Foot and mouth disease and market access in southern Africa: some key issues and questions emerging Ian Scoones William Wolmer IDS Market access and disease control scenarios: future options? Market access scenarios High value (forex)/---------- ---------------------------------------- Low value/ High risk/ Low risk Narrow group benefits Wider group benefits EU export Direct Export to Regional Domestic Local Low cost ---------------------------------------------------------High cost export to emerging trade in urban market- large markets SADC markets ing retailers Area based The (high risk, high disease cost) status quo freedom Disease control scenarios Export An existing option, comparable to South zones with American competition vaccination Compartme An option to explore, for high value exports, ntalisation although technical questions and distributional consequences Commodity A key option for a broad set of high-medium value markets based trade – as yet not fully exploited, but requiring investment in product safety testing and certification. Overall lower cost and risk spread. Managing The default – high endemic volumes, but lower FMD unit values. An important element of the overall picture. Group work • Market access – EU post Cotonou • Market Access – Emerging markets (Asia & Urban Africa, Etc) • Implementing commodity based trade • Combining options for safe trade & disease control • Implications of wildlife based land use for the beef industry (trade & disease control • What options work for poorer, small scale producers Analysis • Pros and cons; opportunities and threats • Which option of combination of options results in the greatest returns? • Which provides benefits to the broadest group of people? • Which will be, in the longer term, the most sustainable? • What needs to be done in practice? Market access – EU post Cotonou • Are there alternatives to zonal freedom that would satisfy the requirement for ‘control of disease at source’? • What advantages do southern African countries have that could be used as marketing tools to make southern African beef attractive and competitive? • What should southern African countries do to improve their negotiating ability in international standard setting? Market access – Emerging markets (Asia, urban Africa) • What is the size and scope of these markets, i.e. do they offer a worthwhile option for marketing southern African beef? • Are countries applying EU standards without justification (equivalence – cannot demand higher animal health status than their own)? • Is the infrastructure really in place to be competitive? Commodity-based trade • Clear definition as requested by the OIE representative (e.g. inherently safe or also safe after risk mitigation) • Requirement to ‘control disease at source’ – will this negate the claim that CBT could allow sourcing of commodities from FMD-infected areas (i.e. will Mr Mabego still be the loser)? • Is veterinary certification the only type of certification that will be required, and would it be credible for all products? Combination of control options • Would options like compartmentalisation and CBT really enable compliance with the requirement for ‘control of disease at source’ from EU? • Which options would be available to poor farmers? • Will zonal freedom still be necessary in certain contexts e.g. given the reality of TFCAs? Wildlife • What kind of consultations are necessary to dispel negative perceptions of the ‘either/or’ type about wildlife/livestockland use? • How can real benefits to communities from wildlife enterprises be assured? • Will SPS measures eventually prove a stumbling block for sustainable use of wildlife resources? Resource poor farmers • Where FMD/TAD is an issue, would any of the control options enable farmers in affected zones to comply with the requirement to ‘control disease at source’? • If FMD and other TADs are longer an issue, what are the other constraints preventing the entry of resource poor farmers into the formal meat industry and what support would be required to resolve these problems? • What would the real advantages be for resource poor farmers to enter the formal market as opposed to existing informal market networks? • How to achieve the ideal situation where small- scale/communal/resource poor farmers (cattle producers) will be able to choose the market that suits them best?