Docstoc

_Learn_Spanish__Lesson_and_the_Past_Participle

Document Sample
_Learn_Spanish__Lesson_and_the_Past_Participle Powered By Docstoc
					"Learn Spanish" Lesson and the Past Participle

Word Count:
782

Summary:
In this Spanish lesson we will learn the Past Participle and its
different uses. Although this lesson is actually briefer than past
lessons, the Past Participle is very important if you want to learn how
to speak Spanish. Its formation is quite simple. As in English, the
Past Participle in Spanish is a central element in most topics of
discussion.


Keywords:
Learning Spanish Like Crazy


Article Body:
The Past Participle

In this Spanish lesson we will learn the Past Participle and its
different uses. Although this lesson is actually briefer than past
lessons, the Past Participle is very important if you want to learn how
to speak Spanish. Its formation is quite simple. As in English, the
Past Participle in Spanish is a central element in most topics of
discussion.



In general, the Past Participle is best understood as having 4 distinct
uses that include past and present actions, and adjectives. Although
this range in usage seems broad, understanding each particular use can be
learned and applied rather easily with practice.



The Past Participle is rather simple to form.    For -ar verbs, an -ado is
added to the verb's stem.



For example:



The stem of the verb hablar (to speak) is habl. With this in mind, an -
ado is added to habl to form the Past Participle for hablar: hablado.



The formation of the Past Participle for -er and -ir verbs parallel this
pattern. However, an -ido is added to the er or ir verb's stem.
For example:



In the case of the verb beber (to drink), its stem is beb.   An -ido is
then added to beb to form its Past Participle: bebido.



Similarly, to form the Past Participle for salir (to go out) an -ido is
added to its stem, sal. Its Past Participle is: salido.



With the Past Participle's basic format in mind, what follows are
examples of it for both regular and irregular verbs:



Examples of the Regular Past Participle:




Infinitive                                                Past Participle



estar (to be)                                         estado

bailar (to dance)                                 bailado

cenar (to eat supper)                            cenado

almorzar (to eat lunch)            almorzado

desayunar (to eat breakfast)                 desayunado

limpiar (to clean)                                limpiado

dar (to give)                                         dado

llorar   (to cry)                                     llorado

lloviznar (to drizzle)                            lloviznado

tener (to have)                                     tenido

creer (to believe)                                  creido
leer (to read)                                        leido

querer (to want, to love)                       querido

partir (to leave)                                   partido

ir (to go)                                                ido

vivir (to live)                                          vivido

dormir (to sleep)                                 dormido




Examples of the Irregular Past Participle:



Infinitive                                                 Past Participle



poner (to put)                                      puesto

ver (to see)                                          visto

volver (to return)                                  vuelto

resolver (to resolve)                             resuelto

escribir (to write)                                 escrito

abrir (to open)                                     abierto

hacer (to make)                                   hecho

satisfacer (to satisfy)                           satisfecho

morir (to die)                                      muerto

decir (to say)                                        dicho

cubrir (to cover)                                 cubierto




The 4 main uses of the Past Participle are as follows:
1.         The Past Participle is often used in compound tenses with the
auxiliary verb haber (to have).   We have seen this use in the Lesson on
the Present Perfect Tense. In the Present Perfect Tense the past
participle of the sentence's main verb is added to haber to express a
past action that has not completely elapsed.



Let's briefly review this use:



Juana ha estado en su cuarto todo el día.

(Juana has been in her room all day)



He querido ir a California.

(I have wanted to go to California.)



Mario ha vivido en Bogotá.

(Mario has lived in Bogotá.)



2.         The Past Participle is used for the passive voice and usually
follows the verbs ser or estar (to be). When the Past Participle
reflects the passive voice, it must agree with the subject's gender and
number.



For example:



El papá de Diego está herido.

(Diego's father is hurt.)



La hermana de Rogelio está cansada.

(Rogelio's sister is tired.)
3.         At times, the verbs llevar and tener are used instead of the
verb haber in compound tenses (as in the Present Perfect Tense). When
this occurs, the Past Participle must agree with the attribute's gender
and number. Although this use may seem awkward, think of it as forming
an alternative expression for indefinite past actions.



For example:



Tengo hecha la comida.

(I have made the food.)



Juan lleva pagada la cuenta.

(Juan has paid the check.)



4.         The Past Participle can also be used as an adjective. Keep in
mind that for this use, the Past Participle acts as an adjective and must
agree in gender and number with the noun.



For example:



Un vestido hecho a mano

(A dress made by hand)



Un hombre educado

(An educated man)



Un bebé mimado

(A spoiled baby)
Now let’s try a few exercises. Translate the following into Spanish.
The answers follow the exercise.



1.        An opened door

2.        A cleaned room

3.        We have spoken.

4.        Juan has cooked.

5.        A cooked chicken

6.        Roberta's brother is tired.

7.        Juana's mother is educated.

8.        Marcos has made the dessert.

9.        She has opened the door.

10.      Have you seen Milagros?



1.        Una puerta abierta

2.        Un cuarto limpiado

3.        Hemos hablado.

4.        Juan ha cocinado.

5.        Un pollo cocinado

6.        El hermano de Roberta está cansado.

7.        La madre de Juana es educada.

8.        Marcos tiene hecho el postre.

9.        Ella ha abierto la puerta.

10.      ¿Has visto a Milagros?

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:5
posted:3/8/2010
language:English
pages:6