Nursery Pest Management Calendar by otj26205

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									   Nursery Pest
Management Calendar
        Kris Braman
    University of Georgia
      The Nursery Pest Management
               Calendar
   Provides optimal scouting and treatment timing for
    more than two dozen key insect and mite pests of
    nursery plants
   Provides a pest identification guide and discusses
    biology and management
   Is organized by major plant groups and by individual
    pest or pest group
   Provides an identification guide for beneficial insects
    in the nursery
   Updated chemical control options can be found at
    CAES web site http://www.ent.uga.edu/pmh/
Nursery Pest Management Calendar
              Plants
   Azalea/Rhododendron      Dogwood
   Boxwood                  Gardenia
   Butterfly bush           Holly
   Camelia                  Juniper
   Coreopsis                Lantana
   Columbine                Maple
   Crapemyrtle              Oak
                             Oenothera
            Pests in the Calendar
   Azalea lace bug          Two spotted spider mite
   Azalea leaf miner        Tea scale
   Southern red mite        Altica flea beetles
   Cranberry rootworm       Japanese beetles
   Strawberry rootworm      Asian ambrosia beetle
   Azalea bark scale        Dogwood borer
   Azalea caterpillar       Cottony maple scale
   Boxwood leafminer        Dogwood twig borer
   Boxwood psyllid          Dogwood clubgall midge
           Pests in the Calendar
   Citrus whitefly              Juniper scale
   Cottony cushion scale        Flat headed apple tree
   Holly leafminer               borer
   Euonymus scale               Aphids
   Florida wax scale            Orange striped
   Two lined spittlebug          oakworm
   Spruce spider mite           Obscure scale
   Two spotted spider mite      Lecanium scale
                                 Maple bladder gall
    Key Pests of Azalea/Rhododendron
   Azalea lace bug
   Azalea leaf miner
   Southern red mite
   Cranberry rootworm
   Strawberry rootworm
   Azalea bark scale
   Azalea caterpillar
 Azalea Lace Bug (Stephanitis pyrioides)




  Azalea lace bug adult




Azalea lace bug eggs
          Azalea Lace Bug (Stephanitis
                   pyrioides)
   Adults are 1/8 inch long. The transparent wings are held flat on the back.
    Their wings are lacy with two grayish-brown cross-bands connected in the
    middle. Nymphs are mostly black and spiny. The flask-shaped eggs are
    partially embedded in leaf tissue and often are covered with a black tar-like
    secretion. There are four generations a year. Eggs overwinter in leaf tissue.
    Lace bug adults and nymphs live and feed on the underside of leaves.
   Scout for eggs in February and look for the first signs of damage on plants
    in full sun or in protected areas beginning in March and continuing
    throughout the summer. Look for white stippling on older leaves. Turn
    stippled leaves over to find lace bug stages and black fecal spots. Examine
    lace bug eggs with a hand lens for signs of parasitism (a round hole in the
    top of the egg) and look for predators.
   Time insecticide applications for the presence of the first generation
    nymphs
Parasitic wasp that attacks and kills
           lace bug eggs

          Mymarid wasp next to
          An azalea leaf hair




                                 Parasitized lace bug egg
                                  next to leaf midrib. Wasp
                                  has chewed a circular
                                 hole in the lace bug egg
                                 and emerged
Azalea plant bug adult and nymph,
 a predator that feeds on lace bugs,
thrips, other small insects
and pollen
Southern Red Mite (Oligonychus ilicis)
   Adults are ½ mm long, oval, purplish, or reddish, with eight legs. The red
    eggs overwinter on the undersides of leaves. There are several generations
    each year. Most activity occurs in spring and fall.
   This imported spider mite has a wide host range, but prefers broad-leaved
    evergreens in the Ericaceae and Aquifoliaceae. It is common on azalea,
    camelia, rhododendron, mountain laurel, holly, rose, viburnum, firethorn,
    and yew.
   Examine plants closely for signs of stippling and the various mite stages on
    the lower and upper leaf surfaces of broadleaved evergreens in early spring
    and the fall. When stippling is noticed, tap leaves over white paper to
    dislodge and count mites, as well as the beneficial insects and predaceous
    mites. Predaceous mites have longer legs than the southern red mite and
    move much faster. Look for red overwintering eggs on the lower surface of
    leaves from November through early spring.
   Application of a dormant oil to the lower surface of leaves when
    overwintering eggs are numerous will help reduce spring populations. In
    light infestations, the use of a horticultural oil or insecticidal soap will
    control these mites with minimal impact on beneficial organisms. When
    heavy infestations of mites are present, the application of residual miticides
    often is necessary
Southern Red Mite
         Azalea Leafminer (Caloptilia
                  azaleella)
   Adult moths are about 3/8 inch long with wings folded. They are
    yellowish brown with purple markings on the wings and stand at a
    60 angle when at rest. Mature larvae are about ½ inch long and
    yellowish brown. There are two generations a year. Pupae
    overwinter in leaf mines (tunnels the larvae create when they feed
    on tissue between leaf surfaces). Look for blotch mines in April or
    May. Curled leaf tips in June indicate completion of the first
    generation. Second generation blotch mines begin in July. Shake
    plants in late June and August to make adults fly and to estimate
    their numbers. Treat in May if numerous developing blotch mines
    are observed. Evaluate the second generation in July and retreat if
    needed.
Azalea Leafminer (Caloptilia
         azaleella)
             Azalea bark scale
   Plants may appear
    yellow and covered
    with black sooty mold
   insects on twigs
    appear cottony or
    waxy
   Treat crawlers in late
    April-May
   prune out infested
    plant parts
              Azalea caterpillar
   Red to brown with
    white and yellow stripes
    when small
   full grown have a red
    head and prolegs with
    white stripes
   chemical control most
    effective on small
    caterpillars
Cranberry rootworm
            Small shiny black-green
             beetles
            Feed at night and hide
             in litter during day
            Remove litter and
             weeds from area
            Usually most common
             in dense shade
            Typically a Spring pest
Strawberry Rootworm
       Strawberry rootworm, Paria
               fragariae
   The strawberry rootworm, Paria fragariae, is a
    pest of azaleas in production nurseries.
    Damage from the adult results in holes in the
    leaves which are unsightly. Current control
    methods include spraying the foliage to control
    adults with chlorpyrifos or carbaryl and
    drenching the pots to control larvae with
    acephate or bifenthrin.
          Key Pests of Boxwood
   Boxwood leafminer
   Two spotted spider mite
   Boxwood psyllid
   Indian wax scale
   European fruit lecanium
   Armored scales (greedy, oleander, oystershell)
Twospotted Spider Mite (Tretranychus
              urticae)
    Twospotted Spider Mite (Tretranychus
                  urticae)
   Adults are about 1/7 mm long, a little larger than a period on a page. They have one
    oval body segment with eight legs. They are greenish-yellow with a black spot on
    each side of the body. Eggs are white to yellow. Reddish-orange adult females
    overwinter in bark cracks.
   Spider mites have a very broad host range. They feed on conifers (see spruce spider
    mite on Juniper), deciduous trees and shrubs, as well as herbaceous plants.
   Spider mites suck leaf juices, causing minute white-to-yellow stipples to appear.
    When large spider mite populations feed, the stipples coalesce and leaves may turn
    white to yellow to grayish-brown and then die. Some plants are particularly
    susceptible to spider mite toxins, and even low populations may cause leaves to die.
   Look for early signs of stippling with the beginning of hot summer weather.
    Examine the underside of damaged leaves or tap them over white paper and look
    for spider mites with two spots on the body. Also look for predators, such as
    phytoseiid mites and lady beetles, and note their relative abundance in relation to
    the number of mites present.
   In dry, hot, sunny locations, this spider mite may produce one generation a week.
    Use horticultural oil or insecticidal soap sprays for low mite populations to
    conserve any beneficials present. When damage becomes objectionable, mite
    populations are high, and there are not beneficials, consider using a residual
    miticide spray. Reevaluate in one week
          Key Pests of Buddleia
   Two spotted spider mite
         Two spotted spider mite
   37 Buddleia species and
    cultivars evaluated
   B. fallowiana ‘Alba’
    and B. davidii x B.
    fallowiana ‘Cornwall
    Blue’ highly resistant to
    mites
          Key Pests of Camelia
   Tea Scale
   Southern Red Mite
Tea scale
Scale on camelia
         Key Pests of Coreopsis
   Leaf beetles, Phaedon desotonis
   These beetles are late winter through spring
    pests. Beetles can build up large numbers
    before being noticed. Larvae and adults feed
    on foliage and flower buds.
Leaf beetle larvae feeding on foliage
of lance leaf coreopsis
Leaf beetle adults begin feeding on coreopsis
Beetles are gregarious feeders and can defoliate plants rapidly
Coreopsis rosea defoliated by leaf beetles
A predaceous stink bug feeding on a leaf beetle larva on coreopsis
        Key Pests of Columbine
   Columbine leafminers
A. canadensis is less susceptible to leafminers
          Pests of Cotoneaster




                            Eggs

Hawthorne lace bug
       Key Pests of Crapemyrtle
   Crape myrtle aphid
   Japanese beetle
   Asian ambrosia beetle
   Altica flea beetle
         Crapemyrtle Pest Management Calendar
Pest          Winter   Spring  Summer Fall
              Dec-     Mar-May Jun-Aug Sep-Nov
              Feb
Crapemyrtle                       S
aphid


Ambrosia               S PS                     SC P
beetle
Japanese                              S
beetles
Altica flea                       S
beetles
    Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica)

   Adults are nearly ½ inch long, broadly oval, thick bodied, with coppery
    grown wing covers and a metallic green body. Mature larvae are nearly 1
    inch long and white, with brown heads. They resemble several other scarab
    beetle larvae, but may be identified by the shape of the raster (an area of
    bare spots, hairs, and spines on the underside of the last abdominal
    segment). There is one generation a year. Larvae overwinter in soil.
   Adults of this imported scarab beetle feed on the flowers and leaves of
    many plants. Preferred plants include rose, crapemyrtle, maples, sycamore,
    birch, cottonwood, linden, mountain ash, and elms.
   Look for adults on preferred hosts from early June through August. Weekly
    application of residual or contact insecticides to host plants in June through
    July will provide only partial adult control. Traps usually are
    counterproductive and most often call in more beetles than they trap. Use
    traps to time insecticide application for adults. Do not use traps for control.
Japanese beetle
Crapemyrtle Aphids
Asian ambrosia beetle
Adult flight peaks occur in late winter and early spring
Altica flea beetles




             Often attack susceptible crape myrtles
             In the Spring
         Key Pests of Dogwood
   Dogwood borer
   Dogwood twig borer
   Dogwood clubgall midge
   Cottony maple scale
Dogwood Borer (Synanthedon scitula)

   The adults are clearwing moths about 3/8 inch long. They have two
    gold bands on a bluish-black abdomen. The larva grows to ½ inch
    long and are white with a brown head and have two reddish-brown
    spots on the back, near the head. There is one generation a year.
    Larvae overwinter under bark. Adult emergence peaks around early
    to mid-May, but occurs continually from April to October because
    eggs are laid for several months.
   Look for brown frass around wounds and bark cracks. Remove
    loose bark with a knife. Larvae may be found in short tunnels under
    bark near wounds.
   An early April application of a long residual insecticide to the bark
    should prevent infestation. An additional application may be
    necessary in late May. Kousa dogwood appears resistant to this
    borer.
Dogwood borer
      Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria
              innumerabilis)
   Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. They are black, flat,
    and oval. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is
    deposited on bark. Crawlers appear in June and immatures in
    summer on the underside of leaves. There is one generation a
    year. Immatures overwinter on twigs. Preferred hosts include
    maple, elm, hawthorn, dogwood, sycamore, poplar, and linden.
   Look for white ovisacs on bark in early spring. During the
    summer, look on underside of leaves for flat, yellow
    immatures sucking sap from leaf veins where honeydew and
    sooty mold are found on the host plant.
   Apply dormant oils to bark to kill overwintering nymphs.
    Horticultural oil or insecticidal soap can be applied to leaves
    during the summer to control crawlers
Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria
        innumerabilis)
          Key Pests of Gardenia
   Citrus whitefly
   Armored scales (tea, greedy and oleander)
   Cottony cushion scale
Whitefly larvae and an adult
                              Whiteflies

   Adult whiteflies range from 1/16 to 1/8 inch in length. Most species
    resemble tiny white moths. Identification is easiest using the scale insect-
    like pupal stage.
   Whiteflies have numerous hosts, including rhododendron and azalea, ash,
    dogwood, sycamore, sweetgum, honey-and black locust, barberries,
    redbud, roses, and herbaceous plants like hibiscus and verbena, among
    others.
   When honeydew, sooty mold, or leaf yellowing is observed, examine the
    underside of leaves for feeding adult and immature stages of whiteflies.
    Ants foraging on leaves may indicate the presence of whiteflies.
   Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. If honeydew or damage are
    objectionable, spray the underside of leaves with soap or oil to conserve
    beneficials. Remove heavily infested leaves. Predators and parasites usually
    keep these pests at low levels in the landscape. In the nursery application of
    systemic insecticides or IGRs may be required.

Tea scale
Cottony cushion scale damage on
          pittosporum
Vedalia lady beetle larva and adult
 feeding on cottony cushion scale
Vedalia beetle larva




         Cottony cushion scale female with eggs
             Key Pests of Holly
   Holly leafminers
   Florida wax scale
   Southern red mite
   Two lined spittlebug
   Armored scales (tea, oleander, greedy,
    euonymus, pit)
    Holly Leafminer (Phytomyza ilicis)

   Adult flies are about 1/8 inch long and black. The larvae are 1/8 inch
    long yellow maggots that tunnel through leaves, creating serpentine
    mine. Eggs are usually deposited in the midrib or leaf margin and
    early mining occurs there. There is one generation a year. Larvae
    overwinter in mines. Hard, late frosts extend adult egg-laying
    activity and increase the pest population.
   Summer to fall mining occurs in the midrib. The obvious, linear,
    yellowish-green mine in the leaf surface occurs the following spring.
    Several mines per leaf cause premature leaf drop. Adult females of
    this imported fly puncture tender new holly leaves to feed on plant
    juices.
   In heavy infestation, use systemics for larvae in March of late
    summer. Contact insecticides may be used for adults in early May,
    but this is the least desirable technique because beneficial parasites
    may be killed
Two lined spittlebug
         Twolined Spittlebug (Prosapia
                   bicincta)
   Adults are about 1/4 to ½ inch long, smoky brown to black in color,
    broadly oval, convex, with prominent eyes. They have two bright orange
    stripes across their wings. Adults sometimes are called froghoppers.
    Nymphs are smaller, usually pale greenish-yellow, and covered by frothy
    bubbles called spittle. Two generations occur per year.
   The immature stages are found in turfgrass and adults may be found on
    numerous woody ornamentals, especially hollies.
   Look for active adults beginning in early summer. The second generation
    of adults usually appears in August/September. If spittlebugs are coming
    from surrounding turf, don't allow a heavy thatch layer to accumulate in the
    turf. Where possible, avoid locating susceptible host plants (hollies) near
    centipedegrass, a favored host for nymphal development.
Wax scale on holly
      Wax Scales (Japanese, Florida, or
     Indian wax scale) Ceroplastes spp.
   Adult females are about 1/4 inch long and reddish. They are covered
    with a gummy, white wax that look like a dunce cap. Immatures
    resemble cameos with the developing areas of white was not yet
    completely covering the reddish body. There is one generation a year.
    Adult females overwinter on bark.
   Wax scales feed on many shrubs and trees, but Japanese holly, Chinese
    holly, euonymus, boxwood, firethorn, spirea, barberry, and flowering
    quince are preferred.
   Large numbers of foraging bees, wasps, hornets, and ants on dense
    shrubs may indicate wax scale. Look for honeydew and sooty mold.
    Look on twigs and small branches for all wax scale stages. Crawlers
    begin hatching in early summer in Georgia.
   Beginning in May, examine female wax scales on leaves and branches
    every one to two weeks and determine when eggs begin to hatch.
    Remove heavily infested twigs or branches. Infested twigs and
    branches must be sprayed thoroughly with horticultural oil, insecticidal
    soap, or a contact or systemic insecticide after egg hatch and when
    crawlers are present on the plant to achieve effective control.
       EUONYMUS SCALE (Unaspis
             euonymi)
   Covers of adult females are about 1/8 inch long, brownish
    black, and are oyster shell shaped. Male covers are smaller,
    thinner, and white. Crawlers are yellowish orange and are
    most often found on new growth. Fertilized adult females
    overwinter. There are four overlapping generations a year.
   Light infestations on bark cause no obvious damage. In heavy
    infestations, the white covers of males are easy to spot on the
    leaves and the leaves develop yellow spots.
   Always examine Euonymus japonica to discover infestations
    before they cause damage. Carefully examine bark on a few
    stems to detect light infestations. Examine plants for presence
    of predators and parasites.
   Time application of horticultural oil, insecticidal soaps, or
    other contact insecticides for the presence of crawlers
Euonymus scale
           Key Pests of Juniper
   Spruce spider mites
   Bagworms
   Juniper Scale
      Spruce Spider Mite (Oligonychus
                 ununguis)
   Adults are about ½ mm long. They have eight legs and are yellowish-green when
    young. When mature and fully fed, they are grayish-black with a tan area behind
    the mouthparts. Immature forms are smaller and lighter in color. Eggs are oval to
    circular and reddish brown. There are several generations a year. Eggs overwinter
    on bark and needles.
   This cosmopolitan pest prefers spruce, pine, hemlock, and arborvitae. Cedar, yew,
    larch, cryptomeria, dawn redwood, fir, Douglas fir, and false cypress also may be
    attacked.
   At the first sign of stippling on needles, tap branches over white paper and count
    the dark, slow-moving spider mites. Note the presence of white, fast-moving
    phytoseiid predatory mites and the minute, black lady beetle mite predators.
    Concentrate monitoring activities from March through June and September through
    November.
   Spraying is not recommended unless stippling damage exceeds ten percent of green
    foliage; more than ten spider mites, on the average, are tapped from a tree's
    branches; and beneficial mites and beetles are not found in all branch samples. Use
    dormant oil sprays when overwintering eggs are abundant. In the growing season,
    use summer oil or insecticidal soap sprays if predator populations are present.
Sampling for mites; pest and predator mites
    Juniper Scale (Carulaspis juniperi)

   Mature female covers are circular, white, and about 1/16 inch
    in diameter. Male covers are smaller, elongate, oval, and
    white. Shed skins incorporated into the cover are yellow.
    There is one generation a year. Adult females overwinter on
    needles.
   This imported armored scale insect prefers juniper, but has
    also been collected from Leyland cypress and cedar. Yellow
    crawlers are present in late spring.
   Dormant oil spray will reduce the number of adults that
    successfully overwinter, but usually does not provide adequate
    control. Use horticultural oil or insecticidal soap to control
    crawlers in late spring. Systemic insecticides may be used to
    reduce heavy populations of scales in late summer and fall.
          Key Pests of Lantana
   Whitefly
   Lantana lace bug
    Whitefly and lantana lace bug
   11 lantana cultivars
    evaluated for resistance to
    greenhouse and silverleaf
    whitefly and lantana lace
    bug
   Larger-leaved cultivars very
    susceptible and may serve
    as indicator plants
            Key Pests of Maple
   Cottony Maple Scale
   Green Striped Mapleworm
   Tip Borers
   Leafhoppers
   Flatheaded apple tree borer
   Japanese beetle
   Asian ambrosia beetle
   Aphids
      Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria
              innumerabilis)
   Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. They are black, flat,
    and oval. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is
    deposited on bark. Crawlers appear in June and immatures in
    summer on the underside of leaves. There is one generation a
    year. Immatures overwinter on twigs. Preferred hosts include
    maple, elm, hawthorn, dogwood, sycamore, poplar, and linden.
   Look for white ovisacs on bark in early spring. During the
    summer, look on underside of leaves for flat, yellow
    immatures sucking sap from leaf veins where honeydew and
    sooty mold are found on the host plant.
   Apply dormant oils to bark to kill overwintering nymphs.
    Horticultural oil or insecticidal soap can be applied to leaves
    during the summer to control crawlers
Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria
        innumerabilis)
       Aphids



Aphids often attack
 new growth on plants
early in the year

                        Wooly aphids on Maple
             Flatheaded Appletree Borer
              (Crysobothris femorata)
   Adults may reach ½ inch in length. They are oval, flattened beetles, metallic
    greenish bronze above and brassy below. The wing covers have wavy, light-colored
    indentations. The white larvae, commonly called flatheaded borers, are expanded
    just behind the true head, which is black. There is one generation a year. Larvae
    overwinter in galleries inside the host plant.
   Preferred hosts include sycamore, red maple, silver maple, willow, oak, tuliptree
    poplar, elm, beech, hickory, apple, pear, dogwood, and black walnut.
   Larvae bore fairly large, irregular cavities in phloem tissue of the main trunk and
    larger branches. Young trees and trees under stress are particularly attractive to this
    pest. Larvae are usually found boring into the base of trees. Small trees often are
    killed.
   Adults run over bark and are quick to fly. They are most active on exposed, sunny
    bark of weakened trees from early March through May and early September
    through October.
   Maintain vigor through use of good cultural practices. If numerous adult beetles are
    noted on bark, spray the trunk and major branches with an approved residual
    insecticide
 Maple Bladdergall Mite and Maple
Spindlegall Mite (Vasates quadripedes
       and V. aceriscrumena)
   Adults of these two eriophyid mites are not visible
    without a hand lens. They live in circular and spindle-
    shaped galls. They are white to clear in color, 0.15
    mm long, cigar-shaped with only four anterior legs.
    There are several generations a year. Adult forms
    overwinter in bark cracks.
   While control measures usually are not necessary in
    the landscape, pyrethroid application when leaves
    first flush may prevent new galls in the nursery.
    Where feasible, affected leaves can be removed on
    plants not scheduled for sale.
Maple bladder gall
            Key Pests of Oaks
   Orange striped oakworm
   Lecanium scale
   Insect galls
Obscure scale on Oak




  This scale has been attacked by fungus




                                Parasite emergence holes
                                are visible on these scale covers
    Obscure Scale (Melanaspis obscura)

   Fully enlarged adult female covers may reach 1/8 inch in diameter. They
    are circular, brown to gray, slightly convex, with central shed skins that are
    black when rubbed. Male covers are smaller and broadly oval. This species
    develops in overlapping aggregations. There is one generation a year.
    Immatures overwinter and crawlers appear in July.
   Look on three to four-year-old branches for overlapping gray scale covers.
    Scrape off covers to determine viability of a population because covers of
    dead scales may remain attached. In midsummer, live adult female scales
    are light purple. Scout in mid-July to determine amount of crawler activity.
    Look under covers in the dormant season for the small, yellow immatures
    to see if dormant sprays are needed. Look for holes in covers to estimate
    level of parasitism.
   Concentrate dormant oil sprays on three- to four-year-old growth to reduce
    overwintering populations. Spray summer oil in late July to kill newly
    settled crawlers. Several parasite species are active when the scale crawlers
    appear in July. Avoid synthetic insecticide sprays at this time.
Orange Striped Oakworm
      Orangestriped Oakworm (Anisota
                 senatoria)
   Adult moths are about 1-1/4 inches long with wings closed. They are reddish
    brown, translucent, with a submarginal dark stripe and a white spot on each
    forewing. Mature larvae are about 1-1/2 inch long. They are black with eight
    orange-to-yellow stripes and two black spines behind the head. Adults first appear
    in early summer. Pupae overwinter in soil.
   This native notodontid moth caterpillar prefers to feed on oaks, but it also attacks
    hickory and birch.
   The caterpillars are gregarious and early instars feed by skeletonizing the leaf
    surface. Older caterpillars are defoliators and may consume all but the leaf midrib.
    Defoliation usually occurs one branch at a time when populations are small.
   Look for signs of localized skeletonization turning to defoliation on host tree
    branches. Where this species is a serious problem, a black-light trap can be used to
    determine the first adult appearance and the relative size of each generation.
   Manually destroy aggregations of young larvae when they are detected on small
    trees. Application of Bacillus thuringiensis or horticultural oil will control young
    larvae. Contact insecticides often are required to control large caterpillars.
    Oak Lecanium (Parthenolecanium
               quercifex)
   Fully developed adult females are about 1/4
    inch long. They are oval to almost circular,
    highly convex and light to dark brown.
    Crawlers are pale yellow. There is one
    generation a year. Immatures overwinter on
    twigs.
                      Key Pests of
                      Oenothera
   Altica flea beetles
            Other insect pests
   Oleander aphid on Asclepias
   Eastern tent caterpillar
   Fall webworm
                Oleander aphid
   24 Asclepias taxa
    evaluated
   Gradients in
    susceptibility suggest
    options in high density
    aphid areas
               Oleander aphid
   A. tuberosa and A.
    physocarpa maintained
    better appearance
   Numerous natural
    enemies colonize
    milkweed plants with
    aphids
Eastern Tent Caterpillar (Malacosoma
             american)

   Adult moths are about 1 inch long. They are light brown with two
    white diagonal stripes across each forewing. Mature larvae may
    reach a length of 2 inches or more. This is the only common
    caterpillar with a white stripe down the back. There is one
    generation a year. Pupae overwinter in cocoons in debris on the
    ground.
   Silken webs in tree forks at budbreak are indicative of this pest. In
    peak population years, preferred hosts can be defoliated.
   Look for the black 3/4 inch-long egg masses on preferred hosts in
    the dormant season. Look for silken webs in the branch forks of
    preferred hosts in early March.
   Prune out the egg masses during the dormant season. Mechanically
    destroy the web contents when first discovered. Time insecticide
    application for the presence of young larvae.
Fall Webworm (Hyphantria cunea)
   Adult moths are about 3/4 inch long with wings folded. Wings are all white
    or white with black spots. Bases of front legs are orange-yellow. Mature
    larvae are about 1 inch long and may occur in two color forms: those with
    black heads are yellowish white and those with red heads are brown. Both
    forms have paired black tubercles running down the back. They are
    covered with long, silky gray hairs. There are four generations a year.
    Pupae overwinter in flimsy cocoons in protected places.
   Preferred hosts include mulberry, walnut, hickory, elm, sweet gum, poplar,
    willow, oak, linden, ash, and apple and other fruit trees.
   The caterpillars produce a "web" of fine silk over terminals. They feed
    inside the silken web, which they enlarge to take in more foliage as they
    grow.
   In early spring, examine the south side of tree crowns for the first signs of
    webbing over terminals. Insecticides must penetrate the" nests" to provide
    good control
            Key Beneficial Insects

   Lady beetles                Minute pirate bugs
   Ground beetles              Predaceous plant bugs
   Tiger beetles               Assassin bugs
   Rove beetles                Big-eyed bugs
   Syrphid flies
                                Green lacewings
   Long-legged flies
                                Brown lacewings
   Robber flies
   Spined soldier bugs         Parasitic wasps
   Predaceous damsel bugs      Parasitic flies
Predatory beetles
   Ground Beetles (Carabidae) are predaceous as adults and as larvae. There
    are some seed feeding species. They are active on the ground primarily at
    night. Adult beetles vary in size from 1/4 to 1 inch or longer. Many species
    are metallic, while others are plain brown or black.

   Lady Beetles (Coccinellidae) are among our most important beneficials.
    Adults and larvae feed on aphids, scale insects, mites, mealybugs, other
    soft-bodied insects and their eggs. Lady beetle adults are oval-shaped. Most
    are orange or reddish with black markings.
   Lady beetle larvae are elongate, covered with spines, and dorso-ventrally
    flattened. Often they are brightly colored with spots. Some larvae are
    covered with white waxy secretion like mealybugs. Adults and larvae are
    voracious feeders on aphids, a single individual consuming hundreds of
    aphids during its lifetime.


    Rove beetles (Staphylinidae) have shortened elytra (wing covers) that
    leave the segments of the abdomen visible giving these beetles their
    characteristic appearance. Most species are slender and elongate from 1/16-
    1/2 inch long. Typically they are reddish-brown to black. Many species are
    predaceous, some feed on decaying organic matter helping to recycle
    needed nutrients in the landscape.


   Tiger Beetles (Cicindellidae) are very active, often metallic beetles 1/2-
    3/4 inch long. They are difficult to collect because of the speed with which
    they run or fly. Larvae live in burrows in the soil and ambush prey as it
    goes by.
Earwigs
           Earwigs (Dermaptera)
   Many species are predaceous. Earwigs vary in
    size, some of the larger species are 3/4-1 inch
    long. They are usually brown and may have
    stripes.
Predators in the “True Bug” group
     True Bugs (Hemiptera) is a group that contains several generalist predator species.
      These insects all have piercing-sucking mouthparts which they use to impale their prey
      and extract fluid. The beak is usually carried beneath the body, but can be pointed
      forward or downward while feeding. The usual prey for these insects are other soft-
      bodied insects of small to intermediate size. Representatives of these predators include :

      Assassin Bugs (Reduviidae) generally appear oval or elongate and are often black and
      orange-red or brown. They are larger than most of the other predaceous bugs, especially
      the giant wheel bug. Assassin bugs have a head that has a particularly long and narrow
      appearance. They feed on most other insects and will inflict a painful bite if handle

    Big-Eyed Bugs (Lygaeidae) are stout bodied insects, about 1/8 inch long with prominent
      eyes that give the insect its name. These insects are slightly larger than chinch bugs.
      They may have similar coloration, but are always broader across the head than the area
      just behind (shoulders). Chinch bugs, on the other hand, have a narrow head, never
      broader than the area directly behind. Often big-eyed bugs can be found with populations
      of chinch bugs and it is important to be able to distinguish predator from pest. Big-eyed
      bugs also feed on caterpillars and insect eggs.

     Minute Pirate Bugs (Anthocoridae) are 1/8 - 1/4 inch long. These insects are black and
      white as adults and have colorful yellow-orange-brown nymphs depending upon instar.
      Gardeners notice the painful bite that this small insect produces. It is an effective
      predator of thrips and the eggs of many insect and mite species.
      Predaceous Damsel Bugs (Nabidae) are 1/8 - 3/8 inch long and may be cream colored
      to dark brown to black depending on the species. The most common species are slender,
      elongate insects that are most active in mid summer. They feed on eggs and immature
      stages of many pest insects.
     Predaceous Plant Bugs (Miridae) are less well known than other predaceous true bugs,
      but have been shown to be active predators of thrips, lace bugs, aphids, moth eggs and
      other insects of importance in the landscape.
Predatory flies
   Long-Legged Flies (Dolichopodidae) are small, about 1/4 inch with very
    long legs in relation to the body and usually metallic blue or green in color.
    Adults and larvae are predaceous and are often found near woodland
    streams or other wet areas. Predaceous Midges (Cecidomyiidae) Most
    members of this group are gall makers on plants but there are some
    predaceous members of the family that feed on aphids. These larvae look
    much like syrphid larvae, but smaller.

    Robber Flies (Asilidae) are 3/4 - 1 1/4 inch long and vary in appearance.
    Some are quite stout while others are long and slender. The face is usually
    bearded and the head is hollowed out between the eyes. Adults are
    predaceous on many kinds of insects and usually capture their prey in the
    air. Larvae are soil-dwelling and predaceous on such things as white grubs.

   Syrphid Flies (Syrphidae) are sometimes called flower flies because they
    are commonly found on flowers or hover flies for their behavior in flight.
    Most of these flies are yellow with brown or black bands on the abdomen.
    Some resemble wasps, many mimic bees.

   Syrphid larvae are maggot-like and predaceous on aphids and other soft-
    bodied insects. They have no legs or visible head capsule and are
    translucent.
Spiders and mites
   Mites are more closely related to spiders than they are to
    insects. Mites do not have antennae like insects do, or
    segmented bodies or wings. They are usually very small and
    often go unnoticed. Most mites have an egg stage, a six-legged
    larval stage, and two eight-legged stages before becoming an
    adult. Phytoseiid mites are the major group of natural enemies
    that attack certain kinds of pest spider mites. It is especially
    important to conserve predatory mites in the landscape to
    prevent pest mite outbreaks. Other insect pests are also eaten
    by predatory mites including whiteflies, thrips, and certain
    insect eggs.
   Most predaceous mites are somewhat pear-shaped and shiny,
    with noticeably long legs. They may be bright red, yellow, or
    green depending on what they've been eating and appear "see-
    through". Predaceous mite eggs are usually oblong instead of
    spherical like the eggs of pest mite species. Predaceous mites
    are also much more active and mobile than pest mite species.
   Spiders are all predators, but have many different
    lifestyles. Some make webs and wait for prey to come
    to them while others are active hunters. Spiders are
    important predators in the landscape and are very
    common in trees, shrubs, grass, and herbaceous plant
    beds. Most spiders are general predators, feeding on a
    wide variety of prey. Their are a number of spider
    species that may be found in the landscape. All have
    two body parts, an abdomen and a cephalothorax
    (combined head and thorax), and eight legs. Spiders
    tend to avoid people and most are harmless to
    humans. Spider complexes are believed to be
    important in reducing several kinds of nursery pests.
Thrips
   Thrips (Order Thysanoptera) are very small,
    narrow insects with fringes on the edges of their
    wings. Many species are recognized for their plant
    feeding (pest) habits, but there are many predaceous
    members of this insect order. These important
    predators of mites and small, soft-bodied insects are
    commonly black, yellow or brown as adults and clear
    or translucent white-yellow as immatures, although
    some are a distinctive reddish-orange in color.
Lacewings
           Lacewings (Chrysopidae,
               Hemerobiidae)
   Both green lacewings and brown lacewings are
    predators, green lacewings are more common. They
    are often found on weeds, shrubs, and other cultivated
    plants. Adult green lacewings are about 3/4 inch,
    brown lacewings are smaller. Adult and larval brown
    lacewings and larval green lacewings feed on soft-
    bodied insects, especially aphids, and mites. Adult
    green lacewings may be pollen-feeders or they may
    be predaceous. Most are greenish in color with
    copper eyes and the network of veins in the wings
    that gives them their name.
Praying mantids
   Praying Mantids (Mantidae) are comparatively
    large insects. Some may be as long as 3 in. Our native
    species are much smaller, however. Usually they are
    green, gray, or brown. Their raptorial front legs are
    covered with stout spines that help them grasp their
    prey.
   Mantid egg capsules contain 200 or more eggs neatly
    arranged in rows. They are deposited on twigs and
    stems and then the frothy mass hardens. It is very
    unlikely that praying mantids can suppress key pests
    in the landscape to the extent necessary
Parasitic wasps and flies
   Parasites are defined as organisms that live in or on the body of their host during
    some part of the parasite's life cycle. Parasitoids are a type of parasite that may
    consume part or all of its host's tissues resulting in the death of the host. The most
    abundant parasitic insects are flies or wasps. Parasitic insects usually require only
    one host to complete their development, in contrast to predators which require
    several. Parasitic insects may be responsible for controlling several pests, however,
    when they oviposit, or lay eggs, on a number of hosts.
   Parasitic Wasps are a large group of beneficial insects and are extremely important
    in biological control. Many wasp families contain representatives of the parasitic
    life style. Most of these wasps are very small <1/8 inch and are , therefore, rarely
    seen. A large number in fact attack the egg stage, completing their entire life cycle
    inside minute insect eggs.
   Parasitic wasps lay their eggs in or on the host and the immature stage of the wasp
    feeds on the hosts tissues. The parasitic wasp may emerge from its host to pupate,
    or it may pupate within the body of its host. Wasp larvae that develop inside the
    host are called endoparasitic. They leave evidence of parasitism when they chew a
    small hole in their host's body to emerge. That small circular hole indicates that
    parasitism is occurring in the pest population. Insects that you may find parasitized
    this way include scales, aphids, whiteflies, lace bug eggs, leafminers and
    caterpillars. Other parasitic larvae live on the outside of the host's body and are
    called ectoparasites. Both endo and ectoparasites may spin numerous white cocoons
    for pupation, another obvious indication of parasitism.
   Parasitic Flies are abundantly represented by the family Tachinidae, with about
    1,300 North American species. They vary tremendously in appearance. Many just
    resemble a common husefly, while others look like bees or wasps. These flies
    deposit an egg or in some cases, a live larva, on or near the body of their host. The
    tachinid larva burrows into its host and consumes the internal tissues. Numerous
    kinds of insect pests are attacked by tachinids.

       Pests to be on the lookout for
           January- December
   Insects that are active or that can be scouted
    for (SC), pruned out (P), sprayed (S), or
    treated with dormant oil (D) are listed in the
    following slides during the months where these
    activities would be appropriate.
   See individual plant based calendars in
    previous slides for more details.
                    January
   Southern red mite-S
   Armored scales – DO
   Bagworms- remove bags where feasible
   Asian ambrosia beetles- may be active this
    early some years in some locations
   Flea beetles may be active in some locations
                  February
   Southern red mite-S
   Cottony maple scale-S
   Armored scales-S
   Bagworms-P
   Spruce spider mites-S
   Azalea lace bug- SC (scout for eggs)
   Asian ambrosia beetle-S
   Leaf beetles on coreopsis and primrose-SC
                       March
   Azalea lace bug-S            Holly leafminer-S
   Strawberry rootworm          Bagworms- SC
   Azalea stem borer-S          Spruce spider mites-S
   Boxwood Leafminer- sc        Aphids-S
   Boxwood psyllid-S            Flat headed apple tree
   Armored scales-S              borer-S
   Asian ambrosia beetle-S      Dogwood twig borer-S
   Cottony maple scale-S        Insect galls on oaks and
   Citrus whitefly-SC            maple-S
                                 April
   Azalea lace bug-S                  Boxwood psyllid--S
   Azalea leaf miner-S                Tea scale and other armored
   Strawberry rootworm                 scales-S
   Azalea bark scale-S                Asian ambrosia beetle
   Azalea stem borer-S                Dogwood borer-S
   Boxwood leaf miner-S               Dogwood twig borer-S
   Leaf beetles on coreopsis,         Dogwood clubgall midge-P
    primrose and crapemyrtle-S         Citrus whitefly-S
   Spruce spider mite-S               Armored scale on gardenia
   Bagworms-S                         Holly leafminer-S
   Cottony maple scale-S              Lecanium scale-S
   Borers on maple-S                  Aphids-S
                                       Insect galls on oaks and maple-S
                                  May
   Azalea leaf miner-S                   Dogwood borer-S
   Azalea bark scale-S                   Dogwood clubgall midge- prune
   Azalea stem borer-S                   Dogwood twig borer-S
   Boxwood leafminer-S                   Citrus whitefly
   Indian wax scale-S                    Wax scale on holly and others-S
   Boxwood psyllid-S                     Caterpillars-S
   Scales on boxwood, gardenia,          Aphids-S
    holly, camelia-S                      Borers-S
   Crape myrtle aphid-S                  Lecanium scales on oak-S
   Japanese beetle first appearance      Insect galls on oak and maple-S/P
   Flea beetles on crape myrtle and
    primrose-S
                           June
   Azalea leafminer-S             Florida wax scale-S
   Azalea stem borer-P            Two lined spittlebugs-S
   Two spotted spider mite-S      Juniper scale-S
   Indian wax scale-S             Bagworms-S
   Armored scales-S               Aphids-S
   Crape myrtle aphid-S           Lecanium scale-S
   Japanese beetle-S              Oak galls-P
   Dogwood borer-S
   Dogwood clubgall midge-P
   Cottony maple scale-S
   Citrus whitefly-S
                           July
   Two spotted spider          Citrus whitefly-S
    mite-S                      Bagworms-S
   Crape myrtle aphid-S        Maple and oak galls-P
   Dogwood borer-S             Cottony maple scale-S
   Dogwood clubgall
    midge-P
                      August
   Azalea caterpillar-S      Insect galls on oaks-P
   Two spotted spider        Two lined spittlebugs-S
    mite-S                    Orange striped
   Crape myrtle aphid-S       oakworm-S
   Citrus whitefly-S         Green striped
   Bagworms-S                 mapleworm-S
                September
   Green striped mapleworm-S
   Orange striped oakworm-S
   Azalea caterpillar-S
   Crape myrtle aphid-S
   Citrus whitefly-S
   Two lined spittlebugs-S
   Bagworms-S
                  October
   Southern red mite-S
   Crape myrtle aphid-S
   Asian ambrosia beetle- P
   Spruce spider mite-S
   Orange striped oakworm-S
                  November
   Southern red mite (azalea, camelia, holly)-S
   Armored scales- DO (boxwood, camelia,
    holly, gardenia, etc.)
   Spruce spider mite-S
   Bagworms- P
   Maple borers- P
   Lecanium scale -DO
                  December
   Southern red mite (azalea, camelia, holly)-S
   Armored scales- DO (boxwood, camelia,
    holly, gardenia, etc.)
   Spruce spider mite-S
   Bagworms- P
   Maple borers- P
   Lecanium scale -DO

								
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