Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer Brochure - DOC by avw11153


									What are the facts of                       forms, with the user putting a       All tobacco, including
smokeless tobacco?                          wad of tobacco inside the             smokeless tobacco, contains
                                            cheek. Smokeless tobacco is           nicotine, which is addictive.
                                            sometimes called ―spit‖ or            The amount of nicotine
Key Points                                  ―spitting‖ tobacco because            absorbed from smokeless
     Snuff is a finely ground or           people spit out the tobacco           tobacco is 3 to 4 times the
      shredded tobacco that is either       juices and saliva that build up       amount delivered by a
      sniffed through the nose or           in the mouth.                         cigarette. Nicotine is absorbed
      placed between the cheek and                                                more slowly from smokeless
      gum. Chewing tobacco is used      2. What harmful chemicals                 tobacco than from cigarettes,
      by putting a wad of tobacco          are found in smokeless                 but more nicotine per dose is
      inside the cheek.                    tobacco?                               absorbed from smokeless
                                                                                  tobacco than from cigarettes.
     Chewing tobacco and snuff            Chewing tobacco and snuff             Also, the nicotine stays in the
      contain 28 cancer-causing             contain 28 carcinogens                bloodstream for a longer time.
      agents.                               (cancer-causing agents). The
                                                                              3. What cancers are caused
     Smokeless tobacco users have          most harmful carcinogens in
                                            smokeless tobacco are the            by or associated with
      an increased risk of developing
                                            tobacco-specific nitrosamines        smokeless tobacco use?
      cancer of the oral cavity.
                                            (TSNAs). They are formed             Smokeless tobacco users
     Several national organizations        during the growing, curing,           increase their risk for cancer of
      offer information about the           fermenting, and aging of              the oral cavity. Oral cancer can
      health risks of smokeless             tobacco. TSNAs have been              include cancer of the lip,
      tobacco and how to quit.              detected in some smokeless            tongue, cheeks, gums, and the
                                            tobacco products at levels            floor and roof of the mouth.
  1. What is smokeless                      many times higher than levels
                                            of other types of nitrosamines       People who use oral snuff for a
     tobacco?                                                                     long time have a much greater
                                            that are allowed in foods, such
     There are two types of                as bacon and beer.                    risk for cancer of the cheek
      smokeless tobacco—snuff and                                                 and gum than people who do
                                           Other cancer-causing                  not use smokeless tobacco.
      chewing tobacco. Snuff, a
                                            substances in smokeless
      finely ground or shredded                                                  The possible increased risk for
                                            tobacco include N-nitrosamino
      tobacco, is packaged as dry,                                                other types of cancer from
                                            acids, volatile N-nitrosamines,
      moist, or in sachets (tea bag-                                              smokeless tobacco is being
                                            benzo(a)pyrene, volatile
      like pouches). Typically, the                                               studied.
                                            aldehydes, formaldehyde,
      user places a pinch or dip
                                            acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde,
      between the cheek and gum.                                              4. What are some of the
                                            hydrazine, arsenic, nickel,
      Chewing tobacco is available                                               other ways smokeless
                                            cadmium, benzopyrene, and
      in loose leaf, plug (plug-firm                                             tobacco can harm users’
      and plug-moist), or twist                                                  health?
   Some of the other effects of               group counseling, and telephone
    smokeless tobacco use include              quitlines.
    addiction to nicotine, oral
                                           7. Who uses smokeless tobacco?
    leukoplakia (white mouth lesions
    that can become cancerous), gum
    disease, and gum recession (when
                                              In the United States, the 2000        Tobacco and
                                               National Household Survey on
    the gum pulls away from the                Drug Abuse, which was conducted
    teeth). Possible increased risks for       by the Substance Abuse and

                                                                                     Questions and
    heart disease, diabetes, and               Mental Health Services
    reproductive problems are being            Administration, reported the
    studied.                                   following statistics:
5. Is smokeless tobacco a good
   substitute for cigarettes?
                                              An estimated 7.6 million
                                               Americans age 12 and older (3.4
   In 1986, the Surgeon General               percent) had used smokeless
    concluded that the use of                  tobacco in the past month.
    smokeless tobacco ―is not a safe          Smokeless tobacco use was most
    substitute for smoking cigarettes.         common among young adults
    It can cause cancer and a number           ages 18 to 25.
    of noncancerous conditions and
    can lead to nicotine addiction and        Men were 10 times more likely
    dependence.‖ Since 1991, NCI has           than women to report using
    officially recommended that the            smokeless tobacco (6.5 percent of
    public avoid and discontinue the           men age 12 and older compared
    use of all tobacco products,               with 0.5 percent of women).
    including smokeless tobacco. NCI          People in many other countries
    also recognizes that nitrosamines,         and regions, including India, parts
    found in tobacco products, are not         of Africa, and some Central Asian
    safe at any level. The accumulated         countries, have a long history of
    scientific evidence does not               using smokeless tobacco products.
    support changing this position.
                                           8. Where can people find help to
6. What about using smokeless                 quit using smokeless tobacco?
   tobacco to quit cigarettes?
                                              Health Promotions in the Naval
   Because all tobacco use causes             Hospital offers monthly classes on
    disease and addiction, NCI                 tobacco cessation. Call 830-
    recommends that tobacco use be             2814 for more information.
    avoided and discontinued. Several                                                Robert E Bush
    non-tobacco methods have been               Date reviewed: 07/2006               Naval Hospital
    shown to be effective for quitting                                               Twentynine Palms
    cigarettes. These methods include                                                Health Promotions
    pharmacotherapies such as
    nicotine replacement therapy and
    bupropion SR, individual and                                           

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