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Policing Building Safer Communities Together

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					Policing: Building Safer
Communities Together



   Response of the
 Association of Police
     Authorities




      January 2004
     Policing: Building Safer Communities Together
    Response by the Association of Police Authorities



                                                        Page
1. Executive Summary                                       1


2. APA Response - Overview                                6

          2A:   Increasing Community Engagement           20
          2B:   Accountability & Responsiveness           29
          2C:   Operational Effectiveness                 41
          2D:   Modernising the Police Service            45


3. Current Police Authority Activities                    50


4. Views of Communities and Stakeholders: Outcomes of     63
   Consultation by Police Authorities


5. List of Appendices to Section 4                       124
Policing: Building Safer Communities Together

                                                  APA Response – Executive Summary




                       Section 1 – Executive Summary

Introduction


1. The Association of Police Authorities (APA) welcomes the debate initiated by the
   Government’s Green Paper. This response has been produced after extensive
   consultation with our member authorities.


2. Uniquely, police authorities have undertaken widespread local consultation on the
   Green Paper with their communities and the outcomes are summarised in this
   response. Although, impossible to quantify fully, authorities have engaged with
   some 100,000 people; 55,000 partners and more than 400 groups locally.


3. Accordingly, this submission reflects not just the position of police authorities, but
   also the views of both the local communities which police authorities serve and the
   many agencies with which they work.


More Responsive Local Policing


4. The APA wants local policing services which:
   Ø have the full confidence and active support of all our diverse communities;
   Ø deliver effective, high quality policing, responsive to the needs and priorities of
       local people and resourced accordingly;
   Ø are intolerant of racism and any other form of discrimination whether within the
       workforce or in service delivery;
   Ø uphold the highest ethical and professional standards within a modernised and
       fully integrated workforce; and
   Ø crucially, are openly responsible and accountable to local people.


5. Local people can only have a meaningful say in how they are policed, if central
   controls are reduced and authorities have flexibility to pursue local policing which
   suits their communities.




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                                                 APA Response – Executive Summary


Increasing Community Engagement


6. Police authorities are already working proactively to improve engagement. But we
   see an urgent need to rationalise and co-ordinate the plethora of consultation
   activity on crime and community safety related issues undertaken by a wide range of
   bodies including Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs), Local Strategic
   Partnerships (LSPs) and Local Criminal Justice Boards (LCJBs).


   We propose that: police authorities be given clear statutory responsibility to
   develop, co-ordinate and secure implementation of, a coherent community
   consultation and engagement strategy at all levels and across all community
   interests within the police area.


A more visible, accessible service tackling communities’ concerns


7. Police authorities have responded to the public’s desire for a more visible policing
   with initiatives such as Community Beat Officers. But to address the reassurance gap
   we need to extend NIM to capture “community intelligence”. This would
   strengthen the accountability of partners such as CDRPs for tackling issues which fall
   within their responsibilities.


   We propose that: police authorities be given a clear remit to drive the extension of
   NIM to embrace community intelligence and engagement to ensure that the efforts
   of both the police and other partners are directed at tackling community safety
   priorities identified by communities at neighbourhood level and that this include
   responsibility for assessing the impact on communities of such engagement in
   delivering reassurance.


Accountability


8. Police forces should continue to be locally accountable to a strategic oversight body
   drawn from communities. Directly elected authorities/boards may increase
   awareness but are likely to be less effective, less diverse in membership and more
   political.


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                                                  APA Response – Executive Summary


9. The current mix and balance of police authority membership works well and has
   secured considerable diversity. Police authorities have the knowledge, skills and
   systems in place to undertake effective performance scrutiny and drive forward
   continuous improvements. In effect, police authorities are the local equivalent of
   the Police Standards Unit, accounting on the one hand to the Home Office and on
   the other to local communities for police performance. This should be backed up by
   a clearer statutory remit.


   We propose that: in line with the proposed shift to “operational responsibility”,
   police authorities should be given an explicit statutory remit to hold chief officers to
   account on behalf of their communities and the role and responsibilities of police
   authorities should be more clearly set out in legislation.


10. BCU Commanders should continue to be accountable to the chief constable but
   there is scope for more direct and transparent scrutiny of planning, performance
   and community engagement at BCU level.


11. There is a need to streamline existing partnerships including YOTs and DATs/DAATs,
   CDRPs and Local Strategic Partnerships. Increased transparency and accountability
   can be achieved through tighter lines of accountability to parent organisations; local
   multi--agency scrutiny arrangements; and implementation of the co-ordinated
   community engagement strategy we have proposed.


12. We see scope for “neighbourhood panels” but this should build on the many
   different bodies and panels already operating at this level. We agree that “one size
   does not fit all” and suggest that evaluation of the lessons from the National
   Reassurance Project could potentially point the way forward.


13. Locally based solutions should be developed below strategic level: a rigid statutory
   framework for accountability mechanisms would be counter-productive and simply
   add to bureaucracy.


Operational Effectiveness
14. Force structures should be driven both by operational needs and community
   identities.

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                                                  APA Response – Executive Summary


15. We are not yet convinced that the benefits of major restructuring would outweigh
   the inevitable disruption and costs, both financial and in relation to communities’
   confidence and partnership working, which would result. A full cost-benefit analysis
   of the implications of any restructuring must be a pre-requisite before there is any
   further consideration. The APA would strongly resist any structural change which
   weakened local accountability for policing.


16. There are significant gains to be made through the development of specialist/lead
   forces and greater strategic collaboration between forces, and good examples in
   place on which to build.


   We propose that:
   Ø police authorities be given a statutory duty to establish effective collaborative
       arrangements with appropriate governance structures to tackle serious,
       organised crime; and
   Ø police authorities be given capacity to develop collaborative approaches to
       workforce planning training and development based on strategic assessments in
       support of this approach.


Modernising the Police Service


17. The concept of “earned autonomy” is inapplicable within a tripartite relationship
   where the relative powers and responsibilities of each partner are properly balanced.
   We welcome the recognition that performance would be enhanced by the
   “freedoms and flexibilities” outlined but these should be available to all authorities,
   unless there is evidence of poor performance. Communities should not be penalised
   for the poor performance of their local police service.


18. We welcome progress towards a more modernised service but see scope for more
   rapid and radical progress to be made, including through a fully integrated
   workforce and a unified employment structure. This will also support the efforts, to
   which we are wholeheartedly committed, of achieving a police service which is fully
   representative of the communities it serves.




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                                                  APA Response – Executive Summary


19. There is scope for a much more common and consistent approach to training and
   career development for the wider police family, including wardens and accredited
   staff and police authorities could play a significant role here.


20. Authorities would welcome greater freedom to appoint both overseas police officers
   and suitably qualified non-police officers to senior positions within forces.


21. There is now a need to move away from the focus on police officer numbers and
   collectively we must encourage the public to understand that policing is delivered by
   the whole police workforce.


   We propose that: police authorities have lead responsibility for ensuring the
   development of common standards of training and career development for the
   wider police family.


Conclusion


22. We look forward to an ongoing dialogue in taking forward the proposals for further
   reform both with our communities and partners.




Association of Police Authorities
February 2004




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                                                             APA Response – Overview


                              Section 2 - Overview

Introduction


23. The Association of Police Authorities (APA) welcomes the opportunity presented by
   “Policing: Building Safer Communities Together” to consider, with our communities,
   the future shape of policing and the wider community safety agenda.


24. This submission represents the APA’s initial contribution to that debate. We look
   forward to a continuing dialogue with Government, our communities, partner
   agencies and stakeholders, including actively testing out some of the ideas we have
   put forward,


Reflecting Communities’ Views


25. The APA’s contribution has been developed in the light of consultation with all
   police authorities and other APA members; discussions in each of the APA’s five
   policy groups and the APA Black and Minority Ethnic Members Network; a special
   meeting of the APA Plenary (comprising representatives of all police authorities); and
   discussion and agreement by Police Authority Chairs and Vice-Chairs. Our response
   has also been shaped by the views authorities have gathered from their
   communities.


26. Sections 2A to 2D of this submission provide detailed comments on the four key
   areas identified in the consultation paper. Section 3 reflects some of the many
   initiatives and innovative approaches already being implemented by authorities and
   forces on which we can build.


27. Uniquely, police authorities have initiated a real local debate and dialogue on the
   Green Paper within their communities. Police authorities have undertaken
   widespread consultation locally, encompassing their workforces; local people;
   community, voluntary and other interest groups; Crime and Disorder Reduction
   Partnerships; Local Criminal Justice Boards; partner agencies; local authorities and




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   other stakeholders, using a variety of methods from public meetings to e-
   discussions.
28. Section 4 details the consultation undertaken by each authority and provides an
   objective and impartial summary of the outcomes of that consultation. More
   detailed reports produced by authorities are appended, as listed in Section 5.
   Although, it is not possible to quantify fully the extent of consultation undertaken,
   as section 4 and the appendices listed at section 5 show, authorities have engaged
   with some 100,000 people; 55,000 partners; and more than 400 groups locally.


29. Accordingly, this submission reflects not just the position of police
   authorities, but also the views of both the local communities which police
   authorities serve and the many agencies with which they work.


More Responsive Local Policing


30. The APA wants local policing services which:


   Ø have the full confidence and active support of all our diverse communities;
   Ø deliver effective, high quality policing, responsive to the needs and priorities of
       local people and resourced accordingly;
   Ø are intolerant of racism and any other form of discrimination whether within the
       workforce or in service delivery;
   Ø uphold the highest ethical and professional standards within a modernised and
       fully integrated workforce; and
   Ø crucially, are openly responsible and accountable to local people.


   Accordingly, the APA supports many of the key principles underlying the
   consultation paper.


31. The APA recognises Government’s role in setting the broad strategic direction for
   policing, underpinned by common national standards. We therefore supported the
   introduction of the National Policing Plan as a vehicle for bringing together the
   Government’s expectations of policing. We welcome the Green Paper’s recognition
   that a much more “bottom-up” approach is needed to give local people a real say in
   shaping and delivering safer communities.

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                                                             APA Response – Overview




32. If Government is genuine in its desire to give local people a real say in how they are
   policed, there needs to be a fundamental rebalancing of the current tripartite
   arrangements to significantly reduce central control and reinvigorate local
   accountability by ensuring that police authorities have the freedom and flexibilities
   to pursue local policing which suits their communities. This is at the core of our
   proposals for change.


Increasing Community Engagement


33. Strengthening communities’ engagement and giving them greater influence over
   policing is at the heart of the Green Paper: our response actively embodies that
   engagement in reflecting our communities’ views on the future shape of policing.


34. We share the Government’s aim of ensuring that local people have access to the
   information they need to have more involvement in local decisions and solutions
   within the strategic context of community engagement and civic renewal.


35. Police authorities recognise the fundamental importance of engaging effectively
   with communities and are already working proactively to extend and improve the
   range of consultation and engagement which they undertake.         Considerable
   information about police performance is now being made available to local
   communities through a range of innovative and diverse methods as detailed in
   Section 3.


36. The Home Office research “Involving the public: the role of police authorities” found
   little public knowledge of the work of police authorities. In many ways, this is
   unsurprising given that people are generally less interested in structures and
   organisational issues than in how satisfied they are with the service they are
   receiving. However, the widespread consultation undertaken on the Green Paper
   suggests a much greater degree of confidence in what police authorities do and a
   more positive view of their role than the research seemed to suggest. And,
   importantly, police authorities are well-known by those exercising a representational
   role on behalf of the public such as, advice agencies; county, district, town or parish
   councillors; and MPs.

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                                                              APA Response – Overview




37. Nevertheless, police authorities are committed to continuous improvement and
   recognise that more can be done to provide information which is easy to understand
   and access and which meets communities’ desires for very local information about
   what is happening in their neighbourhood; what is being done to tackle it; and how
   they can help. But authorities are fully aware that engagement is about more than
   providing information and about securing active participation on the part of local
   people in making their communities safer, as Section 3 shows. We look forward to
   the learning which should emerge from the joint Home Office/APA project,
   including the three Action Research pilot sites and the work of the National
   Practitioner Panel, as a basis for further developments. Indeed, the APA is currently
   developing guidance for authorities and forces on community involvement in police
   training, including design and evaluation of training, as well as delivery.


38. The existing statutory provisions relating to police authority consultation (Section 96,
   Police Act 1996) are loosely framed and, whilst this gives a welcome flexibility, we
   believe authorities now need a much clearer remit. From the public’s perspective,
   there is now a confusing patchwork of consultation carried out by a variety of
   bodies and agencies, in addition to police authorities, including forces themselves,
   Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs), Local Strategic Partnerships
   (LSPs) and Local Criminal Justice Boards (LCJBs) with little effective co-ordination and
   joining up across the piece risking the inevitable “consultation fatigue”. We believe
   that the suggestion in the Green Paper of a possible new duty on Basic Command
   Units (BCUs) to consult with local people would only add to the confusion.


39. In our view, considerable benefits could be gained by introducing a much clearer,
   more structured approach to securing effective community involvement in policing
   and community safety issues. Police authorities would welcome being given a clear
   statutory remit to develop and co-ordinate implementation of a community
   consultation and engagement strategy for the police area. Such a duty would
   empower police authorities to ensure that there are arrangements in place for
   effective and proactive engagement - in the widest sense - with communities, at
   every level from the local to the strategic and across different communities of
   interest. A useful parallel is the power which local authorities have to secure the
   well-being of their communities (Local Government Act 2003). This approach would

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    both give police authorities more credibility with communities, enhance their
    capacity to deliver and help secure greater transparency and accountability below
    the strategic level , as discussed in Section 2B.


    We propose that: police authorities be given clear statutory responsibility to
    develop, co-ordinate and secure implementation of, a coherent community
    consultation and engagement strategy at all levels and across all community
    interests within the police area.


A more visible, accessible service tackling communities’ concerns


40. Police authorities are fully seized of the public’s desire for a more visible policing
    presence and have been proactive in responding by driving the introduction of
    initiatives such as Community Beat Officers, Neighbourhood/Community Policing
    Models and Local Policing Units/Teams. However, we share the Government’s
    concerns that despite higher than ever police officer numbers, there is still a
    “reassurance gap” and that fear of crime remains high even though the chances of
    being a victim are at an all-time low. It must be recognised that the apparent failure
    of increased police numbers to deliver that reassurance is the result of the adoption
    of more intelligence-led targeted policing which, whilst effective in solving crime,
    does not provide the visibly reassuring presence that the public want to see.
    Implementation of the National Intelligence Model (NIM) could potentially
    compound this. The introduction of Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) has
    helped to respond to the public’s clearly articulated demands and authorities
    strongly support making more effective use of specials, volunteers and the wider
    police family as all contributing to this end.


41. Equally, the indications are that we can have a considerable impact on reassurance
    through improving the state of the local environment and more needs to be done to
    hold partner agencies and CDRPs to account for delivering against their
    responsibilities. If we are to provide both a highly visible policing presence, including
    through the extended policy family, and continue to improve performance in
    tackling crime, we need to be able to marshal joint resources and the efforts of
    communities and partners far more effectively.


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42. Police authorities share the view that there is a need to build from the bottom up by
   identifying and tackling with communities the issues that most concern them at
   neighbourhood or local level.


43. We suggest that the solution lies in extending NIM to capture “community
   intelligence” generated through engagement with communities and partner
   agencies such as CDRPs, Drug Action Teams (DAT/DAATs) and Youth Offending
   Teams (YOTs). This would ensure that the problems identified by communities at a
   very local level are used to help inform NIM assessments; tasking and co-ordination;
   and priorities for action.


44. Since NIM assessments will then generate actions for CDRPs and other partner
   agencies, (such as improving the visible appearance of the neighbourhood, drugs
   rehabilitation or providing facilities for young people), it would also strengthen the
   accountability of partner agencies for tackling issues which fall within their
   responsibilities. Certainly, there is a pressing need to find ways of ensuring that
   other partners represented on CDRPs, such as health and probation services, play a
   fuller part and commit at senior level to delivering shared outcomes. We believe this
   approach could finally start to give practical effect to the potentially very powerful
   statutory duty on all responsible bodies to consider the crime and disorder
   implications of everything they do (Section 17, Crime and Disorder Act 1998), the
   benefits of which have yet to be fully realised.


   We propose that: police authorities be given a clear remit to drive the extension of
   NIM to embrace community intelligence and engagement to ensure that the efforts
   of both the police and other partners are directed at tackling community safety
   priorities identified by communities at neighbourhood level and that this include
   responsibility for assessing the impact on communities of such engagement in
   delivering reassurance.


Accountability


45. The APA strongly believes that local accountability for policing services should
   continue to be the bedrock of our system. Equally, we believe that there continues
   to be a need for a strategic accountability and oversight body, equivalent to the

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   current police authority, comprising members drawn from communities and which is
   responsible for securing the provision of local policing services.


46. We have already made clear our very strong objections to directly elected police
   authorities. In our view, this would undermine the effectiveness of any strategic
   oversight body, since there is no guarantee that those successful in being elected
   would have the skills and abilities needed to undertake the role. There is also a very
   real danger that this would lead to the politicisation of policing and the possibility of
   extremist groups targeting such elections to gain influence over the police with
   disastrous consequences for securing much-needed trust and confidence amongst
   minority ethnic communities. Moreover, as long as police forces remain under the
   direction and control of chief officers, directly elected members would find it
   difficult to deliver against any election promises, which is likely to produce further
   disillusionment and disengagement on the part of local people. As the Green Paper
   recognises, police authorities have made considerable strides in securing
   membership which reflects the diversity of their communities: direct elections would
   pose a real threat to that progress.


47. However, we recognise that current accountability structures, whether at the
   strategic or CDRP level, lack transparency and this needs to be addressed. In the
   case of police authorities this is in part due to the traditional reluctance of
   authorities to invest resources in “marketing” themselves when such funds could be
   directed to improving frontline policing services. We question whether any new
   strategic oversight body or Board would necessarily be more visible, accountable or
   effective, without investing significantly in their own profile – authorities’ current
   total expenditure on their own support averages around 0.5% of local policing
   budgets. However, we recognise that authorities could do much to raise their own
   profile and make the public more aware of the benefits of locally accountable
   oversight. In this respect, the current statutory limitation on police authorities to
   decide their own staffing levels is unhelpful and should be removed. The APA will be
   working to support authorities in taking this forward as part of our wider
   Improvement Programme.


48. Police authorities are, however, relatively new bodies and we believe that much
   progress has been made over a short period both in engaging with local

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   communities and in holding forces to account on their behalf. This is now being
   accelerated by the APA’s Police Authority Improvement Programme which has the
   support and commitment of all authorities.


49. Police authorities see effective performance monitoring and management as key to
   effectively holding the force to account on behalf of local people. The Police
   Standards Unit has given a welcome stimulus to the focus on performance
   management which authorities were already trying to instil at local level. Good
   progress is now being made and we welcome the additional benefits which new
   tools such as i-Quanta, activity based costing and the developing PPAF are bringing
   on stream. The importance we attach to this area is underlined by the significant
   investment made by the APA in the development and delivery of a specially tailored,
   modular training programme for police authority members and staff “Can You
   Manage It?”. Training has been delivered both nationally and locally with over 400
   members attending one or more of the 40 training days held during 2003.


50. Accordingly, we believe that police authorities have the knowledge, skills and
   systems in place to undertake effective performance scrutiny and drive forward
   continuous improvements. In effect, police authorities are the local equivalent of
   the Police Standards Unit, accounting on the one hand to the Home Office and on
   the other to local communities for police performance.


51. Indeed, we would suggest, that police authorities are more advanced in
   performance monitoring and scrutiny than many other local bodies and agencies.
   Uniquely, the work of police authorities extends across both community safety and
   criminal justice and through our links with CDRPs and Local Criminal Justice Boards,
   we believe that police authorities can be instrumental locally in securing effective
   joined up performance management across the piece.


52. Accordingly, rather than creating a new oversight body or Board, we believe that
   the answer lies instead in strengthening the role of police authorities by articulating
   more clearly within legislation their powers and duties for holding chief officers to
   account on behalf of communities for police performance. This ties in with our
   proposals for authorities to have a remit to co-ordinate consultation on community



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   safety issues. The Northern Ireland legislation and experience provides a good
   example on which we can draw.


53. In line with this, we agree with the Government that the concept of “operational
   independence” is now outmoded and that a move to “operational responsibility” is
   appropriate and would accord with the practical reality which exists in many areas.


   We propose that: in line with the proposed shift to “operational responsibility”,
   police authorities should be given an explicit statutory remit to hold chief officers to
   account on behalf of their communities and the role and responsibilities of police
   authorities should be more clearly set out in legislation.


54. We agree that given the increasing emphasis on BCUs as the core local policing
   delivery unit, it is important that visible and appropriate arrangements are in place
   for oversight and scrutiny at that level. However, it is disappointing that the Green
   Paper fails to recognise that many authorities already have, or are developing,
   structures for this purpose including, for example, local policing/partnership boards.


55. We consider that BCU Commanders should continue to be accountable to the chief
   constable but see merit in exploring the scope for a range of different options to suit
   local needs for more direct scrutiny of planning, performance and community
   engagement at BCU level. We believe that this would fit with our earlier proposals
   for a statutory remit on authorities to secure effective community consultation and
   engagement at all levels.


56. We also agree that there is a case for strengthening oversight and accountability of
   local CDRPs, whose performance, effectiveness, and indeed visibility to communities
   is extremely variable. There is also a need to streamline the range of local
   partnerships including YOTs and DATs/DAATs, and to join up more effectively the
   work of CDRPs and Local Strategic Partnerships. Increased transparency and
   accountability can be achieved through a variety of means including tighter lines of
   accountability to parent organisations; local multi-agency scrutiny arrangements;
   and implementation of the co-ordinated community engagement strategy we have
   proposed.



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57. Similarly, we see scope for neighbourhood panels to have a role in influencing
   policing at a very local level where that works and meets local communities’ needs.
   However, we are aware that there are already many different bodies and panels
   operating at neighbourhood level that could possibly play a role and this view also
   comes across in authorities’ local consultations with communities. The Green
   Paper’s recognition that there is no single solution here is welcome, given the very
   different configurations of communities and localities, both in terms of geography
   and local government structures. The National Reassurance Project could potentially
   point the way forward, engaging as it does with local communities at ward level and
   an evaluation of the lessons from the pilot areas should be used to help inform
   future developments.


58. We strongly believe that the answer, whether at BCU, CDRP or more local level is to
   develop locally based solutions. In our view, the imposition of a rigid statutory
   framework for accountability mechanisms below the strategic level is likely to prove
   counter-productive and simply add to bureaucracy.


Operational Effectiveness


59. The APA agrees that it is sensible to review regularly whether current force
   structures are fit for the purpose of delivering efficient and effective policing services
   which meet modern demands.


60. We recognise that there is a gap in tackling serious, organised (level two) crime
   which has resulted from the creation of the National Crime Squad (NCS) and the
   demise of the Regional Crime Squads. But we are clear that recreating Regional
   Squads is not the answer. Indeed, the Green Paper has stimulated action by
   authorities who are already moving to explore the possibilities for more effective,
   innovative approaches to tackling cross-border crime. And indeed, there are already
   many examples of longstanding good practice in place, such as the Midlands Central
   Patrol Group, on which we can draw for solutions.


61. In our view, structures should be driven both by operational needs and community
   identities. Alterations to force boundaries do not solve the problem of cross-border
   crime, since these issues will need to be addressed however the boundaries are

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   drawn. Instead the answer is to develop clear, effective strategies for tackling the
   different types of serious, organised crime, for example, human trafficking or credit
   card fraud.


62. The APA has no difficulties with the concept of strategic forces as described in the
   Green Paper. However, we have yet to see the evidence that the benefits to be
   gained from any reconfiguration of the current pattern of police forces would
   outweigh the very considerable disruption and costs, both financial and in relation
   to communities’ confidence and partnership working, which would result from
   major restructuring at this time. A full cost-benefit analysis of the implications of
   any restructuring must be a pre-requisite for any further consideration. In particular,
   the APA would strongly resist any structural change which weakened local
   accountability for policing.


63. We do, however believe that there are significant gains to be made through the
   development of specialist/lead forces and greater strategic collaboration, and there
   are already good examples of this happening in practice. We see no reason why this
   need be confined to regional or geographic areas, but would encourage strategic
   collaboration between any authorities and forces where this best meets the needs of
   the organisations and their communities.


64. Police authorities and forces need clear strategies in place to tackle serious and
   organised crime. We see benefits in the concept of a National Policing Agency to
   tackle level three crime but would wish to ensure that there is appropriate
   recognition at that level of the so-called “golden thread” and the ripple effect of
   level three and two crime within local communities. We consider that there should
   be a specific statutory duty on police authorities and forces to collaborate to tackle
   serious crime and to ensure that this is subject to appropriate governance and
   oversight.


   We propose that:
       Ø police authorities be given a statutory duty to establish effective collaborative
           arrangements with appropriate governance structures to tackle serious,
           organised crime; and



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       Ø police authorities be given capacity to develop collaborative approaches to
           workforce planning, recruitment, training and development based on
           strategic assessments in support of this approach.


Central Resources


65. The APA welcomes the proposed review of the plethora of central bodies engaged
   in the business of setting standards, monitoring, inspecting and auditing policing.
   We believe that there is scope to streamline and reduce the considerable burden
   which the various regimes place on authorities and forces. In our view, the role of
   the centre should be one of enabling and supporting rather than directing. We
   would also suggest that there is scope to rationalise the different performance
   regimes which apply across the different partnership arrangements.


Modernising the Police Service


Earned Autonomy


66. The APA considers the concept of “earned autonomy” inapplicable within a
   tripartite relationship where the relative powers and responsibilities of each partner
   are properly balanced. In practice, both recent legislative changes and central
   control have undermined the proper balance of that relationship and we have called
   for that to be reversed.


67. The APA considers that within the tripartite relationship, police authorities have a
   degree of autonomy and that autonomy should only be questioned where
   performance is less than satisfactory. Nevertheless, we welcome the recognition that
   performance would be enhanced if authorities had the sorts of “freedoms and
   flexibilities” outlined in the consultation paper. In our view, these should be
   available to all authorities, unless there is evidence of poor performance. We do not
   support the application of such an approach at BCU level, in line with our view that
   direct funding of BCUs does not make sound organisational or business sense.
   Moreover, we could not support any system whereby poor performance resulted in
   penalisation of communities whose needs were already, by definition, not being
   met.

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Workforce Modernisation


68. The APA considers that this is one of the most important aspects of the Green
   Paper, since it is only through our people that we can deliver successful reform.


69. We welcome the moves which have already been made towards a more modernised
   service but see scope for more rapid and radical progress to be made, including
   through a fully integrated workforce and a unified employment structure. We
   believe that there should be common minimum standards and terms and conditions
   of employment for all staff whether warranted or non-warranted. We believe that
   this will also support the efforts, to which we are wholeheartedly committed, of
   achieving a police service which is fully representative of the communities it serves.


70. The APA has led the way in developing the “People Matters” framework for
   effective HR planning and development within police forces. We believe that there
   is scope for a much more common and consistent approach to training and career
   development for the wider police family, including wardens and accredited staff.
   Police authorities would welcome the opportunity to be given a lead role in
   developing this approach.


71. Authorities would also wish to have greater freedom to appoint both overseas police
   officers and suitably qualified non-police officers to senior positions within forces.
   The current anomaly in the legislation, which means that authorities have no
   statutory role in the appointment of senior police staff to ACPO equivalent ranks,
   should be addressed.


72. Here, as elsewhere in our response, we believe that the answers lie in giving
   authorities greater scope to develop a “mixed economy” workforce which meets
   local needs. We strongly believe that there is now a need to move away from the
   current fixation on police officer numbers and that collectively we must all
   proactively seek to encourage the public to understand that policing is delivered by
   the whole police workforce.




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   We propose that: police authorities have lead responsibility for ensuring the
   development of common standards of training and career development for the
   wider police family.


Consultation and Engagement Outcomes


73. In launching the Green Paper at the APA Annual Conference, the Home Secretary
   urged police authorities and others to engage in widespread debate with local
   people and partners on the proposals. Police authorities have risen to that
   challenge. Despite the limited and inauspicious consultation period, authorities have
   engaged widely with a range of local people, community and voluntary groups and
   organisations, CDRPs, LCJBs, other partner agencies and stakeholders including local
   councils at all levels, local businesses and a whole host of minority and other interest
   groups, as well as their own workforces, using an extensive array of methods and
   approaches.    As you would expect, this has elicited a wide mix and range of views
   on most of the issues raised in the Green Paper. However, the consultations have
   informed and helped shape views of police authorities.


74. Section 4 of this submission provides an objective and impartial summary of the
   consultation undertaken by police authorities locally and the wide range of views
   and opinions expressed. Many authorities have produced full reports detailing the
   outcomes of local consultations and these are appended, as listed at Section 5.


Conclusion


75. The APA welcomes the fact that, as Ministers have repeatedly stated, the Green
   Paper represents very much the start of an ongoing dialogue which will continue as
   proposals are developed and refined and that there will be further consultation in
   due course. In the interim, the APA and police authorities intend to continue
   engaging with our communities and partners to consider options for change, as well
   as contributing to the ongoing debate.



Association of Police Authorities
February 2004


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                               APA Response – Increasing Community Engagement


                  Section 2A: Increasing Community Engagement



Introduction      The APA whole heartedly supports the aim of strengthening
                  communities’ engagement in policing. Indeed, the APA is currently
                  developing guidance for authorities and forces on community
                  involvement in police training, including design and evaluation of
                  training, as well as delivery. We also agree that local people should
                  have access to timely and accessible information about how well the
                  police are performing locally. But, as the Green Paper recognises,
                  there is a need to build capacity within communities and to equip
                  people with more than just information, if they are to play an effective
                  part.


Empowering        Police authorities recognise the central importance of engaging with
Local People to   their diverse local communities at many different levels and in a range
engage with       of innovative ways. Authorities are already doing a great deal in this
policing          respect including, in some areas, bespoke training for individual
                  authority members to assist them to work in, and with, local
                  communities. Further examples of the breadth and range of activity
                  are given in Section 3.


                  However, authorities recognise the need to continuously improve and
                  explore creative ways to engage with local people more effectively,
                  including the so-called ‘hard to hear’ or ‘failed to reach’ groups. The
                  joint APA/ Home Office Action Research in Cheshire, Merseyside and
                  Northumbria, along with the work of the recently established National
                  Practitioner Panel should identify further improvements in community
                  engagement methods.


                  From the public’s perspective, the picture is a complex one. There are
                  now a plethora of bodies at different levels seeking their views,
                  including Police Authorities, Police Forces, Crime and Disorder
                  Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs); Local Strategic Partnerships (LSPs);
                  Local Criminal Justice Boards and so on. Whilst in some areas, police
                  authorities have successfully encouraged a joint approach, for
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                authorities have successfully encouraged a joint approach, for
                example, through shared local forums or surveys this is not universally
                the case. The proposal that BCU Commanders also be given a
                statutory duty to consult can only increase the confusion.


                The current statutory duty on police authorities for consultation
                (section 96, Police Act 1996) has remained essentially unchanged
                since it was first introduced in 1984 following the Scarman Report.
                Importantly, the provisions provide for police authorities to make
                arrangements for both consulting local people and enlisting their
                support in preventing crime.


                The general nature of the current provisions has proved useful in
                enabling authorities to put in place consultation mechanisms to
                engage not just at strategic level, but at BCU and below, through
                local forums. We believe it is right that the duty is placed on the
                authority rather than the force, as this gives it independence and
                credibility in the eyes of the public. Equally authorities see this duty as
                crucial to their role in accounting to local people. However we believe
                the time is now right to review the legislation and to give authorities a
                much more explicit duty to ensure that there is an effective
                consultation and engagement strategy in place for the area.


                We believe that considerable benefits would be gained if there was a
                single body with strategic responsibility for ensuring effective
                engagement and consultation with local people at all levels on
                community safety and criminal justice issues. We do not envisage the
                Authority carrying out all the consultation, but rather ensuring that
                effective arrangements are in place to make it happen and that efforts
                are joined up more coherently. The Northern Ireland legislation (The
                Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000) provides a useful basis on which to
                draw and there are parallels with local authorities’ powers to secure
                the well-being of their communities (Local Government Act 2003).




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                 Such a statutory consultation and engagement duty would enable
                 authorities to secure greater accountability and transparency on the
                 part of the force at all levels, as well as CDRPs and others.


                 We propose that: police authorities be given clear statutory
Provision of     responsibility to develop, and secure implementation of, a
Information to   coherent community consultation and engagement strategy at
local people     all levels and across all community interests within the area.


                 Monitoring and reporting to local people on police performance goes
                 to the heart of police authorities’ fundamental statutory duty to hold
                 the force publicly to account. Authorities see this as crucially
                 important. Both the APA nationally, and police authorities locally,
                 have been closely and fully engaged in and, supportive of, the
                 ongoing work to develop the Policing Performance Assessment
                 Framework (PPAF), as a source of more robust and meaningful
                 performance data. Authorities have also eagerly embraced the recent
                 availability of i-Quanta as a source of immediate and accessible data
                 at force/BCU level for performance management purposes.


                 But in terms of engaging with the public, experience and consultation
                 shows that the majority of people are not interested in statistical
                 strategic/comparative crime and police performance data of the sort
                 published by the Government. As the consultation carried by
                 authorities shows, people mostly want to know what is happening in
                 their immediate neighbourhood, that is, information which is (very)
                 local, meaningful and useful. This includes how the police are
                 responding to local neighbourhood problems; how to support the
                 police and get engaged; how and when to contact the police; details
                 of community beat constables; and police station opening times.


                 As detailed in section 3, police authorities are already extensively
                 using e-solutions for this purpose including the provision of
                 performance data at BCU level and below, on authority/force
                 websites. However, authorities are also conscious that internet access

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                websites. However, authorities are also conscious that internet access
                is not available to all. Many authorities make use of a wide range of
                communication methods, including their own newsletters/newspapers
                delivered to every household, use of “wrap-arounds” on local papers,
                other local media and public meetings to make performance
                information widely available. There is also evidence of good
                collaboration in joint publications with partners, such as local
                authorities.


                However, authorities recognise that there is always scope for further
                improvement. Equally there is a need for police forces to be more
                open and trusting with communities and less defensive about
                policing. More could be done to engage people for example, by
                publicising local strategic assessments through the local media and
                enlisting the communities’ support in tackling the issues.


                Crucially, however, engagement can only be fully effective where local
                people feel their voice is heard and that they have some level of
                influence over local policing. As previously indicated, that can only be
                achieved through a reduction in nationally driven initiatives and
                targets so that there is scope for greater flexibility at all levels –
                authority, BCU and below - to take greater account of the local voice
                and give authorities space to prioritise the issues that local people say
                are important to them.


Increasing      Unsurprisingly, all the consultation undertaken by authorities confirms
Visibility &    that the public appetite for greater police visibility is undiminished and
Accessibility   that people want locally known, easily accessible, community or
                neighbourhood beat officers.


                Bureaucracy


                The APA supports the drive to reduce bureaucracy. Some progress
                has been made in reducing unnecessary paperwork, but this remains a
                key concern both for officers on the ground and for police authorities.

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                key concern both for officers on the ground and for police authorities.
                Each authority has nominated a lead member to work with the force
                to drive bureaucracy down. The APA Bureaucracy Members’ Network
                which meets regularly provides a forum in which the 43 members can
                identify and share good or innovative practices.


                As previously indicated, the APA supports the need for robust,
                comparable data to help drive up performance. The introduction of
                the Annual Data Requirement and the development of a more
                rigorous framework against which new central data demands must be
                tested is welcome. But there is still much which could be done to
                rationalise and reduce the many and varied central requests for
                information or data which impacts on the time officers and police
                staff can devote to effective policing activities. We believe that the
                ADR process should be further extended and developed.


                The service has been slow to exploit the benefits of modern
                technology and communications. Considerable benefits could be
                achieved by investing more effort and resource in accelerating
                implementation of mobile data systems, so that officers and staff can
                spend more time outside of stations.


                Visibility


                The APA and police authorities recognise that there is a considerable
                gap between the public’s expectation and demand for reassurance
                through increased police visibility and operational effectiveness in
                solving crime. The National Intelligence Model and the adoption of
                intelligence-led, targeted policing is likely to compound a policing
                style which reduces rather than enhances visibility.


                The public appetite for “more bobbies on the beat” has to be
                weighed against the need to clear up crime and bring offenders to
                justice, which is not always best achieved by visible policing.



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                The introduction of Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) has
                been welcome in this respect. There is scope to evaluate the
                deployment of PCSOs to explore what else they can do and how they
                can be funded. What they provide - a full time visible presence in the
                community - needs to be expanded to meet the clearly articulated
                expectation of the public.


                Equally, the indications are that we can have a considerable impact on
                reassurance through improving the state of the local environment and
                more needs to be done to hold partner agencies and CDRPs to
                account for delivering against their responsibilities. If we are to
                provide both a highly visible policing presence, including through the
                extended policy family, and to continue to improve performance in
                tackling crime, we need to be able to marshal joint resources and the
                efforts of communities and partners far more effectively.


                Police authorities share the view that there is a need to build from the
                bottom up by identifying and tackling with communities the issues
                that most concern them at neighbourhood or local level. We suggest
                that the solution lies in extending the NIM to capture “community
                intelligence” generated through engagement with communities and
                partner agencies such as CDRPs, Drug Action Teams (DAT/DAATs) and
                Youth Offending Teams (YOTs). This would ensure that the problems
                identified by communities at a very local level are used to help inform
                NIM assessments; tasking and co-ordination and priorities for action.


                Since NIM assessments will then generate actions for CDRPs and other
                partner agencies, (such as improving the visible appearance of the
                neighbourhood, drugs rehabilitation or providing facilities for young
                people), it would also strengthen the accountability of partner
                agencies for tackling issues which fall within their responsibilities.
                Certainly, there is a pressing need to find ways of ensuring that other
                partners represented on CDRPs, such as health and probation services,
                play a fuller part and commit at senior level to delivering agreed

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                play a fuller part and commit at senior level to delivering agreed
                outcomes. We believe this approach could finally start to give
                practical effect to the potentially very powerful statutory duty on all
                responsible bodies to consider the crime and disorder implications of
                everything they do (section 17, Crime and Disorder Act 1998), the
                benefits of which have yet to be fully realised.


                We propose that: police authorities be given a clear remit to
                drive the extension of NIM to embrace community intelligence
                and engagement to ensure that the efforts of both the police
                and other partners are directed at tackling community safety
                priorities identified by communities at neighbourhood level
                and that this include responsibility for assessing the impact on
                communities of such engagement in delivering reassurance.




Specials        There is genuine and general support for the contribution made by
                Specials and the APA welcomes the national initiatives underway to
                increase recruitment. Again there is evidence of much good practice
                in many areas which could be drawn on and shared, for example
                through increasing employer’s appreciation of the considerable
                benefits to business of enabling and supporting their staff to be
                specials (see section 3).


                Equally, Government could do more, for example, by exploring ways
                to encourage business to release employees to become specials such
                as tax relief or compensation and supporting younger people to
                volunteer by giving credit against student loans.


                It would be helpful to examine the extent to which increased
                recruitment of regular officers and the growth of the extended police
                family has impacted on the recruitment of specials and how this might
                be addressed.




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                The APA agrees that Specials with particular skills should be
                encouraged and fast-tracked into those areas where these skills can
                be used to best effect. Equally there is a need to recognise that some
                areas are heavily reliant on Specials to provide normal policing cover.


                More needs to be done to break down the barriers between the
                regular force and specials, so that they are not seen as a separate
                constabulary, but as an integral part of the wider family. This also
                means proper investment being made to ensure that Specials receive
                appropriate training, equipment and support from forces.


                Crucially, what is important is that there is flexibility for authorities
                and forces in identifying locally the right mix of staff whether regular
                officers, police staff, designated staff or specials. This includes
                provision for authorities to have the option to make payments or
                provide other incentives, such as free travel, if that is appropriate for
                their area, although there should be no requirement to do so.




Volunteers      The APA supports authorities and forces having scope to make
                effective use of volunteers in a way which is appropriate to local
                needs. There is, of course, a long-standing tradition of using
                volunteers for example as, Independent Custody Visitors,
                neighbourhood watch and local consultation co-ordinators; and
                community assessors but equally there is scope for more innovative
                approaches. The APA Guidance on community involvement in police
                training will cover the use of volunteers, including remuneration and
                use of community locations. There is a fund of public goodwill that is
                generally untapped: expanding the role of volunteers could both
                create a valuable resource, as well as enhance community
                engagement and participation in policing. Again, as suggested above,
                we need to look at innovative ways of encouraging young people to
                volunteer, for example through student loan credits.




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                Volunteers are not, however, cost-free and it is important that there is
                appropriate investment in ensuring that volunteers are properly
                trained,


                managed and supported and used in roles which take account of
                organisational and reliability issues.




Community       Similarly, the APA sees significant potential for engaging communities
Groups          more effectively in supporting the police in helping tackle local
                problems.


                Indeed, the full potential of many established community groups,
                residents associations, business and commercial organisations, as well
                as the many ‘Watch Schemes’, often remains unfulfilled. Access to
                secure funding can be a crucial barrier.




Businesses      Authorities already make considerable efforts, with varying success to
                consult and engage with local businesses, particularly in relation to
                the identification of local policing priorities and on proposed budgets.
                The absence of any direct link between non-domestic rates (collected
                nationally) and local police budgets means that there is little incentive
                for businesses to take an active interest despite considerable efforts to
                engage. The APA strongly supports relocalisation of business rates and
                expects that this will emerge from the Balance of Funding Review
                currently underway.


                More generally, businesses are more likely to support the police if they
                feel supported by them. The police could make greater efforts to
                engage by providing information and feedback on how to counteract
                crimes and action taken on reported incidents. There is also scope to
                do more to link crime reduction efforts and regeneration agendas
                more clearly.



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                                APA Response – Accountability & Responsiveness



                 Section 2B: Accountability & Responsiveness


Introduction     The APA and all police authorities strongly support increased
                 transparency and accountability of the police service to
                 communities. Policing is, and in our view, should continue to be a
                 locally accountable service. The tripartite relationship provides for
                 chief officers and forces to be accountable to police authorities, not
                 central government. However, from 1964 onwards there has been
                 an increase in the degree of central influence and control,
                 culminating in the Police Reform Act 2002. This has been
                 accompanied by a framework which seeks to direct policing through
                 a regime of national indicators, targets and centrally driven initiatives
                 backed up by monitoring and inspection, and use of ring-fenced
                 funding. As a consequence, the scope for authorities and forces to
                 address local priorities and issues identified by local people has been
                 significantly reduced. The APA recognises the Government’s role in
                 setting a broad strategic framework for policing and the
                 establishment of national standards which everyone throughout the
                 country can expect to receive. But there needs to be recognition
                 that a truly responsive local policing service means there must be
                 scope to focus on issues which local people say matter. We believe
                 there now needs to be a fundamental shift away from central
                 direction in favour of local flexibility. We therefore welcome the
                 recognition in the most recent National Policing Plan of the
                 importance of tackling local priorities.




Enhancing        The APA supports decisions and budgets being delegated to the
Leadership       lowest appropriate level with the managers at that level being made
capacity         clearly accountable, within a strong corporate governance
                 framework. Such corporate governance is undermined by direct
                 funding of Basic Command Units (BCUs). We consider this
                 development not just unwelcome and at odds with sound business
                 practice, but also contrary to transparent accountability mechanisms.

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                  The APA recognises the increasing focus being placed on BCUs as
                  the crucial vehicle for the delivery of local policing. But, it is
                  important to remember that under the current arrangements, BCUs
                  are artificial organisational constructs which can be altered at any
                  time. Moreover, BCU commanders, or indeed officers of any rank
                  are accountable to, and through the Chief Constable. Unless it is
                  proposed to alter that position it is difficult to see how actual
                  accountability can take place at BCU level. However, if
                  accountability means greater transparency and engagement (as
                  appears to be the case here), it is disappointing that the Green Paper
                  does not recognise that this is already being addressed by greater
                  authority scrutiny and oversight of BCUs in most areas. For
                  example, through the use of link/lead members, the development of
                  Local Partnership Boards and similar arrangements. As a next logical
                  step, we consider that the appointment of BCU commanders should
                  not remain the sole preserve of chief officers, but must increasingly
                  involve police authorities. This already happens as a matter of good
                  practice in some areas.


                  As previously indicated in Section 2A, the APA sees no case for BCUs
                  to be given statutory responsibilities for consultation. This would
                  duplicate the considerable consultation already undertaken by
                  authorities at BCU level and below, and add to public confusion.




Operational       The APA shares the view that ‘Operational Responsibility’ more
Responsibility/   accurately describes the relationship between chief officers and their
Independence      police authorities and communities. We agree that the concept of
                  ‘operational independence’ is outmoded and no longer reflects the
                  current reality.     In our view, however it would be helpful if
                  legislation   more    clearly   set   out   the   respective   roles   and
                  responsibilities of authorities and chief officers. In particular, we
                  suggest that this opportunity be taken to make clear that police
                  authorities have a role in setting strategy and policy and a clear duty

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                 authorities have a role in setting strategy and policy and a clear duty
                 to hold chief officers to account for the performance and
                 management of their forces.


Local Service    We agree that the public should have a clear picture of the levels of
level            service they can expect from police locally who should strive to
Agreements       improve the quality of service. Indeed, we would suggest that this is
                 already widely provided though local policing plans, local charters
                 and similar documents, but agree there is scope to improve.


                 However, experience in the public sector suggests that ‘Service Level
                 Agreements’ (SLAs) tend to be bureaucratic and there are concerns
                 around simply producing more statistics, as well as the costs of
                 monitoring and enforcing SLAs. What is more important is that
                 local people have a clear understanding of the service we are
                 committed to providing, rather than a formal “local service level
                 agreement,” which would be difficult to establish and agree on
                 behalf of the local population; possibly raise unrealistic expectations;
                 lead to areas of disagreement about interpretation or semantics; and
                 perhaps present a “picture” (which may or may not reflect reality) of
                 the provision of a differential service.




Single Non       We have no difficulty with concept of a SNEN, if it makes the police
Emergency        and other local services more accessible to local people.
Number           Consultation shows however that what really matters is not the
                 facility to dial a single number, but that the caller receives a good
                 quality “localised” response. It is therefore crucial that if it is
                 decided to progress a SNEN, the service is properly funded and
                 staffed, based on robust call-handling systems and does not
                 jeopardise local accessibility, intelligence and knowledge. It is
                 important that an early decision is made, if further money is not to
                 be wasted in the medium to long term, given that many authorities
                 are currently considering changes to call handling systems.



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Community         The APA fully agrees that the public’s concerns should be dealt with
Advocates         effectively and appropriately – the question is how?


                  There is a strong feeling that there is already a plethora of
                  individuals and organisations who carry out the sort of role
                  envisaged for community advocates, including local councillors,
                  police authority members in some areas, Race Equality Councils,
                  Victim Support, and Citizens Advice Bureau, etc. We consider that
                  there is a need to build on what is already there including, for
                  example, by Government providing a source of sustained funding
                  for existing advocacy organisations, rather than creating a new role.
                  Equally there is concern that this may add another layer between
                  communities and the police, is uncosted and could cause further
                  confusion of roles and responsibilities. The IPCC is about to come
                  into being and there is already a clear statutory process for dealing
                  with complaints about the police.    The best solution may be to give
                  more publicity to the existing arrangements so that the public can
                  understand how they can complain about individuals or the service
                  received.


                  If advocates were to be introduced as ‘paid officers’ this raises
                  significant questions about their accountability and role, unless this
                  work was under the remit of the Police Authority. Such an
                  approach would ensure that there is a standard adopted across the
                  whole of the Force area and that a strategic perspective on local
                  problems is maintained.




Neighbourhood The APA recognises that there are a range of local bodies and panels
Panels            already operating at local level which might fulfil this role. We
                  strongly agree that there cannot be a “one size fits all “approach.
                  However, if there is a gap and a neighbourhood panel develops that
                  should be supported, although panels would need to link in closely
                  with LSPs and CDRPs. There are concerns, however, that the
                  concept of neighbourhoods is very much focused towards urban

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                  concept of neighbourhoods is very much focused towards urban
                  policing issues. Inherent in the proposals is an assumption that a
                  neighbourhood is a compact, easily definable entity and of a
                  sufficient size to make a ‘neighbourhood panel’ administratively
                  feasible within any decision-making structure established. Such a
                  concept may be unworkable in large rural areas, such as Dyfed-
                  Powys. Indeed a ‘neighbourhood’ in a large metropolitan area
                  (perhaps 20,000 people) is likely to be very different in size and
                  nature from that in a country market town (around 1-2,000 people).
                  And, of course, not all communities are geographic: but may be
                  communities of interest, or of ethnicity, faith, background and so
                  on. Mechanisms to ensure their views and involvement are equally
                  important.




Accountability    The APA agrees that the role, transparency and accountability of
& Effectiveness   CDRP’s needs to be tightened, particularly given the advent of direct
of Partnerships   Government funding. CDRPs vary considerably in their make-up and
                  effectiveness, and visibility to the public. Certainly, where
                  membership is composed of unelected officers only, as is the case in
                  many areas, and the partnership meets privately, there is clearly no
                  accountability to communities.




                  The APA sees considerable scope for improving both partnership
                  working and enhancing accountability through better co-ordinated
                  planning, shared performance measures and pooled funding on
                  specific projects. Equally, CDRP funding needs to be more clearly
                  linked in with budgetary planning processes of parent organisations.
                  In our view, CDRPs need clear leadership and individual agencies
                  need to be held accountable by their parent organisations. The use
                  of multi-agency scrutiny boards comprising members of the
                  appropriate oversight bodies (i.e. Fire and Civil Defence Authorities,
                  Primary Care Trusts and Police Authorities, Local Authority
                  councillors) has proved useful in making CDRPs more accountable.

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                 councillors) has proved useful in making CDRPs more accountable.
                 The performance and effectiveness of CDRPs is, however, very
                 variable and in our view they will only really begin to deliver when
                 there is real commitment and engagement at senior level from
                 partner agencies such as Health, Education, Social Services and
                 Probation. Too often, CDRPs continue to be police-led and focus on
                 police issues rather than on the contribution which other partners
                 should make. It is disappointing that Section 17, Crime and
                 Disorder Act 1998 has yet to prove the important and powerful
                 driver it promised to be, in forcing all key agencies to address crime
                 and disorder issues.


                 Although not specifically raised by the Green paper, similar if not
                 more acute issues arise in relation to the transparency and
                 accountability of Local Criminal Justice Boards (LCJBs). The APA has
                 welcomed the advent of LCJBs and believes that they are beginning
                 to produce a more joined-up approach in tackling Criminal Justice
                 performance. Again, however, LCJBs comprise senior officers and
                 executives of the relevant agencies and meet wholly in private,
                 without any clear mechanisms for scrutiny or oversight at local level.
                 Given that there are plans for LCJBs to commission local services and
                 hold budgets, accountability issues need to be addressed.




Police           The APA strongly believes that there needs to be a strategic
Authorities      accountability and oversight body, equivalent to the current police
                 authority, with clear statutory duties and powers to carry out the
                 governance role.


                 We recognise that currently authorities have a low public profile but
                 consider that the solution is to improve public awareness and
                 understanding of their role rather than invent a new structure. We
                 also appreciate that the name ‘police authority’ does not assist in
                 signalling a separate identity from force, but we would wish to
                 ensure that any change of name does not involve any dilution of the

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                 ensure that any change of name does not involve any dilution of the
                 existing role.


                 Any new body will not necessarily have any greater profile unless
                 prepared to invest significantly in their own publicity.


                 It is fair to say that compared, for example with the investment
                 currently being made in establishing Local Criminal Justice Boards,
                 police authorities have received little in the way of support, and have
                 been hampered in performing the role expected of them by an
                 insufficiently clear statutory remit. Whilst the Police Act 1996 makes
                 clear that chief constables have direction and control of their forces,
                 there is no explicit statutory provision making chief constables
                 accountable to police authorities for the management and
                 performance of their forces, as for example, is the case in Northern
                 Ireland.


                 Nevertheless, we believe that much progress has been made over a
                 relatively short period both in engaging with local communities and
                 in holding forces to account on their behalf. This is now being
                 accelerated by the APA’s Police Authority Improvement Programme
                 which has the support and commitment of all authorities.


                 Police authorities see effective performance monitoring and
                 management as key to effectively holding the force to account on
                 behalf of local people. The Police Standards Unit has given a
                 welcome stimulus to the focus on performance management which
                 authorities were already trying to instil at local level. Good progress
                 is now being made and we welcome the additional benefits which
                 new tools such as i-Quanta, activity based costing and the
                 developing PPAF are bringing on stream. The importance we attach
                 to this area is underlined by the significant investment made by the
                 APA in the development and delivery of a specially tailored, modular
                 training programme for police authority members and staff “Can



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                 You Manage It?” Training has been delivered both nationally and
                 locally with over 400 members attending one or more of the 40
                 training days held during 2003.


                 Accordingly, we believe that police authorities have the knowledge,
                 skills and systems in place to undertake effective performance
                 scrutiny and drive forward continuous improvements. In effect,
                 police authorities are the local equivalent of the Police Standards
                 Unit, accounting on the one hand to the Home Office and on the
                 other to local communities for police performance.


                 Indeed, we would suggest, that police authorities are more
                 advanced in performance monitoring and scrutiny than many other
                 local bodies and agencies. Uniquely, the work of police authorities
                 extends across both community safety and criminal justice and
                 through our links with CDRPs and Local Criminal Justice Boards, we
                 believe that police authorities can be instrumental locally in securing
                 effective joined up performance management across the piece.


                 Accordingly, rather than creating a new oversight body or Board, we
                 believe that the answer lies instead in strengthening the role of
                 police authorities by articulating more clearly within legislation their
                 powers and duties for holding chief officers to account on behalf of
                 communities for police performance. This ties in with our proposals
                 for authorities to have a remit to co-ordinate consultation on
                 community safety issues. The Northern Ireland legislation and
                 experience provides a good example on which we can draw.


                 In line with this, we agree with the Government that the concept of
                 “operational independence” is now outmoded and that a move to
                 “operational responsibility” is appropriate and would accord with
                 the practical reality which exists in many areas.




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                 We propose that: in line with the proposed shift to
                 “operational responsibility”, police authorities should be
                 given an explicit statutory remit to hold chief officers to
                 account on behalf of their communities and the role and
                 responsibilities of police authorities should be more clearly
                 set out in legislation.


                 Membership of Authorities


                 The APA and police authorities firmly believe that current
                 membership, with possible minor changes, works well. Elected
                 members provide an element of democratic accountability, including
                 a major role in setting the police precept, as well as providing
                 important links to other local government services such as Social
                 Services, Education and Highways. Magistrates provide links to CJS.
                 Independent members provide an avenue by which any member of
                 the public can become a member and provide an opportunity to
                 ensure that the authority has the right balance and mix of skills.
                 Authorities have worked strenuously to ensure that through the
                 independent member appointments process, both the gender and
                 ethnicity of authority membership more fully reflects the local
                 communities it serves. The Green Paper’s recognition of the strides
                 made by authorities in this respect is welcome. Some 9% of all
                 police authority members are now from BME backgrounds and just
                 under half are women. Any changes which undermine that process
                 would represent a reverse step.


                 The APA would welcome flexibility for authorities to have scope to
                 slightly increase their size and capacity to co-opt, for example,
                 members of probation services, social services or business and
                 industry, if that was needed to enhance the skills mix. This could be
                 achieved by placing a maximum limit on membership.


                 The APA is strongly opposed to wholly or partly directly elected
                 authorities. We can understand that this is seen as a simple way of

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                 authorities. We can understand that this is seen as a simple way of
                 increasing transparency and accountability. But in our view it is
                 fraught with danger, including encouraging greater party
                 politicisation of policing; real risk of extremist groups targeting such
                 elections and securing representation with very damaging effects
                 both for policing and crucially on trust and confidence amongst
                 Black and Minority Ethnic Communities.


                 We have already made clear our very considerable concern about
                 the impact of any of the alternative options on the diversity of police
                 authority membership and as indicated above independent
                 membership has brought significant benefits in this respect. There is
                 a substantial body of evidence in this country and in Europe, that
                 those who stand for election are predominantly white males and
                 that both women and minority communities are reluctant to stand
                 for election.


                 All police authority members represent the interests of the
                 communities over the whole of the police area. But directly elected
                 members would only represent the constituency or interest group
                 who elected them. It is important that the Police Authority is seen
                 to be accountable to all members of communities and not to


                 factions or pressure groups which again would be put at risk by
                 ‘single-issue’ candidates or groups securing election.


                 Candidates for elections will make promises and the most
                 extravagant likely to win today, but whilst chief officers retain
                 direction and control, they will find it difficult to deliver, leading to
                 greater public disillusionment.


                 We consider that the public are even less likely to support elections
                 where the candidate is even more remote then, for example, an
                 MEP.



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                 More publicity of the role and responsibilities of the authority is
                 desirable, together with a greater visibility of members. The
                 procedure by which each of the constituent elements of the
                 authority is selected should be better publicised and more
                 transparent to increase community engagement and raise the profile
                 of authorities as the public bodies responsible for securing the
                 delivery of efficient and effective policing to communities.


                 As we indicated in our evidence to the recent Review of the
                 Appointment and Selection of Independent Members, we favour
                 radical streamlining of the current process and removal of the
                 current long-listing stage carried out by the Home Office. We shall
                 be submitting separately our detailed comments on the draft review
                 report, but essentially we support a locally based selection process.
                 The APA and police authorities are committed to a competency
                 based selection process for such appointments. Equally, we
                 welcome the forthcoming changes which will enable a similarly
                 rigorous competency-based selection procedure to apply to the
                 appointment of magistrate members.


                 We would suggest that consideration should also be given to
                 developing arrangements for councillor members to be subject to a
                 competency–based selection approach, and believe this could be
                 achieved, whilst also maintaining the need to secure political
                 balance.




Accountability   Police authorities agree that the public should have a clear picture of
for Resources    how their money is being spent on policing and how this links to the
                 performance of their


                 force. Efforts to provide as much information as possible are already
                 made through local policing plans, reports and other publications.



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                 The APA strongly supports local taxation continuing to contribute
                 towards policing. It provides an important connection between the
                 police and the community and reinforces accountability. Police
                 authorities therefore make considerable efforts to consult
                 communities and local businesses about precept levels and to keep
                 them informed of the levels of service provided as a result of any
                 increases. We believe it is essential that the public can see that the
                 Police Service is accountable for the resources it extracts through the
                 precept. But the gearing effect on police authorities’ budgets does
                 nothing to help people understand how their money is spent, and
                 creates anger and disillusionment. Again, we look forward to this
                 being addressed as part of the Balance of Funding Review.


                 Activity Based Costing and the developing Policing Performance
                 Assessment Framework (PPAF) will help to provide a clearer picture
                 to enable the public to make more informed judgements about the
                 use of resources and associated performance.


                 We believe the Government should likewise produce a costed
                 National Policing Plan showing the costs attached to delivering
                 national priorities.




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                           APA Response – Improving Operational Effectiveness



               Section 2C: Improving Operational Effectiveness



Force         We recognise that it is sensible to review existing force structures to
Structures    see whether they meet current and future policing needs. We share
              the Government’s view that crucial to any policing structure is the need
              for the service to ‘connect to real people in their neighbourhoods’ and
              that ‘remote, disconnected’ forces would undermine the engagement
              and involvement we all wish to see.


              Police authorities are only too well aware of the gap in dealing with
              cross-border crime (level two) resulting from the creation of the
              National Crime Squad (NCS) and support the need to put effective
              arrangements in place to close this gap.


              We are not, however, convinced on current evidence that the solution
              lies in a major restructuring of the present 43 forces for the following
              reasons:


                  Ø Whilst it might seem obvious that there would be potential
                      benefits to be gained by further centralising support functions
                      and processes and economies of scale, there is no proven
                      business case that larger forces are more effective and efficient.
                  Ø Experience elsewhere in the public sector, including local
                      government has shown that structural change is immensely
                      disruptive and costly to implement and it often takes a number
                      of years for the ‘new’ organisations to regain the level of
                      performance previously achieved;
                  Ø The potential detrimental impact on communities’ confidence
                      and identity with possibly remote police organisations; it is
                      already the case, for examples that rural areas in particular feel
                      alienated when their problems are overshadowed by cities
                      whose problems cause the focus of policing to be directed
                      away from local concerns;



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                  Ø The potential impact on partnership working at local level. In
                     particular, given the recent restructuring of CJS agencies to
                     police areas and the CJS reform programme, the considerable
                     progress which is being made by LCJBs in developing a much
                     more focused and joined-up a approach could be substantially
                     impaired; and


                  Ø The issue of cross border operational capability will arise
                     wherever boundaries are drawn. This suggests a need for
                     flexible force-level cross border capability that can be deployed
                     in line with needs as they change.


              Experience of NIM suggests that forces are contributing to Level two
              operations on a collaborative basis where there is an identified need
              and it would seem appropriate to wait until NIM has been fully
              implemented and evaluated before embarking on any major structural
              change.


              In our view a proper cost-benefit analysis of the options, which takes
              full account on the impact of communities’ confidence, is a
              precondition to consideration of any reconfiguration.


              The APA considers that the key drivers should be both operational
              effectiveness and local community identities: the police service should
              be the product of the community it serves.


              We are not convinced that the case for change has been made. We
              do, however, see scope for improving capacity and capability in other
              ways including further development of Forces with lead specialisations
              – as the Green Paper recognises, there are good examples of this
              already happening in practice. Other benefits can be gained by an
              increased focus on national standards in technology, skills and
              processes.




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              Most importantly, we also see considerable scope for further
              improvements to service delivery through increased strategic
              collaboration which would afford both economies of scale and the
              opportunity to develop centres of excellence. Again, there are already
              good working examples around the country and the Green Paper has
              provided an impetus to authorities to start exploring other possibilities.
              We do not consider that this should be confined to geographic areas.


              We would welcome police authorities being given a statutory duty to
              secure collaboration at strategic level, including putting in place
              appropriate governance and oversight structures.


                  We propose that:
                      Ø police authorities be given a statutory duty to
                          establish effective collaborative arrangements with
                          appropriate governance structures to tackle serious,
                          organised crime; and
                      Ø police authorities be given capacity to develop
                          collaborative approaches to workforce planning,
                          recruitment, training and development based on
                          strategic assessments in support of this approach.


Enhancing     Police authorities recognise the value of advice and professional
Central       expertise available from HMIC, PSU and other central bodies. But there
Support       is a strong feeling that the burden of inspection, regulation, audit and
              other oversight is now too great and is interfering with the capacity of
              forces and BCUs to deliver. The establishment of the Independent
              Police Complaints Commission, with its own powers of inspection,
              represents another new player in this field.


              Rationalisation at the centre and a much more joined-up approach
              would assist if, as we advocate, there is a move away from central
              direction and target-setting, there should be a concomitant reduction
              in monitoring and target-setting.


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              We welcome the steps which have been taken in recent years to
              extend the composition of HMIC, including the appointment of non-
              police Inspectors. However, we believe there is scope for a more
              radical diversification of the skills and knowledge base of the
              Inspectorate, PSU and other central bodies, together with scope for a
              more modern way of doing business.




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                                      APA Response – Modernising the Police Service

                    Section 2D: Modernising the Police Service

Rewarding         As indicated in the overview, we do not recognise the concept of
Good              ‘earned autonomy’ within the tripartite relationship and would argue
Performance –     rather that all authorities should have the sort of ‘freedoms and
Earned            flexibilities’ described in the Green Paper. These should only be
Autonomy          questioned where performance is poor. Consistent with our opposition
                  to direct funding of BCUs, we would be strongly opposed to any
                  proposed system operating below authority level.


                  We agree that performance would be enhanced by the approaches
                  proposed including:-


                               o   greater freedoms to set local priorities which are very
                                   different from those set centrally/reduction or
                                   disapplication of national targets
                               o   reduction in inspection, monitoring and audit
                               o   removal of bureaucracy associated with ring-fenced
                                   funding and police grants; and
                               o   exemption from capping.


                  We would be opposed to any approach which resulted in communities
                  not currently well-served by their forces being subject to further
                  detriment.




Achieving a       In our view, the real key to success in police reform lies with the people
more unified      who deliver the service. We believe that this should be a key focus of
service -         police reform and consider that there is scope for rapid and radical
Developing        progress to be made on this front.
the role of
police staff      The APA wants to see a more flexible and responsive workforce, with
further /Police   greater opportunities for development for all staff in the police service.

workforce
regulations       We strongly support an integrated workforce without artificial divisions.
                  We welcome police staff taking on new and important roles within

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                                    APA Response – Modernising the Police Service

                We welcome police staff taking on new and important roles within
                forces and look forward to the forthcoming HMIC thematic report on
                civilianisation pushing forward the boundaries in this area. In doing so,
                however, it is crucial that a proper supporting infrastructure is put in
                place and appropriate investment made in training, development and
                career structure for police staff.


                A truly integrated and flexible workforce is likely to involve officers
                managing police staff and vice versa to a much greater extent than is
                the case at present. As well as a cultural shift the service needs to
                ensure that both officers and staff have the necessary management
                skills.


                Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) have made an initial positive
                impact. The advent of PCSOs and other police staff in operational roles
                increasingly makes redundant the traditional view of police officers
                being visible in the front line, as against police staff in the background.
                But, if and when the ring-fenced funding for PCSOs comes to an end,
                there will be very tough decisions for forces and authorities about the
                continuing role for PCSOs set against other priorities.


                A more holistic approach is needed to workforce training and
                development to allow a greater level of transition between non-
                warranted and warranted staff. The Integrated Competency Framework
                and current developments in the training field provide the potential for
                this to happen.


                There remain cultural and other issues militating against modernisation
                which now need to be urgently addressed, including:


                     Ø the different legal status of police officers as against employees
                     Ø single point of entry for police officers
                     Ø the hierarchical rank structure
                     Ø the expectation that officers will have a 30 year career in the
                          service


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                     Ø police regulations and the cumbersome process for changing
                         them
                     Ø different sets of pay and conditions and different negotiating
                         machineries.


                 The APA wishes to see a situation where authorities have the freedom
                 and capacity to decide the right mix of staff to develop a workforce
                 which meets local communities’ policing needs. We also want to see
                 the development of common minimum standards for all those within
                 the wider police family and believe that authorities have a key role to
                 play here.


                 However, a major barrier to faster development of the integrated
                 workforce is the political focus on police officer numbers, and in
                 particular the operation of the Crime Fighting Fund, which means that
                 in some cases police officers are retained artificially in roles which are
                 potentially suitable for police staff. The APA calls for all those involved
                 or with an interest in securing safer communities to begin to work
                 collectively to help the public better understand that increased police
                 visibility does not have to be delivered through an increase in police
                 office numbers.


                 We propose that: police authorities have lead responsibility for
                 ensuring the development of common standards of training and
                 career development for the wider police family.




Achieving a      The APA is absolutely committed to a police service which fully reflects
representative our diverse communities. We believe that the legitimacy and credibility
police service   of the police service and indeed the fundamental principle of policing by
                 consent is undermined unless significant and rapid progress can be
                 made towards a more representative service.


                 We recognise that much more needs to be done both to recruit more
                 officers and staff from BME communities, women and other under-
                 represented groups and to ensure that they are encouraged to apply for
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                represented groups and to ensure that they are encouraged to apply for
                jobs across the whole range of policing posts. Equally, they must have a
                genuine equality of access to promotion. We welcome the recent joint
                Home Office/ACPO/APA Action Plan “Breaking Through” as a basis for
                revitalising local efforts. Progress on other initiatives such as the
                ‘Gender Agenda’ is also vital. Improving confidence and trust and
                sustained local recruitment initiatives are crucial if we are to move
                forward. It may also now be appropriate to explore whether there are
                other more innovative ways to tackle this issue.


                We believe that a unified workforce as advocated above should also
                help improve representation by enhancing opportunities for movement
                of both warranted and non-warranted staff. This would allow greater
                career choices for all and make the Service a more attractive and flexible
                working environment and facilitate recruitment from the wider
                workforce.


                The APA welcomes the invaluable work done by the NBPA; BAWP; the
                GPA and similar staff support networks both nationally and locally to
                help the service address the barriers to increasing diversity. Police
                authorities are committed to ensuring that such networks are properly
                supported and resourced locally.


Supporting      The APA considers that business and industry have a major role to play
and             by providing leadership training and development opportunities for
improving       senior police managers. Whilst there are already many initiatives with
leadership      local companies, a more structured approach is needed.
and
management      However it is important to retain the flexibility which allows those

of the police   applying for senior officer posts to decide where to make their

service         applications, rather than being directed to particular posts. Equally, the
                APA strongly believes that selection decisions should be clearly left to
                police authorities without central direction limiting their choice.


                We welcome the proposed support for chief officers and potential chief
                officers, and look forward to receiving more detailed proposals. Similar
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                officers, and look forward to receiving more detailed proposals. Similar
                support should also be available to senior police staff.


                The PDR scheme is crucial in ensuring good management practices and
                authorities have a key role to play in ensuring this happens successfully,
                especially for senior officers. We believe that police authorities role in
                the appraisal of chief officers needs to be strengthened, so that they can
                be fully held to account on behalf of local communities, for their
                performance in managing the force and delivering effective services.


                The APA strongly supports authorities having the freedom to appoint
                professional managers of proven ability from a variety of backgrounds
                to ACPO ranks, below Chief Constable level. Equally, we support
                opening senior posts to overseas police officers and managers. We call
                for the current anomaly, whereby police authorities have no statutory
                role in the appointment of senior non-warranted staff at ACPO
                equivalent ranks to be removed. This will of course require a clear
                definition of exactly which police staff are at ACPO level.




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                               APA Response – Current Police Authority Activities

                   Section 3: Current Police Authority Activities


Increasing Community Engagement


                              Community Engagement


Devon & Cornwall     Re-alignment of the force into Neighbourhood Beats from April
                     2003 has enhanced the way in which engagement with local
                     communities can be undertaken.


Durham               The authority has established a Community Engagement Panel to
                     focus activity in this area and to forge links with relevant community
                     groups including neighbourhood watch co-ordinators, residents’
                     associations etc.

                     The authority is also considering establishing its own Citizens Panel
                     from which issue-specific focus groups could be drawn and be
                     supported with the necessary training and familiarisation
                     arrangements to enable them to make a worthwhile and
                     meaningful contribution.


Lancashire           The authority has set up a citizens’ panel “Opinion!” which is made
                     up of over 4000 Lancashire residents.


Metropolitan         The MPA is presently undertaking work to ensure robust analysis of
                     the function and future direction of Community Police Consultative
                     Groups (CPCGs) through the introduction of a rigorous annual
                     bidding process which will ensure greater local accountability,
                     representativeness and community influence on policing.

                     In addition, in partnership with the London-Wide CPCG Chairs’
                     Forum, discussion is underway to first highlight innovative activity
                     and to produce and widely disseminate a ‘best practice’ guide and
                     secondly to establish regular input in to the MPA’s Consultation
                     Committee to ensure that the strategic issues emanating from
                     CPCG discussions are channelled directly into the MPA’s community
                     accountability responsibilities and governance and oversight role.

                     Secondly, the MPA is extending the array of consultative
                     methodologies employed to obtain the views of the public including
                     the participation in public surveys, e-consultation with community
                     stakeholder groups in partnership with the MPS, focus groups, and
                     deliberative conferences.

                     Thirdly, the MPA is establishing a Citizen’s Panel, which will be
                     representative of the London demographic data, and be large


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                              APA Response – Current Police Authority Activities

                   enough to ensure statistically valid representative samples and sub-
                   samples of ‘hard to hear’ communities. The Panel permits a more
                   rapid “quick –time” response and will be used on a regular basis for
                   different policing issues

                   Fourthly, the MPA is enlarging its partnership work with community-
                   based networks as a more effective mechanism of consulting with
                   different sectors of the community. Recently it undertook a
                   breakfast consultation with over 200 representatives of the faith
                   communities in partnership with the Haringey Peace Alliance. In
                   partnership with the London Civic Forum, six focus groups were
                   held with representatives from Asian communities, refugee and
                   asylum seekers, disability communities, women’s networks, small
                   businesses and the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender
                   communities. Also recently a youth workshop was organised by the
                   Peabody Trust.

                   Fifthly, the MPA is testing innovative approaches to community
                   police consultation in London Boroughs such as Kensington and
                   Chelsea and in Hammersmith and Fulham. The experimental project
                   in Kensington and Chelsea arose from the recognition that the
                   conventional CPCG structure is not always effective at representing
                   the ‘ordinary citizen’, let alone developing active citizenship.

                   Consequently a group of 20 volunteers, without any particular
                   community group affiliation, has been directly recruited by a market
                   research company on behalf of the MPA, using random selection.
                   Between them this group is broadly representative of the population
                   of the borough in terms of age group, gender, ethnic origin and
                   Police Sector of residence. The volunteers have little or no prior
                   formal involvement with police community consultative structures.
                   Thus the new Panel will be complementary to the existing CPCG
                   and will provide the Group with a more broadly based community
                   perspective.

                   The task for the new Panel is to consider a range of policing and
                   community safety issues by listening to and cross-questioning
                   experts in these different areas and formulating observations,
                   recommendations or questions for the CPCG itself. The task for the
                   Management Committee of the CPCG will be to act as the
                   ‘executive arm’ of the Police Community Panel, to take on board the
                   Panel’s comments and to act on them as appropriate, with feedback
                   to the Panel at regular intervals.

                   The MPA expects this experiment to provide valuable lessons both in
                   police engagement with a wider community in sufficient depth to
                   make the engagement fruitful for both sides, and also in making
                   local policing accountable to active citizens.

                   In Hammersmith and Fulham, while there is a variety of consultation
                   processes dedicated to policing and community safety issues at the
                   local level, there is much less at the area or sector level and virtually
                   none at the Borough or strategic level. In order to address this, the

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                   MPA is testing the concept of a small ‘cabinet’ of key players,
                   balancing the interests of the various community stakeholder
                   groups, and that would be chaired by the MPA Link Member. An
                   MPA staff person, located in the borough, will support this
                   structure, monitor and analyse local crime and disorder issues and
                   organise community meetings.

                   This approach will provide lessons with regard to increasing the
                   visibility of the Police Authority at the borough level, with clarifying
                   the role of the Link Member, and with strengthening the
                   relationship of local consultation to the policy and strategic level.




Norfolk            A member is allocated to each of the 16 sectors in order to take a
                   full and active role in consulting the local communities alongside the
                   local sector inspector.


North Yorkshire    The authority is working with the Local Councils Association and
                   Council for Voluntary Services in enhancing communications with
                   parishes and developing the ability to communicate electronically
                   with them, other stakeholders and the voluntary sector.


Staffordshire      The authority has produced local consultation guidelines for police
                   authority members and staff which is widely used in their
                   community engagement activity. Along with the force, they have
                   also recently introduced a standard “framework” to ensure that the
                   authority and force capture information about local engagement
                   and consultation. The framework can be completed by both
                   authority members and officers and fed back (hard copy or
                   electronically) to the authority and force for analysis.

                   The authority also publishes its consultation strategy and annual
                   consultation programme on its website.


Surrey             The authority has encouraged the force to pilot different ways of
                   engaging its local communities through Neighbourhood Specialist
                   Officers who have their own mobile phone, voicemail and e-mail
                   account so that they can be easily contacted. Surrey Police has now
                   dedicated a section on the force website to provide localised
                   information about clinics and other ward level data, and the officers
                   regularly distribute information during their interactions with
                   members of the public.

                   Surrey Police and the authority also currently support an
                   Independent Advisory Group (IAG). The role of this Group is to act
                   as a “critical friend” to Surrey Police and acts as a link between the
                   force and the communities represented on the Group. The IAG has
                   taken a lead in analysing trends in stop and search data in an effort

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                     to understand and reduce the disproportionality in the statistics.
                     The conclusions are then disseminated through existing networks
                     operating in the communities of Group members.

                     In addition, each district and borough in Surrey has established a
                     Community Incident Action Group (CIAG). These are problem-
                     solving groups that share information between a range of partner
                     organisations in order to target problem individuals, families, and,
                     on occasion, locations that have a disruptive impact on the
                     community. There are eleven CIAGs across the county each with its
                     own terms of reference.

                     Finally, the authority supports the running of 30 Police and
                     Community Partnership Groups (PCPGs). These groups are
                     designed to give the local community a chance to meet their local
                     police officers and authority members and feed in their views on
                     local policing. These meetings also give members the chance to
                     consult with the community on any up and coming projects,
                     processes and strategies.

                     PCPGs are located around the county and chaired and run by local
                     people with the support of the Communication and Community
                     Engagement Officer of Surrey Police Authority.


                             Information about policing


Dorset               Through the Police Partnership Trust, 28 moving message signs have
                     been established which are being used by Watch Schemes, Beat
                     Officers and Parish Councils to display community safety and
                     reassurance messages.


Essex                The Police Media and PR Unit works extensively with local media to
                     ensure that information regarding policing is made available
                     through a variety of sources.

Gloucestershire      Makes greater use of electronic technology to make information
                     available to the public. This allows those who wish to, to have
                     access to a great deal of information, freely available, about policing
                     policy and performance.


Greater Manchester The authority and force are strengthening their resources to improve
                   electronic and accessible information to the public. Work is also
                   being done to improve the communication network of the police
                   authority, including looking at access to performance information
                   on the website and local BCU information.


Lancashire           The authority produces a free newspaper for every household in its


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                   area, operates its own website, briefs its citizens’ panel several times
                   a year and runs regular community meetings.


Northamptonshire   Establishment of a unit known as “COMPASS” (Community
                   Profiling Shared Solutions), which collates data from the CDRP
                   partnerships and gives a consolidated analysis for the partnerships
                   providing a comprehensive picture of crime and disorder in the
                   locality.


South Yorkshire    The authority has received local and national recognition for its
                   focus on consultation. In particular, Police Talk is a twice-yearly
                   questionnaire sent to a random sampling of people taken from the
                   electoral register. Up to 3000 responses, including at least 400 per
                   BCU, are received and respondents are broadly representative of the
                   county population. Police Talks 1, 3, 5 etc. ask the same questions
                   annually in relation to crime and disorder and policing. The
                   objective is to inform planning and priority setting and to provide
                   trend data at force- and BCU-level. Police Talks 2, 4, 6 etc. are used
                   to ask specific questions in relation to topics such as best value; the
                   budget; communications; road safety, cameras and traffic; and
                   street crime.

                   Police Talk addresses many of the weaknesses inherent within
                   PCCGs, i.e. each questionnaire receives a higher number of
                   responses than there were attendees at every PCCG in total per
                   year; they are more representative of the broader countywide
                   population; and the data appears in a tangible form. In addition,
                   officers of the police authority — with support from the police’s
                   Senior Command Team, Corporate Development Department and
                   BCU Commanders — have instituted a process whereby BCU
                   Commanders are asked to respond to the questionnaire results in
                   terms of their Control and Patrol Strategies.

                   The authority and force have also introduced a P1 form which is
                   completed by a community constable after attending a community
                   meeting, e.g. Neighbourhood Watch, Tenants and Residents’
                   Associations etc. The form includes details of the area where the
                   meeting took place (i.e. beat/ward); number and profile of those
                   attending; and the policing issues raised. The form aims to provide
                   information and intelligence for planning and priority setting, and
                   tasking and coordinating processes. The information is inputted
                   onto BCU databases and centrally collated by police authority staff.

                   Consequently, police authority officers no longer have to administer
                   PCCGs and analyse the results. There has been a twenty-fold
                   increase in the number of public views captured and data appears in
                   a tangible form. Attendances on average have improved at the
                   limited, more targeted number of PCCGs. The P1 process has
                   allowed officers to develop new ways of working e.g. Police Talk.

                   Information about policing is disseminated through “Serving You”

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                   — a mass circulation “tabloid” newspaper which is distributed to
                   every household and business using Royal Mail.


Staffordshire      The authority and force have issued to all households in
                   Staffordshire a “Safer Staffordshire” magazine — which is also
                   available on the websites. The publication covers such issues as
                   strategy; local personnel down to LPU level; contact numbers;
                   pictures of officers; and consultation.

                   The authority also publishes quarterly performance monitoring and
                   evaluation information which is also placed on the website. LPU
                   level performance and evaluation information is also put into the
                   context of the local area.

                   The Annual Policing/Best Value Performance Plan is produced in CD-
                   Rom format and distributed to libraries and community groups.
                   Cassette tapes are produced, on request, for minority groups and
                   the visually impaired.


Surrey             Police performance data is captured at CDRP level and presented to
                   various Police and Community Partnership Groups (PCPGs)
                   operating across the county. The authority currently supports thirty
                   such Groups and has been developing an improvement programme
                   over the past year. This has culminated in the production of a
                   Handbook outlining the commitments of all parties involved, i.e. the
                   Group themselves, Surrey Police and the Authority.

                   The Authority was keen to ensure that a commitment was given by
                   each Group to hold no fewer than two public consultation events
                   each year. Authority Members have given a commitment to ensure
                   that there is a Member present at each public meeting. In order to
                   help Members fulfil this role they are provided with a detailed brief
                   developed by the Authority’s Community Engagement and
                   Partnership Panel that receives feedback reports from each PCPG
                   following a meeting.

                            Visibility and accessibility


Cumbria            Local Policing Team (LPT) Project — aims to recruit 300 extra officers
                   over the next three years who will form 19 separate Local Policing
                   Teams. They will deliver a locally-responsive and accountable style
                   of problem-solving policing.


Dyfed-Powys        Local police offices are sited within the community and mobile
                   police offices operate in summer months at small towns and villages
                   whose population grows substantially with holidaymakers.




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Greater Manchester The authority has been working closely with the command team to
                   ensure that desk bound officers are released for front line duties
                   and as many corporate posts are civilianised, releasing officers’ time.
                   Visibility has been improved by the introduction of 185 Community
                   Support Officers and 45 civilian detention officers to the existing
                   340 Special constables.

                      A force wide volunteer scheme will be established in 2004/05 to
                      add capacity to a range of policing areas and crime reduction
                      activities. The scheme will be developed through a multi-agency
                      project board involving staff associations and lay contributors.


Lancashire            The authority has increased its budget specifically to provide 80
                      additional “community beat managers” (CBMs) in 2003/04. It has
                      also fully endorsed the chief constable in leading the way nationally
                      in the recruitment of Police Community Support Officers and in
                      devising a local Accreditation Scheme for employers of similar staff.

                      The authority has also amended its Best Value review programme to
                      incorporate a review of the volunteers’ recruitment initiative which
                      was launched by the force and fully supported by the police
                      authority.


Metropolitan          The MPA has overseen the introduction of Police Community
                      Support Officers (PCSOs) and established a Transport Operational
                      Command Unit with Transport for London.


South Yorkshire       The authority supported the establishment of BCU Community
                      Service Desks and Local Partnership Teams to help increase visibility
                      and accessibility.


Staffordshire         The authority and force have ensured the provision of hand held
                      technology to officers to help reduce bureaucracy.


Surrey                93 Neighbourhood Specialist Officers have been deployed across the
                      county. The deployment of these officers is reinforced by a rigorous
                      policy to prevent perpetual abstraction to other duties. In addition,
                      the Authority has supported the recruitment of 76 Police
                      Community Support Officers creating a more visible presence in
                      local neighbourhoods.

                      Each officer is supplied with their own mobile phone, voicemail
                      account and email address. These communication tools allow
                      officers to be contactable in a number of different ways and
                      increases their accessibility to the public.


Sussex                Establishment of district commanders and neighbourhood policing

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                     teams charged with responding effectively to community needs and
                     the establishment of more than 30 Local Action Teams.

                                  Special Constables


Cheshire             Appointment of a Specials Co-ordinator to improve the co-
                     ordination of the role of special constables and a recent initiative to
                     target recruits from minority ethnic groups.


Norfolk              The STEPS project — the authority works with employers to improve
                     recruitment of Specials. Employers are asked to commit to paying
                     an employee who signs up as a Special for eight hours duty and the
                     employee is asked to volunteer a further unpaid eight hours.
                     Employees have shown that they value the mutual benefit of having
                     a trained Special on their staff.


Surrey               The authority is very supportive of the development of the Special
                     Constabulary. A project being run in Addlestone allows the Special
                     Constabulary to take the lead in providing local beat policing to the
                     community. The initiative was designed to allow Special Constables
                     the opportunity to use their local knowledge in carrying out their
                     duties, as well as complement the reassurance agenda.


               Making better use of and enabling local communities



Bedfordshire         Operation Dodford has enabled the development of community
                     policing in conjunction with Leighton-Linslade Town Council. This
                     provides the opportunity for local communities to input funds
                     towards the safety of their communities and also to achieve
                     influence over local safety.


Dorset               The Police Partnership Trust, established about 6 years ago, works
                     very closely with the CDRPs and has developed packages and
                     training to help communities tackle their own problems, e.g.
                     building youth shelters.

                     The Trust has also developed the Rural Safety Guild to support rural
                     communities seeking to improve the quality of life and build
                     capacity to tackle issues of crime, anti-social behaviour and fear of
                     crime.



Greater Manchester A cadet scheme has been operating in Wigan MBC to provide an
                   insight to young people into the police service and to encourage

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                   future police careers.

                   There are thousands of people already volunteering in the work of
                   the force and the authority through watch schemes, independent
                   advisors to committees — e.g. on race — facilitators to assist senior
                   investigators at major incidents and independent custody visitors
                   and youth cadets.


South Yorkshire    The authority, through community grants programmes, has enabled
                   local people to engage with the police in reducing crime and anti-
                   social behaviour. The police authority’s Community Initiatives
                   Programme (CIP), latterly the ABC Awards, has made available more
                   than £9 million to community projects. The CIP enabled the
                   community to inform the policing priorities and the police authority,
                   through CIP, enabled communities to deliver projects. Every
                   community grant application must be co-signed and supported by
                   the local constable.

                    Businesses and police working together



Cumbria            Formation of a “Vision Group” of “Critical Friends” recruited from
                   the Cumbrian business community aimed at obtaining business
                   input to the authority’s Best Value reviews which also offers a wider,
                   two-way flow of information.


Kent               The sponsorship of PCSOs by large companies and housing estate
                   developers has allowed greater use of staff in areas so local
                   engagement is more effective.

                   At the Bluewater shopping centre, a dedicated team of officers are
                   responsible for the patrolling and investigation of crime within the
                   shopping complex. Working closely with the management team of
                   the centre, retailers and the public, utilising technology — such as
                   CCTV and ANPR and dual channel radios — the officers are able to
                   respond quickly and effectively to deal with criminal activity and
                   those engaged in anti-social behaviour.


Lincolnshire       A Rural Policing Forum — made up of representatives of farming
                   and rural business interests — includes secretaries of local National
                   Farmers Union branches and regional representatives of tenant
                   farmers, gamekeepers and landowners. The group has helped
                   promote shared knowledge and intelligence about the activities of
                   large-scale deer poaching operations and illegal hare coursing.


Northamptonshire   Authority supported the development and operation of a scheme in
                   conjunction with the business community, known initially as the


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                   Coalition against Crime. Each business contributed an annual fee
                   and a support network was provided with a co-ordinator employed
                   by the police force. This was taken over by the local Chamber of
                   Commerce in 2002 and is now known as Business against Crime.



Surrey             The authority has initiated a programme of business breakfasts
                   where representatives of the most significant employers in the
                   county and umbrella organisations, e.g. the Federation of Small
                   Businesses and Chambers of Commerce, are invited to discuss issues
                   of mutual concern with authority members and the ACPO team.

                   The authority contributes on a regular basis to the Chamber of
                   Commerce’s newsletter, thereby allowing crime prevention advice
                   to be disseminated amongst over 1200 businesses in the force area.




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Accountability of Policing


                              Enhancing accountability


Cheshire             Development of neighbourhood/sector policing and consideration of
                     greater devolvement to BCUs.


Cumbria              The authority’s newly-incepted “Link scheme” enables members to
                     engage with their BCU and it is actively developing a clear, written
                     specification to embed a proactive role for lead members on specific
                     policing subjects.


Gloucestershire      There is a system of neighbourhood policing below BCU level which
                     allows approaches to community consultation and involvement to
                     vary to suit the make up of each particular area. Individual
                     members of the authority take responsibility for one of the
                     neighbourhood policing areas, leading the public consultation
                     process in that area and providing a point of contact for people
                     living in that area. All members’ photographs and contact details
                     are publicly available on the authority’s website which identifies
                     their geographical area of responsibility.

                     Formal Police and Community Consultative Meetings (PCCMs) take
                     place four times a year in each neighbourhood area. Each of these
                     meetings is chaired by the police authority member with
                     responsibility for that area who will also take part in other
                     consultations in the area. Youth PCCMs have been introduced by
                     holding meetings in secondary schools.


Greater Manchester Recent Divisional (BCU) restructures embrace the concept of
                   devolution and creates area officers with clear local geographic
                   responsibilities and identity to the community.


Gwent                Introduction of ward-based policing which entails officers being
                     assigned to particular wards where, in addition to providing an
                     increased police presence, they will be tasked with co-ordinating the
                     work within the wards of the extended police family.


Hertfordshire        Police authority members are already acting as community
                     advocates in Hertfordshire. Members are appointed as Community
                     Engagement Leads (CELs) to one or more of the 10 CDRPs — this
                     involves chairing consultation meetings and taking responsibility for
                     engagement locally.




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Lancashire         The authority is represented at every one of the quarterly
                   performance BCU performance meetings held between the ACC
                   Operations and BCU Commanders in each of the 7 operational
                   divisions. The authority is considering extending those performance
                   review meetings to include members of the local authority Overview
                   and Scrutiny Committee.


Norfolk            Authority members are linked to the 16 local policing Sectors.
                   These local lead members have responsibility for liaison with the
                   Sector Inspector and contact with the public, community and
                   neighbourhood groups within the Sector. They are responsible for
                   regular consultation and their names and contact numbers are
                   widely publicised. They are the conduit between the
                   authority/constabulary and the community and already seek to fulfil
                   the role of community advocate described in the Green paper,
                   alongside local councillors and Members of Parliament.

                   In addition, the authority has agreed in principal with the Chief
                   Constable to form BCU Boards, which will meet formally and
                   regularly and report to the full authority. The Boards would draw
                   their membership from those lead Sector Authority members within
                   the BCU, plus representatives of CDRPs (and through them links to
                   the local district Council). The BCU Commander (and/or his deputy)
                   would take the same role in the BCU Board that the Chief
                   Constable takes at Authority meetings.

                   BCU Boards would have the power to co-opt additional members
                   either full-time or for a period to consider particular issues of local
                   importance. Such membership might be drawn from
                   neighbourhood or community panels, Homewatch, partnership
                   groups, Crime Prevention panels. Residents groups etc.


Northamptonshire   Local Community Safety forums are the mechanism through which
                   the authority discharges its function to consult the public on the
                   policing of its area. There are public forums in each of the local
                   authority areas in the county which consist of representatives of the
                   borough or district and county councils, police authority, police
                   force and other locally co-opted representatives such as
                   Neighbourhood Watch, Housing Association representatives etc. All
                   meetings are open to the public to attend and are advertised in the
                   media and in the Authority’s newspaper “Homebeat”. Local police
                   officers give an outline of police performance for each ward area at
                   these meetings.


Staffordshire      The Authority has been very positive and pro-active in increasing the
                   profile of members both at the Authority level and at the BCU and
                   LPU level. In particular:

                   Ø Each member is appointed to “lead” at the LPU level (23 in all)
                     and work effectively with the local inspector;

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                    Ø Members are appointed to take specific interests and roles at
                      the BCU level – again working closely with the BCU commander
                      – and over time this is being expanded further;

                    Ø Members lead in public engagement and consultation in specific
                      geographic areas, including chairing meetings of local forums;
                      and

                    Ø The Authority has developed, and continues to develop, means
                      of ensuring a high profile for individuals in particular
                      communities.




Thames Valley       Local Policing Boards have been set up by the authority in light of
                    the national and local police area changes to performance and
                    funding and have succeeded the former Police Community
                    Consultative Groups (PCCGs). The new Boards effectively act as a
                    non-executive Board for the local Area Commanders. They operate
                    at a strategic level. The key role is to challenge and evaluate in the
                    following key areas: policing plans (area and force); performance (at
                    area level) including budget; and engagement with communities.


West Mercia         The authority was one of the first authorities to establish local
                    Policing Boards. The authority has strongly supported delegation to
                    BCU commanders and gives them flexibility in the management of
                    their resources.


                                Partnership working



Greater Manchester Within Greater Manchester the adoption of National Intelligence
                   Model business process by all CDRPs (10) /LCJB provides added
                   impetus for engaging with partners and community groups within
                   effective tasking and coordinating framework.




                                                                                     62
                   Section 4: Views of Communities and Stakeholders: Outcomes of Consultation by Police Authorities

Police Authority     Consultation              Particular groups            Views of local people and other consultees
                     undertaken                consulted

Avon & Somerset      • Consultation carried    • Race and equal             Public Consultation Results
                       out by consultant at      opportunity councils and
(See Appendix A)       cost of £3000             associations               Community Engagement
                                               • Hard to hear groups via
                     • Public questionnaire,     constabulary’s             • Most useful information is that which is local and pertinent to them — e.g.
                       formed the basis for      Community Affairs            local crime figures and crime prevention advice — and public want more
                       the public                Department                   information about crime, police response/performance, deployment and
                       consultation activity   • CDRPs                        services available
                                               • Local authorities
                     • Stakeholder             • Parish and town councils   • Most favoured method for receiving information from the police was
                       questionnaire,          • Health authorities           through leaflets delivered to the door
                       posted on the           • Drug Action Teams
                       authority’s website     • Youth Offender Teams       • Vast majority of people would like more visible police presence and, in
                                                                              particular, more accessible beat officers
                                               • Probation Service
                     • 2000 members of
                                               • CPS
                       the Bristol City                                     • Less than 5% of respondents would consider becoming a member of the
                                               • Magistrates
                       Citizens Panel                                         Special Constabulary
                                               • Crime Reduction Officers
                     • 2000 members of         • Directors of Education     • Main driver for increasing numbers of Special Constables would be to offer
                       the Somerset              and Youth Services           payment and consider extending the age range
                       Council’s Citizens      • Government Office
                       Panels                    South West                 • Police could better engage with the community by becoming more involved
                                               • Director for Crime           in the community and its issues
                     • Face to face              Reduction
                       meetings, interviews    • Regional Development       • Neighbourhood Watch was a good method of improving the two-way flow
                       and telephone             Agency                       of information between the community and the police
                       questionnaires with


                                                                                                                                               63
Police Authority   Consultation              Particular groups           Views of local people and other consultees
                   undertaken                consulted

                     questionnaires with     • South West Strategic
                     Neighbourhood             Partnership
                     Watch members,          • Regeneration Partners     • Community groups need to be better financed to support such ventures as
                     residents               • Community Contact           youth clubs and drop-in centres
                     associations and          Vehicles
                     community contacts      • Residents’ Associations   • Police need to develop greater communication with local businesses in order
                                             • Chambers of Commerce        to establish trust through co-operation and mutual goals
                   • Beat surgeries, Local
                     Action Teams,                                       Accountability
                     Neighbourhood
                     Watch meetings and                                  • Most respondents were not aware of the difference between the police
                     existing/previously                                   authority and the police — they are unsure of what the police authority does
                     arranged public                                       and the role it plays
                     meetings
                                                                         • Police authority is too removed from local issues
                   • Questionnaires
                     distributed to                                      Stakeholder Consultation Results
                     various
                     organisations                                       Community Engagement

                   • Local Authority                                     • Public want information at a neighbourhood level
                     Chief Executives
                     were all personally                                 • Police officers could be made more visible and accessible by increasing the
                     briefed                                               size of the constabulary and supplementing with additional volunteers,
                                                                           wardens and Special Constables. Also, officers could be deployed differently,
                   • 2 seminars for police                                 e.g. by reviewing the shift system; robust sickness management etc.
                     authority members
                                                                         • No widespread awareness about the Special Constabulary



                                                                                                                                           64
Police Authority   Consultation           Particular groups   Views of local people and other consultees
                   undertaken             consulted


                                                              • Local community groups and businesses should be encouraged to establish
                                                                and support teams of Special Constables

                                                              Accountability

                                                              • Police leaders are perceived as being remote, unresponsive and not listening
                                                                to local community and neighbourhood issues — they are too concerned
                                                                with strategic issues and about political pressures and influences

                                                              • Mixed response to the proposal for service delivery standards and local
                                                                service agreements with the public

                                                              • There should be closer working between partnership agencies

                                                              Operational Effectiveness

                                                              • There are a range of policing issues, management and back-room functions
                                                                that are better done regionally or nationally, e.g. finance and administration
                                                                and procurement and supply

Bedfordshire       • Questionnaire sent                       Community Engagement
                     to Primary Care
                     Trust; Borough,                          • Want to see local community policing and foot patrols
                     Town and Parish
                     Councils; and                            • Keen to receive information on local crime data and would like to have
                     community groups.                          greater involvement in the decisions that affect them
                     Distributed
                     electronically and


                                                                                                                                   65
Police Authority   Consultation             Particular groups   Views of local people and other consultees
                   undertaken               consulted

                     electronically and                         Accountability
                     place on authority’s
                     website                                    • Confusion about who should be held to account

                                                                • Want greater local accountability of YOTs and DATs with one lead body

                                                                Operational Effectiveness

                                                                • Support for greater community policing — would like to see a community
                                                                  force in addition to a police force
                                                                • Current structure of forces should remain if the cost to make the changes is
                                                                  too great

                                                                • Importance of consistency in the structure and deployment of officers —
                                                                  constant changes to the internal structure give the impression of uncertainty,
                                                                  inconsistency and suggest community policing is not a priority

                                                                • Police should work to meet local demand which may vary across different
                                                                  communities




                                                                                                                                    66
Cambridgeshire   • Questionnaire on       • Association of Parish
                   website and letters      Councils
                   written giving         • Victim Support
                   website reference to   • Racial Equality Council
                   document               • Age Concern
                                          • Crime Prevention Panels
                 • 50 authorities and     • Home Watch Co-
                   voluntary agencies       ordinators
                   consulted              • County and District
                                            Councils
                                          • CDRPs
                                          • Criminal Justice Boards
                                          • Voluntary agencies
                                          • Probation Boards
                                          • Drug Action Team
                                          • Youth Offending Team

Cheshire         • Citizens’ Panel        •   CDRPs                    Community Engagement
                   meeting —              •   Citizens’ Panel
                   electronic voting      •   Chamber of Commerce      • Citizens’ Panel: up-to-date information on local crime data, details of named
                   handsets used to       •   Police Forums (Police      officers for specific issues and crime prevention advice, i.e. not more
                   gain views of the          Consultative Groups)       information but more timely and accurate information readily available to the
                   Panel. 37 members      •   Home Watch Co-             community e.g. through the website rather than more frequent community
                   present                    ordinators                 meetings
                                          •   Local Criminal Justice
                 • Meeting with               Board                    • Police Forums: satisfied with existing information
                   representatives from   •   Race Equality Council
                   the Chambers of
                                          •   Staff associations       • Local policing required enhancement and cited more local officers assigned
                   Commerce                                              to patrol local areas and improvements to the answering of telephones, as
                                                                         examples.


                                                                                                                                          67
• Postal questionnaire
  —209 returned by       • Significantly less interest was expressed in holding police surgeries in local
  deadline (20%            areas and receiving visits by a mobile police station
  response rate)
                         • Business representatives were broadly supportive of the moves to strengthen
                           the special constabulary and saw it as a potential opportunity for the
• Internet                 personal development of staff
  questionnaire
                         • Citizens’ Panel and Police Forums felt that the community should act as ‘eyes
                           and ears’, providing local information to officers. The options of acting as
                           community leaders or working as volunteers were significantly less
                           favourable

                         • Business representatives suggested the development of contact points within
                           the Constabulary to address common issues of interest

                         Accountability

                         • Community advocates — Chambers of Commerce expressed a willingness to
                           represent the business community and felt that they could fulfil a useful role
                           as a conduit between the businesses that they represent and the police
                           service

                         Operational Effectiveness

                         • Citizen’s Panel: significant majority favoured the retention of the existing
                           local force structure and supported local ownership of policing

                         • Chambers of Commerce were unanimous in their support for the status-quo

                         • Police forums: large majority favoured the retention of the existing force



                                                                                                68
                                                     structure. Of those who favoured a regional force, about half indicated it
                                                     would bring with it economies of scale and the ability to deal with major and
                                                     organised crime more effectively

Cleveland   • 15-20 Citizens’       • Young people
              Panels with young     • CDRPs
              people —
              approximately 30
              attendees per event

            • Consultation
              exercises with
              CDRPs —
              approximately 1000
              people




                                                                                                                      69
Cumbria   • Survey — distributed   • Citizens’ Panel   Community Engagement
            to 1500 members of
            Citizens Panel                             • The public would like to receive useful advice, e.g. crime prevention;
                                                         information on policing priorities and policing performance

                                                       • This information would be preferred weekly or monthly via newspapers, local
                                                         radio and leaflets
                                                       • The force could make officers more visible and accessible by: putting more
                                                         officers on foot patrol; establishing a local police presence available twenty-
                                                         four hours a day, seven days a week; and publicising local contact numbers for
                                                         local officers

                                                       • The local community could help the police tackle local problems through
                                                         increased communication with locally based officers either through local
                                                         meetings or through informal contact in the street

                                                       • Assistance could be achieved through: local meetings, both formal and
                                                         informal; increased police visibility, leading to more personal contact; and
                                                         further survey work

                                                       • Public place very great importance on local contact with officers and a two-way
                                                         communication process in which local residents are kept informed of what is
                                                         happening in their area

                                                       • Authority and force could facilitate this by: publishing local newsletters to keep
                                                         public informed; using Neighbourhood Watch meetings to distribute
                                                         information; making named officers available at a set time and place every day
                                                         for the public to contact; and/or a single number that respondents can use to
                                                         contact their local officer; recruiting local volunteers via Neighbourhood Watch;
                                                         and more in-depth survey work and increased police contact



                                                                                                                               70
                                                    Accountability

                                                    • Public were in favour of standards of service being laid down between the
                                                      public and the force

                                                    • A survey in July 2003 of our 3,000 Cumbria Citizen Panel showed a high
                                                      approval of such single non-emergency number (86% - good idea, 10% don’t
                                                      known, 4% not a good idea)
                                                    • The majority of respondents believe that it is the responsibility of the police to
                                                      oversee the policing of a ward on behalf of local communities, but two other
                                                      suggestions were also made:

                                                    Ø the assertion that whoever was responsible should be independent of the
                                                      four groups mentioned; or
                                                    Ø that a committee with representation from all four groups should take
                                                      responsibility.

                                                    • Community advocates could be selected by the Constabulary; by the police
                                                      authority; by the local community; or by the members of the public) but slightly
                                                      more emphasis given to selection by either the local community or the
                                                      Constabulary

Derbyshire
[Awaited]

Devon & Cornwall   • Questionnaire to     • CDRPs   Community Engagement
                     Citizens Panel,
                     public and                     • Want local information about performance
                     businesses — 16000
                     sent and 3000                  Accountability



                                                                                                                            71
           responses
                                                           • Support for police authority role and current structure should be maintained


Dorset   • Four focus groups   • All local authorities     Community Engagement
           — 40 attendees in   • All CDRPs
           total               • Dorset Association of     • Local figures/results/initiatives are what matter. Must be very local i.e. my
                                 Parish and Town             estate, village, parish etc
                                 Councils
                               • Dorset Community          • Strong desire for police on foot / bikes and ‘local bobby’. Number of
                                 Action                      uniformed ‘police’ on street are a deterrent but need to build up community
                               • Dorset Criminal Justice     links and be able to communicate with public
                                 Board
                               • Dorset Magistrates’       • Some relaunching/revamping of the Neighbourhood Watch concept seems to
                                 Courts Committee            offer a lot of potential.
                               • Dorset Police
                                                           Accountability

                                                           • Concept of local SLAs hard to grasp but could have appeal but must not
                                                             introduce another layer of bureaucracy

                                                           • Single non-emergency number — very good idea but must be accessed locally,
                                                             no good going to call centres with no local knowledge
                                                           • Community advocates — sceptical: would they have any real power and be
                                                             funded or is it just more bureaucracy/PR?

                                                           • Neighbourhood level panels — like Neighbourhood Watch, these things can
                                                             work well in some areas but often depend heavily on an individual to keep it
                                                             going




                                                                                                                                   72
                                 • New accountability options — strong opposition to councillor / political
                                   involvement; representatives from geographical areas important; if you have
                                   panels, they must be local

                                 Operational Effectiveness

                                 • Strong desire for a local organisation, but recognition that some smaller forces
                                   may need support from national teams for some work or for joint working with
                                   other forces

                                 Service Modernisation

                                 • Believe that present force is reasonably representative – perhaps more women

Durham   • Focus groups drawn    Community Engagement
           from the County
           Council’s and         • Authority and the force could engage better with local communities
           Darlington Borough
           Council’s Citizens’   • Local performance information useful but no appetite for reams of statistical
           Panels — 10-12          information — a few headline figures would be sufficient
           people per group
                                 • See anti-social behaviour as a major issue; additional fully trained officers but
                                   accept the economic reality of police community support officers and would
                                   support the continued growth of the wider police family

                                 • Strong support from the focus group on the authority’s proposal to establish its
                                   own Citizens Panel from which issue-specific focus groups could be drawn and
                                   be supported with the necessary training and familiarisation arrangements
                                 • Public regard the authority as being the custodian of the community interest,
                                   acting at the interface between the operational police service and the
                                   community



                                                                                                          73
                                                                    Accountability

                                                                    • Citizens’ Panel focus group agreed that accountability of the chief constable to
                                                                      the police authority should be strengthened and that the authority should do
                                                                      more to market itself, e.g. using the media to promote the good news on
                                                                      crime figures

                                                                    • Neighbourhood Boards or Panels would have to produce tangible benefits
                                                                      almost immediately or people will lose interest

                                                                    • There is no support for directly elected police authorities

                                                                    • Significant concern that direct elections would politicise the process and lead to
                                                                      people being elected on single issues which would seriously detract from the
                                                                      police authority’s overall responsibility for policing

Dyfed-Powys        • Questionnaire —
                     approximately 1200
                     sent out with a
                     response rate of
                     16%

Essex              • Two public meetings   • Essex County Council   Community Engagement
                     — 80 attendees          staff
(See Appendix B)                           • Neighbourhood watch,   • Very positive, generally satisfied with current arrangements but welcomed any
                   • One Conference —        Schools                  expansion. BME/Faith groups extremely keen. General agreement on increased
                     20 attendees          • Housing Groups           police visibility, partnership and more information on activity
                                           • Community
                   • One postal survey —     Associations           • Many comments such as:
                     150 people            • Youth Groups
                     contacted


                                                                                                                                           74
  contacted             • Local Ethnic and Faith   Ø ‘Have specialist police dealing with race related incidents’
                          Groups                   Ø ‘Recruit and use wider & diverse volunteers’
• One intranet survey   • CDRPs                    Ø ‘Assist in funding community groups’
  — 33,000 contacted    • Essex Police             Ø ‘Foot patrols rather than cars’
                                                   Ø ‘Improve phone systems with dedicated staff’
• One MORI Citizens                                Ø ‘Have a dialogue with groups, what do they want and where’
  Panel Survey —                                   Ø ‘Being there when we need you’
  1800 citizens                                    Ø ‘Organise multi-cultural events’
                                                   Ø ‘Closer communication and knowledge of police’
• 35050 consultees                                 Ø ‘Have more active recruitment and training’ (neighbourhood watch)
  (33000 Essex                                     Ø ‘Reply to messages, give direct contact numbers and employ more police
  County Council                                     officers’
  Staff)                                           Ø ‘Stop cutting budgets’

• 22 survey responses                              Accountability
  received (12 from
  BME/faith groups)                                • General support for Non Emergency Number and for local accountability/
                                                     targets/standards

                                                   • Support for current Police Authority accountability but a lack of knowledge
                                                     about PA work

                                                   Operational Effectiveness

                                                   • Insufficient public knowledge about this area, unwillingness to lose local
                                                     ‘identity’ but support for local devolved responsibility

                                                   • Support for specialist forces dealing with cross border issues

                                                   Service Modernisation

                                                   • Support for better recruitment for diverse community members, increased


                                                                                                                          75
                                                                           training and scrutiny. Put more trained officers back on the streets, reduce
                                                                           administrative load on officers

                                                                       • Free text comments include:

                                                                       Ø   ‘Listen to frontline officers and the publics concerns’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Be seen to be more culturally and gender friendly’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Create an atmosphere that racism will not be tolerated’
                                                                       Ø    ‘Better profile of police re discrimination and racism issues’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Do more to eradicate perceived racism’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Select and train officers for specific localities’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Don’t lower standards, perhaps higher pay and return of police housing for
                                                                           families’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Give public advice…and how quickly they can come to scene of crime’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Target recruitment and retention’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Ethnic groups have to be motivated to come forward….make them feel part
                                                                           of the community’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Emphasise different areas police work in and the support they can offer to all
                                                                           community members’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Provide work placement and taster sessions with youth and community’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Treat all officers fairly and equally’
                                                                       Ø   ‘Trust, honesty and be fair to any gender or ethnic origin’

Gloucestershire    • Consultation event      • County Council          Results of Consultation Event
                     with representatives    • District and Borough
(See Appendix C)     from the County           Councils                Increasing local involvement
                     Council, District and   • Race Equality Council
                     Borough Councils,       • Gloucestershire Youth   • Police Community Consultation Meetings (PCCMs) provided ample opportunity
                     Gloucestershire Race      Services                  for the public to engage with the police
                     Equality Council,       • Drug and Alcohol
                     Gloucestershire           Action Team             • Use technology to help engage young people in consultation
                     Youth Services, Drug


                                                                                                                                                76
  and Alcohol Action     • Fire and Rescue Service
  Team and Fire and
  Rescue Service —                                   • Engaging the public at a more local level might be desirable
  17 attendees
                                                     • Visibility — this was really an issue of resource and managing public
• Questionnaire —                                      expectation. The police should be more willing to ‘get out of their cars’
  posted on authority                                  and engage with people whilst they are on patrol
  website; distributed
  via Police
  Community                                          • Awareness of the police among the business community should be
  Consultative                                         increased and particularly where businesses can benefit from police
  Meetings (PCCMs)                                     activity, for instance through the use of CCTV in town centres
  across the force
  area; distributed by                               • The roles of Community Beat Officers and Rural Beat Officers should be
  Community Safety                                     given higher priority so that officers in these roles were given more
  Officers working for                                 time to build relationships within the community
  6 CDRPs
 304 respondents
                                                     • Good partnership relations between the police and other agencies and
                                                       businesses but only at a relatively senior level — emphasis should be on
                                                       the street level workers having a good relationship

                                                     Structural changes to the Police Force, Police Authority and the systems of
                                                     accountability

                                                     • The idea of creating a regional police force and a national agency was rejected

                                                     • Remote headquarters would undermine working relationships

                                                     • Prioritisation of resources would favour urban areas and reduce rural areas too




                                                                                                                           77
• The idea of a change in the structure of police authorities was rejected —
  concerns about politicisation of the process
• Idea of the development of a Community Advocacy Service to deal with
  complaints rejected

Questionnaire Results

Community Engagement

• 89% want information about policing activity in their local area

• 75% want information at county level; 70% at neighbourhood level; 62% at
  district/borough level; 42% at national level; and 30% at regional level

• 48% would like to receive this information as articles in newspapers

• 85% would consider becoming a member of the Special Constabulary

•
Accountability


• 67% felt that local level agreements would have a positive impact on policing
  in the community

• 68% felt that Neighbourhood Panels would have a positive impact in the
  community

• 27% want to continue with police authorities in their current form



                                                                       78
                                                                        • 60% agreed that there should be a Community Advocacy Service

                                                                        • 78% wanted to see the introduction of a single three-digit non-emergency
                                                                          number

                                                                        Operational Effectiveness


                                                                        • 80% did not feel that the service would improve if the Constabulary was
                                                                          replaced by a regional force

Greater Manchester • Survey through the       • Members of the          Community Engagement
                     Citizens’ Panel and        Greater Manchester
(See Appendix D)     via other community        Citizens’ Panel (RSVP   • Overwhelmingly the public wanted:
                     contacts and mailing       — Regularly Seeking
                     lists — jointly with       Views on Policing):     Ø information about police activity in their area (87%)
                     the force. Total of        2332 residents of       Ø information about their local community beat/neighbourhood officer (84%)
                     approximately 7400         Greater Manchester      Ø information distributed via new letters to people’s homes (68%) and other
                     people                   • People on the Public      places that people regularly visit (61%)
                                                Voice on Policing
                    • Survey posted on          mailing list — 296      • Visibility — 88% of the public preferred officers “walking the beat”
                      website                   people
                                              • People on the GMPA      • Better use of the knowledge and skills of Special Constables is best achieved by
                    2789 respondents            issue-based working       ‘recruiting and placing them within their own communities’ (73%)
                    1364 responses from         group mailing lists —
                    the Citizens’ Panel:        188 people
                    58% response rate                                   • Increasing the potential pool of Specials is best achieved by raising awareness
                                              • Fire Service              of them (79%)
                    1425 responses from
                    the GMPA mailing lists:

                                                                                                                                               79
the GMPA mailing lists:   • Probation Service          • Preference for police staff to get involved with community groups (69%) and
19% response rate         • Health                       taking steps to improve communication with Watch Scheme Coordinators
                          • Voluntary sector             (60%)
Overall response rate       organisations
of 29%                    • CDRPs                      • Business and police would work better together to improve community safety if
                                                         ‘ communication was improved’ (68%), and businesses were encouraged to
                          Total: 715 people              recognise their own role in community safety (67%)

                          • Local councilors —         Accountability
                            625
                          • People on mailing lists    • Give local police commanders more say in deploying resources and making
                            of local Racial Equality     operation decisions (74%)
                            Councils — 485
                            people                     • Ensure the role of neighbourhood officer is awarded adequate respect and
                          • People on the GMP’s          status (73%)
                            Homewatch scheme
                            mailing list — 5000        • Public either strongly agreed/agreed generally with the idea of national service
                            people                       standards (89%)
                          • People on mailing list
                            held by GMP’s              • 83% of the consultees agreed that a single three-digit number should be
                            Community Affairs            introduced for non-emergency calls to the police
                            Branch — including
                            members of minority        • The public were asked if a community advocacy service was established what
                            ethnic and LGBT              functions might they usefully undertake. The three main areas supported were:
                            communities) — 45
                            people                     Ø provide independent advice, information and support to the public (79%)
                          • Members of the GMP’s       Ø explain to the public about the problems faced by the police in serving their
                            Policy Advisory              communities (67%)
                            Committee on Race          Ø take responsibility for peoples’ complaints/concerns and act on their behalf
                            Issues — 45 people           (67%)




                                                                                                                              80
• The public were asked which of a number of possible roles for neighbourhood
  panels would they support, the two most preferred were:

Ø getting people to get involved in helping improve their own community (77%)
Ø feeding the views of the public to the police and other bodies responsible for
  community safety (72%)

• 63% supported more effective information sharing between partner agencies

• Options for police authorities — public preferred ‘a completely new structure
  with wider responsibility for community safety (48%)’

• 73% indicated a preference for ‘information on performance and policing costs
  at a local level’

Operational Effectiveness

• 81% of the public preferred ‘closer working with communities at a local level
  to tackle crime and disorder’

Service Modernisation

• 60% preferred to use earned autonomy to improve police performance and
  efficiency

• The public were asked to identify how they felt police staff might be developed
  to make the service more unified and deliver best standards of service: Two
  key areas were preferred:

  Ø allowing more police officer time to be freed up for front line duties (83%)
  Ø making sure that forces are flexible in their deployment of resources (75%)



                                                                     81
                                                                 • 70% felt that ‘taking decisive action against racist behaviour and attitude
                                                                   whenever it occurs’ should be the key area for the force to focus to achieve a
                                                                   truly representative workforce

                                                                 • To assist the police service improve leadership and management, 73%
                                                                   preferred to ‘take more steps to ensure that police leaders benefit from the
                                                                   leadership experience of others’

Gwent       • Public meeting —        • Local community
              137 invitations sent:     councils
              48 attendees            • Neighbourhood Watch
                                        co-ordinators
            • Questionnaire —         • Independent Custody
              160 distributed and       Visitors
              60 responses            • Crime prevention
              received (38%             panels
              response rate)          • Various representative
                                        bodies of minority
            • Questionnaire sent        ethnic groups
              to community safety
              officers in all 22
              local authority areas
              in Wales — 7
              responses

Hampshire   • Research company                                   • Document itself is not user friendly — those taking part in the focus groups
              undertook 4 focus                                    found it long, repetitive, full of jargon and difficult to understand
              groups in Lyndhurst,
              Aldershot,
              Portsmouth and



                                                                                                                                       82
                       Ryde, Isle of Wight                           Community Engagement
                       — 9 people per
                       group                                         • Communities are mainly interested in very local information and not strategic
                                                                       or comparative data which holds little meaning or interest for them

                                                                     • The need for local issues and concerns to be addressed were perceived not to
                                                                       be covered by the consultation document

                                                                     • The main concerns of the community continue to be greater police visibility,
                                                                       less bureaucracy to provide a better standard of policing at no greater cost and
                                                                       the tackling of anti-social behaviour

                                                                     • There was not a great deal of interest expressed in obtaining performance data
                                                                       about the police — generally people were only interested in having information
                                                                       if it related to an incident concerning them

                                                                     Accountability

                                                                     • Little public appetite for direct elections to police authorities on top of the
                                                                       many other tiers of elections already in existence

                                                                     Service modernisation

                                                                     • Overwhelming desire for less central control to enable local police authorities
                                                                       and local constabularies to work with local communities on local issues of
                                                                       concern

Hertfordshire        • Stakeholder           • CDRPs and             Community Engagement
                       conference — 120        stakeholders
(See Appendices E1     attendees             • Local people
& E2)                                        • Neighbourhood Watch



                                                                                                                                               83
• Surveys sent to       • Community Safety           Information
  stakeholders —          Partnerships
  approximately 720     • Businesses                 • 92% of people would like to receive information about their local policing
  distributed and 55    • Local authorities          • Stakeholders would like information on policing structure, changes to
  responses received    • Town and parish              staff/officers, numbers and location of officers on frontline duties
  (7.6% response          councils
  rate)                 • Police Community           Visibility and Accessibility
                          Partnerships
• Surveys sent to       • Community Safety           • Stakeholders’ views — police officers could be more visible and more accessible
  Neighbourhood           Consultation Forums          by more regular local beat policing and no abstractions
  Watch Co-             • Voluntary sector —
  ordinators —            Neighbourhood              • Neighbourhood Watch views — wanted more police on the beat and not in
  approximately 1800      Watch, CVS, Watford          cars
  distributed and 278     Racial Equality Council,
  responses received      Alcohol Advice Centre      • Public meetings — over half said they wanted more police on the beat
  (15% response rate)
                        • District and Borough
                          Councils                   Making better use of the knowledge, skills and experience of community
• Four focus groups                                  members
                        • Primary Care Trusts
  — approximately 10
                          and Health Authority
  people at each                                     • Stakeholders’ views — by improved communication: attendance by police at
                                                       NW meetings, better information, raise awareness of NW and what is involved
• Existing methods of
  consultation —
  surveys distributed                                • Neighbourhood Watch views — many people wanted better information and
  and 39 responses to                                  regular contact with their local officer
  survey
                                                     • Public meetings — better communications systems, the provision of regular up-
• Results of recent                                    to-date and relevant information, easier access to police
  MORI surveys
                                                     • Focus group view — many feel they would need to get to know local police
                                                       before they are willing to be more proactive



                                                                                                                          84
Enabling community groups to reduce crime and improve community safety

• Stakeholders’ views — keep people informed, designing-out crime scenes (e.g.
  improved lighting), more visible policing, direct contact with police, get
  feedback from police, encourage young people to join NW and to report crime,
  making people feel valued, get police to visit local groups

• Neighbourhood Watch views — attend when called, provide feedback, attend
  meetings, more beat police, newsletters, more information


• Public meetings — police need to improve the response when people do report
  something and feedback afterwards

Ensuring businesses and the police can work together

• Stakeholders’ views — give each business an identified link officer and
  maintain regular contact, target at risk premises and give safety advice

Accountability

• 81% of stakeholders, 75% of attendees at the public meetings and 71% of
  Neighbourhood Watch agreed that there should be local standards that set out
  the quality of local services you can expect from the police


• 84% of stakeholders, 89% of attendees at the public meetings and 84% of
  Neighbourhood Watch agreed that they would find it useful to have a single
  number to call police or other agencies for non-emergencies



                                                                       85
• Stakeholders not convinced of the need for Community Advocates — just
  another layer of red tape

• Focus group view — people are generally positive about the suggestion of a
  community advocacy service but tend to question what difference such a
  service would make to how their area is policed

Role of Neighbourhood Panels or Trusts

• Focus group view — people question the need for what they see as an
  additional layer of bureaucracy

New Accountability Options

• Only 12% of stakeholders were in favour or replacing police authorities with
  wholly directly elected police boards

• Focus group view — there tends to be scepticism around whether directly
  voting for members of police boards would work in practice
Operational Effectiveness

• 34% of stakeholders, 36% of attendees at the public meetings and 61% of
  Neighbourhood Watch agreed that the present structure of 43 forces is right

• 44% of stakeholders, 75% of attendees at the public meetings and 22% of
  Neighbourhood Watch agreed that there should be larger “strategic” forces

• 56% of stakeholders, 81% of attendees at the public meetings and 82% of
  Neighbourhood Watch agreed that the BCU should be given more



                                                                     86
                                                                          responsibility to deal with the local issues

                                                                        • Focus group view — people find it difficult to understands the proposals for
                                                                          revising the current police force boundaries

Humberside         • Four Community         • Youth Offending           Questionnaire responses
                     Safety Partnerships      Teams
(See Appendix F)     within the             • Drug Action Teams         Accountability
                     Humberside area        • Community Safety
                     acted as agents and      Partnerships              • Majority of respondents to the questionnaire support the proposal for a single
                     used their networks    • Neighbourhood Watch         non-emergency number
                     for consultation       • The Fire Service
                                            • Drug User Involvement     • Strong support for local service standards (74.8%) and a single body to oversee
                   • Designed and             Project                     the police and other agencies involved in community safety (63.2%)
                     distributed a          • Local authorities
                     questionnaire —
                                            • Voluntary                 • Most respondents did not favour the replacement of police authorities with
                     approximately 3000                                   wholly directly elected Police Boards (25.9% yes; 44.3% no; 29.8% don’t
                                              organisations
                     were distributed and                                 know)
                     the authority set up   • Community/special
                     a Freepost address       interest group
                                                                        Service modernisation
                     in order to receive    • Independent Advisory
                     the responses            Group
                                                                        • Strong support for rewarding good performance (earned autonomy) but at
                     directly. 305          • Business
                                                                          local level
                     responses received     • Town/Parish/City
                                              council
                   • Focus group — 15-      • School/college/universi   Focus Group
                     20 attendees             ty
                                            • Minority groups           Community Engagement
                                            • Victim Support
                                            • Citizen Panel             • Investing time, money and effort into creating good working relationships with
                                            • Private individuals         communities and organisations — with the possibility of appointing one



                                                                                                                                             87
                              • CDRPs                     community liaison officer per LTP (Drug Action Team)
                              • LSPs
                                                        • Statutory service providers would like greater input into police target setting
                                                          and initiatives

                                                        • The Fire Service would like to become more closely involved with community
                                                          safety initiatives

                                                        • Possible re-introduction of parish constables

                                                        Operational Effectiveness

                                                        • Possible merger of forces to mirror regional governance structure
                                                        Accountability

                                                        • SLAs for Fire Service and the Police

                                                        • More positive support for managers and leaders of forces from central
                                                          government

Kent   • Conference/seminar   • FSB                     Community Engagement
         — 140 invited, 29    • Chambers of
         attendees              Commerce                • Local communities want information on police successes as well as failures e.g.
                              • CDRPs                     the number of burglars arrested in the local area
       • Internet-based       • Local/district/county
         survey — 25            councils                • General mistrust of statistics and the use of measuring one force or police area
         completed            • CPS                       against another, when each has its own unique characteristics and needs
       • Questionnaires to
         key stakeholders                               • Use of media and technology, such as the internet and e-mail, was thought to
                                                          be useful but not to the extent that it excludes sections of the community — in
                                                          particular, those unable to read or understand English



                                                                                                                                88
                                             • The wider police family had increased police visibility within the community —
                                               where good contact had been established at local levels, the feeling of
                                               accessibility had increased

                                             • The business community and partner agencies strongly supported the “one
                                               stop shop” approach to multi-agency engagement; although, some confusion
                                               was apparent about whose role it was to start the engagement process

                                             • Police had a culture of “looking inwards” and not being involved in
                                               communities outside of the police, both within the work and leisure time — in
                                               some cases, this manifested itself as not wishing to relinquish control, in
                                               particular within a CDRP environment

                                             • Confusion around whose role it was to progress engagement and it was
                                               apparent that the expectation fell on the police to actively go out looking for
                                               engagement opportunities rather than waiting to be asked

                                             Accountability

                                             • Some consultees favoured direct election of authorities on grounds of
                                               accountability and authority visibility

Lancashire         • Telephone               Findings from Consultation with Opinion Panel Members
                     consultation with
(See Appendix G)     411 members of the      Accountability
                     joint citizens’ panel
                     “Opinion!” (made        • There is a majority view (71%) that there should be local service standards set
                     up of 4000                in addition to national standards
                     Lancashire residents)



                                                                                                                    89
                                                                       • Neighbourhood Panels should be made up of members from all groups within
                                                                         the community proposed in the Green Paper
                   • Review of earlier
                     surveys of all 3000+                              • One body to oversee the work of the different agencies involved in community
                     members of the                                      safety would be favourably received by over half of respondents to ensure
                     panel for                                           more accountability and better communication/co-ordination
                     information that has
                     a bearing on the                                  • Just under half of all respondents were in favour of replacing the Police
                     consultation paper                                  Authority with a Police Board, with the majority of these preferring that the
                                                                         Board members be drawn from various groups within the community
                   • Existing structures
                     — community                                       • The option for a Police Board which was directly elected by the public was
                     meetings,                                           considered by the majority to be open to the risk of being too political or
                     committee structure                                 focusing on inappropriate issues
                     and website
                                                                       • The Police Board should be made up of members of all of the groups put
                   • Divisional meetings                                 forward in the Green Paper
                     — 362 attendees
                                                                       • Community Advocates are considered a necessity and the proposed service
                                                                         provision is considered appropriate

Leicestershire     • Consultation           • Staff associations and   Community Engagement
                     evening with             unions
(See Appendix H)     consultation panel     • Local councils           • Information on the local structure of policing, where to contact people and
                     (comprises 120         • IAG                        which team of officers cover the locality would be useful
                     members, 29            • Community groups
                     attended) made up      • Parish councils          • Feedback was crucial when the police interacted with the public
                     of various             • Faith communities
                     community groups
                                            • Travellers               • Concern regarding Specials about the line between use of volunteers and
                     in area                                             replacing jobs
                                            • Schools
                                            • Race Equality Council


                                                                                                                                             90
• Attended IAG          • Parish Councils       Accountability
  meeting (Police       • Fire Authority
  Advisory Group on     • District Councils     • Single non-emergency number was generally welcomed but some concerns
  Racist Incidents) —   • Unitary authorities     with the current non-emergency police number in the area
  25 attendees          • Victim Support
                        • Carers Support        • Quality of service standards and service level agreements were felt to be helpful
• Attended meeting      • Magistrates
  to which all Parish     Association           • Idea of community advocates was not well supported
  Councils had been
                        • Pakistan youth
  invited — 30                                  • Direct election of police authorities not supported as ballot box does not
  attendees                                       necessarily produce skills for the job and police need to be free of a wholly
                                                  political monitoring body
• Meeting of local
  councils — 12                                 • Support for authorities to be able and encouraged to co-opt members for
  attendees                                       particular purposes

• News item on
  website

• “Question of the
  Month” article on
  website

• Three focus groups

• Four surveys

Total: 105 consultees




                                                                                                                       91
Lincolnshire       • Questionnaire — 38     •   Private individuals   Community Engagement
                     responses received     •   Neighbourhood Watch
(See Appendix I)     (14% response rate)    •   Businesses            • The majority of respondents would like information on crime levels, who is
                                            •   Local authorities       charge of policing in their neighbourhood and details on how to contact the
                   • Seven regular Police                               police
                     and Community
                     Forums — between                                 • Information should be supplied through local papers, letterbox drops and with
                     50 and 75 attendees                                council newsletters on a quarterly basis
                     at each Forum
                                                                      • It was generally felt that the police could make better use of local knowledge,
                                                                        skills and experience in tackling local problems by fostering local contacts, local
                                                                        officers attending forum meetings and officers meeting regularly with
                                                                        community leaders

                                                                      • Pay Specials to increase the pool of potential recruits

                                                                      Accountability

                                                                      • General support for single non-emergency

                                                                      • Already enough bodies involved in community safety

                                                                      • Over half of the respondents were supportive that there should be one single
                                                                        body that oversees the work of the police and all other agencies involved in
                                                                        community safety issues
                                                                      • Opposed to wholly directly elected police boards

                                                                      Operational Effectiveness

                                                                      • The highest number of respondents felt that the way forces are currently
                                                                        organised is effective



                                                                                                                                               92
                                                                  • The majority of respondents felt that a change in structure would have cost
                                                                    implications and would impact negatively on rural areas, with resources being
                                                                    focused in urban areas

                                                                  • Most respondents did not understand the role of central support and
                                                                    inspection agencies

                                                                  Service Modernisation

                                                                  • Respondents consider an equal opportunities approach to recruiting officers
                                                                    and staff was appropriate

                                                                  • Internal promotion, performance related pay and the sharing of good
                                                                    management practice with the private sector could support and improve the
                                                                    leadership and management of the service

                                                                  • A good performing force should be rewarded and should be awarded to the
                                                                    whole force

Merseyside   • Sent Executive         • Local authorities         Community Engagement
               Summary of             • CDRPs
               document to, and       • Community groups          • Information on number of offenders brought to justice would be as useful as
               requested              • Criminal justice            crime figures and detection rates
               responses, from over     agencies
               50 key stakeholders.   • Elected representatives   • Continuity of Neighbourhood Officers in post for reasonable time span crucial
               35% response rate
                                                                  • Better information on roles and functions of PCSOs, Community Wardens,
                                                                    Neighbourhood Wardens etc. Support for greater visibility of all officers

                                                                  • Partnership working crucial, although all participants must play effective role



                                                                                                                                         93
  and feel that they are doing so

Accountability

• Concentrating resources on Neighbourhood Policing desirable and beneficial to
  both accountability, engagement, and effectiveness

• Community advocates may be another unnecessary bureaucratic layer. Local
  councillors and businesses can and do champion the concerns of communities
  and individuals
• Current arrangements for constitution of Police Authorities relatively new. Have
  been broadly effective so far, so perhaps too early to consider major alterations

• Current arrangements could be added to by formally co-opting community
  representatives from BCUs or experts in certain relevant fields

• There are serious concerns about the drawbacks of directly elected police
  boards, including infiltration by extreme groups, voter apathy and potential
  harm to overall operational effectiveness

• Many of the suggested benefits of bottom up style neighbourhood panels are
  desirable, although panels themselves could be confusing and bureaucratic

• More efficient and effective community forum work could provide many of the
  benefits of neighbourhood panels, and be fed up via BCU co-optees, without
  significantly adding to structural layers of bureaucracy/ accountability. Degree
  of support for a wider community safety family oversight body

• Keen to explore single non emergency number. However, it is efficiency of
  response to request that is true issue, not means by which it is made




                                                                      94
                                                                  Operational Effectiveness

                                                                  • Management of officers by civilians could be improved in order to enable more
                                                                    effective civilianisation and officers on the beat

                                                                  • Increase in BCU level autonomy would be welcome

                                                                  Service Modernisation

                                                                  • Some groups keen on a dedicated national force to tackle organised crime.
                                                                    Larger force could deal with this at regional/national level whilst BCUs
                                                                    concentrate local work in partnership with YOTs/Councils/CJ Services

                                                                  • “Earned Autonomy” not necessarily a welcome concept as it could lead to
                                                                    uneven provision in policing due to potentially inappropriate performance
                                                                    measures

                                                                  • Concept of Community Justice Centres is an exciting initiative

Metropolitan   • Survey —             • Local Authority
                 approximately 1000     Leaders
                 distributed to       • Local Authority
                 community groups       Community Safety
                                        Managers
                                      • CDRPs
                                      • CPCGs
                                      • Non-profit community
                                        groups, including 'hard
                                        to hear' groups,
                                        including;



                                                                                                                                      95
                                            • BME communities
                                            • Disability
                                            • Women’s Networks
                                            • LGBT communities
                                            • Faith communities
                                            • Immigrant & Refugee
                                              groups
                                            • Seniors

Norfolk            • Questionnaire on       • Association of Parish
                     website and letters      Councils
                     written giving         • Victim Support
                     website reference to   • Racial Equality Council
                     document               • Age Concern
                                            • Crime Prevention
                   • 50 authorities and       Panels
                     voluntary agencies     • Home Watch Co-
                     consulted                ordinators
                                            • County and District
                                              Councils
                                            • CDRPs
                                            • Criminal Justice Boards
                                            • Voluntary agencies
                                            • Probation Boards
                                            • Drug Action Team
                                            • Youth Offending Team

North Wales        • Six meetings with      • Force officers and        Community Engagement
                     174 stakeholders         police staff
(See Appendix J)     undertaken by an       • Voluntary groups          • The current force initiatives involving Community Police Officers, Beat
                     independent                                          Managers and Local Surgeries were widely and enthusiastically endorsed as


                                                                                                                                           96
  independent         • Businesses                 Managers and Local Surgeries were widely and enthusiastically endorsed as
  research company    • Partner organisations      making significant progress towards a positive situation in which communities
                      • Local people and           do not just receive policing services passively but feel involved
• Youth focus group     communities
  — 15 attendees      • Members of the           • Apart from the priority for the police to relate to communities in general, the
                        Flintshire Youth Forum     stakeholder groups were keen that the police should demonstrate their
• Five PCCGs — 138                                 commitment to traditional priorities – namely, visible policing, better detection
  attendees                                        rates and focus on crime reduction

                                                 Accountability

                                                 • The stakeholders were keen to have additional information about police
                                                   budgets and cost-effectiveness
                                                 • Very many people thought is was vitally important for the Police Authority to
                                                   exercise both its formal powers and informal influence on the force to
                                                   represent convincingly the point of view of the public
                                                 • There were strong suggestions that the Authority should publicise vacancies
                                                   more widely and prominently, and should generally raise its own profile –
                                                   through increased consultation with, and increased feedback to, the public
                                                 • Neighbourhood Panels were broadly welcomed as a valuable way of achieving
                                                   bottom-up policing, though some had reservations about their contribution

                                                 Operational Effectiveness

                                                 • The idea of a national telephone number for non-emergency contacts with the
                                                   police (and possibly other services) seemed to most people a very good idea –
                                                   but always providing that it is staffed by police personnel (even if non-
                                                   uniformed) and links readily to the police
                                                 • There was almost unanimous opposition to the prospect of a single all-Wales



                                                                                                                        97
                                                                         police force
                                                                       Service Modernisation
                                                                       • There was considerable sympathy for the idea that police management should
                                                                         be modernised and made even more effective
                                                                       • There was a recognition that coming through the ranks is not necessarily the
                                                                         best preparation for the demands of managing a large and complex force
                                                                         organisation
                                                                       • The concept of earned autonomy had limited attractiveness for the force
                                                                         officers and staff, many of whom commented that they disliked the prospect of
                                                                         financial means being used to incentivise performance in forces
North Yorkshire   • Questionnaire —          • CDRPs                   Community Engagement
                    424 responses            • Local authorities
                                             • 2 local authority       • 65.3% want to know what the police are doing to tackle local issues
                  • Three focus groups         Citizen’s Panels
                    — 35 attendees           • Disability groups       • 44.8% would like to receive the information through their local papers
                                             • North Yorkshire forum
                  • Eight public               for voluntary           Accountability
                    meetings —                 organisations
                    questionnaires                                     • 87% of those who responded to the Citizen’s Panel questionnaire supported
                    distributed at half of                               the introduction of a single, non-emergency number
                    these
                                                                       • 79% of participants in the survey supported the notion of Community
                                                                         Advocates

                                                                       • 36% supported wholly directly elected police authorities

                                                                       • 72% people in the Citizens’ Panels survey said they are aware of the authority
                                                                         and its role (compared with 32% of CDRPs)




                                                                                                                                            98
                                                                    Operational Effectiveness

                                                                    • 55% would like to see no change to the existing number of forces — 21%
                                                                      more and 23% less

Northants          Public consultation                              Community Engagement
                   exercise — 67
                   responses received                               • Local beat officers are the only way to develop better channels of
                                                                      communication with communities

                                                                    • Neighbourhood Watch should be better supported

                                                                    Operational Effectiveness

                                                                    • 52% do not want to see Northamptonshire Police become part of a larger
                                                                      force

Northumbria        • Consultation event    • Youth Council —        Community Engagement
                     with Youth Council,     Gateshead
(See Appendix K)     Gateshead — 40        • South Tyneside         Youth Council
                     attendees under the     Council’s Citizens
                     age of 18               Panel                  • Want more information about how to get in touch with the local police officer;
                                           • Voluntary                areas that should be avoided; who is on the beat - when and where
                   • Six focus groups        organisations —
                     with members of         including              • Access to information by more police visits to school, leaflets, adverts on
                     South Tyneside          representatives from     popular radio stations
                     Council’s Citizens      mental health, BME,
                     Panel; voluntary        Age Concern, church    • Want police to change their uniform; be more talkative and friendly; be more
                     organisations from      and Bangladeshi          visible at public transport areas; and visit schools more often
                     South Tyneside;         communities
                     members of


                                                                                                                                            99
  members of              • Sunderland Council’s   • Police should trust the community to encourage better communication; seek
  Sunderland                Citizen Panel            the views of young people on a regular basis; and improve two way
  Council’s Citizen       • National Probation       involvement
  Panel — 12-14 per         Service
  event                   • Local authorities      Citizens Panel
                          • CDRPs
• Informal meetings       • Fire Authority         • Want more information about who the local officer is and how to contact
  with voluntary          • Ambulance Service        him/her; on incidents in the local area and on how many local crimes have
  sector                                             been solved

• Letter to all Chief                              • Want police to knock on doors every now and then; be out in known trouble
  Executives of partner                              spots; and be out in local areas, controlling crime, not waiting for the phone to
  agencies                                           ring

• Letter to all Chairs                             • Police should establish two-way feedback mechanisms to encourage
  of CDRPs                                           community involvement

                                                   • Special Constables need to be treated in the same way as police officers e.g.
                                                     training/safety equipment and improving their conditions may help increase the
                                                     number of recruits

                                                   Voluntary Organisations

                                                   • Want more information on specific current local issues; how to contact the
                                                     police; local police officer and contact details; local crime statistics and police
                                                     performance; and crime prevention information

                                                   • Want police to gain greater knowledge of the local community; be more
                                                     representative; give talks in their local areas; re-introduce locally based Police
                                                     Stations; and be easily accessible 24 hours a day




                                                                                                                            100
• Police should work and involve voluntary organisations to a greater extent;
  establish more relevant local points of contact; get to know local residents; and
  work more closely with organisations such as Neighbourhood Watch

• Retired police officers could be recruited as Special Constables

Accountability

Youth Council

• There should be a local non-emergency number; more than one emergency
  number; a freephone helpline (like NHS direct); and an automated line

• Community advocates are a good idea — they should be paid, need to be
  carefully selected, totally independent and would need to have the respect and
  status within the community

• Special constables need to be paid more and be more visible
Citizens Panel

• Single non-emergency number — there should be general information to raise
  awareness of current numbers available; guidance regarding what is an
  emergency/non-emergency; more local centres where operators would be
  familiar with local area; and one number for police services — irrespective of
  whether it is an emergency or not

• Community advocates could be beneficial as they would take the burden off
  serious complaints but they need to have knowledge of the police/legal service




                                                                     101
                                                                 Voluntary Organisations

                                                                 • Single non-emergency number — there should be an effort to build upon
                                                                   what’s already there; a more personal system; and a new number for police
                                                                   services only

                                                                 • Community advocates would be a valuable link with the community but, rather
                                                                   than a new body, why can’t the current system be refined?

Nottinghamshire    • Seminar for CDRP       • CDRPs              Community Engagement
                     partners — 20          • Community groups
(See Appendix L)     attendees                                   Seminar

                   • Two public meetings                         • Public needs to know how to access help; who to contact; and where and
                     — over 70                                     when they would be available — active community groups were a valuable
                     attendees in total                            means of distributing this information

                   • Questionnaire                               • Information should explain police priorities, and the reasons for these, but not
                     available on the                              be patronising
                     internet and
                     circulated at public                        • Need to engage effectively with young people
                     meetings — 47
                     responses received                          • Police need to take their service to the public, e.g. via mobile units and
                                                                   surgeries

                                                                 Public meetings

                                                                 • Dangers of consultation fatigue — public was interested in outcomes not
                                                                   structures

                                                                 • Strong support for importance of the neighbourhood officer



                                                                                                                                        102
• Information about local policing should be available through the local media

• Police should go into schools to give talks and information about the police

• Contact with tenants and residents associations could help with the
  recruitment of people from under-represented groups

• Specials should be paid and should not be used as substitutes for regular
  officers

Accountability

Seminar

• There was a distinct risk in coming up with a new structure for community
  safety when CDRPs were beginning to “bed down”

• Creation of neighbourhood panels could duplicate current provisions

• Creation of community advocates could potentially confuse existing roles, in
  particular that of councillors

• Proposal to develop local service agreements was generally welcomed

Public meetings

• Single non-emergency number was useful provided it was adequately
  publicised

• Mixed view on whether the make-up of police authorities should be reviewed



                                                                    103
                                                                         • Support for local service agreements and also, in principle, for neighbourhood
                                                                           panels

                                                                         • Role of community advocates is too vague and might undermine the role of
                                                                           councillors

                                                                         • No indication of increased resources being available to fund proposals, e.g.
                                                                           additional election costs

South Wales        • 5,500                    Questionnaires             Community Engagement
                     questionnaires — 54
(See Appendix M)     responses received       • Representatives of       • The authority and the force needs to raise its profile and more regular
                                                Ethnic Minority Groups     information is needed by the community both in terms of accountability and
                   • Public Meetings held     • Force Independent          performance
                     in each of the seven       Advisory Panel
                     BCU/Unitary Council        representatives          • Greater emphasis needs to be placed on getting more officers on the beat with
                     areas —                  • Representatives of         increased use of PCSOs, improved call handling and the introduction of a
                     approximately 800          PCCGs                      national non-emergency number
                     direct invitations and   • Headteachers of
                     88 attendees               Schools and Colleges     • Police need to engage more with the community both at Sector and BCU level
                                              • Race Equality Councils     and consultation at these levels needs to be placed on a statutory footing
                   • 100 telephone            • Neighbourhood Watch
                     surveys                  • Crime Prevention         • Public needs to be given more feedback and kept up to date on progress of
                                                Panels                     incidents
                   • Five focus groups —      • Victim Support
                     40 attendees in total      Schemes                  • Specials should be paid
                                              • Independent Custody
                   Total: 5748 consultees       Visitors                 Accountability
                                              • Community Council
                                                Associations             • Present police authority is relatively sound and should remain but with co-
                                                                           option onto the police authority/Board of a representative from each BCU


                                                                                                                                              104
• Business Community        option onto the police authority/Board of a representative from each BCU
• Travellers                panel
• Taxi Drivers
• Age Concern             • Very little support for the introduction of a community advocate
• Gay, Lesbian and
  Transgender Groups      Operational Effectiveness
• South Wales Police
  Officers and Staff      • No real support or disagreement for restructuring the current 43 forces

Focus Groups              Service Modernisation

•   Unemployed            • To make the police more representative, current recruitment campaigns should
•   Disabled                be continued with their emphasis on diversity
•   Youth
                          • Service is currently too bureaucratic and officers are bogged down in
•   Elderly
                            paperwork
•   Homeless (feedback
    via quesionnaire)

Public Meetings

• Members of the public


• 22 Community Safety
  Partnerships
• Local Authority
  Community Safety
  Departments
• Force Minorities
  Support Unit
• Welsh Local


                                                                                               105
                                              Government
                                              Association
                                            • South Wales Criminal
                                              Justice Board


South Yorkshire    • Five focus groups      • Chairs of Police       Community Engagement
                     (attended by 100         Community
(See Appendix N)     people) — four local     Consultation Groups    • People want information on local policing — this includes information about
                     authority based ones   • Community Safety         accessibility, the performance of the police and crime prevention
                     and a countywide         Facilitators           • Public concerns with media coverage and the importance therefore of the
                     one with               • Custody Visitors         police producing their own publications
                     “stakeholders”, i.e.   • Neighbourhood Watch
                     people who have          Co-ordinators          • People attach high importance to an accessible service and individual officers
                     done or do                                        who know and are known by local communities and stakeholders
                     paid/voluntary work
                     in support of the                               • Mixed support for making better use of knowledge, skills and experience of
                     police and police                                 community members — some argued that it could put another barrier between
                     authority                                         the police and the public; others feared that this would undermine
                                                                       professionalism and questioned what health and safety, and training,
                   Other sources:                                      volunteers would be provided with

                   • Police Talk                                     • Another argument was the fear that some people in some places were fearful
                     Questionnaires —                                  of being associated with the police. The most common criticism concerned the
                     completed by                                      premise of the proposal i.e. that there are lots of people out there with the
                     several thousand                                  time and the will to be volunteers
                     people
                                                                     • Practical examples offered included organising activities to address anti-social
                   • P1 Forms —                                        behaviour by young people, fitting securing measures to homes of vulnerable
                     completed by a                                    people, interpreting services, liaison and mediation
                     community
                     constable after a


                                                                                                                                           106
  community meeting      • Community groups — most people felt that the old police-community group
  — records the views      networks have broken down; too much is expected with little support
  of tens of thousands
  of people              • Importance of providing community groups with strong support; community
                           groups’ help must be reciprocated by the police in relation to better
• Serving You —            communications and information exchange; and full involvement in partnership
  tabloid newspaper        working is key
  delivered to every
  household in the       Accountability
  county (580000)
                         • Mixed support for a single, non-emergency number — people felt that having
                           a national, three digit non-emergency number as opposed to largely unknown
                           local numbers would be easier for people to remember and take some of the
                           pressure off the three 9s
                         • However, people prefer an accessible, local police service and are worried that
                           a national non-emergency number would reduce this

                         • The most common criticism concerned the subjective distinction between an
                           emergency and a non-emergency — a lot of education is required. The
                           proposal requires them - and the rest of us - to make a conscious distinction
                           between an emergency and a non-emergency

                         • No strong support for community advocates — main concerns were cost,
                           duplication and erecting barriers between the police and the public

                         • Mixed support for proposals regarding neighbourhood level panels — concern
                           that these forums or panels would interest and appeal to a limited number of
                           people

                         • No strong support for wholesale changes to the composition and constitution
                           of police authorities



                                                                                             107
                                                                   • No strong support for wholly directly elected police authorities — number of
                                                                     sub-options, e.g. changing the size and membership balance of the police
                                                                     authority

Suffolk                              • Suffolk West PCT
                                     • Suffolk County Council
                                     • St Edmundsbury
                                       Borough Council
                                     • Norfolk, Suffolk and
                                       Cambridgeshire
                                       Strategic Health
                                       Authority

Surrey    • Survey on authority      •   Local businesses
            website and on           •   Schools
            specialist website for   •   Young people
            young people             •   Chamber of
            between 13-19                Commerce
            years old — 4000         •   District/borough/parish
            hard copies                  councils
            distributed and 615      •   Acute Hospital Trusts
            responses received
                                     •   Primary Care Trusts
                                     •   Woking Community
                                         Relations Forum and
                                         their members
                                     •   CDRPs
                                     •   Drug Action Team
                                     •   Victim Support
                                     •   Local Criminal Justice
                                         Board


                                                                                                                                      108
                                           • Independent Custody
                                             Visitors
                                           • Police and Community
                                             Partnership Group
                                           • Neighbourhood Watch
                                           • Residents’ Associations
                                           • School governors and
                                             head teachers
                                           • IAG

Sussex             • Public consultation   • CDRPs                     Accountability
                     day at Shoreham —     • Local authorities
                     70 attendees          • General public            • Prefer police to be accountable to a combination of elected members and local
                                           • Brighton and Hove           people selected and appointed by the police authority
                                             RAP                       • Endorsed the need for a single non-emergency number for contacting the
                                           • Arun District Council       police and local authorities

                                                                       Operational Effectiveness

                                                                       • No need to change the existing number of forces

Thames Valley      • MORI survey of        •   Charities               Community Engagement
                     1100 residents in     •   Community groups
(See Appendix O)     Berkshire,            •   Voluntary groups        • Public: most people would prefer to get information about the local police
                     Buckinghamshire       •   Health authorities        from leaflets delivered to their home, with council newsletters or from local
                     and Oxfordshire       •   Religious groups          newspapers. They are most interested in receiving more information on what
                                           •   Victim support            the police are doing to tackle problems in their area and how to contact the
                   • Telephone             •   Academic institutions
                                                                         police for non-emergencies
                     interviews carried
                                           •   Business community
                     out with a                                        • Stakeholders: a significant minority feel that they only receive a limited amount
                     representative        •   Primary Care Trusts       of information about police services. Most would prefer to get information



                                                                                                                                            109
  sample of residents   • Local Criminal Justice     through either a regular newsletter or by e-mail. The aspect of policing they
                          Board                      are most interested in receiving more information on is what the police are
• MORI postal survey    • 18 Local                   doing to tackle problems in their area. The vast majority would like to get
  of key stakeholders     Authorities/CDRPs          more involved in working with the police authority to set priorities and monitor
  — 471 distributed     • 11 Local Policing          performance in their area
  and 141 responses       Boards
  received (30%                                    • Local Policing Boards: there should be a meaningful key performance indicator
  response rate)                                     to measure how the police have interacted with the community. Whilst the
                                                     utilisation of Volunteers and Specials offers a more flexible resource, it may also
                                                     be perceived as a ‘cheap’ alternative to local policing. However, the increased
                                                     use of Police Community Support Officers may be appropriate in reducing the
                                                     perceived fear of crime, as actually reducing crime itself

                                                   • Local authorities/CDRPs: the role of Police Community Support Officers could
                                                     be beneficial in dealing with local issues – e.g. Anti-Social Behaviour Orders.
                                                     There is benefit in having specialist advisory groups to all the agencies involved.
                                                     Local communities must have a way of feeding in ideas, views and intelligence
                                                     to the relevant agencies

                                                   Accountability

                                                   • Public: important that there are set standards on the quality of local police
                                                     services people can expect to receive. The majority of people think that people
                                                     directly elected, local councillors, local magistrates and appointed Independent
                                                     Members are appropriate to oversee the work of the police. Most people
                                                     favour local police boards being established, with a majority favouring people
                                                     being directly elected to these boards

                                                   • Stakeholders: important that there are set standards on the quality of local
                                                     police services people can expect to receive. The majority think that people
                                                     directly elected are the most appropriate people to oversee the local work of
                                                     the police. The vast majority favour local police boards being established


                                                                                                                          110
• Local Policing Boards: the development of Local Service Level Agreements
  would lead to targets being set that would develop a life of their own, rather
  than focusing on real local priorities. Direct election of Police Authorities would
  be costly, time consuming, and lead to those who are politically inclined, rather
  than those with the most appropriate skills being chosen

Operational Effectiveness
• Public: the two most important types of crime for the authority to focus on are
  sex and violence against children and burglary

• Stakeholders: the two most important types of crime for the authority to focus
  on are drug offences and burglary. Most would like to see greater visibility of
  policing and more ‘bobbies on the beat’

• Local Policing Boards: it is recognised that certain functions of the police need
  to be subject of central support; this should not be extended further than is
  operationally necessary. An alternative to a centrally based system would be to
  have a number of regional forces, but with a centrally based national force
  (similar to the US Federal Bureau of Investigation system) which has its own
  resources to deal with major cases

Service Modernisation

• Local Policing Boards: police forces should reflect the diversity of communities
  they serve, in terms of identifying with the social, cultural and ethnicity of those
  areas. Strong leadership and good management skills are essential in
  delivering a modern, accountable police service. However, further work needs
  to carried out within the Police Service to development a wider ‘skill mix’




                                                                       111
Warwickshire   • Consultation           •   Elected members         Community Engagement
                 undertaken by BMG      •   Local MPs
                 Research               •   Neighbourhood Watch     • The publication of force-wide documents containing high level performance
                                        •   Churches                  information is not relevant to local community needs
               • Two residents focus    •   Warwickshire Rural      • Information relevant to local circumstances, delivered directly or available on
                 groups — 19                Community Council         community notice boards or in libraries welcomed
                 attendees              •   Warwickshire
                                            Association of Parish   • Barriers still exist between the public and police officers which impact on the
               • One stakeholder            Councils                  issues of accessibility
                 focus group — 10       •   Connexions
                 Chief Executives       •   Learning and Skills     • Widespread support for deployment of members of the police family at hotspot
                                            Council                   locations
               • Meeting with MPs       •   Primary Care Trusts
                                        •   Chamber of              • Many opportunities to draw on skills available within the community, such as IT
               • Meeting with               Commerce                  and administration skills, to support the police
                 leaders of the
                                        •   Warwick University
                 political parties in                               • Need to reinforce with employers the value of the contribution they could
                                        •   Probation Board
                 Warwickshire                                         make, ranging from the demonstration of support to employees who are
                 County Council         •   Magistrates Board         recruited as special constables, to their duty to recognise the effect of crime on
                                                                      their employees
               • Meeting with 10
                 smallest authorities                               Accountability

                                                                    • Service Level Agreements were not felt to be an appropriate tool for defining
                                                                      the minimum standards of service expected by the public from the police

                                                                    • Some felt that community advocates could lead to a further divide between the
                                                                      public and the police on general issues; others felt that they could be a useful
                                                                      resource for the vulnerable members of society




                                                                                                                                          112
                                                                  • Questioned the need for establishing neighbourhood panels or trusts — some
                                                                    support for the notion of neighbourhood panels in larger city areas, no support
                                                                    for their establishment within rural areas

                                                                  • Existing police authority structure was at the right level for ensuring police
                                                                    accountability — publication of additional promotional material about the
                                                                    authority, its role and responsibilities was desirable

                                                                  • Option of directly elected members was inappropriate

                                                                  Operational Effectiveness

                                                                  • Desire to see an excellent police service tailored to respect operational,
                                                                    geographical and cultural considerations within the infrastructure of their
                                                                    respective areas. Strategic police forces were seen as the right direction for the
                                                                    police service, provided that they make sense in terms of social geography, co-
                                                                    terminosity with other key agencies and links with the community

West Mercia   • 300 personal letters   • 300 key organisations,   Community Engagement
                sent out                 local authorities and
                                         individuals              • Strong message about the perceived value of local visible patrol, local police
                                       • 18 PCCGs                   presence, the use of Specials, Community Support Officers (CSOs) and
                                                                    wardening schemes. The kind of local engagement most strongly sought is the
                                                                    engagement of the local community with local police officers, CSOs and
                                                                    wardens about local issues rather than consultation about high-level strategy
                                                                    issues

                                                                  • There has been a strong message about ‘feedback’ regarding policing activity
                                                                    where crimes or anti-social behaviour have been reported. It was suggested
                                                                    that consideration should be given to the use of volunteers, neighbourhood
                                                                    watch schemes or community support officers to improve the reporting back of



                                                                                                                                         113
  activity to both individuals and local communities. Other suggestions included:
  better use of the press, news bulletins shared with key organisations and the
  use of an internet (or secure intranet) site

• The ‘local presence’ theme was repeated by support for beat officer surgeries
  and local police stations or other policing presence within communities. It was
  also recognised that community support officers and wardening schemes
  require the availability of back up from main policing services to ensure that
  their activities could be effective. There was a strong wish to see emphasis
  placed on neighbourhood policing

• One respondent expressed concern as the amount of money spent on
  consultation exercises as opposed to investing directly in police engagement by
  providing additional police officers, CSOs or wardening schemes

Accountability

• There was a request for clearer performance indicators expressed within an
  understandable context. It also appeared that the respective roles of LSPs,
  CDRPs, Local Authorities and Police Authorities ought to be clarified

• There was considerable pressure to enhance the role of the BCU commander,
  but there seemed little appetite for wholesale reorganisation of Police
  Authorities

• There were some suggestions that Police Authorities should have a wider
  composition, possibly appointed by LSPs

• Direct elections may lead to the politicisation of policing and make Police
  Authorities more remote from existing Local Authorities




                                                                      114
                                                             Operational Effectiveness

                                                             • The existing 43 Police Authorities were largely seen as acceptable and a
                                                               concern was expressed that reorganisation would only involve additional cost,
                                                               bureaucracy and a bedding down period

                                                             • a smaller number of respondents supported the establishment of a national
                                                               police force or, where Police Authorities were retained, their direct election in
                                                               view of their taxation role

West Midlands   • Three consultation   • CDRPs               Community Engagement
                  events               • Birmingham Retail
                                         Crime Consortium    • Results of public perception survey — most popular means of receiving
                • Questionnaire                                information about policing was through local newspapers (32% preferred this
                                                               method) and leaflets or publications delivered through the door or obtained in
                • Results of public                            the community (25.5% preferred this method)
                  perception survey
                  carried out in                             • Local people want more information about policing; they want to know more
                  Summer 2003                                  about the role of the Police Authority; and there is a desire for more
                                                               information about policing at a local neighbourhood level

                                                             Accountability

                                                             • there was a commonly held view that other bodies involved in community
                                                               safety (such as CDRPs and specialist police units including NCS, NCIS) should be
                                                               accountable to the public, and should be open to public scrutiny

                                                             • 82% were in favour of retaining a combined make-up of police authority
                                                               members




                                                                                                                                    115
West Yorkshire     • Six open meetings  • Citizens’ Panel        Community Engagement
                     — 135 attendees    • Independent Advisory
(See Appendix P)                          Group                  • Types of information which communities would find most useful: details of
                   • Two focus groups — • Morley Borough           station opening times, local officers and how to contact them; local
                     13 attendees         Independents             performance data; local crime hotspots and crime prevention advice; other
                                        • Young people at          local crime information (success stories, initiatives, results of investigations, etc);
                   • Two events for       Pontefract New           comparative data, which should be relevant; and local response times (calls,
                     young people — 23    College and Calder       officer attendance, etc)
                     attendees            High School
                                                                 • Information being posted through people’s doors would be most effective way
                                                                   of ensuring that everyone would see it, particularly the most vulnerable
                                                                   members of communities

                                                                 • Suggested distribution with partners or existing networks and local community
                                                                   organisations to keep costs down

                                                                 • Good to have police officers coming into schools to provide information and
                                                                   crime prevention advice
                                                                 • Police could be more visible by: patrolling suburbs and estates on foot; using
                                                                   technology to reduce bureaucracy and form filling; holding surgeries in places
                                                                   other than a police station; community safety talks in schools and businesses;
                                                                   and patrolling suburbs and estates by car

                                                                 • Making use of retired police officers to increase visibility

                                                                 • Community and police would benefit from the sharing of information and
                                                                   good practice, improving communication channels

                                                                 Accountability

                                                                 • Some people saw neighbourhood level panels as another layer of bureaucracy



                                                                                                                                           116
                                                                    and felt they would only attract the same people who were already serving on
                                                                    other community groups

                                                                  • The concept of a single non-emergency number was seen as ok — some
                                                                    people said that they would prefer it to be used for calls to the police only

                                                                  • Community advocates would be another layer of bureaucracy and other
                                                                    services were already set up to deal with such issues

                                                                  Operational Effectiveness

                                                                  • It was strongly felt that larger divisions and forces did not help communities
                                                                    reduce crime because resources are spread much more thinly

                                                                  • National priorities should start to be replaced by local priorities

                                                                  Service Modernisation

                                                                  • It was important for police officers to have local knowledge and for this reason
                                                                    appointing people from overseas was seen to be a bad idea

                                                                  • It was felt that all appointments at Inspector or above should be for a minimum
                                                                    period of five years to maintain continuity and stability

Wiltshire          • Wiltshire and      • Swindon Racial          Community Engagement
                     Swindon Citizens     Equality Council
(See Appendix Q)     Panel — 8766                                 • Respondents tended to favour receiving crime level/police performance data at
                     distributed and    Asian Centre                a more local/community level
                     3039 responses     Asian Women’s Group
                     received (35%      Assemblies of the First   • Most respondents favoured finding out about crime levels/performance data
                     response rate)     Born Bangladesh             via the local media or a news-sheet
                                        Association


                                                                                                                                          117
                         Association
• Five public meetings   Bangladesh Women’s          • The majority of respondents (97%) did not wish to be actively involved in
  — 72 attendees         Association                   policing i.e. by becoming a Special Constable, but would prefer other forms of
                         Caribbean Lunch Club          involvement e.g. through joining a ‘Watch Group’
• Presentation to and    The Swindon & District
  discussion with        Chinese Community           Accountability
  Wiltshire Strategic    Centre
  Board members          Chinese Lunch Club          • Respondents favoured a Service Level Agreement and tended to feel that this
                         Church of God of              should be a local level document
• Direct approach to     Prophecy Get Out &
  Wiltshire and          Learn                       • Most respondents (29%) felt that Police Authority members should be selected
  Swindon Diversity      Hindu Samaj                   through a ‘combination of methods’. A significant number of respondents
  Forums                 Millen Advice Point           (20%) felt that members should be selected on ‘professional skills and ability’
                         Pakistan Welfare              alone
                         Association Polish Day
                         Centre                      • Most respondents (72%) felt that responsibility for community safety issues
                         Polish Co-ordinating          should remain the shared responsibility of several partners, including the Police.
                         Committee                     The respondents who felt that the responsibility should alter tended to the view
                         Polish Roman Catholic         that the Police Authority would be the appropriate responsible partner
                         Community
                         Sangam Centre               Operational Effectiveness
                         Shree Lohana Mahajan
                         Sikh Temple                 • The overwhelming majority of respondents (75%) were happy with the existing
                         Spiritual Assembly of the     policing structure and wanted it to continue being delivered by the Wiltshire
                         Baha                          Police Force
                         Swindon
                                                     • A significant majority of respondents (68%) favoured a National Police Agency
                         African/Caribbean
                                                       taking responsibility for the investigation of the most serious/national level
                         Community Association
                                                       crime
                         Swindon Irish Association
                         Swindon Ismaili
                         Community
                         Thamesdown Islamic



                                                                                                                           118
Association

• Swindon

Non-European Members
of the Community
Asian Centre and
Community
Croft and Larra
Community Council
Penhill Forum
Piper Area Residents
Association
Rodbourne Cheney
Residents' Association
Shaw Residents
Association Swindon
Crime Prevention Panel
Swindon Women's
Refuge Thamesdown
Road Safety Group
Wiltshire Federation of
Womens Institutes
Parks & Walcot Forum,
Lawns - Neighbourhood
Watch
Broad Street Community
Council
Old Walcot Residents'
Association
Swindon Coalition of
Disabled People



                          119
• Salisbury

Age Concern Salisbury
Salisbury & District Trades
Union Council
Council Taxpayers
Association (S. Wilts)
Bangladesh Community
Bemerton Townswomen
Guild
National Farmers Union
Neighbourhood Watch
High Street Residents
Bulford
Harnham
Neighbourhood Council

• North Wiltshire

Trade Unions
The Wiltshire Racial
Equality Council
North Wiltshire Council
for Voluntary Service
LVA
New Testament Church
of God
Good News Church
Easton Grey
Neighbourhood Watch




                              120
• Kennet

Local Church Councils
Marlborough & District
Chamber of Commerce
Bromham
Neighbourhood Watch
 Stert Neighbourhood
Watch

• West Wiltshire

Trowbridge District
Chamber of Commerce
Melksham Family of
Churches
Bradford-on-Avon &
District Community
Safety Group Bethel
United Church of Jesus
Christ
New Testament Church
of God
Muslim Women's Group
Trowbridge Islamic
Association
Polish Club
The Moroccan
Community Association
Trade Unions –
Warminster, National
Farmers Union –



                         121
Warminster, Warminster
Neighbourhood Watch

• Local Criminal Justice
  Board

• Wiltshire Strategic
  Board

West Wilshire Primary
Care Trust
West Wiltshire District
Council
Wiltshire County Council
Wiltshire and Swindon
Economic Partnership
Wiltshire Association of
Local Councils
Community First
National Probation
Service Wiltshire Area
Learning and Skills
Council Wiltshire and
Swindon
North Wiltshire District
Council
Wiltshire and Swindon
Lifelong Learning
Partnership
South Wiltshire Primary
Care Trust
Association of Wiltshire



                           122
Towns
Salisbury District Council
Kennet District Council
Wiltshire and Swindon
Combined Fire Authority
Wiltshire Wildlife Trust,
Rural Regeneration
Partnership North
Wiltshire and Kennet
Primary Care Trust
Wiltshire Churches
Together

• Swindon Strategic
  Partnership

Swindon Primary Care
Trust Swindon Borough
Council Innogy Plc
Swindon Chamber of
Commerce and Industry
Swindon 12-18 Project
VAS Swindon, plus
others.




                             123
Policing: Building Safer Communities
                                             APA Response – List of Appendices


Section 5: List of Appendices to Section 4

Appendix       Police Authority     Document

A              Avon and Somerset    Public Consultation Results


                                    APA Template for Reporting Consultation
B              Essex
                                    Outcomes


                                    Policing: Building Safer Communities Together
C              Gloucestershire
                                    Results of consultation exercise


                                    Policing: Building Safer Communities Together
D              Greater Manchester
                                    Results of Consultation


                                    Annexes 1, 2 and 3 — details of consultation
E1             Hertfordshire
                                    undertaken


                                    Annex 2.1
                                    Building Safer Communities in Hertfordshire
E2             Hertfordshire
                                    Qualitative Study Conducted for Hertfordshire
                                    Police Authority


                                    Response to: Policing: “Building Safer
F              Humberside           Communities Together”
                                    26 January 2004


                                    Building Safer Communities Together: Findings
G              Lancashire           from Consultation with Opinion Panel Members.
                                    January 2004


                                    Police Authority Template for Reporting
H              Leicestershire
                                    Consultation Outcomes


I                                   Lincolnshire Police Authority Consultation
               Lincolnshire

                                    North Wales Police Authority
J              North Wales          Report of Stakeholder Consultation Meetings
                                    2004


K              Northumbria          Summary of Issues Raised at Consultation Events


                                                                                 124
Policing: Building Safer Communities
                                       APA Response – List of Appendices


Appendix     Police Authority   Document

L            Nottinghamshire    Nottinghamshire Police Authority Report


M            South Wales        Outcomes of Home Office Consultation Exercise


                                “Building Safer Communities”: South Yorkshire
N            South Yorkshire    Police Authority’s Community Response
                                January 2004


O                               Appendix B — results of consultation
             Thames Valley

                                Building Safer Communities Public Consultation
P            West Yorkshire
                                Events

Q            Wiltshire          Results of consultation




                                                                          125

				
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