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Although David Hume (1752) identified some of the key ideas, the monetary approach
is essentially a product of work conducted in the late 1950s, the 1960s and early 1970s.

The approach is concerned with the determination of the BOP under a system of fixed
exchange rates.

Central Principle
The balance of payments is essentially a monetary phenomenon.

Balance of payments issues can most usefully be analysed in terms of the relationship
between the demand and supply of money.

Essential Assumptions
1.     The demand for money is a stable function of a few well-defined variables.
2.     The monetary consequences of BOP disequilibria cannot be sterilised over a
       period relevant for policy analysis.
3.     Output, employment and other real variables are at their long-run equilibrium

In most respects, the monetary approach can be viewed as an extension of closed
economy monetarism to an open economy operating a fixed exchange rate.

Consider the effect of a monetary expansion.

Closed Economy
1.     Increase in M ⇒ excess holdings of money by private sector.
2.     Expenditure increases.
3.     But if output is already at full employment level increased expenditure leads to
       excess demand in the goods market.
4.     Prices increase, reducing real money balances until excess of expenditure over
       output is eliminated.

Open Economy
1 & 2 as for closed economy.
3.    Increased domestic expenditure spills over to the BOP, with increased demand
      for goods satisfied by imports.
4.    BOP deficit causes money supply to gradually fall, until money holdings are
      returned to original level.
(American Economic Review, 1973)
Assumes zero capital mobility and that money is the only financial asset.

Small Country Version
Key Relationships
Stock Demand for Nominal Money Balances

        M d = m1 PY                                         (1)

Money Supply

        MS = M = D+R                                        (2)

D = Domestic credit
R = Foreign exchange reserves

Expenditure, Income and Hoarding

Domestic expenditure equals the difference between domestic income and desired

Desired saving is the desired rate of accumulation of nominal money balances –

        EN = PY − H                                         (3)

H = Desired rate of hoarding
EN = Nominal domestic expenditure

Desired Rate of Hoarding
The desired rate of hoarding represents the rate at which individuals wish to build up
(or run down) money balances – sometimes referred to as the flow demand for money.

Hoarding/dishoarding takes place in response to differences between the stock demand
and stock supply of nominal money balances i.e. the difference between desired and
actual money holdings:

        H = h( M d − M )                                    (4)

h = desired rate of adjustment

using (1):

        H = h(m1 PY − M )                                   (4´)
The Balance of Payments
Given zero capital mobility, the BOP consists purely of the current account/trade

         BN = TN

BN = nominal value of BOP surplus
TN = nominal value of trade surplus

         PY = EN + TN


         BN = TN = PY − EN                                  (5)

But, from (3):

         PY − EN = H


         BN = H                                             (5´)

Rate of Change of Money Supply
In absence of changes in domestic credit changes in money supply purely reflect
changes in reserves:

         M = R = BN                                         (6)

M = rate of change of money supply
R = rate of change of foreign exchange reserves

Combining (6) and (5´)

         M =H                                               (6´)

(6´) indicates that, in absence of changes in D, the actual rate of accumulation of money
balances is equal to the desired rate.

Assumption of Continuous Full Employment

         Y = YF                                      (7)

Substituting (7) into (4´):

         H = h(m1 PYF − M )                                 (8)
The Law of One Price
Domestic output is assumed to be a perfect substitute for world output and therefore
must sell at the same price:

       P = eP *                                          (9)

Given the small country assumption, P * is exogenously determined.

The complete model can be summarised in terms of equations (6´) (8) and (9)

       M =H                                              (6´)

       H = h(m1 PYF − M )                                (8)

       P = eP *                                          (9)

Diagrammatic Representation

Law of One Price


Note H = 0 for P =
Long-Run Equilibrium

Long-run equilibrium occurs when, given the price level, determined by the law of one
price, the desired (and actual) rate of accumulation of money balances is zero. i.e.
when the stock demand for money is equal to the money supply.

        M 1 = Initial Money Stock


1.     Increase in domestic credit
2.     Devaluation of domestic currency

Increase in Domestic Credit

Domestic Credit Expansion increases M from M 1 to M 2

The hoarding schedule shifts up and to the left. Given P there is an excess supply of
money, leading to dishoarding.

The resulting BOP deficit leads to a fall in M
Over time M falls gradually at a decreasing rate, until equality between the stock
demand for money and the money supply is restored, with M = M 1

Dishoarding ends, with expenditure equal to income.

Summary of effects of domestic credit expansion
1.   By assumption, there are no effects on output in either the short run or the long

2.     In the short run the policy leads to an excess supply of money, induces an
       increase in expenditure over income and moves the BOP into deficit.

3.     In the long run the cumulative BOP deficit returns the money supply to original
       level. Foreign exchange reserves fall by the extent of the expansion in domestic

       M 1 = D1 + R1 = D2 + R2

       ∴∆R = −∆D < 0

Transmission Mechanism

       ∆D > 0 ⇒ M S > M d ⇒ H < 0 ⇒ ∆EN > 0

Domestic expenditure increases through a real balance effect.
Devaluation of Domestic Currency

Initial value of P           P = e1 P *

Value of P following devaluation     P2 = e2 P*,   e2 > e ,

        P2 e2
where      =
        P e1

Increase in P as a result of devaluation leads to rise in demand for nominal money
balances, implying excess demand for money and a positive rate of hoarding.

Positive hoarding leads expenditure to fall below income. The BOP surplus which
results is reflected in an increasing money supply.
As M increases the difference between the stock demand for money and the supply
diminishes and is eventually eliminated, with M = M 2 . Hoarding ceases, hence
expenditure equals income.

Summary of Effects of Devaluation
1.   No output effects in short or long runs.
2.   The devaluation produces an immediate increase in P
3.   In the short run, the increase in P which results from devaluation creates excess
     demand for money. This causes expenditure to fall below income, moving the
     BOP into surplus.
4.   The new long-run equilibrium is characterised by a higher nominal money
     supply, reflecting increased reserves.

Transmission Mechanism

        ∆e > 0 ⇒ ∆P > 0 ⇒ M d > M s ⇒ H > 0 ⇒ ∆EN < 0

Devaluation is an expenditure-reducing device.


The model identifies the source of balance of payments disequilibria as deviations of
actual money holdings from desired money holdings.

Its structure precludes the possibility of real factors (e.g. misaligned relative prices) in
creating BOP disequilibria.

Balance of payments disequilibria are self-correcting in nature, in the absence of
sterilisation operation.

Because of the assumption of continuous full employment, the model does not recognise
the potential for conflict between internal and external balance.

3.     For the domestic economy devaluation acts as an expenditure reducing device.
The increase in P which it induces increases the demand for money above actual money
holdings and induces hoarding.
In contrast, in the Mundell-Fleming model, devaluation works as an expenditure
switching device.


The world is assumed to comprise two economies – domestic and foreign countries –
producing identical goods.

The law of one price holds P = eP * but P* (along with P) is determined

Prices are perfectly flexible and adjust, given the exchange rate to maintain world
goods market equilibrium.

World goods market equilibrium requires world expenditure = value of world output.

This, in turn, requires world hoarding be zero, i.e. any domestic hoarding be offset by
foreign dishoarding (or vice versa).

Hence, P and P* adjust, given e to ensure H = −eH * .

Devaluation of Domestic Currency

Devaluation increases domestic currency value of foreign money stock.

Creates excess supply of money in foreign economy, increasing foreign expenditure
above foreign income as foreign dishoarding takes place.

At an unchanged value of P there is excess demand in the world goods market.

P increases, raising the stock demand for money in the domestic economy, inducing
domestic hoarding.

Also raising the stock demand for money in the foreign economy and reducing foreign
dishoarding below value associated with unchanged P.

Adjustment in P ensures domestic hoarding = foreign dishoarding,

                                     H = −eH *

maintaining world goods market equilibrium.

The domestic economy experiences a BOP surplus while the foreign economy has a

Foreign exchange market intervention leads to a redistribution of the world money
supply from the foreign economy to the domestic economy.
This redistribution, together with price adjustment ultimately restores long-run