Unit 1

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					Unit 1

The Body in Sport

1. What is the function of the skeletal system and how do
bones grow? Complete the worksheet on the functions of
the skeletal system.
                                                  PASS1

2. Name the main bones in the skeletal system?
Complete the word search on the skeletal system.
                                                PASS1

3. There are many different types of joints which assist in
the movement of the skeleton. Research these joints and
their range of movement. Also complete the following;

  • Complete the two worksheets on the joints.
  • Look at the diagram of the tennis player and label
    the joints they are using when completing a serve in
    tennis.
  • Design a table, list seven different types of Synovial
    joint, give examples of them in the human body and
    what type of movement is allowed?
                                             MERIT 1

4. The Body moves in different directions. Define these
different movements and draw a diagram to explain your
definitions, (complete worksheet 5 and 6). For each
movement types, identify 3 examples from 3 different
sports, of each type of movement?
                                             MERIT 1.
5. Look at the previous research you have done on
synovial joints. Now choose 3 different types of physical
activity and identify what bones you are using and what
movement is occurring? Use pictures to help you explain
your answers.
                                              MERIT 1

6. You have now looked at the movement of the joints
and the skeleton during certain sporting situations. Now
identify and explain the effects of exercise on bones and
joints. This will include the short-term effects and the
long-term effects.
                                        PASS 2, MERIT2


Assessment Criteria

   • Describe the structure and function of the skeleton, and how bones
     grow.                                                  PASS 1
   • Identify the effects of exercise on bones and joints. PASS 2
   • Identify the movement occurring at synovial joints during three
     types of physical activity.                            MERIT 1
   • Explain the effects of exercise on bones and joints. MERIT 2
Task 2

1. Identify the different muscles in the body.
                                                 PASS 3

2. Describe the different types of muscles in the body.
                                                 PASS 3

3. Complete a short introduction to how muscles move
and complete the missing words worksheet on skeletal
muscle. Muscles work in pairs to provide movement for
physical activity. Describe the following;

  • Prime movers.
  • Antagonistic.

To re-enforce your knowledge complete the worksheets
on muscles working in pairs. Also complete the functions
of different muscles in different sports worksheet.
                                                PASS 3

4. Muscles contract to produce movement. Describe the
following types of muscle contraction and give 4
different sporting scenarios using each of the
contractions;

  • Isometric contraction.
  • Isotonic concentric contraction.
  • Isotonic eccentric contraction.              MERIT 3
5. Choose 4 sporting movements. For each sporting
movement, include the following and use diagrams to
explain your answers;

   • Which bones are being used?
   • Which muscles are being used and how do they
     work in order for the body to move in that
     direction?
   • What type of muscle contraction is being used and
     explain this idea.
                                      DISTINCTION 1

6. In Task 1 you explained the effects of exercise on
bones and joints. If you were to train your body over a
period of time by doing exercise and putting stress on the
body. Identify what effects of exercise would there be
on the muscles.
                                                PASS 4

7. Now you need to analyse the effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal system. This will include the short-term
effects of exercise and the long-term effects of exercise.
                                        DISTINCTION 2

Assessment Criteria
  • Describe the different types of muscle, the major muscles in the
      body, and how muscles move.                             PASS 3
  • Identify the effects of exercise on skeletal muscles.     PASS 4
  • Give examples of different types of muscular contraction relating
      to four different types of physical activity.          MERIT 3
  • Analyse four sporting movements, detailing the musculoskeletal
      actions occurring, and the contractions that are necessary.
                                                        DISTINCTION 1
  • Analyse the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system.
                                                        DISTINCTION 2
Task 3

1. Give a brief description of the Cardiovascular system
and what is its main function.               PASS 5

2. Label the heart muscle. Use the worksheet to help you
complete this.                               PASS 5

3. Define the following terms;
   • Heart Rate
   • Stroke Volume
   • Cardiac Output                                   PASS 5

4. The Cardiac Cycle

   • Describe the function of the heart, (show the
     direction of the blood flow through the heart).How
     does the heart work? What happens to the blood as
     it flows through the heart, use diastole and systole
     to help you?                             PASS 5

5. When we are resting we have a slow pulse rate or
resting pulse rate. What are the short and long term
effects to the heart when we start to exercise?
                                              MERIT 4

Assessment Criteria
  • Describe the structure and function of the cardiovascular system
      and how it is affected by exercise.              PASS 5
  • Explain the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system.
                                                      MERIT 4
Task 4

1. Give a brief description of the Respiratory system and
what is the main function of this system.        PASS 6

2. Label the structure of the respiratory system. PASS 6

3. Define and understand the following terms;
   • Breathing Frequency
   • Tidal Volume
   • Minute Ventilation
   • Vital Capacity
   • Total Lung Capacity
   • Residual Lung Capacity                      PASS 6

4. Describe the mechanism of Breathing?          PASS 6

5. Describe the short term and long term responses of the
respiratory system to exercise? Use the above definitions
to help you describe and explain your ideas.    PASS 6

6. Explain the effects of exercise on the respiratory
system? Both the short term effects and the long term
effects.                                       MERIT 5

7. Collect all the research you have gathered on the heart
and the respiratory system, this is known as the cardio
respiratory system. You now need to analyse in more
detail the effects of exercise on the cardio respiratory
system.                                  DISTINCTION 3
Assessment Criteria
   • Describe the structure and function of the respiratory system and
      how it is affected by exercise.                       PASS 6
   • Explain the effects of exercise on the respiratory system.
                                                          MERIT 5
  • Analyse the effects of exercise on the cardiorespiratory system.
                                                      DISTINCTION 3
Task 5

   1. The main types of energy system you are going to
      research are;

         • Anaerobic Energy System
         • Aerobic Energy System

Give a brief description of each energy system and give
advantages and disadvantages of each of them. Also
identify two types of physical activity that use the
aerobic system and two that use the anaerobic system?
                                                PASS 7

2. In order for the human body to do any form of
movement in order to survive, the body needs energy in
order to work. Choose 4 different types of physical
activity and explain the energy requirements for these
different activities?                       MERIT 6

Assessment Criteria
  • Identify two types of physical activity that use the aerobic energy
      system and two that use the anaerobic system. PASS 7
  • Explain the energy requirements of four different types of physical
      activity.                                        MERIT 6
The Anaerobic System

This system requires the breakdown of carbohydrate-type
foods. Carbohydrates are broken down to form glucose
and are stored as glycogen in the body.
The Anaerobic system does not require oxygen to
provide the body with energy. The lack of oxygen results
in a build up of lactic acid. Lactic acid is formed as a
waste product, lactic acid causes fatigue.
If exercise continues beyond 10 seconds at the same
intensity there will be a build up of lactic acid and carbon
dioxide. These waste products need to be removed, either
by reducing the intensity of exercise or stopping the
activity. If neither action is taken, the muscles become
tired and breathing rate increases. This will eventually
result in the activity stopping.

Advantages of this system are that:
Disadvantages of this system:

The Aerobic system

The aerobic system is a long term energy system. Uses
carbohydrates and fats, known as glycogen. It also uses
energy supplied from protein.

The aerobic system provides energy for continued low to
moderate intensity exercise. There is a much greater
amount of energy available during this system. The
aerobic system goes through various chemical reactions
that produce carbon dioxide and water as by-products.
The aerobic system makes available vast amounts of
energy during exercise.

Advantages;
Disadvantages;

				
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