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					                                         Index



(‘concept of health’ is abbreviated to ‘coh’, except for its own main entry where it is written
out)
accident, function, distinction 58–9             Bernard, Claude, on homeostatic coh 28–9,
adaptation                                                35fn63
    and coh 19–37                                Bigelow, John, and robert pargetter 177,
    Kovács on 21                                          182
    lewontin on 178–9                                on propensity functional naturalism 183,
agich, George                                             184, 185–6, 187
    Boorse                                       biology, evolutionary, ruse on 153
         covert normativism charge 145–50        biology example, analytic philosophy 7
             reply 150–56                        body
    on normative coh 3                               Descartes on 97fn4
albumin example, normal distribution 16–18           homeostasis, Bechtel on 194
allergies                                            as homeostatic system 194
    eHCH case 200–201                                intercellular fluid 189–90
    and Ige system 200                               movements, Goldstein on 192
    nesse and Williams on 201                    Boorse, Christopher
    types 200                                        coh 8–11, 95–124, 174
allergy example                                           acclimation-adaptation 24, 25–7
    function, accident distinction 59                criticism of 125–72
    part-functionalism 104                                bad biology/reply 156–63
    statistical coh 15                                    bad medicine/reply 163–71
    strong normativism 41–2                               circularity/reply 125–31
    weak normativism 46                                   covert normativism/reply 131–56
appeal to authority fallacy 139–40, 141                   stempsey’s 139–40, 141
aristotle, on human function 101–2                   on disease 122–3, 130
Aronowitz, Robert, on disease 112                         illness, distinction 44–5
                                                     on dynamic equilibrium 191
Babul, shelina 166                                   on evolutionary-adaptation coh 20–23
bacteria                                             on function 57–8, 84–92, 112–13, 162,
    evolution, and tuberculosis 198                       163, 164
    nesse and Williams on 198                             etiological 64–84
baldness example, disease 133, 134, 135              on health and disease 95–6
Bechtel, William 20, 173, 186–7, 212                 on homeostatic coh 34–7, 189
    on body homeostasis 194                          on naturalism 13–14
    Boorse                                           on naturalistic coh 8–11, 13–14, 95–124
        circularity charge 127–9                          criticism of 125–72
            reply 129–31                             on normativism 39–40
    on cultural evolutionism 207–8                        functional 54–6
    on organism homeostasis 193                           moral 51–3
    on propensity functional naturalism 184               strong 42–5
                                                          thick/thin distinction 49fn30
232                  In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of Health
        weak 46–9                                     mechanisms 32–3
   on objectivism 112–15                              negative feedback 33, 34
   as objectivist 107–15                              positive feedback 33, 34
   on part-functionalism 136                          psychological aspects 32, 34
   as part-functionalist 104–7, 193                   social factors 34
   on pathology 164–5                            importance of 1
   on species design 23, 157                     mechanistic analogy 97–8
   on statistical coh 15, 18–19                  and mental causation 36fn65
   on units of selection 136, 210–11             naturalist see naturalism
Braithwaite, richard, on goal-directed           naturalists 3
        systems 84–5                                  vs normativists 2–4
Brandon, robert 214                              nodernfelt on 1–2
   on group selection 216–17                     normal function 115–19
Byerly, Henry 101                                normative see normativism
                                                 normativists 3
cancer, description, sontag on 154               philosophy, contribution of 5–7
Cannon, Walter B. 28                             as physical health 8
    on homeostatic coh 29                        reference class 115–19
causal complexity, argument from, Gould on            thyroid example 117, 118
        213–14                                   statistical 14–19, 160–1
Caws, peter 6, 148                                    allergy example 15
Chensue, stephen, and peter Ward, on                  Boorse on 15, 18–19
        inflammation 194–5                    consilience, lack of 2
cigarettes example, and cultural              constructivists, vs destructivists 146
        evolutionism 207–8                    Cote, richard, and Clive taylor, on surgical
Cohen, Morris r. 148                                  pathology 166–7
compatibilist approach, to coh 5, 6, 7        Cotran, Ramzi S. 140, 141
concept of health (coh)                       Cummins, robert, on function 120
    acclimation-adaptation 24–5
        Boorse on 24, 25–7                    Daly King, C. 128
        negative version 24–5                 Damjanov, Ivan 165
        positive version 24                   Dawkins, richard, on genes as units of
    and adaptation 19–37                               selection 211, 212, 213
    approaches to 4–7                         Depew, David, on organism homeostasis
    Boorse 8–11, 95–124, 174                           193
    clinicians’ understanding of 15           Des Chene, Dennis, on mechanism 99–100,
    compatibilist approach 5, 6, 7                     106
    consilience, lack of 2                    Descartes, rené
    disease 122–3                                 on the body 97fn4
    evolutionary-adaptation 19–20                 Treatise of Man 97fn4
        Boorse’s reply 20–3                   disease
    evolutionary-homeostasis see eHCH             Aronowitz on 112
    function see function                         baldness example 133, 134, 135
    history 4–5                                   Boorse on 122–3, 130
    homeostatic 28–34                             coh 122–3
        Bernard on 28–9, 35fn63                   concept, engelhardt on 4, 110, 143, 161
        Boorse on 34–7                            and health
        engel on 28, 29–34, 35–6                       Boorse on 95–6
        external environment 31                        Hesslow on 168–9
        intercellular fluid 31, 32                Hesslow on 168
        internal environment 31                   illness
                                             Index                                        233
       absence in natural world 43               entropy, schrödinger on 109
       distinction, Boorse on 44–5               evolutionary functional naturalism 175–88
       sedgwick on 43–4                              definition 176
           Boorse’s critique 44–5                    see also efn; mixed evolutionary
   Margolis on 163–4                                     functional naturalism; propensity
   Miller Brown on 164                                   functional naturalism
   naturalist, vs normative theories ix          evolutionism
   ontologist, vs physiologist theories ix           cultural
   and pathology 166                                     Bechtel on 207–8
   see also health                                       cigarettes example 207–8
Down’s syndrome                                      Hardcastle on 178
   eHCH case 201–2                                   heart example 175
   purtilo on 202                                    Mayr on 175
dynamic equilibrium, Boorse on 191                   ruse on 151
                                                     Wakefield on 161
efn (etiological functional naturalism)
        176–83                                   farber, John l. 141
   criticisms of 178–83                          fodor, Jerry 154
        circularity 179                          freud, sigmund 32
   definition 177                                fulford, K.W.M., Boorse, covert
   Hardcastle on 176, 179–80                             normativism charge 131–2
   Hunter syndrome example 177                       reply 132
   lungs function example 180                    function
   Mclaughlin on 181                                 accident
   Millikan on 176                                       allergy example 59
   neander on 177–8                                      distinction 58–9
   preston on 180                                        heart example 58–9
eHCH (evolutionary-homeostasis coh) 173,             adequacy conditions 58–60, 62–3,
        194–209, 217, 218                                89–92
   age differences 196                               Boorse on 57–8, 84–92, 112–13, 162,
   allergies example 200–201                             163, 174
   case studies 196–209                              conscious, vs natural 59–60
   definition 196                                    contextualist conception 87, 93, 119,
   Down’s syndrome example 201–2                         120, 129
   environmental factors 196                         Cummins on 120
   gender differences 196                            debate, coh 57–93
   osteoporosis example 205–9                        definition 84
   sickle cell anemia example 202–5                  dispositional concept 120
   species variations 196                            divine element, exclusion 58, 60, 174
   tuberculosis example 196–9                        etiological concept
engel, George 28                                         Boorse’s critique 64–84
   on homeostatic coh 28, 29–34, 35–6                    ‘common connection’ criticism/
   on psychology of anger 31                                  reply 80–4
engelhardt, H. tristram                                  equivocation criticism/reply 65–9
   Boorse                                                examples 61–3
        bad biology charge 157–8, 161                    necessary and sufficient conditions
            reply 158–9, 161–2                                criticism/reply 70–80
        covert normativism charge 135–6                  tautology criticism/reply 64
            reply 136–44                             Kass on 128
   on disease 4, 110, 143, 161                       lungs example 120
   on weak normativism 45–6                          mast cells example 84–5
234                  In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of Health
    nissen on 181–2                               WHO definition 2
    Wright on 58–63, 93, 162, 174                 see also concept of health; disease
    see also efn                              heart example, evolutionism 175
functionalism see part-functionalism          Hempel, Carl 58
                                              Hesslow, Germund 163
Gammelgaard, anne, on units of selection          Boorse
        210fn82                                       bad medicine charge 167–9
genes 21–2                                                 reply 170–71
    as units of selection 137, 211                on disease 168
    vs the individual 211–13                          and health 168–9
Glennan, stuart 100                               on need for scientific definitions 167–8
    on part-functionalism 103fn20             holism, organic functional 101–3
goal-directed systems, Braithwaite on 84          definition 102
Godfrey-smith, peter 185                      homeostasis 189–94
Goldstein, Kurt, on body movements 192            body, Bechtel on 194
Gould, stephen Jay                                Boorse on 34–7, 189
    causal complexity argument 213–14             and coh 28–37
    visibility argument 211, 212–13               of organisms
Graves’ disease 118                                   Bechtel on 193
Greene, Brian 100                                     Depew on 193
Griffiths, Paul 21                                see also homeostatic system;
group selection 210–11                                intercellular homeostasis
    argument                                  homeostatic system 190–94
        from heritability 216–17                  body as 194
        from speed 215–16                         components 190–91
    Brandon on 216–17                             effector 190, 191
    case against 214–17                           integration center 190, 191
    ridley on 216, 217                            internal physical states 190
    vs genes 210–11                               regulated variable 190, 191
                                                  sensor 190, 191
                                                  set point 190, 191
Hardcastle, valerie 186                       homosexuality, Marmor on 42, 43
    on efn 176, 179–80                            Boorse’s critique 42–3
    on evolutionism 178                       human function, aristotle on 101–2
Hare, r.M., Boorse, covert normativism        Hunter syndrome example, efn 177
         charge 133
    reply 134–5
Hays, J.n., on tuberculosis 197               Ige system
health                                             as effector 201
    definition 195–6                               profet on 200
    dimensions 8                              individual, vs genes 211–13
    and disease                               inflammation, Ward and Chensue on 194–5
         Boorse on 95–6                       instinctual needs 30
         Hesslow on 168–9                     intercellular fluid, body homeostasis 189–90
    elements of 96                            intercellular homeostasis 191–2, 193
    judgements, therapeutic judgements,            and organism survival 195
         distinction 52                            and osteoporosis 205–6
    as objective condition 97                      species variations 196
    Parson’s definition 3–4, 24
    philosophy of, disciplines xi             Kant, Immanuel, Critique of Pure Reason
    statistical coh 14–19                            111
                                          Index                                       235
Kass, leon r., on function 128                   on methodological objectivism 107–8
Kovács, József, on adaptation 21              mental causation, and coh 36fn65
Kumar, vinay 140, 141                         metaphors, in science 154–5
Kuzma, Jan, on normal distribution 16         Miller Brown, W. 163
                                                 Boorse
lacey, Hugh, on science 147                           bad medicine charge 164
ledermann, e.K., on mechanism 97–8, 99                    reply 164–7
lennox, James G., on functional                       covert normativism charge 144
        normativism 53–4                                  reply 144–5
lewontin, richard, on adaptation 178–9           on disease 164
linder, James 165, 166                           on medicine 164
longino, Helen, on science 146                Millikan, ruth, on efn 176
lungs example                                 mixed evolutionary functional naturalism
    efn 180                                           188–9
    function 120                                 definition 188
                                              moral values, and psychoanalysis 50–51
Machamer, peter 101
                                              nagel, ernest 148
Mclaughlin, peter
                                                  on mechanism 104fn22
   on efn 181
                                              naturalism
   on propensity functional naturalism
                                                  Boorse on 13–14
        187–8
                                                  and coh 14–19
McManus, Bruce 166
                                                  definitions 13, 19, 28
Margolis, James 163
                                              naturalists
   Boorse
                                                  coh 3
        bad medicine charge 163–4
                                                  definition ix
            reply 164–7
                                              neander, Karen, on efn 177–8
   on disease 163–4
                                              nesse, randolph, and George Williams
   on medicine 163–4
                                                  on allergies 201
   moral normativism 50–51
                                                  on bacteria 198
Markin, rodney 165, 166
                                                  on sickle cell anemia 203, 204
Marmor, Judith, on homosexuality 42, 43
                                              Nezelof, Christian 140, 165, 166
mast cells example, function 84–5
                                              nissen, lowell, on function 181–2
Mayr, ernst 160
                                              nominalists, vs realists ix
   on evolutionism 175
                                              nordenfelt, lennart, on coh 1–2
mean, statistical 16fn11
                                              normal distribution
   tooth decay 19
                                                  Kuzma on 16
mechanism
                                                  meaning 16
   criticism of 100–101
                                                  serum albumin example 16–18
   definition 100
                                              normativism
   Des Chene on 99–100, 106
                                                  agich on 3
   ledermann on 97–8, 99
                                                  Boorse on 39–40
   nagel on 104fn22
                                                      thick/thin distinction 49fn30
   toulmin on 98–9
                                                  descriptive 41
medicine
                                                  functional
   Margolis on 163–4
                                                      Boorse on 54–6
   Miller Brown on 164
                                                      lennox on 53–4
   values in 148
                                                      meaning 53
Megill, allan
                                                  moral
   on dialectical objectivism 110, 111
                                                      Boorse on 51–3
   on disciplinary objectivism 108
                                                      definition 50
236                  In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of Health
       Margolis on 50–51                          rosenberg on 5
   parsons on 3–4                             philosophy
   strong 40                                      biology example 7
       allergy example 41–2                       and coh 5–7
       Boorse on 42–5                             of health, disciplines xi
       tobacco example 42fn14                 physiologists, vs ontologists ix
   varieties 39, 40                           poincaré, Henri, on science 146–7, 151
   weak 40, 41, 45–6                          preston, Beth, on efn 180
       allergy example 46                     profet, Margie, on Ige system 200
       Boorse on 46–9                         propensity functional naturalism 183–9
       engelhardt on 45–6                         Bechtel on 184
       meaning 45                                 Bigelow and pargetter on 183, 184,
normativists                                           185–6, 187
   coh 3                                          criticisms 185–8
   definition ix                                  definition 184
norms                                             Mclaughlin on 187–8
   epistemic 151, 152                         psychoanalysis, and moral values 50–51
   metrical 40–41                             purtilo, David, on Down’s syndrome 202
   quantitative 40
                                              realists, vs nominalists ix
objectivism                                   ridley, Mark, on group selection 216, 217
    Boorse on 112–15                          robbins, stanley l. 140, 141
    dialectical 95, 107, 110–12               roberts, M.B.v. 32
    disciplinary 95, 107, 108–10              rosenberg, Jay, on analytic philosophers 5
    metaphysical 95, 107, 113                 rubin, emanuel 141
    methodological 95, 107–8, 113             ruse, Michael
objectivist, Boorse as 107–15                     on epistemic values 152–3
Ockham’s razor, and units of selection 213        on evolutionary biology 153
ontologists, vs physiologists ix                  on evolutionism 151
osteoporosis                                      on metaphors in science 155
    eHCH case 205–9                               on naturalist coh 3
    and intercellular homeostasis 205–6       ryle, J.a. 24–5

pargetter, robert see Bigelow, John           scadding, J.B., Boorse, circularity charge
parsons, talcott                                      126
    definition of health 3–4, 24                  reply 126–7, 131
    on normative coh 3–4                      schrödinger, erwin, on entropy 109
part-functionalism 103–4                      science
    allergy example 104                           constructivism 146
    Boorse on 104–7, 136, 193                     descriptivism 146–7
    definition 103                                lacey on 147
    Glennan on 103fn20                            longino on 146
    virchow on 139                                metaphors in 154–5
pathology                                         particular value 148
    Boorse on 164–5                               poincaré on 146–7, 151
    definitions 140–41                            and pursuit of truth 148
    and disease 166                               values in 145–50, 154
    surgical, Cote and taylor on 166–7        sedgwick, peter, on disease and illness 43–4
philosophers, analytic                        seemayer, thomas a. 140, 165, 166
    criticism of 5–6                          seidel, Charles 190
                                            Index                                        237
shock therapy 52                                    Gammelgaard on 210fn82
sickle cell anemia                                  genes as 137, 211, 212
    effects 203                                     groups as 210–11
    eHCH case 202–5                                 and Ockham’s razor 213
    nesse and Williams on 203, 204                  see also group selection
skinner, B.f. 59
sontag, susan, on description of cancer 154    values
species design, Boorse on 23, 157                  epistemic 149–50
standard deviation 16fn10                               ruse on 152–3
stempsey, William, Boorse, criticism of            in science 145–50
        139–40, 141, 142                       van der steen, Win J. 156, 157
sterelny, Kim 21                                   Boorse, bad biology charge 159–60
                                                        reply 160–61
taylor, Clive see Cote, richard                virchow, rudolf, on part-functionalism 139
thung, p.J. 156, 157                           visibility argument, Gould 211, 212–13
thyroid example, reference class coh 117,
        118                                    Wakefield, Jerome C.
tobacco, example of strong normativism            Boorse
        42fn14                                        bad biology charge 161
tooth decay, and statistical mean 19                      reply 162–3
toulmin, stephen, on mechanism 98–9               on evolutionism 161
tuberculosis                                   WHO (World Health Organization)
    and bacteria evolution 198                        definition of health 2
    cause 196–7                                Williams, George see nesse, randolph
    decline 197                                Wilson, edward o., advice to scientists
    eCHC case 196–9                                   148–9
    Hays on 197                                Wright, larry 9, 176
    immune system response 198                    on function 58–63, 93, 162, 174
                                                  Boorse’s reply 63–84
units of selection                             Wynne-edwards, v.C. 214–15
    Boorse on 136, 210–11

				
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Description: (concept of health is abbreviated to coh, except for its own