Foot and mouth disease and market access in southern Africa some

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					Foot and mouth disease and market
access in southern Africa: some key
  issues and questions emerging
            Ian Scoones
           William Wolmer
                 IDS
Market access and disease control scenarios: future options?
                                                                                                                                  Market access scenarios
                                                                                                    High value (forex)/---------- ----------------------------------------      Low value/
                                                                                                    High risk/                                                                  Low risk
                                                                                                    Narrow group benefits                                                  Wider group benefits
                                                                                                    EU export                  Direct        Export to Regional         Domestic Local
        Low cost ---------------------------------------------------------High cost
                                                                                                                               export to     emerging trade in          urban    market-
                                                                                                                               large         markets   SADC             markets  ing
                                                                                                                               retailers


                                                                                      Area based    The (high risk, high
                                                                                      disease       cost) status quo
                                                                                      freedom
                           Disease control scenarios




                                                                                      Export        An existing option, comparable to South
                                                                                      zones with    American competition
                                                                                      vaccination


                                                                                      Compartme     An option to explore, for high value exports,
                                                                                      ntalisation   although technical questions and distributional
                                                                                                    consequences


                                                                                      Commodity                  A key option for a broad set of high-medium value markets
                                                                                      based trade                – as yet not fully exploited, but requiring investment in
                                                                                                                 product safety testing and certification. Overall lower cost
                                                                                                                 and risk spread.

                                                                                      Managing                                                                          The default – high
                                                                                      endemic                                                                           volumes, but lower
                                                                                      FMD                                                                               unit values. An
                                                                                                                                                                        important element of
                                                                                                                                                                        the overall picture.
                Group work
• Market access – EU post Cotonou
• Market Access – Emerging markets (Asia & Urban
  Africa, Etc)
• Implementing commodity based trade
• Combining options for safe trade & disease
  control
• Implications of wildlife based land use for the
  beef industry (trade & disease control
• What options work for poorer, small scale
  producers
                  Analysis
• Pros and cons; opportunities and threats
• Which option of combination of options
  results in the greatest returns?
• Which provides benefits to the broadest group
  of people?
• Which will be, in the longer term, the most
  sustainable?
• What needs to be done in practice?
Market access – EU post Cotonou
• Are there alternatives to zonal freedom that
  would satisfy the requirement for ‘control of
  disease at source’?
• What advantages do southern African
  countries have that could be used as
  marketing tools to make southern African beef
  attractive and competitive?
• What should southern African countries do to
  improve their negotiating ability in
  international standard setting?
Market access – Emerging markets
       (Asia, urban Africa)
• What is the size and scope of these markets,
  i.e. do they offer a worthwhile option for
  marketing southern African beef?
• Are countries applying EU standards without
  justification (equivalence – cannot demand
  higher animal health status than their own)?
• Is the infrastructure really in place to be
  competitive?
       Commodity-based trade
• Clear definition as requested by the OIE
  representative (e.g. inherently safe or also
  safe after risk mitigation)
• Requirement to ‘control disease at source’ –
  will this negate the claim that CBT could allow
  sourcing of commodities from FMD-infected
  areas (i.e. will Mr Mabego still be the loser)?
• Is veterinary certification the only type of
  certification that will be required, and would it
  be credible for all products?
  Combination of control options
• Would options like compartmentalisation and
  CBT really enable compliance with the
  requirement for ‘control of disease at source’
  from EU?
• Which options would be available to poor
  farmers?
• Will zonal freedom still be necessary in certain
  contexts e.g. given the reality of TFCAs?
                   Wildlife
• What kind of consultations are necessary to
  dispel negative perceptions of the ‘either/or’
  type about wildlife/livestockland use?
• How can real benefits to communities from
  wildlife enterprises be assured?
• Will SPS measures eventually prove a
  stumbling block for sustainable use of wildlife
  resources?
           Resource poor farmers
• Where FMD/TAD is an issue, would any of the control options
  enable farmers in affected zones to comply with the
  requirement to ‘control disease at source’?
• If FMD and other TADs are longer an issue, what are the other
  constraints preventing the entry of resource poor farmers into
  the formal meat industry and what support would be required
  to resolve these problems?
• What would the real advantages be for resource poor farmers
  to enter the formal market as opposed to existing informal
  market networks?
• How to achieve the ideal situation where small-
  scale/communal/resource poor farmers (cattle producers) will
  be able to choose the market that suits them best?

				
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Description: Foot and mouth disease and market access in southern Africa some