺑﻪ هﻤﺎن ﻣﻴﺰان از ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺑﺎر-‬ ‫رﻧﮕﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺝﻮد در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. ﺝﺪول زﻳﺮ را ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺝﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺡﻈﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ ‫‪Point A; Photon contains k1 CPH‬‬ ‫‪Point B; Photon contains k2 CPH‬‬ ‫1‪k2 > k‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬا ﺑﻪ هﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻘﺪار ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. هﺎﯼ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن اﻓﺰودﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد، از ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﻴﺪان‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. اﻣﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪﻩ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ، زﻳﺮا ﻣﻴﺪان اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ و اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺪان اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻣﻮﺝﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺪان ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ:‬

‫ﻟﺬا ﺑﻪ هﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺰان ﻧﻴﺰ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺷﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ اﻓﺰودﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد، از ﺗﻌﺪاد ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻨﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﻴﺪان‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﮑﻮﺳﯽ ﻧﻴﺰ دارد، و ﺁن ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎﻧﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن در ﺡﺎل ﻓﺮار از ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. هﻨﮕﺎم ﻓﺮار ﻓﻮﺗﻮن در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ، ﺝﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﯽ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺳﺮخ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ اﻧﺮژﯼ و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺷﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان‬ ‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ. ﻟﺬا ﺗﻌﺪادﯼ از ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ از ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﺧﺎرج ﺷﺪﻩ و ﺑﺮ ﺗﻌﺪاد‬ ‫ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن هﺎﯼ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ اﻓﺰودﻩ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺷﺪ. ﻟﺬا ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ داﺷﺖ:‬

‫در ﺡﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﻠﯽ اﮔﺮ ﺑﺨﻮاهﻴﻢ ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﻣﺎﮐﺴﻮل را ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ واﻗﻌﯽ ﮐﻪ در ﺁن ﺁﺛﺎر ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻧﻴﺰ وﺝﻮد دارد‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﻢ، ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﺷﺶ ﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﯼ زﻳﺮ را ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺒﺮﻳﻢ.‬

‫هﺮ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺁﺛﺎر ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و اﻣﻮاج اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ از ﺁن ﻋﺒﻮر ﮐﻨﺪ، ﺷﺪت ﻣﻴﺪاﻧﻬﺎﯼ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ‬ ‫و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺁن ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﮐﺮد.‬

‫‪Persian CPH E-Book‬‬

‫‪Theory of CPH‬‬
‫‪Section Ten‬‬ ‫‪Effective Nuclear Charge‬‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﯼ اﺳﺘﻴﻠﺮ‬ ‫روش ﮐﻠﻤﻨﺘﻲ و رﻳﻤﻮﻧﺪي‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ.‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ و ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ.‬ ‫اﺛﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﺘﻮن در ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن اﺗﻢ‬

‫ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ، ﻧﻴﺮوﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ از ﻃﺮف هﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون در ﻣﺪار اﺕﻢ وارد ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد. ﺕﺼﻮر‬ ‫راﻳﺞ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮو ﺑﺮاي ﺕﻤﺎم اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎي ﻳﮏ اﺕﻢ ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ و ﻣﻀﺮﺑﻲ از ﻧﻴﺮوي وارد از ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ‬ ‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺑﺎ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺎﺹﻠﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ اﺳﺖ. اﻣﺎ واﻗﻌﻴﺖ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﺜﺎل ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ هﺴﺘﻪ ي اﺕﻢ هﻴﺪروژن ﻳﮏ واﺣﺪ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻲ ﮐﻪ در اﻳﻦ اﺕﻢ ﻗﺮار‬ ‫دارد، وارد ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. اﮔﺮ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮو ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، در اﺕﻢ هﻠﻴﻮم ﮐﻪ دو ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن وﺟﻮد دارد، ﺑﻪ هﺮ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ دو‬ ‫واﺣﺪ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ از هﺴﺘﻪ ي هﻤﺎن اﺕﻢ وارد ﺷﻮد. اﻣﺎ اﻳﻨﻄﻮر ﻧﻴﺴﺖ و هﺮ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون در اﺕﻢ هﻠﻴﻮم ﻧﻴﺮوﻳﻲ ﺕﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ 7.1 واﺣﺪ اﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ از ﻣﻘﺪاري ﮐﻪ دو ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﺑﺎﻳﺪ وارد ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. در ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﻣﺪرن هﻴﭻ ﻳﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺁن وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد. اﻣﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﻴﺮو ﺑﻪ اﻧﺮژﯼ و ﺑﺎﻟﻌﮑﺲ ﺁن را ﺕﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﯼ اﺳﺘﻴﻠﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي اوﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺎر اﺳﺘﻴﻠﺮ در دهﻪ ي 0391 ﻳﮏ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ اراﺋﻪ داد. ﻃﺒﻖ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫.ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺕﻮان ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ، وارد ﺑﻪ هﺮ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون را در ﺕﻤﺎم اﺕﻤﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺎب ﮐﺮد‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ راﺑﻄﻪ ي زﻳﺮ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ:‬

‫ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬

‫‪Z*=Z-S‬‬

‫*‪Z‬‬ ‫‪Z‬‬ ‫‪S‬‬

‫ﻧﻴﺮوي اﮐﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺕﻌﺪاد ﭘﺮوﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ -ﻋﺪد اﺕﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪداﺳﺘﻴﻠﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ اﺳﺘﻴﻠﺮﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻣﮑﺎن اﻟﮑﺘﺮون در اﺕﻢ ﮐﻪ از راﺑﻄﻪ زﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ، ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫در ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ هﺴﺘﻪ را ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﺮد.‬ ‫...)‪(1s)(2s,2p)(3s,3p)(3d)(4s,4p)(4d)(4f)(5s,5p)(5d)(5f‬‬

‫ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮ در ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن اﺕﻢ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ داﺷﺖ. اﻟﮑﺘﺮون هﺎي ﺳﻤﺖ راﺳﺖ هﻴﭻ ﺕﺎﺛﻴﺮي‬ ‫در ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت ﻣﺎ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ، زﻳﺮا ﻧﻴﺮوﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ از هﺴﺘﻪ وارد ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺁﻧﮑﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎي ﺳﻤﺖ راﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ، اﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮد را اﻋﻤﺎل ﮐﺮدﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺑﺮاي اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎي ﺳﻤﺖ ﭼﭗ ﺑﻪ روش زﻳﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ:‬ ‫‪For 1s‬‬ ‫1>‪For electron in s or p, when n‬‬ ‫1‪N‬‬ ‫2‪N‬‬ ‫ﺕﻌﺪاد اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎ در ﻻﻳﻪ ﯼ ﻗﺒﻠﯽ ﺕﻌﺪاد اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎ در دو ﻻﻳﻪ ﻗﺒﻠﯽ‬ ‫3.0=‪S‬‬ ‫0‪S = 1.00 N2 + 0.85 N1 + 0.35 N‬‬ ‫0‪N‬‬ ‫ﺕﻌﺪاد اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎ در ﻻﻳﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل:‬ ‫‪Example: atom As, electron in 3d‬‬

‫;‪As has 33 protons‬‬

‫ﻣﺪار‬ ‫2‪1s‬‬ ‫6‪2s2 , 2p‬‬ ‫6‪3s2 , 3p‬‬ ‫01‪2d‬‬ ‫‪Total‬‬

‫ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻧﻴﺮو‬ ‫2=1‪2x‬‬ ‫8=1‪8x‬‬ ‫8.6=58.‪8x‬‬ ‫5.3=53.0‪10x‬‬ ‫3.02=‪S‬‬
‫7.21=3.02-33=‪Z*=Z-S‬‬

‫روش ﮐﻠﻤﻨﺘﻲ و رﻳﻤﻮﻧﺪي‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻤﻨﺘﻲ و رﻳﻤﻮﻧﺪي در دهﻪ ي 0691 روي ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ ﮐﺎر ﮐﺮدﻧﺪ. زﻳﺮا ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ در‬ ‫ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻮم اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮد و دﻗﺖ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺁزﻣﺎﻳﺸﮕﺎهﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ رﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﻮد، ﮐﻠﻤﻨﺘﻲ و رﻳﻤﻮﻧﺪي ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از ﺕﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻮج، ﻃﻴﻒ اﺕﻤﻲ هﻴﺪروژن و ﮐﺮﻳﭙﺘﻮن را ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﮐﺮدﻧﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺎهﺪات ﻧﺸﺎن داد ﮐﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﻣﻮﺛﺮ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ هﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫از ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ اﺳﺘﻴﻠﺮ ﺕﺒﻌﻴﺖ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫اﻳﺸﺎن ﻳﮏ ﻣﺪل رﻳﺎﺽﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ اراﺋﻪ ﮐﺮدﻧﺪ. ﺑﺮ اﺳﺎس اﻳﻦ ﻣﺪل ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻃﻴﻒ اﺕﻤﻬﺎ و‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﮑﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﺳﺎزﮔﺎر ﺑﻮد، ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ اﺳﺘﻴﻠﺮ اﺧﺘﻼف داﺷﺖ. ﺑﺮاي ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ، ﺑﺎ روش ﮐﻠﻤﻨﺘﯽ و‬ ‫رﻳﻤﻮﻧﺪﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﺜﺎل ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ:‬ ‫873.71=*‪As, 3d, Z‬‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ روش اﺳﺘﻴﻠﺮ 7.21 ﺕﻔﺎوت ﭼﺸﻤﮕﻴﺮي داﺷﺖ.‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﮐﻪ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺷﺎﻳﺎن ﺕﻮﺟﻪ اﺳﺖ، اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ هﺮ دو روش ﻳﺎد ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺁزﻣﺎﻳﺶ و ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ ﻃﻴﻒ اﺕﻤﻬﺎ و‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﮑﻮﻟﻬﺎ اﺳﺖ. و ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ي ﻧﻈﺮي ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭼﺮا ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ.‬ ‫اﮔﺮ از دﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻼﺳﻴﮏ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ، ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮي ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺕﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. زﻳﺮا در ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻼﺳﻴﮏ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺶ از راﻩ دور اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد و ﻣﺤﻴﻂ اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ روي ﻧﻴﺮو ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻮم هﻢ ﻧﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺕﻮان اﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ را ﺕﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﮐﺮد. زﻳﺮا در ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮏ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻮم ﻓﻮﺕﻮن هﺎي ﻣﺠﺎزي ﮐﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ را ﺣﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫و ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮض اﻳﻨﮑﻪ هﺴﺘﻪ ي اﺕﻢ هﻠﻴﻮم دو ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺑﻄﺮف هﺮ ﻳﮏ از اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎي ﺧﻮد ارﺳﺎل ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ، اﻳﻦ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﺑﻄﻮر ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎ رﺳﻴﺪﻩ و ﻧﻴﺮوﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ 2 واﺣﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ اﻋﻤﺎل ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﮑﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﻣﻮﺛﺮ اﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺕﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ 7.1 واﺣﺪ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎل ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﻳﺪ ﭼﻪ اﺕﻔﺎﻗﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ روي ﻣﻲ دهﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻲ از ﻧﻴﺮوي ﺧﻮد را از دﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ دهﻨﺪ.‬ ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. دو ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺕﻮﺟﻪ اﺳﺖ. ﻳﮑﻲ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﻴﺮو و اﻧﺮژي ﺑﻴﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ و دﻳﮕﺮي ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺕﻮن. ﺑﺎرهﺎ ﺑﺮ اﻳﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﺕﺎﮐﻴﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﮐﻪ از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺟﺴﻤﻲ را ﺑﻄﺮف ﺑﺎﻻ ﭘﺮﺕﺎب ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﻴﻢ، ﺟﺴﻢ هﻨﮕﺎم ﺹﻌﻮد اﻧﺮژي ﺧﻮد را از دﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ دهﺪ و اﻳﻦ اﻧﺮژي ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺮو )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ( ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد و هﻨﮕﺎم ﺳﻘﻮط، ﻧﻴﺮو ﺑﻪ اﻧﺮژي ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد.‬

‫در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ زﻣﻴﻦ اﻣﮑﺎن ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد ﮐﻪ ﺑﺒﻴﻨﻴﻢ وﻗﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺟﺴﻤﻲ را ﺑﻄﺮف ﺑﺎﻻ ﭘﺮﺕﺎب ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ،‬ ‫ﺷﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ در اﻳﻦ ﺹﻌﻮد ﭼﻘﺪر ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. اﻣﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺨﻮﺑﻲ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲ دهﺪ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﺪﻩ ﻋﻼوﻩ ﺑﺮ ذرات ﮐﻨﺶ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ، ﺕﺤﺖ ﺕﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ هﺴﺘﻪ و ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ.‬ ‫در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. هﻤﻪ ي ذرات از ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ. از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﻋﺎﻣﻞ اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻧﻴﺮوي‬ ‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ. هﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ذرﻩ ي ﺑﺎردار ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻲ را ﺟﺬب ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺁن ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬

‫در ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﻤﺎدﯼ از اﺕﻢ هﻴﺪروژن ﺕﺮﺳﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﺕﻘﺮﻳﺒﯽ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽ دهﺪ اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻧﻬﺎ و ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﺠﺎزﯼ‬ ‫از ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ. ﻓﻮﺕﻮن در ﻓﻀﺎي ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﮐﻮﭼﮏ اﺕﻢ، ﺑﺎ هﻤﻪ ي ذرات ﺑﺎردار ﺕﺤﺖ ﮐﻨﺶ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫در اﻳﻦ ﻓﻀﺎي ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﮐﻮﭼﮏ، ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻲ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻄﺮف اﻟﮑﺘﺮون در ﺣﺮﮐﺖ اﺳﺖ. اﻳﻦ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﻮﺟﺐ‬ ‫اﻧﺤﺮاف اﻟﮑﺘﺮون دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد و ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺕﺮﺕﻴﺐ، ﺧﻮد ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻧﻴﺰ از ﻣﺴﻴﺮ هﺪف ﻣﻨﺤﺮف ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد. ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫در ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ و از ﻃﺮف ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﺑﻄﺮف اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. )هﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺧﻮد اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻧﻴﺰ در‬ ‫ﻳﮏ ﺟﺎ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ، اﻣﺎ اﻳﻦ در ﺑﺤﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺕﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻧﺪارد(. در اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ ﺕﺎﺛﻴﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺑﻌﺪي روي ﻓﻮﺕﻮن دارد، اﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺕﻌﺪادي از ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎي ﺁن را ﺧﺎرج ﮐﺮدﻩ و ﺑﻄﺮف ﺧﻮد ﻣﻲ ﮐﺸﺪ. در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺑﺎ ﺕﻌﺪاد ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﺘﺮي ﺑﻪ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون هﺪف ﻣﻲ رﺳﺪ.‬ ‫هﻤﭽﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ در ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ دﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد، دو ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن هﺴﺘﻪ ي هﻠﻴﻮم، هﺮﻳﮏ، ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن )ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ( ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺳﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻄﺮف اﻟﮑﺘﺮون 2 ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ دو اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺷﻤﺎرﻩ ﻳﮏ را ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫دهﻨﺪ. و اﻟﮑﺘﺮون روي ﻣﺪار ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﮐﺮد ﮐﻪ ﻣﺪار واﻗﻌﻲ ﺁن اﺳﺖ، ﻧﻪ ﻣﺪارﯼ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺕﺼﻮر ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﻳﮏ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﯽ ﺧﻮاهﺪ داﺷﺖ. در اﻳﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻔﺪاري ﮐﺎر از ﻃﺮف دو ﻓﻮﺕﻮن روي اﻟﮑﺘﺮون 1 اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫و اﻧﺮژي ﺁن را ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ دهﺪ.‬

‫‪Fw1=k1Fg.Lp‬‬

‫ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن 1‬ ‫روي اﻟﮑﺘﺮون 1 اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ دهﺪ‬

‫‪Fw2=k2Fg.Lp‬‬

‫ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن 2‬ ‫روي اﻟﮑﺘﺮون 1 اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ دهﺪ‬

‫2‪k1+ k‬‬

‫ﺕﻌﺪاد ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ از دو ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺧﺎرج ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. اﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﻧﺮژﯼ اﻓﺰودﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون 1 ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﮑﺘﺮون 2 ﻣﻲ رﺳﻨﺪ، ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫2‪k1+ k‬‬

‫ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ از دﺳﺖ دادﻩ اﻧﺪ. هﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺮاي اﻟﮑﺘﺮون 1 ﻧﻴﺰ روي ﻣﻲ دهﺪ و هﺮ دو اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﺘﺮﯼ اﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫اﺛﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﺘﻮن در ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن اﺗﻢ‬

‫اﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ اﺛﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﺘﻮن هﻨﮕﺎم ﺑﺮﺧﻮرد ﻓﻮﺕﻮن و اﻟﮑﺘﺮون اﺳﺖ. در اﺛﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﺘﻮن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻓﺮودﯼ ﻗﺴﻤﺘﯽ از اﻧﺮژﯼ‬ ‫ﺧﻮد را از دﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ دهﺪ و اﻟﮑﺘﺮون اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫هﻨﮕﺎم ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﯼ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﺘﻮن ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺕﻌﺪادي از ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ، ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن‬ ‫را ﺕﺮﮎ ﮐﺮدﻩ و ﺟﺬب اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. در اﺛﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﺘﻮن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻓﺮودﯼ )ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ( داراي اﻧﺮژي‬ ‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫اﻧﺮژي اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﯽ از ﺳﻪ ﻧﻮع رﻧﮓ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد. ﺑﺎر- رﻧﮓ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ و ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ )زﻳﺮا ﻓﻮﺕﻮن از‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺧﻨﺜﻲ اﺳﺖ( و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧﮓ. ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ دﻟﻴﻞ اﻧﺮژي اﻟﮑﺘﺮون هﺪف ﭘﺎﻳﺪار اﺳﺖ. اﻣﺎ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻳﮏ‬ ‫ﺕﻔﺎوت ﮐﻠﻲ وﺟﻮد دارد. ﺕﻔﺎوت در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﺠﺎزﯼ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ از ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮع ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.‬

‫هﻤﭽﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ در ﻓﺼﻞ 4 ﺑﺤﺚ ﺷﺪ، اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺑﻤﺤﺾ درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ، ﺁن را ﺑﺎز ﭘﺲ ﻣﻲ دهﺪ. ﭼﻮن ﻣﻮﺟﻮدﻳﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺑﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺑﻘﺎﯼ ﺧﺎﺹﻴﺖ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺁن اﺳﺖ. در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ هﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد. اﻟﮑﺘﺮون ﺑﺎر-‬ ‫رﻧﮕﻬﺎي درﻳﺎﻓﺘﯽ را ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎز ﭘﺲ ﻣﻲ دهﺪ و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ، اﻧﺮژﯼ و ﺑﺎر اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﺁن ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد. اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ در ﻓﻀﺎ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ و ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﺜﺒﺖ از ﺁن اﺳﺘﻔﺎﻩ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن ﺑﺎ ﻣﺘﺮاﮐﻢ ﮐﺮدن ﺑﺎر-‬ ‫رﻧﮕﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ و اﻧﺘﺸﺎر ﺁن ﻣﺤﻴﻂ اﻃﺮاف ﺧﻮد را از ﺑﺎر- رﻧﮓ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺕﺨﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. اﻣﺎ دوﺑﺎرﻩ ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺑﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ و اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ داﺋﻤﺎ اداﻣﻪ دارد. ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﯽ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺑﺎر- رﻧﮓ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ و اﻟﮑﺘﺮون وﺟﻮد دارد.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻧﻴﺰ ﮐﻤﻴﺘﯽ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ و هﻨﮕﺎم ﻋﺒﻮر از ﻳﮏ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻣﻘﺪارﯼ از ﺑﺎر- رﻧﮕﻬﺎﯼ ﺧﻮد را‬ ‫از دﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ دهﺪ. اﮔﺮ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺕﻌﺪادﯼ از ﺑﺎر – رﻧﮕﻬﺎﯼ ﺧﻮد را از دﺳﺖ ﻧﻤﯽ داد، ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺷﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ اﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﯽ ﭘﺮوﺕﻮن در ﻋﺪد اﺕﻤﯽ.‬ ‫ﺳﺌﻮال اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد؟‬

Persian CPH E-Book

Theory of CPH
Section Eleven

Color Charges Curve Space ‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﻳﺎزدﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻓﻀﺎ را ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻓﻀﺎ را ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ:‬ ‫ﻳﮑﯽ از ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ دﺳﺘﺎوردهﺎﯼ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ – زﻣﺎن ﺏﻮد. اﻳﻨﺸﺘﻴﻦ در ﺳﺎل 5191 ﺏﺎ اراﺋﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم،‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺧﺎص را از دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻟﺨﺖ ﺏﻪ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ هﺎﯼ ﺵﺘﺎﺏﺪار ﺕﻌﻤﻴﻢ داد. ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﯼ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ اﻳﻦ ﺕﻌﻤﻴﻢ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﯽ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ ﺏﻮد. در اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﺵﺘﻪ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺳﻌﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺕﻮﺽﻴﺢ دادﻩ ﺵﻮد و ﺳﭙﺲ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ دﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ.‬ ‫اچ. ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ را ﺕﻮﺝﻴﺢ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. اﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺁن ﻳﺎدﺁوردﯼ ﺏﺮﺧﯽ ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ ﺽﺮورﯼ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﺎم ﺏﺮ اﺳﺎس اﺻﻞ هﻢ ارزي ﺕﺪوﻳﻦ ﺵﺪ.‬ ‫اﺻﻞ هﻢ ارزي:‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ در ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪان ﺝﺎذﺏﻪ ﻳﻜﻨﻮاﺧﺖ و در ﻳﮏ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ آﻪ ﺏﺎ ﺵﺘﺎب ﺛﺎﺏﺖ ﺡﺮآﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﻳﻜﺴﺎن هﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﺜﺎل ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ دﺳ ﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴ ﻪ اي ﺏ ﺎ ﺵ ﺘﺎب ﺛﺎﺏ ﺖ در ﺡﺮآ ﺖ اﺳ ﺖ. ﻣﺸ ﺎهﺪات در اﻳ ﻦ دﺳ ﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﻴ ﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎهﺪات در ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﻲ ﻳﻜﻨﻮاﺧ ﺖ اﺳ ﺖ در ﺻ ﻮرﺕﻲ آ ﻪ ﺵ ﺪت ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﻲ ﺏﺮاﺏ ﺮ ﺵ ﺘﺎب دﺳ ﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺏﺎﺵ ﺪ،‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ‪ a=-g‬ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، در اﻳﻦ ﺻﻮرت ﻣﺸﺎهﺪات ﻳﻜﺴﺎن ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺏﻮد.‬ ‫ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ ﺏﺎ ﺵﺘﺎب ﺏﻄﺮف ﺏﺎﻻ )ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ زﻣﻴﻦ( در ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﺳﺖ. ﺏﻄﻮرﻳﮑﻪ:‬ ‫‪a=-g‬‬ ‫در اﻳﻨﺼﻮرت ﺕﻤﺎم ﻣﺸﺎهﺪات ﺳﺮﻧﺸﻴﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺎهﺪات ﻧﺎﻇﺮ روﯼ زﻣﻴﻦ اﺳﺖ. اﮔﺮ ﺳﺮﻧﺸﻴﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ ﺝﺴﻤﯽ را‬ ‫رهﺎ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﺸﺎهﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺁن ﺝﺴﻢ ﺏﺎ ﺵﺘﺎب ﺏﻄﺮف ﺳﻄﺢ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ ﮐﻪ از‬ ‫ﻳﮑﻄﺮف ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ وارد ﺵﻮد، در ﻣﺪﺕﻴﮑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﺏﺴﻤﺖ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﯽ رﺳﺪ، ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺘﯽ را ﻃﯽ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻮﺝﺐ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد، ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮر، ﺏﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﯼ ﻣﻘﺎﺏﻞ ﻧﺮﺳﺪ و ﮐﻤﯽ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺕﺮ از ﺁن ﺏﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻘﺎﺏﻞ ﺏﺮﺧﻮرد ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺵﮑﻞ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر در ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ، ﺏﻠﮑﻪ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ اﺳﺖ. ﻟﺬا ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر در ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﯽ ﻧﻴ ﺰ ﺏﺎﻳﺴ ﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ.‬ ‫در ﺳﺎل 9191 اﻧﺤﻨﺎي ﻓﻀﺎ را هﻨﮕﺎم ﮐﺴﻮف ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ ﺏﺎ ﻧﻮري ﮐ ﻪ از ﻃ ﺮف ﺳ ﺘﺎرﻩ ي ﻣ ﻮرد ﻧﻈ ﺮي ﺏ ﻪ ﺳ ﻮي‬ ‫زﻣﻴﻦ در ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺏﻮد و از ﮐﻨﺎر ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺬﺵﺖ ﻣﻮرد ﺕﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻗﺮار دادﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺏﺎ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺕﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮد.‬

‫ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر هﻨﮕﺎم ﻋﺒﻮر از ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد.‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﺏﺴ ﻴﺎر ﺏﺰرﮔ ﻲ ﺏ ﺮاي ﻧﺴ ﺒﻴﺖ ﺏ ﻮد. از ﺁن زﻣ ﺎن ﺏ ﻪ ﺏﻌ ﺪ ﺕﻮﺝ ﻪ ﺏ ﻪ ﺳ ﺎﺧﺘﺎر هﻨﺪﺳ ﻲ و ﺧ ﻮاص ﺕﻮﭘﻮﻟﻮژﻳ ﮏ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ، ﺏﺮرﺳﻲ واﻗﻌﻴﺖ هﺎي ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﻲ را ﺏﻪ ﺡﺎﺵﻴﻪ راﻧﺪ. ﻣﻀﺎﻓﺎ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را از ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎي اﺳﺎﺳ ﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌ ﺖ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫در ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮏ ﻧﻈﺮي ﺡﺬف ﮐﺮد.‬ ‫ﺏﻨﺎ ﺏﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ، ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ اﺛﺮ هﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﺝﺮم ﺏﺮ ﻓﻀﺎي اﻃ ﺮاف ﺧ ﻮد اﺳ ﺖ. آ ﻪ ﻓﻀ ﺎ- زﻣ ﺎن ﻧﺎﻣﻴ ﺪﻩ ﻣ ﻲ ﺵ ﻮد. ﻳﻌﻨ ﻲ ﺝ ﺮم‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎي اﻃﺮاف ﺧﻮد را ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ آﻨﺪ.‬

‫اﻳﻨﺸﻴﺘﻦ ﺕﻼش ﮐﺮد ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر هﻨﺪﺳﯽ ﻓﻀﺎ را ﺏﺼﻮرت ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت رﻳﺎﺽﯽ ﺏﻴﺎن ﮐﻨ ﺪ. ﺏﻬﻤ ﻴﻦ دﻟﻴ ﻞ از هﻨﺪﺳ ﻪ ﯼ ﻧﺎاﻗﻠﻴﺪﺳ ﯽ‬ ‫رﻳﻤﺎن )هﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﯼ ﺏﻴﻀﻮﯼ( ﺏﻬ ﺮﻩ ﮔﺮﻓ ﺖ و ﻣﻌ ﺎدﻻت ﻣﻴ ﺪان را اراﺋ ﻪ ﮐ ﺮد. در اﻳﻨﺠ ﺎ ﺳ ﻪ ﻧﮑﺘ ﻪ ﺏﺴ ﻴﺎر ﻣﻬ ﻢ ﻗﺎﺏ ﻞ ﺕﻮﺝ ﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ:‬ ‫1 – ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﻣﻴﺪان ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺏﻪ ﺻﺮاﺡﺖ از اﺻﻞ هﻢ ارزﯼ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺵﻮد، ﺏﻠﮑﻪ ﺳﺎدﻩ ﺕﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﺎدﻻﺕﯽ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺏﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺕﻮاﻓﻖ دارد.‬

‫2 – ﺕﻮﺽﻴﺢ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﯽ ﺏﺮاﯼ اﻧﺤﺮاف ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ اراﺋﻪ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. هﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﺏﺤﺚ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ هﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻳﮏ‬ ‫روش ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﯽ ﺏﺮاﯼ ﺕﻮﺽﻴﺢ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ هﺎ اﺳﺖ، اﻣﺎ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﭼﻪ ﺕﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺏﺮ روﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﯽ ﮔﺬارد ﮐﻪ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد، ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﯼ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ در ﻣﻮرد ﺁن ﺳﮑﻮت ﮐﺮدﻩ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫3- ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻣﺎن در ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﮐﻤﻴﺘﯽ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ. در ﺡﺎﻟﻴﮑﻪ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻧﺮژﯼ و اﺻﻮﻻ ﺕﻮﻟﻴﺪ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻣﯽ اﺳﺖ. ﻟﺬا ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ-زﻣﺎن ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮات ﮔﺴﺴﺘﻪ ﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﺕﻮﺝﻴﺢ ﮐﺮد.‬ ‫ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ در اداﻣﻪ ﺕﻼش ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد ﺕﻮﺝﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﯽ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺏﺮرﺳﯽ ﮔﺮدد.‬ ‫ﺳﻄﻮح هﻢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪان را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ. ﺏﺴﺘﻪ ﺏﻪ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺵﻤﺎ ﭼﻪ ﻣﻴﺪاﻧﯽ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ اﻳﺪ و ﮐﺪام وﻳﮋﮔﯽ را ﺏﺮاﯼ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺪان‬ ‫ﺕﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﮐﺮدﻩ اﻳﺪ، ﺕﻤﺎم ﻧﻔﺎﻃﯽ از ﻓﻀﺎ را ﮐﻪ داراﯼ اﻳﻦ وﻳﮋﮔﯽ و ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﺳﻄﺢ هﻢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻴﻢ. ﺏﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل؛ ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ در ﻳﮏ اﻃﺎق ﺏﺨﺎرﯼ روﺵﻦ و در ﺡﺎل اﻧﺘﺸﺎر ﮔﺮﻣﺎ اﺳﺖ. هﺮﭼﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺏﺨﺎرﯼ ﻧﺰدﻳﮑﺘﺮ ﺵﻮﻳﻢ، دﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺵﺪ. ﺕﻤﺎم ﻧﻘﺎط اﻃﺎق ﮐﻪ داراﯼ درﺝﻪ ﺡﺮارت ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻧﯽ )ﻣﺜﻼ 02 درﺝﻪ( هﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺢ هﻢ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺪان ﺡﺮارﺕﯽ ﻣﯽ دهﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺡﺎل ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ. ﺵﺪت ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ از ﻧﻘﻄﻪ اﯼ ﺏﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺪان اﺡﺘﻤﺎﻻ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﻃﯽ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺪان وﺝﻮد دارﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮﻧﺪ، ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ هﻤﻪ ﯼ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﺎط را ﺳﻄﺢ هﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻮﻳﻴﻢ. ﺵﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫در ﺵﮑﻞ ﺏﺎﻻ ﻓﺮض ﺵﺪﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺝﺴﻢ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﮐﺮوﯼ اﺳﺖ. اﻳﻦ ﺝﺴﻢ در ﻓﻀﺎﯼ اﻃﺮاف ﺧﻮد ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ اﻳﺠﺎد ﮐﺮدﻩ و ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ راﺏﻄﻪ ﯼ‬

‫2‪g=GM/r‬‬
‫ﺕﻤﺎم ﻧﻘﺎﻃﯽ از ﻓﻀﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺏﺮ روﯼ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺮﻩ ﺏﻤﺮﮐﺰ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﮎ ﺝﺴﻢ و ﺁن ﮐﺮﻩ ﻗﺮار دارﻧﺪ، داراﯼ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ‬ ‫هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺢ هﻢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﻣﯽ دهﻨﺪ. در اﻳﻦ ﺵﮑﻞ ﮐﺮﻩ ﺏﻨﻔﺶ )ﮐﻪ در ﺵﮑﻞ ﺏﺼﻮرت داﻳﺮﻩ ﻧﺸﺎن دادﻩ ﺵﺪﻩ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ( ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺢ هﻢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺵﺪت ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ در ﺕﻤﺎم ﻧﻘﺎط واﻗﻊ ﺏﺮ اﻳﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﺮﺽﯽ، ﺏﺮاﺏﺮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺏﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺕﺮﺕﻴﺐ ﮐﺮﻩ هﺎﯼ ﺳﺒﺰ، ﻗﺰﻣﺰ... هﻤﻪ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺢ هﻢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻣﯽ دهﻨﺪ. ﺏﺪﻳﻬﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﮐﺮات ﺏﺎ هﻢ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ، اﻣﺎ هﺮﮐﺪام ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺢ هﻢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ را ﺵﮑﻞ ﻣﯽ دهﻨﺪ.‬

‫ﺡﺎل ﺏﻪ ﺳﻘﻮط و ﺻﻌﻮد ﻓﻮﺕﻮن در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ. هﻤﭽﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ ﮐﻪ در ﻓﺼﻮل ﮔﺬﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﻄﻮر ﻣﻔﺼﻞ ﺏﺤﺚ ﺵﺪ،‬ ‫هﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن در ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺳﻘﻮط ﮐﻨﺪ، اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺁن اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺝﺎﺏﺠﺎﻳﯽ ﺏﺴﻤﺖ ﺁﺏﯽ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﺵﻮد. و هﻨﮕﺎم ﺻﻌﻮد اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺁن ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺝﺎﺏﺠﺎﻳﯽ ﺏﺴﻤﺖ ﺳﺮخ اﺳﺖ. در ﺵﮑﻞ ﺏﺎﻻ ﻋﺒﻮر ﻓﻮﺕﻮن از ﺳﻄﻮح‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻣﻮﺝﺐ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ )اﻧﺮژﯼ( ﺁن ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﺏﺎ ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻓﺼﻠﻪ از ﺝﺴﻢ، ﺝﺎﺏﺠﺎﻳﯽ ﺏﺴﻤﺖ ﺁﺏﯽ و‬ ‫ﺏﺎ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺝﺎﺏﺠﺎﻳﯽ ﺏﺴﻤﺖ ﺳﺮخ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺡﺎل ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﺒﻴﻨﻴﻢ اﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ را هﻤﺮاﻩ ﺏﺎ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮان ﺏﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺕﻮﺝﻴﻪ ﮐﺮد.‬ ‫اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ از دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن از ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺏﺴﻴﺎر دور ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺝﺴﻢ، وارد ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺁن ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد. هﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽ‬ ‫داﻧﻴﻢ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺏﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر و روﯼ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ و ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ را ﺏﺼﻮرت ﺡﺎﺻﻠﻀﺮب ﺳﺮﻋﺖ در زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻟﺨﺖ ﻃﯽ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﺵﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر در ﻓﻀﺎ و دور از ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ از دﻳﺪ ﻧﺎﻇﺮ ﻟﺨﺖ‬ ‫هﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺕﻬﯽ ﺁرﻣﺎﻧﯽ، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺝﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ وﺝﻮد ﻧﺪاﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ، اﻣﺎ ﻓﺮض ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺝﻨﺎن ﺽﻌﻴﻒ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ اﺛﺮ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﺕﻮﺝﻬﯽ ﺏﺮ روﯼ ﻧﻮر ﻧﺪارد.‬ ‫ﺡﺎل اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ وارد ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﺕﺤﺖ ﺕﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد و ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻳﮏ ذرﻩ ﯼ‬ ‫ﺝﺮم دار در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ رﻓﺘﺎر ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. زﻳﺮا ﻓﻮﺕﻮن داراﯼ اﻧﺮژﯼ و ﺝﺮم و اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ از راﺏﻄﻪ ﯼ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ ﺏﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‬

‫در ﻏﻴﺎب ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ، هﻤﻪ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﺏﺎﻻ واﺏﺴﺘﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺛﺎﺏﺖ ﻣﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﺪ. اﻣﺎ در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ و اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮات ﺕﺎﺏﻊ ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻳﺎ ﻋﺒﻮر از ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺢ هﻢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ هﻢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ دﻳﮕﺮ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.، ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ از ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد ﮐﻪ ﺏﺎ ورد ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﺏﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن‬ ‫اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺁن اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ و ﺏﺎ ﺧﺮوج ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ، اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ. از ﻃﺮف دﻳﮕﺮ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫داراﯼ ﺕﮑﺎﻧﻪ و اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺝﻨﺒﺸﯽ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و هﻨﮕﺎم ورود ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﺏﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن، ﺕﮑﺎﻧﻪ ﯼ ﺁن ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ اﺳﺖ و‬ ‫ﺕﮑﺎﻧﻪ ﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ دهﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻃﻮل ﻣﻮج دوﺏﺮوﯼ ﺏﺴﺎدﮔﯽ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﺕﻮﺽﻴﺢ اﺳﺖ. زﻳﺮا ﺏﺎ ورود ﺏﺎر-‬ ‫رﻧﮓ ﺏﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن و اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن، ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﺁن ﻧﻴﺰ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻃﻮل ﻣﻮج ﮐﺎهﺶ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ و ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﺕﮑﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻃﺒﻖ راﺏﻄﻪ ﺏﺎﻻ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺏﺪ.‬ ‫از ﻃﺮف دﻳﮕﺮ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺕﮑﺎﻧﻪ ﺏﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ وارد ﺵﺪﻩ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﺳﺖ. ﻟﺬا ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ، ﺝﻬﺖ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ‬ ‫وارد ﺏﺮ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﺵﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن وارد ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد، ﺕﺤﺖ ﺕﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺕﻤﺎم ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺏﻄﺮف ﺝﺴﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ اﺳﺖ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯽ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن و ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ‬ ‫ورودﯼ ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮان ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺝﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن را ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﺮد. در ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪A‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺏﺎ اوﻟﻴﻦ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﮐﻨﺶ ﺧﻮاهﺪ داﺵﺖ. ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺏﺎ ﻣﺤﻮر اﻓﻘﯽ هﻢ ﺝﻬﺖ اﺳﺖ و ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺏﺎر-‬ ‫رﻧﮓ ﺏﻄﺮف ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺝﺴﻢ ‪M‬‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. در هﻤﻴﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ و در راﺳﺘﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﻮر ﻋﻤﻮدﯼ ﻣﻨﺤﺮف ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد. در ﻧﻘﺎط‬ ‫ﺏﻌﺪﯼ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺕﺮﺕﻴﺐ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن داﺋﻤﺎ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ و ﺏﺼﻮرت ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ در ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺶ ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ و ﻓﻮﺗﻮن‬ ‫ﺡﺎل ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﯽ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺏﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﮐﻨﺶ دارد و ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ وارد ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﺏﻪ ﺝﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ و ﻓﻮﺕﻮن دﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ. ﺵﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺏﺎ ورود ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﺏﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن، ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺝﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ داﺵﺖ ﺏﺎ اﻧﺮژﯼ ﺝﺪﻳﺪ، ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺝﺪﻳﺪ و اﻧﺪازﻩ‬ ‫ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺝﺪﻳﺪ. ﺏﺎﻳﺴﺘﯽ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ داﺵﺖ ﮐﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ ﺕﻤﺎم ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ ﺏﻘﺎ ﻣﺤﻔﻮظ ﻣﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ. ﺏﺎ اﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺮش ﺏﺨﻮﺏﯽ واﺽﺢ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﭼﺮا ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. ﺡﺎل ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﮔﯽ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ را‬ ‫ﺏﺼﻮرت ﻳﮏ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ دو ﺏﻌﺪﯼ و ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ ﺵﮑﻞ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ و ﺁن را ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺵﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﯽ ﻣﻮرد ﺏﺮرﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﻗﺮار دهﻴﻢ.‬ ‫اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ دو ﺑﻌﺪﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮐﯽ در ﺻﻔﺤﻪ داراﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ ﺵﮑﻞ اﺳﺖ. ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ را ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮان ﺏﺼﻮرت‬ ‫ﮐﻠﯽ زﻳﺮ ﻧﺸﺎن داد.‬

‫ﺕﻮاﺏﻌﯽ ﭘﺎراﻣﺘﺮﯼ از ﻣﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

‫‪x, y‬‬

‫در اﻳﻨﺼﻮرت اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ در هﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﯼ دﻟﺨﻮاﻩ واﻗﻊ ﺏﺮ ﺁن از راﺏﻄﻪ ﯼ زﻳﺮ ﺏﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ:‬

‫ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ را ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮان ﻳﮏ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ در ﻓﻀﺎﯼ دو ﺏﻌﺪﯼ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ و ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﺁن را ﺏﺮ ﺡﺴﺐ زﻣﺎن ﺏﻪ دﺳﺖ ﺁورد. اﻣﺎ اﻳﻦ ﮐﺎر ﭼﻨﺪان ﺳﺎدﻩ اﯼ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.‬ ‫ﻣﺸﮑﻼت ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺏﺮاﯼ ﺕﻌﻴﻴﻦ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر )ﻳﺎ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ( در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ اﺳﺎﺳﯽ وﺝﻮد دارد:‬ ‫1 – زﻣﺎن ﮐﻤﻴﺘﯽ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﻪ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﮐﻪ ﺧﻮد ﺕﺎﺏﻊ زﻣﺎن اﺳﺖ، ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﺕﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ ﺏﺮ زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮد. در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.، زﻣﺎن ﺕﺎﺏﻊ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎﯼ ﺧﺎرﺝﯽ اﺳﺖ و اﺻﻮﻻ زﻣﺎن ﺏﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ وﺝﻮد‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎﯼ ﺧﺎرﺝﯽ ﭘﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﺪ. اﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻼ ﺏﺮاﯼ اﺝﺘﻨﺎب از اﻃﺎﻟﻪ ﯼ ﮐﻼم وارد ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ ﺁن ﻧﻤﯽ ﺵﻮﻳﻢ و ﺏﻪ ﻧﮕﺮش‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺏﻪ زﻣﺎن در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫در ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ، زﻣﺎن ﺕﺎﺏﻊ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ اﺳﺖ و هﺮﭼﻪ ﺵﺪت ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ، ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﮐﻨﺪﺕﺮ ﮐﺎر ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﻓﺮض‬ ‫ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ در ﺳﻄﺢ زﻣﻴﻦ ﻗﺮار داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ و ﺳﺎﻋﺖ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ در ﺏﺎﻻﯼ ﺝﻮ )ﻣﺜﻼ در ﻳﮏ اﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﯽ(،‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﭼﻮن ﺵﺪت ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ در ﺳﻄﺢ زﻣﻴﻦ ﺏﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ﺏﺎﻻﯼ ﺝﻮ اﺳﺖ، ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺳﺎﮐﻦ روﯼ زﻣﻴﻦ ﮐﻨﺪﺕﺮ از ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺏﺎﻻﯼ ﺝﻮ‬ ‫ﮐﺎر ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﮐﺮد. اﺻﻮﻻ ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮان اﺧﺘﻼف ﺁهﻨﮓ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ هﺎ را از روﯼ اﺧﺘﻼف ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﺕﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﮐﺮد. ﺏﻪ راﺏﻄﻪ ﯼ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫زﻳﺮ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬

‫ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﺏﺎ ﺳﻘﻮط ﻓﻮﺕﻮن و ﮐﺎهﺶ ارﺕﻔﺎع ﺁن ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺏﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺝﺴﻢ، ﺁهﻨﮓ زﻣﺎن در ﻣﺤﻞ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺏﺪ و ﻧﻤﯽ ﺕﻮان در راﺏﻄﻪ ﯼ‬

‫‪ct‬‬
‫زﻣﺎن را ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻟﺨﺖ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ.‬

‫2 - ﺏﺎ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ )ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ(، ﺏﺎ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ راﺏﻄﻪ ﯼ زﻣﺎن )ﺵﮑﻞ ﺏﺎﻻ( ﺽﺮﻳﺐ ﺕﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫زﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ از دﻳﺪ ﻧﺎﻇﺮ ﺳﺎﮐﻦ ﺏﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺝﺴﻢ )ﻳﺎ هﺮ ﻧﺎﻇﺮ دﻳﮕﺮﯼ( ﻧﻴﺰ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ، زﻳﺮا ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ در‬ ‫ﺁهﻨﮓ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫3 – ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن )ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ( داﺋﻤﺎ در ﺡﺎل ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﺳﺖ. ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ و ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺕﻮاﻣﺎ ﻣﻮﺝﺐ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن روﯼ هﺮ دو ﻣﺤﻮر اﻓﻘﯽ و ﻗﺎﺋﻢ، ﺡﺮﮐﺘﯽ ﺏﺎ ﺵﺘﺎب ﻣﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ. ﻟﺬا ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫داﺵﺖ:‬ ‫)‪x=f(t, r, θ) , y=g(t, r, θ‬‬

‫ﻟﺬا ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﻪ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ روﯼ هﺮ دو ﻣﺤﻮر ﺵﺘﺎﺏﺪار، ﺏﺎ ﺵﺘﺎب ﻣﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﺳﺖ. ﺵﺘﺎب ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ را در هﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ از ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﺕﻮان ﺏﺼﻮرت:‬

‫2‪g=GM/r‬‬
‫در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ. ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﻟﻔﻪ هﺎﯼ اﻓﻘﯽ و ﻋﻤﻮدﯼ ﺁن را ﺝﺪا ﮐﺮد. اﻣﺎ زاوﻳﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوﯼ وارد ﺏﺮ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن هﺮﭼﻨﺪ در‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺎت ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻬﻤﯽ دارد، اﻣﺎ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻤﻴﺖ اﺳﺎﺳﯽ ﻣﺮﺏﻮط ﺏﻪ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﻣﻮرد ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. وﻟﯽ زﻣﺎن و ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ، ﭼﺰء‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﺕﻔﮑﻴﮏ از وﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﻟﺬا ﻣﺎ ﺏﻄﻮر ﮐﻠﯽ در ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﭘﻨﭻ ﺏﻌﺪﯼ ﺏﺴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺏﺮﻳﻢ. ﺏﻬﻴﭻ وﺝﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ‬ ‫ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ هﻴﭻ ﻳﮏ از دو ﮐﻤﻴﺖ زﻣﺎن و ﻧﻴﺮو را ﻧﺎدﻳﺪﻩ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ. ﻟﺬا در ﺡﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺏﻌﺪ را در ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﻣﻨﻈﻮر‬ ‫داﺵﺖ، ﺳﻪ ﺏﻌﺪ ﺏﺮاﯼ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺕﻬﯽ، ﻳﮏ ﺏﻌﺪ ﺏﺮاﯼ ﻧﻴﺮو و ﻳﮏ ﺏﻌﺪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﺮاﯼ زﻣﺎن. و هﺮ ﺕﺎﺏﻌﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺏﺨﻮاهﺪ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺡﺮﮐﺖ را ﺏﻄﻮر واﻗﻌﯽ ﻣﻮرد ﺏﺮرﺳﯽ ﻗﺮار دهﺪ، اﻟﺰاﻣﺎ ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﺏﺸﮑﻞ ﺕﻮاﺏﻊ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺏﻌﺪﯼ ﻓﺮﻣﻮل ﺏﻨﺪﯼ ﺵﻮد، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ:‬ ‫ً‬

‫)‪(x, y, z, f, t‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮرد ﺧﺎص ﺡﺮﮐﺖ را ﺕﻨﻬﺎ در دو ﺏﻌﺪ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ و ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت را ﺏﺼﻮرت:‬

‫)‪(x, y, f, t‬‬
‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻟﺒﻨﺪﯼ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ. هﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ در ﻣﻮرد ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﮐﻪ ﮐﻤﻴﺘﯽ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ، ﺕﺎﺛﻴﺮﯼ در وﻳﮋﮔﯽ ﮔﺴﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﻓﻀﺎ-ﻧﻴﺮو-زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻮاهﺪ داﺵﺖ. واﻗﻌﻴﺖ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﻣﺎدﯼ ﺧﻮد ﮔﺴﺴﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ. زﻳﺮا ﻣﺎ ﺏﺎ رﻓﺘﺎر ذرات و وﻳﮋﮔﯽ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ و ﮐﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺏﻞ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﺮوﮐﺎر دارﻳﻢ. اﺻﻮﻻ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺏﺪون ﻣﺎدﻩ ﭼﻴﺰ ﻗﺎﺏﻞ ﺕﺼﻮرﯼ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ و هﺮ ﺏﺮداﺵﺘﯽ از ﻓﻀﺎ ﺏﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﺏﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ ﻣﺎدﯼ در هﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺁﻣﻴﺰد. ﻣﺎدﻩ ﺏﻪ هﺮ ﺵﮑﻠﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻇﺎهﺮ ﺵﻮد، ﺧﻮد از ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ زﻳﺮ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻮﻣﻬﺎ و ﻳﺎ ﺕﺮﮐﻴﺒﯽ از‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺕﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ ﺏﺮرﺳﯽ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﯽ ﺏﺎ ﻧﮕﺮش رﻳﺎﺽﯽ ﺏﻪ ﻣﺨﺘﻀﺎت ﻓﻀﺎﻳﯽ ﺕﻔﺎوت ﮐﻠﯽ دارد. و‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﯽ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻴﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻧﻮر در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﯽ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺏﺎ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮاﻧﺶ( در ﮐﻨﺶ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺏﻞ اﺳﺖ. )ﺵﮑﻞ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ( ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺏﺎ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ دارﻧﺪ وارد ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ و اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬

‫در ﺡﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺘﺮادف اﺳﺖ ﺏﺎ اﻋﻤﺎل ﻧﻴﺮو و ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ. ورود ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﺏﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻃﻮل ﻣﻮج و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺁﻧﺮا ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ دهﺪ. ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ در ﺡﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﻠﯽ روﯼ هﺮ دو‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮر اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد. ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ هﻢ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺏﺎﺵﺪ و هﻢ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺝﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ. اﻣﺎ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ و ﺕﻨﻬﺎ از ﻧﻈﺮ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺝﻬﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻮرد ﻣﻮرد ﺏﺮرﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮد.‬ ‫در ﻣﺪت زﻣﺎن ﮐﻮﺕﺎهﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ وارد ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮد، ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن و ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ داراﯼ ﺵﺘﺎب‬ ‫هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﺵﺘﺎب، ﺕﺎﺏﻊ ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ اﺳﺖ، زﻳﺮا ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ هﺎ ﺕﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﯼ ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ‬ ‫در هﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ از ﻓﻀﺎ اﺳﺖ.‬

‫ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻧﻤﻮدار ﺏﺎﻻ و ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ و اﻧﺮژﯼ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮان ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﻣﺮﺏﻮﻃﻪ را ﺏﻪ دﺳﺖ ﺁورد.‬ ‫ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺏﺎ ﺝﺮم و اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ‬

‫1‪P1 , m‬‬
‫در ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺧﻮد ﺏﺎ ﺕﻌﺪاد ‪n‬‬ ‫ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﮐﻨﺶ دارد. ﺝﺮم و اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ هﺮ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ اﺳﺖ ﺏﺎ‬

‫‪pi , m‬‬
‫ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ هﻤﮕﯽ داراﯼ ﺝﺮم ﺏﺮاﺏﺮ وﻟﯽ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﺘﻔﺎوت هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. زﻳﺮا اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﻤﻴﺘﯽ ﺏﺮدارﯼ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. ﮐﻨﺶ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن و ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ را در ﺻﻔﺤﻪ و روﯼ دو ﻣﺤﻮر در ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ. ﺵﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫هﻤﺠﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ در رواﺏﻂ ﺏﺎﻻ ﻧﺸﺎن دادﻩ ﺵﺪﻩ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮن روﯼ هﺮ دو ﻣﺤﻮر ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. ﭼﻮن اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮرهﺎ اﺧﺘﻴﺎرﯼ اﺳﺖ، ﻣﺤﻮر اﻓﻘﯽ ‪x‬‬ ‫را ﻃﻮرﯼ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻧﺎﻇﺮ و ﭼﺸﻤﻪ ﻧﻮر )ﺳﺘﺎرﻩ اﯼ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻮر از ﺁن ﺁﻣﺪﻩ( روﯼ ﺁن ﻗﺮار داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻨﺪ. ﺵﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺶ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﻣﻮﺝﺐ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ ﺵﺪﻩ و ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ را ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ. اﻣﺎ ﺏﺮرﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮات اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ روﯼ ﻣﺤﻮر اﻓﻘﯽ ﺡﺎوﯼ ﻧﮑﺎت ﺏﺴﻴﺎر ﻇﺮﻳﻒ و ﻣﻬﻤﯽ اﺳﺖ. زﻳﺮا اﻳﻦ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮات ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺝﻬﺖ اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻧﻮر را واروﻧﻪ ﮐﺮدﻩ و ﺡﺘﯽ ﻣﻮﺝﺐ ﺳﻘﻮط ﻓﻮﺕﻮن در ﺝﺴﻢ ﺵﻮد. ﺏﻪ ﺵﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬ ‫ﻧﻮر در ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺵﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ در ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ در ﺵﮑﻞ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺵﺪﻩ و ﺏﺮرﺳﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺵﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫ﻧﻮر ﺕﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺏﻄﻮر ﻋﻤﻮدﯼ ﺏﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺝﺴﻢ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ. اﻣﺎ ﺝﻮن ﺏﻄﻮر ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻤﻮد ﻧﻴﺴﺖ، ﺏﻄﻮر ﺁزاد ﺳﻘﻮط ﻧﻤﯽ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. اﻣﺎ ﺝﻬﺖ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺏﮕﻮﻧﻪ اﯼ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ وارد ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ 1 ﺵﺪﻩ و ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻴﺎرﻩ اﯼ ﺏﺪور ﺝﺴﻢ ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮدش در ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ. ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ‪D‬‬ ‫اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ در ﺝﻬﺖ ﻣﺤﻮر اﻓﻘﯽ ‪x‬‬ ‫دارﻧﺪ، ﻣﺎﻧﻊ از ﺳﻘﻮط ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺏﺪورن ﺝﺴﻢ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫‪B‬‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ، در ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ 1 و 2 در ﺡﺮﮐﺘﻨﺪ، ﺏﻌﻀﯽ از اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎ )ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ(‬ ‫ﺏﺴﻄﺢ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﻴﻞ 1 ﺳﻘﻮط ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ و ﺏﺪور ﺝﺴﻢ ﻣﯽ ﭼﺮﺧﻨﺪ. اﻣﺎ ﺏﺮﺧﯽ دﻳﮕﺮ از اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎ ﺏﺮ اﺛﺮ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ‬ ‫ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﻓﻘﯽ در ﺝﻬﺖ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اوﻟﻴﻪ ﺏﺮﮔﺸﺖ دادﻩ ﺵﺪﻩ و ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ ﺝﺴﻢ را ﺕﺮﮎ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﭘﺮﺕﻮهﺎ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ و ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ را ﺕﺮﮎ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺏﻄﻮر ﮐﻠﯽ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﮐﻪ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺡﺎﺋﺰ اهﻤﻴﺖ اﺳﺖ، ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﻓﻘﯽ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎﯼ ﻓﺮودﯼ و اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺏﺎر-‬ ‫رﻧﮕﻬﺎ اﺳﺖ. ﺏﻪ ﺵﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ:‬

‫اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻓﻮﺕﻮﻧﻬﺎ در ﺝﻬﺖ ﻣﺤﻮر اﻓﻘﯽ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺕﺎ ﺝﺎﻳﻴﮑﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺛﺎﺏﺘﯽ ﺏﺮﺳﺪ‬ ‫و ﺳﭙﺲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻴﺎرﻩ ﺏﺪور ﺝﺴﻢ ﺏﮕﺮدش در ﻣﯽ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ.‬

‫ﻓﻮﺕﻮن ﺏﺴﺮﻋﺖ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﻓﻘﯽ و ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺧﻮد را از دﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ دهﺪ و ﺳﻘﻮط ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﯼ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻓﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﮑﺒﺎر دﻳﮕﺮ راﺏﻄﻪ ﯼ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺤﯽ را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺏﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ:‬

‫ﺏﺎ ﺕﻮﺝﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺏﺨﺶ ﻗﺒﻞ، ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ روﯼ هﺮ دو ﻣﺤﻮر ﺵﺘﺎﺏﺪار اﺳﺖ. ﺏﻨﺎﺏﺮاﻳﻦ اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺵﺘﺎب روﯼ دو ﻣﺤﻮر ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮔﺮدد، ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮان ﺏﺎ اﻧﺘﮕﺮال ﮔﻴﺮﯼ، ﺳﺮﻋﺖ را ﻧﻴﺰ ﺏﻪ دﺳﺖ ﺁورد. هﻤﭽﻨﺎﻧﮑﻪ در راﺏﻄﻪ‬

‫ﺏﺎﻻ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺵﺪﻩ، ﺏﺮاﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﭘﺮﺕﻮ ﻧﻮرﯼ ﺏﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ اول و دوم ﻧﻴﺎز دارﻳﻢ. ﻣﺸﺘﻖ اول ﺳﺮﻋﺖ و‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﻖ دوم ﺵﺘﺎب اﺳﺖ. ﻟﺬا اﮔﺮ ﺵﺘﺎب را داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ، در هﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ از ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮان اﻧﺤﻨﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻮر را ﺡﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﮐﺮد.‬

‫اﻣﺎ ﺵﺘﺎب ﺕﺎﺏﻌﯽ ﺳﻪ ﻧﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﻩ از ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ، زاوﻳﻪ و زﻣﺎن ﻳﻌﻨﯽ:‬

‫)‪(r, θ , t‬‬
‫اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ در رواﺏﻂ:‬

‫ﺏﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ. در ﺡﺎﻟﻴﮑﻪ اﮔﺮ از ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﻣﺮﺏﻮط ﺏﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ ﯼ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ، ﺏﺴﻴﺎر زودﺕﺮ و ﺳﺎدﻩ ﺕﺮ ﺏﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ رﺳﻴﺪ. زﻳﺮا در رواﺏﻂ:‬

‫اﮔﺮ ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ را داﺵﺘﻪ ﺏﺎﺵﻴﻢ )ﻳﺎ ﺏﺮاﯼ اﺝﺴﺎم ﭼﮕﺎل ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ( و ﺏﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺁن ﺏﺎ ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ‬ ‫اﺝﺴﺎم ﺵﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺵﺪﻩ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ زﻣﻴﻦ، ﻣﺎﻩ و ﺧﻮرﺵﻴﺪ، ﻣﯽ ﺕﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﺏﺨﻮﺏﯽ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮ را ﺏﻪ دﺳﺖ ﺁورﻳﻢ. ﺕﻨﻬﺎ ﮐﺎﻓﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺵﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ را ﺏﺎ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ ﺏﺎر-رﻧﮓ در ارﺕﺒﺎط ﻗﺮار دهﻴﻢ.‬

‫‪Persian CPH E-Book‬‬

‫‪Theory of CPH‬‬
‫21 ‪Section‬‬ ‫‪Speed of Light and CPH Theory‬‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر و ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ‬

‫‪Hossein Javadi‬‬ ‫‪Javadi_hossein@hotmail.com‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ اچ. در ﺳﺎل 6631 )7891 م( ﺑﺎ ﻃﺮح اﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ و ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯽ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ اﻧﺘﺸﺎر اﺳﺖ، ﻣﻄﺮح ﺷﺪ. در ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﻧﻴﺰ ﻃﺒﻖ اﺻﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺧﺎص ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر در ﺗﻤﺎم‬ ‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ هﺎﯼ ﻝﺨﺖ و ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺗﻬﯽ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ و ﺑﺮار‬ ‫‪c‬‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. اﻣﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر در ﻣﺤﻴﻂ اﻧﺘﺸﺎر ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻴﺮوهﺎﯼ ﺧﺎرﺟﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻧﻮر اﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد. ﺗﺠﺎرب و دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ‬ ‫هﺎﯼ اﺧﻴﺮ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽ دهﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﯽ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. در ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر درﺳﺖ ﺑﻮدﻩ اﺳﺖ. در اداﻣﻪ‬ ‫دو ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ اراﺉﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. اﻣﺎ در ﺁﻧﺠﺎ هﻴﭽﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﯼ در ﻣﻮرد ﻋﻠﺖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد. در‬ ‫ﺡﺎﻝﻴﮑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ. ﺑﺮ اﺳﺎس ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ و ﺗﻮﺽﻴﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﺑﻨﺎ ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ. و ﺑﺨﻮﺑﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ دﻝﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﯼ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر را ﺗﻮﺽﻴﺢ دهﺪ. در اداﻣﻪ ﭘﺲ از ذﮐﺮ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ هﺎﯼ ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺤﺚ ﺗﻮﺽﻴﺢ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﯽ. ﭘﯽ. اچ.‬ ‫را در ﻣﻮرد دﻝﻴﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﻣﺸﺎهﺪﻩ ﺧﻮاهﻴﺪ ﮐﺮد.‬

‫!‪Light that travels… faster than light‬‬

A team of researchers from the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) has successfully demonstrated, for the first time, that it is possible to control the speed of light – both slowing it down and speeding it up – in an optical fiber, using off-the-shelf instrumentation in normal environmental conditions. Their results, to be published in the August 22 issue of Applied Physics Letters, could have implications that range from optical computing to the fiber-optic telecommunications industry. On the screen, a small pulse shifts back and forth – just a little bit. But this seemingly unremarkable phenomenon could have profound technological consequences. It represents the success of Luc Thévenaz and his fellow researchers in the Nanophotonics and Metrology laboratory at EPFL in controlling the speed of light in a simple optical fiber. They were able not only to slow light down by a factor of three from its well – established speed c of 300 million meters per second in a vacuum, but they've also accomplished the considerable feat of speeding it up – making light go faster than the speed of light. This is not the first time that scientists have tweaked the speed of a light signal. Even light passing through a window or water is slowed down a fraction as it travels through the medium. In fact, in the right conditions, scientists have been able to slow light down to the speed of a bicycle, or even stop it altogether. In 2003, a group from the University of Rochester made an important advance by slowing down a light signal in a room-temperature solid. But all these methods depend on special media such as cold gases or crystalline solids, and they only work at certain well-defined wavelengths. With the publication of their new method, the EPFL team, made up of Luc Thévenaz, Miguel Gonzaléz Herraez and Kwang-Yong Song, has raised the bar higher still. Their all-optical technique to slow light works in off-the-shelf optical fibers, without requiring costly experimental set-ups or special media. They can easily tune the speed of the light signal, thus achieving a wide range of delays. “This has the enormous advantage of being a simple, inexpensive procedure that works at any wavelength, notably at wavelengths used in telecommunications," explains Thévenaz. The telecommunications industry transmits vast quantities of data via fiber optics. Light signals race down the information superhighway at about 186,000 miles per second. But information cannot be processed at this speed, because with current technology light signals cannot be stored, routed or processed without first being transformed into electrical signals, which work much more slowly. If the light signal could be controlled by light, it would be possible to route and process optical data without the costly electrical conversion, opening up the possibility of processing information at the speed of light.

This is exactly what the EPFL team has demonstrated. Using their Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) method, the group was able to slow a light signal down by a factor of 3.6, creating a sort of temporary"optical memory." They were also able to create extreme conditions in which the light signal travelled faster than 300 million meters a second. And even though this seems to violate all sorts of cherished physical assumptions, Einstein needn't move over – relativity isn't called into question, because only a portion of the signal is affected. Slowing down light is considered to be a critical step in our ability to process information optically. The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) considers it so important that it has been funnelling millions of dollars into projects such as"Applications of Slow Light in Optical Fibers" and research on all-optical routers. To succeed commercially, a device that slows down light must be able to work across a range of wavelengths, be capable of working at high bit-rates and be reasonably compact and inexpensive.

The EPFL team has brought applications of slow light an important step closer to this reality. And Thévenaz points out that this technology could take us far beyond just improving on current telecom applications. He suggests that their method could be used to generate high-performance microwave signals that could be used in next-generation wireless communication networks, or used to improve transmissions between satellites. We may just be seeing the tip of the optical iceberg.

http://actualites.epfl.ch/index.php?module=Presseinfo&func=view_com&id=288 mailto:florence.luy@epfl.ch Light's Most Exotic Trick Yet: So Fast it Goes. Backwards?
In the past few years, scientists have found ways to make light go both faster and slower than its usual speed limit, but now researchers at the University of Rochester have published a paper today in Science on how they've gone one step further: pushing light into reverse. As if to defy common sense, the backward-moving pulse of light travels faster than light. Confused? You're not alone. "I've had some of the world's experts scratching their heads over this one," says Robert Boyd, the M. Parker Givens Professor of Optics at the University of Rochester. "Theory predicted that we could send light backwards, but nobody knew if the theory would hold up or even if it could be observed in laboratory conditions." Boyd recently showed how he can slow down a pulse of light to slower than an airplane, or speed it up faster than its breakneck pace, using exotic techniques and materials. But he's now taken what was once just a mathematical oddity—negative speed—and shown it working in the real world. "It's weird stuff," says Boyd. "We sent a pulse through an optical fiber, and before its peak even entered the fiber, it was exiting the other end. Through experiments we were able to see that the pulse inside the fiber was actually moving backward, linking the input and output pulses." So, wouldn't Einstein shake a finger at all these strange goings-on? After all, this seems to violate Einstein's sacred tenet that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. "Einstein said information can't travel faster than light, and in this case, as with all fast-light experiments, no information is truly moving faster than light," says Boyd. "The pulse of light is shaped like a hump with a peak and long leading and trailing edges. The leading edge carries with it all the information about the pulse and enters the fiber first. By the time the peak enters the fiber, the leading edge is already well ahead, exiting. From the information in that leading edge, the fiber essentially 'reconstructs' the pulse at the far end, sending one version out the fiber, and another backward toward the beginning of the fiber." Boyd is already working on ways to see what will happen if he can design a pulse without a leading edge. Einstein says the entire faster-than-light and reverse-light phenomena will disappear. Boyd is eager to put Einstein to the test. So How Does Light Go Backwards?

Boyd, along with Rochester graduate students George M. Gehring and Aaron Schweinsberg, and undergraduates Christopher Barsi of Manhattan College and Natalie Kostinski of the University of Michigan, sent a burst of laser light through an optical fiber that had been laced with the element erbium. As the pulse exited the laser, it was split into two. One pulse went into the erbium fiber and the second traveled along undisturbed as a reference. The peak of the pulse emerged from the other end of the fiber before the peak entered the front of the fiber, and well ahead of the peak of the reference pulse. But to find out if the pulse was truly traveling backward within the fiber, Boyd and his students had to cut back the fiber every few inches and re-measure the pulse peaks when they exited each pared-back section of the fiber. By arranging that data and playing it back in a time sequence, Boyd was able to depict, for the first time, that the pulse of light was moving backward within the fiber. To understand how light's speed can be manipulated, think of a funhouse mirror that makes you look fatter. As you first walk by the mirror, you look normal, but as you pass the curved portion in the center, your reflection stretches, with the far edge seeming to leap ahead of you (the reference walker) for a moment. In the same way, a pulse of light fired through special materials moves at normal speed until it hits the substance, where it is stretched out to reach and exit the material's other side [See "fast light" animation]. Conversely, if the funhouse mirror were the kind that made you look skinny, your reflection would appear to suddenly squish together, with the leading edge of your reflection slowing as you passed the curved section. Similarly, a light pulse can be made to contract and slow inside a material, exiting the other side much later than it naturally would [See "slow light" animation]. To visualize Boyd's reverse-traveling light pulse, replace the mirror with a big-screen TV and video camera. As you may have noticed when passing such a display in an electronics store window, as you walk past the camera, your on-screen image appears on the far side of the TV. It walks toward you, passes you in the middle, and continues moving in the opposite direction until it exits the other side of the screen. A negative-speed pulse of light acts much the same way. As the pulse enters the material, a second pulse appears on the far end of the fiber and flows backward. The reversed pulse not only propagates backward, but it releases a forward pulse out the far end of the fiber. In this way, the pulse that enters the front of the fiber appears out the end almost instantly, apparently traveling faster than the regular speed of light. To use the TV analogy again—it's as if you walked by the shop window, saw your image stepping toward you from the opposite edge of the TV screen, and that TV image of you created a clone at that far edge, walking in the same direction as you, several paces ahead [See "backward light" animation]. "I know this all sounds weird, but this is the way the world works," says Boyd. About the University of Rochester The University of Rochester (www.rochester.edu) is one of the nation's leading private universities. Located in Rochester, N.Y., the University's environment gives students exceptional opportunities for interdisciplinary study and close collaboration with faculty. Its College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering is complemented by the Eastman School of Music, Simon School of Business, Warner School of Education, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and Schools of Medicine and Nursing.

‫‪From University of Rochester‬‬

‫4452=‪http://www.rochester.edu/news/show.php?id‬‬

‫ﺑﺎر - رﻧﮓ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧﮓ‬ ‫اﺟﺎزﻩ دهﻴﺪ ﻳﮏ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ رﻓﺘﺎر اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﺪازﻳﻢ، اﻳ ﻦ ﻧﮕ ﺮش ﻣ ﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧ ﺪ در‬ ‫ﺡ ﻞ اﻳ ﻦ ﻣﻌﻤ ﺎ ﮐ ﻪ ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن از چ ﻪ ذراﺗ ﻲ ﺗﺸ ﮑﻴﻞ ﺷ ﺪﻩ، ﻣﻔﻴ ﺪ واﻗ ﻊ ﮔ ﺮدد. هﻤﭽﻨﺎﻧﮑ ﻪ ﻣ ﻲ داﻧ ﻴﻢ ﻳ ﮏ ﻣ ﻮج‬ ‫اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ از دو ﻣﻴﺪان اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻋﻤﻮد ﺑﺮ ه ﻢ ﺗﺸ ﮑﻴﻞ ﺷ ﺪﻩ اﺳ ﺖ ﮐ ﻪ ﺑ ﺎ ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄ ﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ اﻣﻮاج اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ و ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻴﮕﺰ و ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ اﻳﻦ دو ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺑ ﻪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠ ﻪ ﺑﺴ ﻴﺎر ﺟ ﺎﻝﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ رﺳﻴﺪ.‬ ‫در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ دو ﻣﻴﺪان دارﻳﻢ، ﻳﮑﻲ ﻣﻴﺪان اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ و دﻳﮕﺮي ﻣﻴﺪان ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻳﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ هﻴﮕﺰ، اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪاﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ذرات هﻴﮕﺰ اﻳﺠﺎد ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. اﻣﺎ در اﻳﻨﺠ ﺎ ﻣﻴ ﺪاﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻔﺎوﺗﻨ ﺪ، ﻳﮑ ﻲ ﻣﻴ ﺪان اﺑﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﻲ ﮐ ﻪ ﺗﻮﺳ ﻂ‬ ‫ذراﺗﻲ اﻳﺠﺎد ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ از ﺧﻮد، ﺧﻮاص اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺑﺮوز ﻣﻲ دهﻨﺪ و ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺑﺮاﺑ ﺮ ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﻧ ﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. اﻣﺎ ﻋﻼوﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﮐﻪ در ﻣﻮج اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ﻲ دارد، روي ﻣﺤ ﻮر ﻋﻤ ﻮد ﺑ ﺮ ﺁن‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ داراي ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﺳﺖ. ﻝﺬا ﻣﺠﻤﻮع ﻣﺴﻴﺮي ﮐﻪ اﻳ ﻦ ذرات در واﺡ ﺪ زﻣ ﺎن ﻃ ﻲ ﻣ ﻲ ﮐﻨ ﺪ، ﺑﻴﺸ ﺘﺮ از ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻮر اﺳﺖ.‬

‫در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺳﻪ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﺸﻬﻮد و ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﻤﻖ اﺳﺖ:‬ ‫ً‬ ‫1 – اﻳ ﻦ ذرات ﺧ ﻮاص اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﻲ دارﻧ ﺪ. چ ﻮن ﺑ ﻪ اﻧ ﺪازﻩ ﺑ ﺎر اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﻲ ﭘﺎﻳ ﻪ )ﺑ ﺎر اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﻲ اﻝﮑﺘ ﺮون ﻳ ﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺮوﺗﻮن( ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﻝﺬا ﺁﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﺎر – رﻧﮓ ﻣﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﻢ. ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ در ﻣﻮرد ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ﻲ و ذرات ﺗﺸ ﮑﻴﻞ‬ ‫دهﻨﺪﻩ ي ﺁن ﻣﻴﺘﻮان چﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮي داﺷﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ﻲ اﻃ ﺮاف ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن از ﻣﻐﻨ ﺎﻃﻴﺲ – رﻧ ﮓ ﺗﺸ ﮑﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ .‬ ‫2 – ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﻳﻦ ذرات را ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮان ﺷ ﺎﻣﻞ ﺳ ﻪ ﻧ ﻮع ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ داﻧﺴ ﺖ، ﻳﮑ ﻲ ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄ ﻲ ﮐ ﻪ ﺑﺮاﺑ ﺮ ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻣﻮج اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ )ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر(، دوم ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﮐﻪ در ﻣﻴﺪان دارﻧﺪ )در ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑ ﺎﻻ ﻣﺸ ﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ اﺳﺖ( و ﺳﻮم اﺳﭙﻴﻦ اﻳﻦ ذرات. ﻝﺬا ﻣﺠﻤﻮع ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ اﻳ ﻦ ذرات اﺳ ﺖ ﮐ ﻪ ﺁن‬ ‫را ﺑﺎ ‪ Vc‬ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲ دهﻴﻢ. ﺑﻄﻮر وﺽﻮح ﻣﺸﺨﺺ اﺳﺖ ﮐ ﻪ‪ Vc > c‬ﮐ ﻪ در ﺁن ‪ Vc, c‬ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴ ﺐ ﻣﻘ ﺪار ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻮر و ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎر – رﻧﮓ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – رﻧﮓ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫3 – ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ از ذراﺗﻲ )ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن( ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷ ﻮد ﮐ ﻪ داراي ﺧ ﻮاص - ﺑ ﺎر رﻧﮕ ﻲ و ﻣﻐﻨ ﺎﻃﻴﺲ –‬ ‫رﻧﮕﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ. زﻳﺮا هﻤﭽﻨﺎﻧﮑ ﻪ در ﻓﺼ ﻞ ﻗﺒ ﻞ ﻣﺸ ﺎهﺪﻩ ﺷ ﺪ، هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑ ﻪ ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن در ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﻲ در ﺡ ﺎل‬ ‫ﺳ ﻘﻮط اﺳ ﺖ، اﻧ ﺮژي و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠ ﻪ ﺷ ﺪت ﻣﻴ ﺪاﻧﻬﺎي اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﻲ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ﻲ ﺁن اﻓ ﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣ ﻲ ﻳﺎﺑ ﺪ )ﺟﺎﺑﺠ ﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺁﺑﻲ(، ﻝﺬا ورود ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ )ﺑﺎر – رﻧ ﮓ و ﻣﻐﻨ ﺎﻃﻴﺲ – رﻧ ﮓ( ﺑ ﻪ ﺳ ﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن ﻣﻮﺟ ﺐ اﻓ ﺰاﻳﺶ‬ ‫اﻧﺮژي ﺁن ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد.‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. ﭘﺮداﺧﺘﻪ و اﺻﻞ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. را ﺑﻴﺎن ﻣ ﻲ ﮐﻨ ﻴﻢ. ﻻزم ﺑ ﻪ‬ ‫ذﮐﺮ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ:‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي ﺳ ﻲ. ﭘ ﻲ. اچ. از ﮐﻠﻤ ﻪ ي ذرﻩ اﺳ ﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﺷ ﺪﻩ اﺳ ﺖ، ﻣﻨﻈ ﻮر از ذرﻩ هﻤ ﺎن ﻧﻘﻄ ﻪ ي ﻣ ﺎدي ﻧﻴﺴ ﺖ و در‬ ‫ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ اي ﮐﻪ ﮔﻮﻳﺎي ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻧﺪﻳﺪم. ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ دﻟﻴﻞ از ﻟﻐﺖ ذرﻩ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﺷ ﺪ. هﻤﭽﻨ ﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺷﻮد ﮐﻪ در ﻣﻮرد ﺷﮑﻞ ﺁن ﻧﻴﺰ هﻴﭻ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد. ﻟﺬا هﺮ ﮐﺲ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺑﺮداﺷﺖ و ﺳ ﻠﻴﻘﻪ ي‬ ‫ﺧﻮد ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﺁن ﺷﮑﻞ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﻳﺶ را ﺗﺠﺴﻢ ﮐﻨﺪ.‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ‪CPH‬‬
‫ﻓ ﺮض ﮐﻨ ﻴﻢ ﻳ ﮏ ذرﻩ ﺑ ﺎ ﺟ ﺮم ﺛﺎﺑ ﺖ‪ m‬وﺟ ﻮد دارد ﮐ ﻪ ﻧﺴ ﺒﺖ ﺑ ﻪ ه ﺮ دﺳ ﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻝﺨﺘ ﻲ ﺑ ﺎ ﻣﻘ ﺪار ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑ ﺖ‬ ‫‪Vc‬ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ. و‬ ‫‪c, is speed of light Vc>c‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. داراي اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ‪ mVc‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫اﺻﻞ‪CPH‬‬ ‫ﭘﻲ. اچ. ﻳﮏ ذرﻩ ﺑﻨﻴﺎدي ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮم ﺛﺎﺑﺖ اﺳ ﺖ ﮐ ﻪ ﺑ ﺎ ﻣﻘ ﺪار ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑ ﺖ ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ ﻣ ﻲ ﮐﻨ ﺪ. اﻳ ﻦ ذرﻩ داري‬ ‫ﻝﺨﺘﻲ دوراﻧﻲ اﺳﺖ. در هﺮ واﮐﻨﺶ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻳﻦ ذرﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ذرات ﻳ ﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوه ﺎ در ﻣﻘ ﺪار ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﺁن ﺗﻐﻴﻴ ﺮي‬ ‫دادﻩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮد، ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﮑﻪ :‬ ‫‪gradVc=0 in all inertial frames and any space‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ: هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺁن اﻋﻤ ﺎل ﺷ ﻮد، ﻗﺴ ﻤﺘﻲ از ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ اﻧﺘﻘ ﺎﻝﻲ ﺁن ﺑ ﻪ ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ دوراﻧ ﻲ )ﻳ ﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻝﻌﮑﺲ ( ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد، ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﮑﻪ در ﻣﻘﺪار‪ Vc‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮي دادﻩ ﻧﻤ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮد. ﻳﻌﻨ ﻲ اﻧ ﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ ﺧﻄ ﻲ ﺁن ﺑ ﻪ‬ ‫اﻧﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ دوراﻧﻲ و ﺑﺎﻝﻌﮑﺲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﻣﺠﻤ ﻮع اﻧ ﺮژي اﻧﺘﻘ ﺎﻝﻲ و اﻧ ﺮژي دوراﻧ ﻲ ﺁن ﻧﻴ ﺰ‬ ‫هﻤﻮارﻩ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ اﺳﺖ. ﺗﻨﻬﺎ اﻧﺮژي اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝﻲ ﺁن ﺑﻪ اﻧﺮژي دوراﻧﻲ و ﺑﺎﻝﻌﮑﺲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد.‬ ‫هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. داراي ﺡﺮﮐﺖ دوراﻧﻲ ﺡﻮل ﻣﺤﻮري ﮐﻪ از ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺟﺮم ﺁن ﻣﻲ ﮔﺬرد اﺳﺖ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫زﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. داراي ‪ Spin‬اﺳﺖ،ﺁن را ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن ﻣﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﻢ.‬ ‫‪When CPH has Spin, It calls Graviton‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ‬
‫هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻲ. ﭘ ﻲ. اچ. وﺟ ﻮد ﺳ ﻲ. ﭘ ﻲ. اچ. دﻳﮕ ﺮي را اﺡﺴ ﺎس ﻣ ﻲ ﮐﻨ ﺪ. داراي اﺳ ﭙﻴﻦ ﻣ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮﻧﺪ ﮐ ﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد. ﻋﻠﺖ اﻳﺠﺎد اﺳﭙﻴﻦ در اﺻﻞ ﻣﻮﺽ ﻮع ﺳ ﻲ. ﭘ ﻲ. اچ. ﻧﻬﻔﺘ ﻪ اﺳ ﺖ ﮐ ﻪ ﺑﺎﻳ ﺪ ﺑ ﺎ ﻣﻘ ﺪار‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪Vc‬ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﮑﻪ‬

‫‪gradVc=0 in all inertial frames and any space‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ هﺮ ﻣﻘﺪار ﮐﻪ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺁن روي ﻳﮏ ﻣﺤﻮر ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺎت ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷ ﻮد، ﺑ ﻪ هﻤ ﺎن ﻣﻴ ﺰان ﺑ ﺮ ﻣﻘ ﺪار‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ روي دو ﻣﺤﻮر دﻳﮕﺮ اﻓﺰودﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد. ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺒﺎرت دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺠﻤﻮع ﻣﻘﺪار ﺷﺘﺎب هﺎي ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. روي ﺳﻪ ﻣﺤﻮر ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺎت ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺑ ﺎ ﺻ ﻔﺮ اﺳ ﺖ. ﺡ ﺎل‬ ‫دو ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. را در ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺎر- رﻧﮕﻲ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – رﻧﮕﻲ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲ دهﺪ ﮐﻪ دو ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘ ﻮن ﺑ ﺎ ﺟ ﺮم‪ m‬و اﻧ ﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ‪ ، P =mVc‬درﻓﺎﺻ ﻠﻪ‪ r‬ﺗﺤ ﺖ ﺗ ﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺑ ﺎر –‬ ‫رﻧﮕﻲ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ رﻧﮕﻲ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ، ﺑﺎ هﻢ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻣ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮﻧﺪ، اﻣ ﺎ چ ﻮن ﻣﻘ ﺪار ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻧﻬ ﺎ ﺛﺎﺑ ﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ، ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝﻲ ﺁﻧﻬ ﺎ ﺑ ﻪ ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ دوراﻧ ﻲ ‪Spin‬ﺗﺒ ﺪﻳﻞ ﻣ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮد. ﻓﺎﺻ ﻠﻪ ي ﺑ ﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬ ﺎ ﺗ ﺎ ﺟ ﺎﻳﻲ ﻣ ﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧ ﺪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻳﺎﺑ ﺪ ﮐ ﻪ ﺑ ﺎهﻢ ﺑﺮﺧ ﻮرد ﻧﮑﻨﻨ ﺪ. در ﺻ ﻮرت ﺑﺮﺧ ﻮرد ﺑ ﻪ دﻝﻴ ﻞ اﺳ ﭙﻴﻨﻲ ﮐ ﻪ دارﻧ ﺪ، از ﻳﮑ ﺪﻳﮕﺮ دور ﻣ ﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﻝﺬا ﺗﺮاﮐﻢ )چﮕﺎﻝﻲ( ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺎ زﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺡﺎﻝ ﺖ ﺗﻤ ﺎس ﻧﺮﺳ ﻨﺪ. در ﺻ ﻮرت ﺗﻤ ﺎس‬ ‫ﻃﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮردي ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ را ﻣﻲ راﻧﻨﺪ و ﺑﻪ اﻃﺮاف ﭘﺮاﮐﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﻳﮑﺒﺎر دﻳﮕﺮ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺁﺑﻲ را ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺁورﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻃﻲ ﺁن ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن در ﺡﺎل ﺳﻘﻮط در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ. )اﺛﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﺉﺮ و ﺁزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﭘﻮﻧﺪ – رﺑﮑﺎ(. ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ اﻧﺮژي ‪ h‬ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ ‪y‬ﺳ ﻘﻮط ﻣ ﻲ ﮐﻨ ﺪ و اﻧ ﺮژي ﺁن‬ ‫ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ ي‬ ‫‪ mgy‬اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ و ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار'‪ hν‬ﻣﻲ رﺳﺪ‬ ‫‪hν'=hν+mgy‬‬ ‫اﻧﺮژي و ﺟﺮم ﻓﻮﺗﻮن اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻴﺎﺑﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن در ﺡﺎل ﺳﻘﻮط در ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴ ﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﻲ را‬ ‫ﻧﺸ ﺎن ﻣ ﻲ ده ﺪ ﮐ ﻪ ﺑ ﺎ ورود ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬ ﺎ ﺑ ﻪ ﺁن اﻧ ﺮژي )ﺟ ﺮم(، ﻓﺮﮐ ﺎﻧﺲ و ﺷ ﺪت ﻣﻴ ﺪاﻧﻬﺎي اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﻲ و‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺁن اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ.‬

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن از ﺗﻌﺪادي ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد ﮐﻪ داراي اﺳﭙﻴﻦ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫هﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن داراي اﺳﭙﻴﻦ اﺳﺖ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ، ﮔﺮاﻳﺘﻮن ه ﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن را ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ دادﻩ اﻧﺪ داراي ﺡﺮﮐﺘﻬﺎي زﻳﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ:‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر، زﻳﺮا ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧ ﻮر ﻣﻨﺘﻘ ﻞ ﻣ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮد و اﺟ ﺰاي ﺗﺸ ﮑﻴﻞ دهﻨ ﺪﻩ ﺁن‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ هﻤﻴﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ دوراﻧﻲ )اﺳﭙﻴﻦ(، زﻳﺮا ﻃﺒﻖ اﺻﻞ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺳﻲ. ﭘ ﻲ. اچ. ﺑﻴﺸ ﺘﺮ از ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﻧ ﻮر‬ ‫اﺳﺖ و هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﻪ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. هﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ادﻏﺎم ﻣﻲ ﺷ ﻮﻧﺪ و ﺳ ﺎﻳﺮ ذرات را ﺗﺸ ﮑﻴﻞ ﻣ ﻲ دهﻨ ﺪ، ﻣﻘ ﺪاري‬ ‫از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد.‬

‫و ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن، زﻳﺮا ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮن هﺎ در ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺗﻮن هﺴﺘﻨﺪ و از ﺣﺮﮐﺖ اﺳﭙﻴﻨﻲ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫زﻳﺮ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻮم اﻧﺮژي، ﺟﺮم و ﻧﻴﺮو‬ ‫در ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﺸ ﺎن دادﻩ ﺷ ﺪ ﮐ ﻪ چﮕﻮﻧ ﻪ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬ ﺎ وارد ﺳ ﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن ﺷ ﺪﻩ و اﻧ ﺮژي ﺁﻧ ﺮا اﻓ ﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣ ﻲ‬ ‫دهﻨﺪ. از ﻃﺮﻓﻲ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻲ داﻧﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺡﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ هﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﻝﺬا ﺑﺴﺎدﮔﻲ ﻣﺸﺎهﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮو ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ اﻧﺮژي اﺳﺖ. ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘﻮﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ اﻧﺮژي ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫در ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ، هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﻣ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮد، ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘ ﻮن ه ﺎ ﺗﺒ ﺪﻳﻞ ﺑ ﻪ اﻧ ﺮژي ﻣ ﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و زﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﺑﺴ ﻤﺖ ﻗﺮﻣ ﺰ ﺟﺎﺑﺠ ﺎ ﻣ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮد، اﻧ ﺮژي ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن ﺑ ﻪ ﮔﺮاوﻳﺘ ﻮن ﺗﺒ ﺪﻳﻞ ﻣ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮد و و‬ ‫ﺳﺮاﻧﺠﺎم ﺑﺎ ﺗﺒﺎﻩ ﺷﺪن اﻧﺮژي ، ﻣﺎدﻩ و ﭘﺎدﻣﺎدﻩ ﭘﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ. ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫در ﺡﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. ﻳﮏ زﻳﺮ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻮم هﺴﺘﻲ در ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ هﻤﻪ ي ذرات از ﺁن ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ اﻧﺪ.‬ ‫‪CPH is Sub Quantum of existence in Nature‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ زﻳﺮ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘ ﻮم داراي ﺟ ﺮم اﺳ ﺖ، ﭘ ﺲ ﺟﻠ ﻮﻩ ي ﻣ ﺎدﻩ اﺳ ﺖ، داراي اﻧ ﺪازﻩ ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ اﺳ ﺖ ﮐ ﻪ ﺑﻴ ﺎن ﮐﻨﻨ ﺪﻩ ي‬ ‫اﻧﺮژي اﺳﺖ. هﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ داراي ﺧﻮاص ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻲ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ – رﻧﮕﻲ اﺳﺖ. ﻳﮏ ﮐﻮاﻧﺘﻮم اﻧﺮژي از ﺗﻌ ﺪادي‬ ‫ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد و اﻣﻮاج اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻇﺎهﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ چﺮا ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮان ﻓﻮﺗﻮن را در ﺡﺎﻝﺖ ﺳ ﮑﻮن ﻣﺸ ﺎهﺪﻩ ﮐ ﺮد، زﻳ ﺮ ﻳ ﮏ ﻓﻮﺗ ﻮن در‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر و از ﺗﻌﺪادي ذرات زﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن )ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ( ﺗﻮﻝﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد ﮐ ﻪ ﺧ ﻮد‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ذرات زﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ رﻧﮓ در اﻣﻮاج اﻟﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ دو ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻳ ﮏ دﺳ ﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻝﺨ ﺖ ﺑ ﺎ ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄ ﻲ ‪Vc‬ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ ﻣ ﻲ ﮐﻨﻨ ﺪ ﮐ ﻪ ﺑ ﻪ دﻝﻴ ﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻲ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ - رﻧﮕﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ و ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﺗﻮﻝﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد. چﻮن‬ ‫0=‪gradVc‬‬

‫داراي اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺧﻮاهﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ و ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮان ﻧﻮﺷﺖ.‬ ‫=‪gradVc=0 => axi+ayj+azk‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮع ﺷﺘﺎب هﺎ روي ﺳﻪ ﻣﺤﻮر ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨ ﻴﻢ ﮐ ﻪ ﺳ ﻲ ﭘ ﻲ. اچ. ) در ﭘﺮﺗ ﻮ اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ﻲ( روي ﻣﺤ ﻮر‪ x‬ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ اﻧﺘﻘ ﺎﻝﻲ ﺑﺮاﺑ ﺮ ﺑ ﺎ ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫اﻣﻮاج اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ)ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر( دارد. ﺷﮑﻞ زﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺁن ﺗﻨﻬﺎ روي ﻣﺤﻮر هﺎي‪ y, z‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ و ﺷﺘﺎب روي ﻣﺤﻮر ‪ x‬ﺻﻔﺮ اﺳﺖ، ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫0=‪ax‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ روي دو ﻣﺤﻮر دﻳﮕﺮ ﺷﺘﺎب ﺧﻮاهﺪ داﺷﺖ ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﮑﻪ:‬ ‫0=‪ayj+azk‬‬ ‫هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ‬ ‫0=‪ay=0 => az is maximum. And ay is maximum when az‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮض ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎر- رﻧﮓ در ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻮﺗﻮن هﻤﺮاﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮﺗﻮ اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ روي ﻣﺤﻮر‪y‬‬ ‫در ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﺳﺖ. اﻳﻦ ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺪان ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد )ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ( داﺉﻤﺎ در ﺡﺎل ﺷﺘﺎب‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫روي اﻳ ﻦ ﻣﺤ ﻮر اﺳ ﺖ. ﺑﻬﻤ ﻴﻦ دﻝﻴ ﻞ اﺳ ﭙﻴﻦ ﺑ ﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬ ﺎ داﺉﻤ ﺎ در ﺡ ﺎل ﺗﻐﻴﻴ ﺮ اﺳ ﺖ و اﻳ ﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴ ﺮات از ﻣﻘ ﺪار‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ روي هﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﻮر ﺗ ﺎﻣﻴﻦ و ﺗﺒ ﺪﻳﻞ ﻣ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮد. ﺑ ﺎ اﻓ ﺰاﻳﺶ اﺳ ﭙﻴﻦ، از ﻣﻘ ﺪار ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ روي ﻣﺤ ﻮر‬ ‫‪y‬ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ و ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎهﺶ اﺳﭙﻴﻦ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺮﻋﺖ روي هﻤ ﻴﻦ ﻣﺤ ﻮر اﻓ ﺰودﻩ ﻣ ﻲ ﺷ ﻮد و در ﺻ ﻮرﺗﻲ ﮐ ﻪ‬

‫ﺷﺪت ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸ ﻲ ﺛﺎﺑ ﺖ ﺑﺎﺷ ﺪ، ﻣﺎﻧﻨ ﺪ ﻓﻀ ﺎي ﺑ ﻴﻦ ﺳ ﺘﺎرﮔﺎن، ﺳ ﺮﻋﺖ ﻧ ﻮر ﺛﺎﺑ ﺖ ﺧﻮاه ﺪ ﻣﺎﻧ ﺪ. ﺑﻬﻤ ﻴﻦ دﻝﻴ ﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎهﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ هﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر ﮐﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺖ ﺧﺎص ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﮐﺮدﻩ، ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧ ﻮر در ﻓﻀ ﺎي ﺗﻬ ﻲ ﻧﺴ ﺒﺖ ﺑ ﻪ‬ ‫هﻤﻪ ي دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ هﺎي ﻝﺨﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ و ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‪ C‬اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺑﻪ هﻤﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺡﺮﮐ ﺖ و اﺳ ﭙﻴﻦ ﻣﻐﻨ ﺎﻃﻴﺲ – رﻧﮕﻬ ﺎ روي ﻣﺤ ﻮر ‪ Z‬ﻗﺎﺑ ﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻴ ﻪ اﺳ ﺖ. ﺗﻮﺟ ﻪ ﺷ ﻮد ﮐ ﻪ اﻳ ﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴ ﺮات در در ﻣ ﻮرد ﺑ ﺎر – رﻧﮕﻬ ﺎ و ﻣﻐﻨ ﺎﻃﻴﺲ – رﻧﮕﻬ ﺎ هﻤﺎهﻨ ﮓ هﺴ ﺘﻨﺪ. اﮔ ﺮ ﺑ ﻪ ﺷ ﮑﻞ اﻧﺘﺸ ﺎر اﻣ ﻮاج‬ ‫اﻝﮑﺘﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ﻲ ﺗﻮﺟ ﻪ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻳﻴ ﺪ، ﻣﺸ ﺎهﺪﻩ ﺧﻮاهﻴ ﺪ ﮐ ﺮد ﮐ ﻪ ه ﻢ زﻣ ﺎن داﻣﻨ ﻪ ي ﻣﻴ ﺪاﻧﻬﺎي اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﻲ و‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﺎﮐﺰﻳﻤﻢ و ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺡﺎل ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮان ﻣﻌﺎدﻝﻪ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺑﺎر – رﻧﮓ را ﻧﻮﺷﺖ. ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ، ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. ي ﮐﻪ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﺑﺎر‬ ‫رﻧﮓ ﻇﺎهﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺡﺮﮐﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎوب دارد ﮐﻪ ﻣﻌﺎدﻝﻪ ي ﺡﺮﮐﺖ ﺁن را ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮان ﺑﺼﻮرت زﻳﺮ ﻧﻮﺷﺖ:‬ ‫)‪Ec=EcmCosω(t-x/c‬‬ ‫ﮐﻪ در ﺁن‪ Ec‬ﻣﻘﺪار ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ اﺳﺖ و‪ Ecm‬ﻣﻘﺪار ﻣﺎزﻳﻤﻢ ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮓ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻲ. ﭘﻲ. اچ. دﻳﮕﺮ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧﮓ ﻇﺎهﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮان ﻧﻮﺷﺖ:‬ ‫)‪Bc=BcmCosω(t-x/c‬‬ ‫ﮐﻪ در ﺁن‪ Bc‬ﻣﻘﺪار ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧ ﮓ اﺳ ﺖ و‪ Bcm‬ﻣﻘ ﺪار ﻣ ﺎﮐﺰﻳﻤﻢ ﻣﻐﻨ ﺎﻃﻴﺲ رﻧ ﮓ اﺳ ﺖ. ﻓ ﺮض ﮐﻨ ﻴﻢ ﻳ ﮏ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮن ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ n‬ﺑ ﺎر – رﻧ ﮓ و‪ m‬ﻣﻐﻨ ﺎﻃﻴﺲ – رﻧ ﮓ اﺳ ﺖ ﮐ ﻪ ﻣﻌﺎدﻝ ﻪ ﻣﻴ ﺪاﻧﻬﺎي اﻝﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑ ﻲ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴ ﻲ ﺁن‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮرت زﻳﺮ ﺧﻮاهﺪ ﺷﺪ‬ ‫)‪E=nEcmCosω(t-x/c‬‬ ‫)‪B=mBcmCosω(t-x/c‬‬ ‫هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن در ﺡﺎل ﺳﻘﻮط در ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ اﺳﺖ، ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺑﺎر – رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ –‬ ‫رﻧﮕﻬﺎي ﺁن اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ داﺷﺖ. و هﻨﮕﺎم ﺻﻌﻮد ﻓﻮﺗﻮن در‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﻲ، از ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد و ﺷﺎهﺪ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴﻤﺖ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر‬
‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻝﺐ ﺑﺎﻻ و ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺎزﻧﺪﻩ ﯼ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن هﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝﯽ‬ ‫اﺟﺰاﯼ ﺳﺎزﻧﺪﻩ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻧﻬﺎﺳﺖ. ﻝﺬا هﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﻮﺗﻮن در ﻣﻴﺪان ﮔﺮاﻧﺸﯽ در ﺡﺎل ﺳﻘﻮط اﺳﺖ، ﻗﺴﻤﺘﯽ از ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﺳﭙﻴﻨﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺎر-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ-رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺡﺮﮐﺖ اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝﯽ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد و ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ و در ﻣﻮرد ﮐﺎهﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻧﻮر روﻧﺪ ﻋﮑﺲ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﯽ ﺷﻮد.‬

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