PROPOSALS and PERSUASION by tls22199

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									       PROPOSALS and
        PERSUASION

  A Guide for Creating Effective
             Proposals
Based on Anderson, Paul V. Technical Writing: A Reader-Centered
    Approach, 5th ed. 2003 (533-553) and Markel, Mike. Technical
              Communication, 6th ed. 2001. (483-515).
                 Proposal
• “A proposal is an offer to carry out
  research or to provide a product or service”
  (Markel 483).
         Types of Proposals
• Internal
  – A request to carry out a plan within an
    organization (Markel 484)
• External
  – Solicited
  – Unsolicited
               Deliverables
• What will the proposal deliver to the
  client?
  – A request to research will deliver information
    about a problem
  – A request to provide goods or services will
    meet a client’s need for those products
           Proposal Elements
•   Summary
•   Introduction
•   Problem Statement
•   Proposed Program
•   Qualification and experience
•   Budget
•   Conclusion
          Proposal Elements
• Summary
  – A summary provides an overview of the
    proposal’s contents
• Introduction
  – “The purpose of the introduction is to help the
    reader understand the context, scope, and
    organization of the proposal” (Markel 494)
          Proposal Elements
• Problem Statement
  – What is the problem?
  – Who is this a problem for?
  – Why is this problem important to your target
    audience?
          Proposal Elements
• Proposed Program
  – What exactly do you propose to do?
  – How do your goals/objectives create a solution
    to your problem/project?
  – How do you plan to do those things? What
    method will you use?
          Proposal Elements
• Qualifications and experience
  – Are you qualified to undertake this project?
  – How?
           Proposal Elements
• Budget
  – What will it cost to propose this project?
  – What will it cost to implement this proposal?
    (Do you need to estimate this in the proposal?)
  – How will you explain and justify these costs?
     Proposal Superstructure
• Introduction
• Problem
• Objectives, Product
• Method, Resources, Time Schedule,
  Qualifications, Management
• Costs
• Conclusion
      Proposal Superstructure
• Introduction
  – Tell your readers what you are asking to do
• Problem
  – Provide background to the problem
  – Include a specific problem statement
  – Implications if problem remains unresolved
      Proposal Superstructure
• Criteria
  – Provide features of a successful solution
  – State specific objectives of your project
  – Show how the objectives tie-in to the problem
    statement
     Proposal Superstructure
• Product
  – Provide a plan for achieving objectives
  – Demonstrate through detail your proposed
    plan
  – Use persuasion to “sell” your idea
      Proposal Superstructure
• Methodology
  – Show audience your plan for this project
• Resources
  – Describe what resources you will use (library,
    computer labs, ...)
      Proposal Superstructure
• Qualifications
  – Describe how you are qualified to complete
    this project
     • Education
     • Experience
      Proposal Superstructure
• Budget
  – Provide detail of costs to propose
  – Provide costs to implement (if applicable)
      Proposal Superstructure
• Conclusion
  – Restate problem briefly
  – Restate objectives
  – Restate request to work on this project
                Persuasion
• A proposal is a persuasive document (see
  Anderson 534).
• To be successful writers must do three
  things
  – Demonstrate they understand the readers’
    needs
  – Convince the reader that they are able and
    willing to fulfill their own promises
                 Persuasion
– Emphasize Benefits for your Readers
   •   Cost Benefits
   •   Time-Saving Measures
   •   Labor-Saving Devices
   •   Improve Public Relations
                 Persuasion
• Target Readers’ Concerns and Objections
  –   Look at proposal from readers’ viewpoint
  –   Provide details your audience needs
  –   Anticipate possible objections
  –   Counter those objections with strong
      arguments
                Persuasion
• Demonstrate Sound Reasoning
  – Use a logical organization
  – Support all claims with reliable evidence
                  Persuasion
• Use Organization to Create a Favorable
  Response
  – Direct Pattern
     • State main point directly
  – Indirect Pattern
     • Holds off main point for the end
• Organization depends on purpose and
  audience
     Proposals and Persuasion
• Each section of the proposal must be
  informative as well as persuasive
• Keep audience in mind throughout all
  sections
• Successful proposals “sell” ideas

								
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