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    Bulletin 19: October 2004

Dear readers,

This edition of the Sure Start Scotland bulletin will focus on child safety issues. I would
like to thank all of our contributors for providing articles for this edition.

The next edition will focus on either

Children affected by parental substance misuse


Creative arts for children and/or parents

Please email your preferred topic to Hazel Waddell at


The Early Education and Childcare Division which has responsibility for Sure
Start Scotland is headed by Val Cox. Val's staff who work with Sure Start
Scotland are:

Elena Groll          0131 244 0253
Margaret Tod         0131 244 7024
Joanne Ramsay        0131 244 7583
Hazel Waddell        0131 244 0606

Our postal address is:

Area 2B North Victoria Quay
Edinburgh EH6 6QQ
To email any member of staff:


                                                 I’m not sure whether you are aware of
Responsibility for Sure Start Scotland
                                                 Futurebuilders (link below), a new
lay within Children & Families Division
                                                 Executive funding stream managed by
of the Scottish Executive Education
                                                 Voluntary Issues Unit, but in the spirit
Department, but given our move
                                                 of joined up government, this might
towards an Integrated Early Years
                                                 benefit your respective policy areas.
Strategy it was felt that this work would
                                                 Futurebuilders is an £18 million
be better placed within Early Education
                                                 investment in the social economy to
and     Childcare      Division.    Early
                                                 run over the financial years 2004-05
Education and Childcare Division is
                                                 and 2005-06. Its purpose is to extend
headed by Val Cox. The name of Val’s
                                                 and strengthen the role of the social
division will change to reflect the
                                                 economy sector in delivering better
widening of its remit.
                                                 public services whilst encouraging
                                                 financial sustainability in the sector.
There will also be personnel changes
                                                 Futurebuilders Scotland consists of a
to the staff who work with Sure Start
                                                 £16 million Direct Investment Fund, a
Scotland. Joseph Leftwich will be
                                                 £1 million training fund and a £1 million
leaving the Division at the end of
                                                 support programme.
November when we welcome Joanne
Ramsay back from her maternity
                                                 The fund is underpinned by 3 key
leave. We would like to take this
opportunity to thank Joseph for all of
                                                 •        Closing the Opportunity Gap;
his work in the time that he has been
                                                 •        Community regeneration; and
in the Division, especially for his skills
                                                 •        Support and development of
in redesigning the format of the
                                                          young people.
Bulletin. We would also like to
welcome Hazel Waddell who will be
                                                 Detailed guidance and application
job sharing with Joanne. Our contact
                                                 packs will be ready in the autumn. The
details are listed on page 3 if you
                                                 local authorities responsible for
would like to get in touch with us.
                                                 delivering Working for Families
                                                 funding, particularly from the point of
                                                 view of the childcare sector, have been
                                                 alerted so you might want to start
                                                 considering applications.

2004 CONGRESS                                    HOME ACCIDENT PREVENTION

RoSPA believes that the profile of               In Scotland, around 1,000 people will
home safety has risen in all areas of            seek medical attention every day
the United Kingdom and that although             following an accident suffered in the
home safety is still not a statutory duty,       ‘safety’ of their own homes.
many agencies are putting safer                  It may come as a surprise to you that
homes high on the agenda. RoSPA                  more accidents happen at home than
works with several government                    anywhere else. Every year around
departments and many national                    4,000 people die in the UK as a result
agencies such as age concern and                 of a home accident and nearly 2.7
sure start to promote awareness of               million home accident injuries need
safety issues. The challenge is to               medical treatment, of which almost 1
sustain and develop the progress.                million of these involve children under
                                                 the age of 15yrs.
We are still faced with the appalling
statistics that ten people in the UK die         In Scotland, accidents are the
as a result of a home accident                   commonest cause of death in children
everyday and eight thousand seek                 over one year old and every year they
medical      treatment.     The    most          leave many thousands permanently
vulnerable are the very young and the            disabled or disfigured. The financial
very old and particularly the socially           and emotional effect that this has on
disadvantaged.                                   the child and their family can be
This year’s conference, running under
the theme of New Challenges in Home              Children under the age of 5 and
Safety will examine home safety                  people over 65 are most likely to have
activities on a national scale and report        an accident at home, but accidents
on research findings, as well as                 can affect everyone. Human error is a
highlighting successful projects -               key factor in a high percentage of
particularly those funded by the DTI’s           accidents, which means that the
Modernisation Money.                             majority of home accidents are
                                                 preventable     through     increased
The 2004 Congress has an extensive               awareness, improvements in the
programme of speakers from both                  environment and greater product
local and national organisations.                safety. Accidents occur at times of
Presenters will include representatives          stress, when a routine is changed or
from the Department of Health, Sure              may be the result of unsafe practices
Start, the Institute of Home Safety and          in the home.
other leading organisations in the
home safety and academic field. The              In children, falls account for the
programme         will   also   include          majority of these accidents but other
workshops addressing such topics as              injuries are due to burns and scalds,
falls prevention and data collection             poisoning, fires, suffocating and
methods.                                         choking and drowning.

RoSPA’s Home Safety Staff in                   For further information please contact
Scotland realise that home accident            Christine Johnston, Home Safety
prevention is therefore a matter for           Manager (Scotland) at the following
serious concern and concerted action           address:
and we are able to provide information,
advice and training / information              Slateford House, 53 Lanark Road,
sessions to help to reduce this.               Edinburgh, EH14 1TL or

                                               By e-mail


Celia Gardner, Programme Manager,
Children & Families, Health Scotland
discusses Scotland’s moves towards
child injury prevention.

In 2003, Health Scotland’s Children &          important of a series of wide-ranging
Families Programme commissioned                and detailed recommendations.
Professor David Stone to write a
research briefing paper to give an             It was therefore decided to hold a high
overview of the Scottish situation             level strategic event to try to address
regarding child injury. Injury generally       this issue. Health Scotland, RoSPA
presents us with some huge public              and the Scottish Executive are hosting
health challenges. In Europe, injury is        Towards a Child Injury Prevention
the main cause of death in people              Strategy - an invitational seminar to be
aged under 45 years. Globally, it is           held in Edinburgh on 8 December
estimated that by 2020, 8 million              2004. Chief Executives of Local
deaths will be caused by injury                Authorities and Health Boards, along
annually. In Scotland, around a fifth of       with key personnel from other relevant
children aged 2-15 years experience a          agencies, including Fire, Rescue
potentially preventable injury requiring       Services and the Police will hear
medical attention each year.                   presentations and discuss how child
                                               injury prevention and safety promotion
So what can we do about injury? The            can be addressed. The seminar will be
report suggests that, although there is        Chaired by Dr Mac Armstrong, Chief
lot of injury prevention work taking           Medical Officer for Scotland and
place in Scotland, we do lag behind            facilitated by John Howard, Chief
other UK countries as we lack any              Executive of RoSPA. As well as a
national strategic initiatives on injury       presentation from Prof David Stone
prevention policy. The development of          based on his research report, there will
a national strategy for child injury           be the opportunity to learn about wider
prevention is seen as the most                 UK and European perspectives from
                                               Joanne Vincenten, Director of the

European Child Safety Alliance and              or contact Celia Gardiner
Janice Bisp, RoSPA Manager, Ireland.            Programme Manager: Children &
They will discuss respectively, child           Families
injury prevention initiatives across            Health Scotland
Europe and the development of a                 Woodburn House
national strategy for injury prevention         Canaan Lane
in Northern Ireland.                            Edinburgh
                                                EH10 4SG
The report can be viewed and                    Tel: 0131 536 8763
downloaded from the Health Scotland   

Elizabeth Lumsden, the Road Safety              It is not safe to hold a child on an
Manager      of   RoSPA       (Scotland)        adult’s lap. In a crash, the child could
provides information on how to carry            be crushed between the adult and part
children safely when travelling in cars.        of the car's interior. Even if the adult is
                                                using a seat belt, the child would be
Travelling as a passenger in a car is           torn from their arms, no matter how
one of the main ways that children              hard they tried to hold on. It is also
under 11 years old get about. Most of           dangerous to put a seat belt around an
their journeys are completed safely,            adult and a child (or around two
but unfortunately, some are not.                children).

When cars crash, the speeds involved            The safest way for children to travel in
usually mean severe impacts, which all          cars is in an appropriate child restraint
too often cause injury, and sometimes           that is suitable for their weight and
death. At just 30 mph, an unrestrained          size. A properly fitted child restraint
child would be thrown forward with a            keeps the child safely in their seat, and
force 30 to 60 times their body weight.         also absorbs some of the impact force.
They would be thrown about inside the           This means that the child is much less
vehicle, injuring themselves and other          likely to be killed or injured in a crash.
occupants, and are also likely to be
ejected through one of the windows.             THE LAW
                                                Children travelling in cars must use an
Every year, around 40 children up to            appropriate child restraint or seat belt if
11 years of age are killed while                available. Children cannot be carried in
travelling in cars, 500 are seriously           the front seat unless they are in a child
injured and up to 9,000 slightly injured.       restraint or are using the seat belt. It is
The proper use of child car restraints          the driver’s responsibility to ensure
would prevent many of these deaths              that children under the age of 14 years
and injuries.                                   are doing so.

CHILD UNDER 3 YEARS OF AGE                       Child restraints are divided into
Appropriate child restraint must be              categories, according to the weight of
worn if available.                               the children for whom they are
                                                 suitable. These correspond broadly to
Child aged 3 to 11 and under                     different age groups, but it is the
1.5 metres (about 5 feet) in height:             weight of the child that is most
Appropriate child restraint must be              important when deciding what type of
worn if available. If not, an adult seat         to use. Some child restraints are
belt must be worn if available.                  capable of being converted as the
                                                 child grows and, therefore, fit into more
Child aged 12 or 13 or younger child             than one group.
1.5 metres or more in height: Adult
seat belt must be worn if available.             REARWARD-FACING BABY SEATS
                                                 Rearward-facing baby seats are
An appropriate child restraint is one            designed for babies from birth
which: conforms to the United Nations            upwards. There two Groups: Group 0
standard, ECE Regulation 44-03;                  for babies up to 10 kgs (22 lbs) -
is suitable for the child's weight and           roughly from birth to 6-9 months, or
size; is correctly fitted according to the       Group 0+ for babies up to 13kg (29lbs)
manufacturer's instructions.                     - roughly from birth to 12-15 months.
                                                 Rearward-facing seats provide greater
The EC has issued a Directive which              protection for the baby's head, neck
will remove the loophole in our law that         and spine than forward-facing seats.
currently allows children to be carried          So, it is best to keep the baby in a
in cars without a child restraint if there       rearward-facing seat for as long as
isn’t one in the car. The new Directive,         possible. Only move them to a
which the UK government must                     forward-facing seat once they have
incorporate into our law by 2006,                exceeded the maximum weight for the
requires children to be in a child               baby seat, or the top of their head is
restraint when travelling in cars.               higher than the top of the seat.

Childminders who transport children in           FORWARD-FACING CHILD SEAT
their own cars also have other legal             These are for children weighing 9-18
liabilities. As they are providing a             kgs (20-40 lbs) roughly from 9 months
service, they have a duty of care to do          - 4 years. Children should only be
all that is “reasonably practicable” to          moved up to a booster seat once they
ensure they provide a safe service.              have exceeded the maximum weight
Childminders should discuss how they             for the forward-facing seat or the top of
will transport children with the parents,        their head is higher than the top of the
including what child restraints are              seat.
available and how they will be fitted in
the car.

Booster seats are for children weighing            When fitting a child seat, always read
15 - 25 kgs (33 - 55 lbs) roughly 4 to 6           and      follow  the    manufacturer's
years. They raise the child up so that             instructions. If they are missing,
the seat belt, which goes round the                contact the manufacturer to check if
child and the seat, fits properly. Some            they can provide a copy.
Booster seats can be converted into a
booster cushion by detaching the back              Make sure the seatbelt passes through
rest.                                              all the correct guides on the child seat,
                                                   and push your weight into the child
BOOSTER CUSHION                                    seat as you tighten the seat belt to
The final stage before graduating to               make sure the child seat is securely
using the seat belt on its own is to use           held. Some seats have tensioning
Booster cushions which are for                     devices to do this for you. There
children weighing 22 - 36 kgs (48 - 79             should be no slack in the seat belt.
lbs) roughly from 6 - 11 years.
                                                   USING CHILD SEATS
SEAT BELTS                                         Take time to get the child comfortably
Children should only move up to using              strapped in. Make sure the seat's
the seat belt on its own when they are             harness (if it has one) is correctly
at least 1.5 metres (5 feet) tall because          adjusted. It should be quite tight, so
seat belts are not designed to fit                 that only one or two fingers can fit
smaller bodies properly. A common                  between the child's chest and harness.
mistake is to move children to the seat            Clothing can affect how snugly the
belt as soon as they are too big for the           harness fits, so check it every journey.
forward-facing child seat.                         The harness buckle should not rest
                                                   over the child's tummy.
To be effective, child restraints must             If an older child is using a booster seat
be fitted and used correctly. Surveys              or cushion, the adult seatbelt restrains
consistently show that a high                      both the child and the seat or cushion.
proportion are incorrectly fitted, usually         Make sure that the belt is worn as
because the seat is too loose, is not              tightly as possible, that the lap belt
compatible with car or the child is too            goes over the pelvic region (hip-bone
large or too small for the seat they are           to hip-bone), not the stomach, and that
using.                                             the diagonal strap rests on the child's
                                                   shoulder, not their neck (some seats
It's safer to fit child seats in the rear of       have clip to help position the belt).
the car, but if necessary they can be
fitted in the front. But, NEVER fit a              Of course, always set a good example
rearward-facing baby seat in the front             by wearing your own seat belt.
if there is an airbag on the passenger
side of the car. If the airbag went off it         Detailed advice on choosing, using
would strike the seat with considerable            and fitting child car seats is available
force. If a forward-facing child seat              from
must be used in the front of a car,
make sure the car seat is as far back              Elizabeth Lumsden
as it will go, so the child is as far as           Road Safety manager
possible from the dashboard.                       RoSPA (Scotland)

The Children's Traffic Club in Scotland           children and encourage parents to
(CTCS) was launched in 1995 to help               enrol their children.
reduce the large number of children
injured on Scotland's roads every year.           Additional material is available through
Accidents on the road account for 88%             nurseries and playgroups to reinforce
of accidental deaths for 0-19 year olds           the road safety teaching that children
in Scotland. The club was developed               receive at home.
to help parents teach their young
children how to stay safe near roads              •       The free 'Nursery Pack’ and
and is viewed as an important                     ‘Playgroup Pack’ contains a set of
foundation for road safety education.             CTCS Books, a nursery and playgroup
Membership of the club is free to all             guide packed with ideas for games
three year olds resident in Scotland              and activities, a curricular links booklet
and take-up rate is currently around              relating to the 3-5 curriculum
57%.     The    take    up     rate   is          framework, a storybook, colouring
predominately lower in disadvantaged              sheets, wall charts and an audiotape.
areas.                                            It has Gym Cards which are new
                                                  teaching resource which uses physical
Invitations to join the Children's Traffic        exercise and movement to teach road
Club in Scotland are sent out by                  safety.
Health Boards to all children
approaching or shortly after their third          •      There is a Childminders pack
birthday. On registration, children               containing an audiotape, stickers,
receive six CTCS books at three                   colouring sheets and discussion cards.
monthly intervals. Research findings
into those who had joined the Club                A new pack in England has been
showed:                                           developed called ‘Early Years’ and is
•       More parents and carers have              aimed specifically at Sure Start
taught their child to hold hands when             programmes. This contains simple
crossing the road.                                booklets based on the balloon
•       More parents and carers have              characters and a range of other
shown their child how to cross a road.            materials including registration forms.
•       More parents and carers have              Sure Start Scotland is an ideal way to
taught their child road safety by going           let parents know about the club and
through books with them.                          encourage them to register. If you are
•       More children know that they              interested in finding out more about
need to think before crossing a road.             this pack then please contact the
•       More parents and carers always            Scottish Road Safety Campaign with
get their child out of a car on the               your details on 0131 472 9200. If you
pavement side.                                    want to find out more about the Club
                                                  go                  to                :
Health visitors have a pack to promote  
the Children's Traffic Club in Scotland           ctcs.asp or
during their visits to homes with young

Sandra Brown explains about the Safe              schools throughout Scotland,         and
Hands pilot being run in Lanarkshire              assists guidance staff.
which focuses on educating children,
parents and teachers to have a                    Teachers already have the skills in
community approach to safety.                     place to add PB tools into their
                                                  ‘teaching toolkit’. PBs framework
The Moira Anderson Foundation has                 utilises existing school resources, or
high hopes for the impact that                    easily adapts to them, and dovetails
Protective Behaviours – as cascaded               comfortably with ongoing initiatives to
through     the    Monklands,      North          reduce drug and alcohol misuse,
Lanarkshire in our one year Safe                  racism, bullying etc. Other highly
Hands campaign - will have on people              affordable material can be accessed
in the local community. The project               with ease on the web.
represents a major change in the
culture of schools education with a               PBs training does not come with any
whole     community      approach     to          stressful paperwork or assessment
personal safety for all children, young           recording.
persons or adults.
                                                  Staff members can enjoy PBs training
It is an innovative local initiative which        on several levels. It is for themselves
we believe will impact beyond the pilot           although they may wish to use the
area. It may well roll out into a national        skills learned for use within family and
campaign, given support from the                  work relationships, as well as at a
Scottish Executive, particularly if it            personal level or with pupils.
receives successful evaluations during
2004-2005.                                        PBs lends itself to coherent policy
                                                  development on the curriculum, both at
Why do we believe just 12 hours of                local authority and at national level,
training (2 Days) will prove a winner             and meets high standards of good
with    educationalists   and     other           practice.
agencies with child protection high on
their agendas?                                    The 2 days of workshop training do not
                                                  require to be consecutive, though
For PRACTITIONERS, here are the                   ideally should fall within 2-3 weeks of a
benefits of following the Safe Hands              school term to allow for day 2 being an
Project:                                          opportunity      to      discuss,    with
                                                  colleagues, ways of taking the skills
Informal workshop sessions allow staff            and strategies forward in individual
to choose how they will introduce the             schools or other settings such as
strategies of Protective Behaviours               residential care, or pre-five centres.
(PBs) to the relevant age group they
teach.                                            All material provided at workshops is
                                                  cascaded to pre-schoolers and primary
PBs do not add to the workload of                 and secondary school pupils by staff
staff, in fact it supports teaching and           who complete the programme and
learning currently going on in all                receive accreditation.

Staff who gain a great deal from PBs            PBs develops techniques on personal
at a personal level are able to access          safety issues, e.g. where, when and
further training within the UK for their        how we might try to seek help, who we
own development, or to proceed to               might approach, why a network of
train as a Trainer.                             people is important.

School managers are able to plan                For PARENTS:
ahead to allow for staff attending
courses, and ensure that participation          Parents feel included when schools
is synchronised, so that a whole                use a community approach and those
school approach can be utilised, with           with children in different age groups
auxiliary staff who have substantial            see the advantages of including
access to children also having the              everyone as family members become
opportunity to attend to maximise               familiar with the vocabulary of PBs.
awareness of PBs within the school
community.                                      Many parents welcome the idea of a
                                                personal network devised privately by
For PUPILS:                                     their children, which is tied to the
                                                shape of the hand, as used by the
PBs is a framework of training                  Moira Anderson Foundation as its
inclusive of all age groups. Some               logo. PBs suggest five different
personal safety programmes are                  persons (one from the parental home)
aimed only at certain age levels, which         is ideal. Most parents recognise from
the Moira Anderson Foundation                   their own life experience that it is often
believes to be unhelpful as no one age          our nearest and dearest who are the
group is more at risk than any other.           hardest of all to tell when things go
The “Safe Hands” campaign will                  wrong, and identifying trusted persons
promote the 2 themes of PBs through             in the community is crucial if the
child-friendly merchandise and packs:           problem lies at home.
“We all have the right to feel safe all
the time” and “There is nothing so              Parents are reassured that their
awful (or so small) that we cannot talk         children are learning lifelong skills
about it to someone”.                           which help keep everyone safe,
                                                whether in an emergency or ongoing
PBs increases confidence, and has a             situation. Parents welcome any
marked effect on self-esteem and                initiative which is going to allow
assertiveness.                                  children to help protect themselves in
                                                a variety of situations.
The training – as cascaded by
practitioners – encourages recognition          Parents welcome auxiliary, leisure and
of early danger signs that we need to           recreation staff and different people
know to keep ourselves safe at all              within the community accessing the
times.                                          training as they recognise that often
                                                those individuals have significant
PBs encourages reflective thought and           contact with children and need to be
choosing ways in which we use our               safe persons.
                                                Further information on the pilot can be
PBs helps better awareness of why we            obtained directly from Sandra Brown
choose to behave in certain ways.               on 01236 602890.

There are a number of events coming
up in the future which may be of
interest to you, some of which are:

ROAD SAFETY WEEK                              ROAD SAFETY CONGRESS
8-14 NOVEMBER 2004                            28 FEBRUARY – 2 MARCH 2005

The theme of this annual event,               The theme of the 70th Road Safety
organised by Brake, the road safety           Congress, being held in Brighton, is
charity, is drink-driving, drawing            "Driving      Deaths     Down".      The
attention to drink-drive casualties,          organisers pose the questions "Have
which have been rising in the UK for          the ‘easy wins’ been achieved? Will
nearly a decade.                              further reductions be much harder to
Visit                        achieve, especially for drivers, car
                                              occupants and motorcyclists?". The
NATIONAL HOME SAFETY                          review of the Road Safety Strategy
CONGRESS                                      highlights the need for further action in
15-16 NOVEMBER 2004                           key areas, and Congress will explore
                                              what more can be done in these areas
There are many new and exciting               to influence driver and rider behaviour
challenges ahead for Home Safety.             to prevent crashes from happening in
The DTI's Modernisation Money has             the first place.
now come to an end and original ways          Visit the road safety section of the
need to be found to sustain and               RoSPA website for more information.
disseminate the outcomes of the
winning projects. The Department of           8TH WORLD CONFERENCE ON
Health is currently funding research          INJURY PREVENTION AND SAFETY
into    effective    interventions for        PROMOTION
accidental injury prevention and we           19-22 MARCH 2006
need to share the information that is
being collected. Although home                The 2006 World Conference takes
accident statistics are no longer             place in Johannesburg.
collected nationally, the most recent         further information and key dates visit
HASS and LASS data is available from
RoSPA which would like to maximise
the use of this resource.

Further information:

Aberdeen City                              East Ayrshire
Pam Simpson                                Janie Allen
(01224) 523 364                            (01563) 576 185

Aberdeenshire                              East Dunbartonshire
Jo Hughes                                  Debbie Smith   
(01224) 664 400                            (0141) 578 8705

Angus                                      East Lothian
Peter Pope                                 Alan Ross   
(01307) 461 767                            (01620) 827 881

Argyll and Bute                            East Renfrewshire
Alison MacKenzie                           Ian Fraser
(01631) 564 908                            (0141) 577 3252

City of Edinburgh                          Falkirk
Molly Nolan                                Jim Duncan   
(0131) 270 6079                            (01324) 506 631

Clackmannanshire                           Fife
Sharon Easton                              Fiona Power            
(01259) 452 470                            (01592) 413 775

Comhairle nan Eilean Siar                  Glasgow
Bernard Chisholm                           Marian Hodgson                 marian.hodgson@education.glasgow.
(01851) 709 436                  
                                           (0141) 287 8306

Dumfries and Galloway                      Highland
Anne Macfarlane                            Sam Brogan            
(01387) 260 405                            (01463) 711 176

Dundee City                                Inverclyde
Christine Riach                            Sandra Wilson
(01382) 433 950                            (01475) 712 812

Midlothian                                Scottish Borders
Anne Rooney                               Linda Davidson   
(0131) 271 3640                           (01750) 21926

Moray                                     Shetland Islands
John Carney                               Stephen Morgan        
(01343) 563 552                           01595 744 485

North Ayrshire                            South Ayrshire
Johanna Brady                             Carol Taylor    
(01294) 32 4447                           (01292) 612 232

North Lanarkshire                         South Lanarkshire
Jane Liddell                              Janice Ritchie        
(01236) 812 609                           (01555) 895 192

Orkney Isles                              Stirling
Peter Diamond                             Heather Douglas     
(01856) 873 535                           (01786) 442 458

Perth and Kinross                         West Dunbartonshire
Helen Smout                               Lillian Goldie              
(01738) 477 852                           (01389) 738 728

Renfrewshire                              West Lothian
Kathleen McDonagh                         Rosemary Howe
.uk                                       (01506) 775 836
(0141) 842 5613


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