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The RP-III Software Quality Assurance _SQA_

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					 Coastal Resource Management (CRM)
  (Disarikan dari: GIS Asia Pacific, June/July 1997)




Faculty of Computer Science
  University of Indonesia
           Dr. Aniati Murni
     I. CRM di Cebu (Phillipine) dan India

Marine Life
 • Mangrove forests
 • Variety of flora and fauna
The cause of degradation
 • Population growth rate
 • Conflict between land protection and resource use
 • Within ten years the mangrove forest area was decreasing from 6000
   ha to 400 ha
Coastal Management
 • Main constraint of coastal sustainability: lack of information center
   that provide spatial and non-spatial data at the local government
 • The data is required by the decision makers to make rational
   judgement and plan the allocation of resources to ensure their
   optimum socio-economic utilization and conservation
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  CEIS: Coastal Environmental Information System

Objectives
 • Assist planners and decision makers to integrate zone planning and
   management
 • Make the the generated information accessible to target users
 • Is based on spatial and non-spatial geo-referenced videos and
   images.




                                                                3
                CEIS Data Development

Geographic themes - Several data layers - multitemporal:
 •   Land terrain
 •   Underwater terrain
 •   Land Use
 •   Land cover
 •   Marine habitats
 •   Marine activities
 •   Environmental Management Projects
 •   Hydrology
 •   Infrastructure
 •   Socio-economic profile
 •   Administrative boundaries
 •   0-100 m elevation on land, 0-23 m nearshore area, up to 15 km seaward
     data were collecting using boat covering and GPS technology
 • Diversity of coral, algae and sea grass and habitat structure were
   collected by scuba divers
                                                                      4
     CEIS Data Development (continuation)

Environmental Impacts
 • High sedimentation caused by erosion
 • Use of dynamite and poisons for catching fish that will also destroy
   the coral heads
 • Discharge of untreated waste and pollutants from industry and
   mining that cause river biologically dead - need waste water
   treatment and garbage collection system
 • Illegal commercial fishing vessels into protected municipal waters
 • Habitat degradation caused by tourism activities such as facilities for
   aquasport
 • As a result: Only 10% of Cebu corals are in excellent condition; only
   27% of Cebu shoreline still contain natural mangrove vegetation;
   mangroves have been cleared for conversion into fishponds and
   prawn farms

                                                                    5
         Managing Mangrove Forest (1)

Cause of degradation:
 • Mangrove is the most important ecosystem in coastal environment
 • There is a combination factors of direct destruction and indirect
   climate and sea level fluctuations
 • Growing population resulting in vandalism and destruction of
   mangrove areas
 • Rice farmers grow salt-tolerant paddy (agriculture development),
   mangrove areas have also changed to shrimp ponds (industry
   program), mining and coastal development
Support of mangrove sustainability
 • Intertidal slope and heavy siltation Mangrove forest product
Mangrove forest product
 • Wood, Variety of fish, Honey, Wax, various chemical and medicines

                                                                  6
          Managing Mangrove Forest (2)

Aquaculture
 • The fish and shrimp production is related to the gradient of salinity in the
    mangroves. Diminishing freshwater inflows, increasing soil salinity,
    interfering nutrient supply can reduce mangroves.
Forest conservation
 • Mangroves should be conserved to retain coastal biodiversity and to prevent
    coastal erosion
 • Provide temporal data of mangrove so that various physical and ecological
    changes can be monitored
 • Orbital remote sensing data , land survey and time series data will provide
    the temporal data
 • Landsat TM is suitable for forest classification and deforestation detection
 • SAR X-band can give better discrimination of mangrove forest categories
 • A study on human dependency on mangrove product is being conducted.
    Their dependency includes fuel wood and timber. An energy plantation is
    promoted to overcome this problem.

                                                                        7
       Managing Mangrove Forest (3)


Temporal data (Red = Mangrove Area, an area in India)




     Data of 1986                  Data of 1993

                                                    8
     II. Coastal Management in Australia

It is important to acquire the scientific knowledge that can
provide governments and other relevant decision makers
with insight into the consequences of their decisions
Conventional ground-base assessments, aerial photography,
and especially airborne/spacecraft remote sensing with their
large spatial coverage, repeatability, density of information
makes it a very useful tool for base inventory and long term
monitoring of extensive and remote coastlines.
THEMAP system High spatial /ground resolution (0.5 – 5 m)
and high spectral resolution (15-20 spectral measurements)
are required. Three spectral channel (conventional
measurements), five channels for vegetation, five channels
for in-water measurements, and three channels for soil
discriminations
                                                       9
     Mapping and Measuring Water Quality

Object classes: toxic blue and green algae blooms, harmless
algae, information makes it a very useful tool for base inventory
and long term monitoring of extensive and remote coastlines.
Toxic algae bisa tumbuh di kedangkalan sungai yang biasanya
dekat dengan tempat rekreasi dan ini bisa membahayakan
manusia. Keadaan ini bisa diindikasikan dengan informasi /
pemetaan tingkat aliran sungai dan tingkat kandungan
chlorophyl.
Pemetaan ini bisa dilakukan dari high spectral resolution CSIRO
(Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization)
system and THEMAP software yang bisa memonitor sampai 3m
ground resolution dengan biaya lebih murah dibandingkan
dengan surface sampling yang biasanya mempunyai interval
pengamatan sampai beberapa ratus meter.


                                                          10
              Environmental Baselines


Coastal Zone Mapping
 • Kwalitas air di sekitar pantai perlu dijaga (bay)
 • Kwalitas air dapat dimonitor terus dengan mengamati komunitas
   yang hidup di dasar pantai (dengan kedalaman lebih dari 10 m)
   seperti rumput laut dan cacing laut
 • Basis data yang perlu dibangun meliputi kebiasaan mencari ikan,
   pengelolaan zone pantai, monitoring lingkungan, kwalitas air, urban
   development dan under-water communities monitoring
 • CSIRO dan THEMAP system pernah dicobakan dengan terbang,
   mengumpulkan data dan sekaligus memproses data di atas Jawa
   Timur dan Bali. Pada saat mendarat langsung telah diperoleh peta
   tematik land use, forestry plantation dan lingkungan pantai
 • Terutama untuk pemetaan forestry plantation seluruh area tersebut
   dapat dilakukan dalam hitungan minggu dibanding dengan metode
   ground survey yang akan memakan beberapa bulan.

                                                                11
   Sensitive Ecological Area: Human and Mangroves

Mangrove merupakan variable penting pada ekosistem
pantai
 • Kelestariannya ditentukan oleh aktivitas manusia dan alam
 • Sedimentasi yang tinggi tidak menyehatkan mangrove dan
   kelestarian daerah perikanan menjadi terancam
 • Mangrove mendukung rantai makanan kehidupan laut yang
   akan menyelamatkan larva dan fauna yang dibutuhkan pada
   perikanan
Untuk menyelamatkan mangrove
 • Diperlukan pemetaan (informasi spatial kontesktual) dari
   struktur keragaman dan proses dinamik yang terjadi pada
   zone yang ingin diamati


                                                    12
                    Peta Bio-diversity


Mata pencarian utama
penduduk (mono
kultural) adalah sugar
cane. Mangrove paling
dekat dengan pantai
adalah jenis rhizophora
dan jenis-jenis lain yang
lebih tahan garam ada
pada lokasi yang lebih
jauh dari pantai. Pada
musim laut pasang, air
laut masuk ke muara
sungai yang merubah
kwalitas air sungai


                                         13
                 Peta Vegetasi


Untuk membedakan
jenis mangrove
dapat dilakukan
dengan mengukur
biomass daun atau
indeks vegetasi
(Normalized
Difference
Vegetation Index -
NDVI) yang
berkorelasi dengan
Leaf-Area-Index
(LAI)
                                 14
             Kelemahan THEMAP

Fully digital – resolusi tinggi, memerlukan storage yang
besar (10.000 ha, resolusi 1m, 20 channels perlu 2.5 Gb)
Memerlukan komputer dengan speed tinggi, dengan PC
perlu 2-week processing, dengan Silicon Graphics diharap
bisa dalam 1-2 hari
Memerlukan expert yang kompeten dalam menggunakan
THEMAP
Tidak dapat menembus awan, akan ditambah sensor radar
yang dapat menembus hutan (foliage penetration radar)
Banyak customer yang tidak begitu mantap bila fully digital
dan tidak melihat bentuk photonya


                                                     15
     THEMAP Integrated and Geomatic System



Geomatic karena menggabungkan digital imaging
spectrometer sensor, soft photogrammetric technology dan
GIS yang dapat menghasilkan suatu GIS dan DSS untuk
manager dan policy-makers
Integrasi dari beberapa teknologi:
 • Airborne imaging spectrometer sensors
 • Advanced hyperspectral measurement
 • Photogrammetry software
 • Modeling teknologi



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