NEBOSH General Certificate Unit 16 Monitoring, Review & Audit Session Aims An understanding of the proactive and reactive monitoring systems An understanding of the scope and nature of a health and safety audit Learning Objectives To be able to use a variety of proactive and reactive monitoring procedures To be able to carry out a workplace inspection – produce action plan Use different types of safety inspection To be able to review performance Explain meaning and preparations needed for an audit The Main Elements in HS(G) 65 Policy Organising Planning and Auditing Implementing Measuring Performance Reviewing Performance Safety Culture Indicators Accidents Absenteeism Sickness Rates Staff Turnover Legislation Compliance Staff Complaints Safety Culture Safe Person Competent Person Communicates with workers by providing: Safety Briefings that stress safety when giving work instructions Encouragement via a reward scheme or ‘pat on the back’ Feedback on hazard identification and control measures in place Information, Instruction, Training & Supervision Co-operation Control Job Safety Analysis Cradle to grave approach to a specific task Identify and evaluate the risks involved in that task Break down the task into sections Evaluate each section and decide on the control measures necessary to reduce the associated risks Hazards - Risk - Likelihood - Severity Practicable or Reasonably Practicable Inspections & Audits Hazard & Operability Studies (HAZOP) Used in potentially high-risk industries such as a petro-chemical plant Based on what if questioning - What if: The pump fails? The flow rate detector mis-reads? The gas supply is interrupted? Why Monitor? The Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1992 - Regulation 5 ‘Every employer shall make and give effect to such arrangements as are appropriate, having regard to the nature of his activities and the size of his undertaking, for the effective planning, organisation, control, monitoring and review of the preventive and protective measures’ Monitoring Proactive - The systematic inspection of plant and premises. Checking to ensure that your standards are being maintained. Reactive - Something has gone wrong. Standards have not been maintained or a control measure has failed. Monitoring Proactive - look at what is actually happening compared to what is written in plans and standards. Reactive - events direct us to look again at control measures: accidents near misses dangerous occurrences ill-health complaints by the workforce enforcement action Active Reactive Assess action needed to deal with immediate risk Assess level and nature of investigation needed Investigate Results & Analysis Review Process Inspections A physical inspection of premises, plant and equipment. Undertaken by: Directors / Supervisors / Line Managers Health & Safety Advisor Joint teams of managers and employees Safety Representatives Inspecting either together or working separately and then comparing notes Proactive Monitoring Safety Audits - Thorough, systematic and critical examination of systems and procedures Workplace Inspections - Physical inspection of the workplace or aspects of the workplace Safety Surveys - Detailed investigation of of one aspect of the workplace Safety Tours - Brief examination of one or more aspect of the workplace Safety Sampling - Inspection limited to a specific area or aspect of the workplace e.g. fire doors Proactive Monitoring Safety Audits A safety audit is: A thorough, systematic and critical examination of safety management systems and procedures It should: Asses the quality & implementation of the safety policy Identify potential risks and their associated control measures Analyse workplace activities and assess if they are being carried out safely Proactive Monitoring Safety Representatives The Safety Representatives & Safety Committee Regulations 1977 Safety Representatives may conduct inspections in the following circumstances: After substantial changes to plant and equipment After substantial changes in processes or methods Following notifiable accident or dangerous occurrence Following notifiable disease Proactive Monitoring Safety Survey A safety survey is a detailed investigation of one aspect of the workplace. Could be a survey of: Noise Dust Temperature Lighting Fumes and/or Vapours Proactive Monitoring Safety Tour A safety tour is a brief examination of one or more aspects of workplace activities: Could be conducted by a small management team to: Display commitment to health and safety Gain familiarisation with layout Compare theory with reality Plan future series of inspections Meet the staff Proactive Monitoring Safety Sampling Safety sampling is limited to certain areas or aspects of the workplace. Could be an inspection of all: Fire doors Prohibition signs (Red & White) Mandatory signs (Blue & White) Safety signs (Green & White) PPE Electrical portable appliances Washrooms & toilets All canteen facilities Reactive Monitoring Something has gone wrong. Standards have not been maintained or a control measure has failed. We are now involved with reporting of: and cases of ill health Injuries Near-misses Hazards Weaknesses or omissions in performance standards Enforcement action by HSE or Local Auth Safety Audit Football Club Considerations: Equipment Chemicals Traffic Buildings Fire Precautions Electricity Supply & Electrical Equipment Ground Location & Layout Visitors Labour Documentation Safety Audit Independent Expertise An independent expert can be: Engineering Surveyors Insurance Company Staff Insurance Brokers Claims Investigators Consultants Health & Safety Inspectors Local Authority Inspectors Inspections & Audits Prioritising Results - Action Plan Likelihood x Severity = Risk Rating Urgent - Requiring immediate action Routine - Requiring action over a period of time Football Club Urgent: Wiring for lights in the shower room Use of equipment Football Club Routine: Soakaways from the showers Improved system for control of contractors Audits & Inspections Frequency Depends on the workplace environment and the nature of the associated hazards. Rule of thumb: Audit - Annually or every 2 to 3 years Inspections - More frequently (monthly or every few months) Note: Frequency should be detailed in the company safety policy Report Writing Senior Mangers need to know what they need to do, by when & how much it will cost Use executive summaries Findings linked to an action plan (SMART) Spread responsibility for action Have an different person for each action to ensure action plan is completed & progress is monitored Effective Writing Who will read it? What are the aims? What layout is required? What style is appropriate? What are the terms of reference? Style Short Sentences - KISS Short Words - No Jargon Active Verbs Technical Terms / Acronyms Repetition - Avoid Visual Aids - Charts, Graphs or Pictures Examples Drafts Brain storm & jot down your thoughts. Expand your thoughts. Discard irrelevant issues. Read it as if you were receiving it. Read it aloud to check for tone. Simplify the content (no long words). Check all verbs - are they necessary? Report Writing Introduction - Your terms of reference. Summary - Short outline of important points Method - What you did to comply with your terms of reference. Findings - A logical list of what you found. Conclusions - Nothing new at this stage. Recommendations - Relevant & achievable.
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