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PLANNING FOR THE FOUNDATION STAGE

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					      PLANNING
            for the

   FOUNDATION
     STAGE


       with links to the

National Literacy and Numeracy
           Strategies




               1
                PLANNING FOR THE FOUNDATION STAGE

Based on “Guidance for the Foundation Stage” QCA 2000 and
“Planning for learning in the Foundation Stage” QCA 2001


Since September 2000, The Foundation Stage has provided the curriculum
framework for practitioners working with children form the age of three to the
end of the reception year.

The Foundation Stage is valued as a Key Stage. It prepares children for
learning in Key Stage 1 and is consistent with the National Curriculum. It is a
distinct phase that provides rich and diverse opportunities for lifelong
learning.

The Foundation Stage establishes expectations for most children to achieve
by the end of the reception year. These expectations are written in the
Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage as Early Learning Goals. The
Early Learning Goals provide a useful tool for planning and assessment and
are divided into six areas of learning:

               Personal, Social and Emotional Development
               Communication, Language and Literacy
               Mathematical Development
               Knowledge and Understanding of the World
               Physical Development
               Creative Development

The Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage identifies “stepping
stones” related to the aspects of learning, which state the knowledge, skills,
understanding and attitudes children need if they are to achieve the Early
Learning Goals. Individual children may be working at different stages within
each of the curriculum areas. Play is at the centre of children’s learning
because:
 “ Well planned play, both indoors and outdoors, is a key way in which young
        children learn with enjoyment and challenge” QCA 2000: 25

When planning the curriculum for the Foundation Stage or up-dating policy
documents, schools should ensure that the following principles, which are at
the heart of the QCA guidance, are reflected:

• “Effective education requires both a relevant curriculum and practitioners
  who understand and are able to implement the curriculum requirements.



                                       2
• Effective education requires practitioners who understand that children
  develop rapidly during the early years – physically, intellectually,
  emotionally and socially.
• Practitioners should ensure that all children feel included, secure and
  valued.
• Early years experiences should build on what children already know and
  can do.
• No child should be excluded or disadvantaged.
• Parents and practitioners should work together.
• To be effective, an early years curriculum should be carefully structured.
• There should be opportunities for children to engage in activities planned
  by adults and also those that they plan or initiate themselves.
• Practitioners must be able to observe and respond appropriately to
  children.
• Well-planned, purposeful activity and appropriate intervention by
  practitioners will engage children in the learning process.
• For children to have rich and stimulating experiences, the learning
  environment (indoors and outdoors) should be well planned and well
  organised.
• Above all, effective learning and development for young children requires
  high-quality care and education by practitioners.”
 (QCA 2000:11,12)

Long Term Planning

The long term planning creates a curriculum overview for the year.

• Long term plans cover all six areas of development. They provide a
  balance of learning opportunities, which ensure appropriate entitlement for
  all and work towards the Early Learning Goals.

• It may be appropriate to group the learning opportunities, leading towards
  the Early Learning Goals into units of work which focus on a specific
  theme.

• The learning environment, resources and daily routine should also be
  considered at this stage. It is important that the daily routine provides for a
  range of learning opportunities including:

   Child initiated work: When the child makes choices and decisions about
   what to do and how to do it. Skilful adult interaction supports and extends
   the child’s work so that they make progress.



                                        3
    Teacher directed work: When the teacher has a clear learning outcome
    in mind. He/she constructs planned activities to ensure that the majority of
    children (in the group/whole class) are able to achieve the outcome.

    Teacher initiated activities: Activities set up by the teacher, that enable
    children to practise, apply and consolidate skills.

Medium Term Planning

Medium term plans are smaller units of work. They cover a set number of
weeks and link to the long-term plan. When reviewing the medium term plans
consider the examples of activities in the “stepping stones” part of the
guidance. These examples show how to put the principles of the Foundation
Stage into practice.
Planning at the medium term stage must consider enrichment of the learning
environment indoors and outdoors to support the theme. The environment
should compliment the planning for teacher directed and teacher initiated
work, which could be addressed through the following headings.
(It is important that schools tailor their planning to suit their own needs. The
following bullet points are suggestions.)

• Learning outcomes (what you want the children to learn)

• Activities to bring about learning (what you want the children to do)

• Language to use (key vocabulary)

• Resources (what materials and equipment are required)

Short Term Planning

Short-term plans can be weekly or daily. They should be flexible and address
the specific needs and interests of children in the class. They should include
an appropriate balance of teacher directed and teacher initiated work and the
additional opportunities that are to be provided in the environment indoors
and outdoors. The daily routine will provide time for child initiated work when
the adults make focused observations, interact and work alongside the
children extending and challenging their thinking. Plans should be developed
using on-going observations and informal assessments of young children. In
this way they build upon prior learning and experiences. Teacher directed
work could be addressed through the following headings: -

•   Learning outcomes (what you want the children to learn)

•   Activities to bring about learning (what you want the children to do)
                                           4
•   Language to use (key vocabulary and questions)

•   Resources (what materials and equipment are required)

•   Assessments (what have children learned?)

• Next steps for learning

Planning for learning in the foundation stage states,
“Good planning is the key to making children’s learning effective, exciting,
varied and progressive.” QCA 2001

“Spontaneous play is often based on important events in young children’s
lives….Exploring and experimenting through play can help children make
sense of their experiences and develop their understanding of these events.”
QCA 2001


To be effective and useful within the day to day demands of the setting, a
plan needs to be clear, concise and quick to complete. QCA 10/01




    All planning should motivate children to want to learn and promote their well
                                  being and safety




                                         5
                Making Links for Reception Aged Children
                  (this is not an appropriate approach in a nursery class)

Early Learning Goals and the National Literacy Strategy

This document shows that all the teaching objectives from the reception year
in the National Literacy Strategy link with the Early Learning Goals from the
section entitled Communication, Language and Literacy.

Key documents for reception teachers are:

•   Curriculum guidance for the foundation stage (QCA 2000)
•   Planning for learning in the Foundation Stage (ref: QCA/01/799)
•   The National Literacy Strategy framework for teaching (DFEE 1998)
•   The National Literacy Strategy ‘Progression in Phonics’ (DFEE 1999)
•   Planning for Role-play (SAS Kent 2000)
•   Excellence and Enjoyment (DFES 2003)
•   Open Questions (SAS Kent 2002)
•   Writing in the air (SAS 2004)
•   Playing with sounds (DFES 2004)
•   Speaking, listening, learning: working with Children in KS1 and KS2
    (DFES 2004)

Links with the Early Learning Goals / Aspects for:
• language for communication
• language for thinking
• linking sounds and letters
• reading
• writing
• handwriting
Links to other resources that may be useful are also made.

Planning, in the long term is based on the Curriculum Guidance for the
Foundation Stage. In the medium term, teachers may wish to use the
National Literacy Strategy reception year objectives to support their planning.
Short-term plans are based on the long and medium term plans and must be
specific to the needs of the children.

The elements of the literacy hour should be introduced in stages and can be
taught across the day. Throughout the Reception year teachers should aim to
provide the following entitlement for each child:
•    Frequent and regular experience of shared reading and
     shared writing

                                             6
•   Frequent and regular experience to develop and extend language
•   Activities to develop phonemic awareness and phonic knowledge
•   Guided reading and guided writing sessions each week; and
•   Regular opportunities to engage in a range of planned independent
    learning activities where skills that have been taught in shared and
    guided work can be experimented with and applied in a variety of
    contexts including outdoor play and outdoor activities.

An active, interactive approach to teaching and learning should be
emphasised throughout the elements.

Communication, language and literacy cannot be seen in isolation from other
areas of the curriculum. Opportunities for linking language with every part of
the curriculum such as, physical movement in action songs and rhymes, role-
play and practical experiences such as cooking or gardening should be
made. At this stage in development, it must be remembered that learning is
holistic and not subject specific.

Assessing Learning

In the Foundation Stage observation is the key method of assessment.
During child initiated activity the adults should have a systematic approach to
observing all children over a period of time. In addition incidental observations
will be made and significant achievement should be logged. Assessments will
also be made against learning objectives during teacher directed activity.

Progress in Reading and Writing should be tracked. Attached to this
document are two documents “Tracking Progression in Reading” and
“Tracking Progression in Writing”. Many teachers have found these
documents helpful for tracking progress and identifying next steps for
learning. They have been designed so that one sheet is used at a time. The
reading document has been used successfully during guided reading. The
appropriate sheet can be placed with the evidence gathered during child
initiated and teacher directed work. Achievement can be celebrated with the
child when it is logged and similarly next steps can be shared.

These on-going assessments provide evidence for the Foundation Stage
Profile.




                                        7
                            Language for communication



        Early Learning Goal              National Literacy Strategy


• Interact with others, negotiating
  plans and activities and taking
  turns in conversation.

• Enjoy listening to and using
  spoken and written language, and
  readily turn to it in their play and
  learning.

• Sustain attentive listening,
  responding to what they have
  heard by relevant comments,
  questions or actions.

• Listen with enjoyment, and
  respond to stories, songs and
  other music, rhymes and poems
  and make up their own stories,
  songs, rhymes and poems.

• Speak clearly and audibly with
  confidence and control and show
  awareness of the listener, for
  example by their use of
  conventions such as greetings,
  “please” and “thank you”
                                     W10 new words from their reading
• Extend their vocabulary, exploring and shared experiences.
  the meanings and sounds of new
  words.                             W11 to make collections of
                                     personal interest or significant
                                     words and words linked to topics.




                                         8
                            Language for thinking



      Early Learning Goal             National Literacy Strategy

• Use language to imagine and      T7 to use knowledge of familiar
  recreate roles and experiences   texts to re-enact or re-tell to
                                   others, recounting the main points
                                   in correct sequence;

                                   T9 to be aware of story
                                   structures, e.g.
                                   actions/reactions, consequences
                                   and the ways that stories are built
                                   up and concluded;

                                   T10 to re-read and recite stories
                                   and rhymes with predictable and
                                   repeated patterns and experiment
                                   with similar rhyming patterns;

                                   T14 to use experience of stories,
                                   poems and simple recounts as a
                                   basis for independent writing ,
                                   e.g. re-telling, substitution,
                                   extension, and through shared
                                   composition with adults;

                                   T4 to notice the difference
• Use talk to organise, sequence   between spoken and written
  and clarify thinking, ideas,     forms through re-telling known
  feelings and events.             stories; to compare ‘told’ versions
                                   with what the book ‘says’;

                                   T13 to think about and discuss
                                   what they intend to write, ahead
This links to planning for Role-   of writing it;
play (Angela Pickard and
Colleen Marin –Kent 2000)




                                      9
                          Linking sounds and Letters


       Early Learning Goal                National Literacy Strategy


• Enjoy rhyming and rhythmic          W2a hearing and identifying initial
  activities                          sounds in words;
• Distinguish one sound from
  another                             W2e identifying and writing initial
• Show awareness of rhyme and         and final phonemes in consonant-
  alliteration                        vowel-consonant (CVC) words, e.g.
• Recognise rhythm in spoken          Fit, mat, and pan.
  words
                                      W3a sounding and naming each
Linked to Sep 1 Progression in        letter of the alphabet in lower and
Phonics supplement “Playing with      upper case;
Sounds”
• Hear and discriminate, general      W3c understanding alphabetical
   sounds, speech sounds and          order through alphabet books,
   patterns.                          rhymes and songs;

• Continue a rhyming string           W2d identifying and writing initial
                                      and dominant phonemes in spoken
• Hear and say the initial sound in   words;
  words and know which letters
  represent some of the sounds.       W2e identifying and writing initial
                                      and final phonemes in consonant-
Linked to Step 2                      vowel-consonant (CVC) words, e.g.
                                      fit, mat;
• To be able to continue a rhyming
   string
                                      W3b writing letters in response to
• To hear and say phonemes in
                                      letter names;
   initial positions
• To know (some) phoneme-
   grapheme correspondences        W4a using knowledge of rhyme to
                                   identify families of rhyming CVC
• Hear and say initial and final:  words, e.g. hop, top, mop, fat, mat,
  sounds in words, and short vowel pat, etc;
  sounds within words
                                      W4b discriminating ‘onsets’ from
• Link sounds to letters, naming      ‘rimes’ in speech and spelling, e.g.
  and sounding the letters of the     ‘tip,’ ‘sip,’ ‘skip,’ ‘flip,’ ‘chip’;
  alphabet

                                        10
• Use their phonic knowledge to   W4c identifying alliteration in
  write simple regular words and  known and new invented words;
  make phonically plausible
  attempts at more complex words.

Linked to Steps 2 – 4
• To use the skills of blending and
   segmenting and the knowledge
   of phoneme/grapheme
   correspondence in groups 1 – 4
   (see page 6 of Playing with
   Sounds) to read and spell regular
   CVC words.




                                       11
                                     Reading


       Early Learning Goal               National Literacy Strategy

• Explore and experiment with        W1a recognising, exploring and
  sounds, words and texts.           working with rhyming patterns, e.g.
                                     learning nursery rhymes;

                                     W1b extending these patterns by
                                     analogy, generating new and
                                     invented words in speech and
                                     spelling;

                                     T10 to re-read and recite stories
                                     and rhymes with predictable and
                                     repeated patterns and experiment
                                     with similar rhyming patterns;

• Retell narratives in the correct   T3 to re-read a text to provide
  sequence, drawing on language      context cues to help read unfamiliar
  patterns of stories.               words;

                                     T4 to notice the difference between
                                     spoken and written forms through
                                     re-telling known stories; to compare
                                     ‘told’ versions with what the book
                                     ‘says;’

                                     T5 to understand how story book
                                     language works and to use some
                                     formal elements when re-telling
                                     stories, e.g. ‘Once there was…’,
                                     ‘She lived in a little…’, ‘He replied…’

                                     T6 to re-read frequently a variety of
                                     familiar texts, e.g. big books, story
                                     books, taped stories with texts,
                                     poems, information books, wall
                                     stories, captions, own and other
                                     children’s writing;




                                         12
                                    T7 to use knowledge of familiar
                                    texts to re-enact or re-tell to others,
                                    recounting the main points in
                                    correct sequence;

• Reading a range of familiar and   W5 to read on sight a range of
  common words and simple           familiar words e.g. children’s
  sentences independently.          names, captions, labels and words
                                    from favourite books.

                                    W6 to read on sight the 45 high
                                    frequency words to be taught by the
                                    end of reception

                                    W7 to read on sight the words from
                                    texts of appropriate difficulty

                                    W8 to read own name

                                    W2b reading letter(s) that represent
                                    the sound(s); a-z, ch, sh, th;

                                    W9 to recognise the critical features
                                    of words, e.g. shape, length, and
                                    common spelling patterns;

                                    T1a to recognise printed and hand-
                                    written words in a variety of
                                    settings, e.g. stories, notes,
                                    registers, labels, signs, notices,
                                    letters, forms, lists, directions,
                                    advertisements, newspapers;

                                    T7 to use knowledge of familiar
                                    texts to re-enact or re-tell to others,
                                    recounting the main points in
                                    correct sequence;

                                    S1 to expect written text to make
                                    sense and to check for sense if it
                                    does not.




                                        13
                                       S2 to use awareness of grammar of
                                       a sentence to predict words during
                                       shared reading and when re-
                                       reading familiar stories;

• Know that print carries meaning      S3 that words are ordered left to
  and in English, is read from Left    right and need to read that way to
  to Right and Top to Bottom.          make sense;

                                       T1c to understand and use correctly
                                       terms about books and print: book,
                                       cover, beginning, end, page, line,
                                       word, letter, title;

                                       T1d to track the text in the right
                                       order page by page, left to right, top
                                       to bottom; pointing while reading/
                                       telling a story, and making one-to-
                                       one correspondences between
                                       written and spoken words;

                                       T2 to use a variety of cues when
                                       reading; knowledge of the story and
                                       its context, and awareness of how it
                                       should make sense grammatically;

• Show an understanding of the         T8 to locate and read significant
  elements of stories, such as         parts of the text, e.g. picture
  main character, sequence of          captions, names of key characters,
  events, and openings, and how        rhymes and chants, e.g. “I’m a
  information can be found in non-     troll…”, “You can’t catch me I’m the
  fictions texts to answer questions   Gingerbread Man…”, speech-
  about where, who, why and how.       bubbles, italicised, enlarged words;

                                       T9 to be aware of story structures,
                                       e.g. actions/reactions,
                                       consequences and the ways that
                                       stories are built up and concluded.




                                           14
                                    Writing


       Early Learning Goal              National Literacy Strategy

• Use their phonic knowledge to     W8 to read and write own name and
  write simple regular words and    explore other words related to the
  make phonetically plausible       spelling of own name.
  attempts at more complex words.
                                    W2c writing each letter in response
                                    to each sound: a-z, ch, sh, th.

                                    W2d identifying and writing initial
                                    and dominant phonemes in spoken
                                    words;

                                    W2e identifying and writing initial
                                    and final phonemes on consonant-
                                    vowel-consonant (CVC) words, e.g.
                                    fit, mat, pat, etc;

                                    W3b writing letters in response to
                                    letter names;

                                    W4a using knowledge of rhyme to
                                    identify families of rhyming CVC
                                    words, e.g. hop, top, mop, fat, mat,
                                    pat, etc;

                                    W4b discriminating ‘onsets’ from
                                    ‘rimes’ in speech and spelling, e.g.
                                    ‘tip’, ‘sip’, ‘skip’, ‘flip’, ‘chip’;

                                    W4c identifying alliteration in known
                                    and new invented words;

                                    W9 to recognise the critical features
                                    of words, e.g. shape, length and
                                    common spelling patterns;




                                       15
                                   T11c to distinguish between writing
                                   and drawing in books and in own
                                   work;

                                   T11e to understand how letters are
                                   formed and used to spell words;

                                   T11f to apply knowledge of
                                   letter/sound correspondences in
• Attempt writing for different    helping the teacher to scribe and re-
  purposes, using features of      reading what the class has written;
  different forms such as lists,
  stories and instructions.        T1b to understand that words can
                                   be written down to be read again for
                                   a wide range of purposes;

                                   T11a to understand that writing can
                                   be used for a range of purposes,
                                   e.g. to send messages, record,
                                   inform, tell stories;

                                   T11b to understand that writing
                                   remains constant, i.e. will always
                                   ‘say’ the same thing;

                                   T11c to distinguish between writing
                                   and drawing in books and in own
                                   work;

                                   T11d to understand how writing is
                                   formed directionally, a word at a
                                   time;

                                   T12a to experiment with writing in a
                                   variety of play, exploratory and role-
                                   play situations;

                                   T15 to use writing to communicate in
                                   a variety of ways, incorporating it
                                   into play and everyday classroom
                                   life, e.g. recounting their own
                                   experiences, lists, signs, directions,
                                   menus, greetings cards, letters;



                                      16
                                    W2a hearing and identifying initial
                                    sounds in words;

Write their own names and other T12b to write their own names;
things such as labels and
captions and begin to form simple S4 to use a capital letter for the start
sentences, sometimes using        of their own name;
punctuation.
                                  T12c to write labels or captions for
                                  pictures and drawings;

                                    T12d to write sentences to match
                                    pictures or sequences of pictures;

                                    T12e to experiment with writing and
                                    recognise how their own version
                                    matches and differs from
                                    conventional version, e.g. through
                                    teacher response and transcription;

                                    T13 to think about and discuss what
                                    they intend to write, ahead of writing
                                    it;

                                    T14 to use experience of stories,
                                    poems and simple recounts as a
                                    basis for independent writing, e.g.
                                    re-telling, substitution, extension,
                                    and through shared composition
                                    with adults;




                                        17
                                     Handwriting


       Early Learning Goal                    National Literacy Strategy

• Use a pencil and hold it             W12 to use a comfortable and
  effectively to form recognisable     efficient pencil grip;
  letters, most of which are
  correctly formed.                    W13 to produce a controlled line
                                       which supports letter formation;

                                       W14 to write letters using the correct
                                       sequence of movements.




                                         18
  TRACKING
PROGRESSION
     IN
   WRITING


 Schools Early Years Advisers




           Schools Advisory Service
   Oxford Road Maidstone Kent ME15 8AW
    Tel: 01622 203800 Fax: 01622 670509
          Email: kcsalea@rmplc.co.uk




                    19
Significant growth points in writing, working towards and into level one (not necessarily in
this order of progression)


Growth point               Date/s noted                Adult initials and comment re
                                                       next teaching step
Recognisable letter
shapes used in mark
making often those used
in the child's own name


Accurate writing of own
name


Child "reads" back own
writing


Use of initial sounds in
writing


Use of spaces between
words


Conventional spellings
beginning to be used


Adult can make sense
of writing with some
help from child



Most letters correctly
orientated and well
formed


Adult can read work
without child




                                             20
Significant growth points in writing, working from level 1A and through level 2C (not
necessarily in this order of progression)


Growth point                Date/s noted              Adult initials and comment re
                                                      next teaching step
Handwriting legible but
with inconsistencies


Evidence of punctuation
- one full stop and
capital letter used
correctly within the text


Some common words
spelt correctly


Evidence of phonetic
strategies (luv)



Visual patterns used
(ain)




Ideas developed in
sentences



Some appropriate
vocabulary words used
effectively to add
interest



Story has a beginning,
middle and an end




                                             21
Significant growth points in writing working towards level 2B (not necessarily in this order
of progression)


Growth point               Date/s noted                Adult initials and comment re
                                                       next teaching step
Clear handwriting,
ascenders and
descenders



Upper and lower case
distinguished



Some sentences
connected using
connective other than
'and'



At least two sentences
correctly punctuated



Use of narrative
structure evident



Sentences are extended
and varied



Some details added to
engage readers interest



Word choice is
sometimes ambitious




                                             22
Significant growth points in writing working from level 2B towards level 2A (not necessarily
in this order of progression)


Growth point               Date/s noted               Adult initials and comment re
                                                      next teaching step
Accurate consistent
handwriting


Most punctuation
correct



Monosyllabic words
accurate and plausible
attempts at longer
words


Writing is lively and
holds interest eg, by
introducing elements of
surprise or tension or
feelings and emotions


Well developed
narrative structure



Some descriptive
phrases used




                                             23
gnificant growth points in writing working from level 2A towards level 3C (not necessarily in
this order of progression)


Growth point               Date/s noted               Adult initials and comment re
                                                      next teaching step
Handwriting joined and
legible


Spelling usually correct


Punctuality usually
correct


Grammatical structure is
correct


Writing is structured
effectively


Sequence of events is
clear


Sentences extend ideas


Detail is well chosen
and vivid




                                             24
Significant growth points in writing working from level 3B towards level 3A (not necessarily
in this order of progression)


Growth point                Date/s noted              Adult initials and comment re
                                                      next teaching step
Handwriting is usually
formed consistently


Spelling is usually
formed consistently


Punctuation is usually
correct


Grammar is usually
correct


There is an awareness
of the audience eg, 'let
me tell you a story'


Clear narrative structure
with characters well
developed or some
detailed description
included in the writing


Writing is fluent and
imaginative with ideas
being extended and
developed




                                             25
Significant growth points in writing working from level 4C towards level 4B (not necessarily
in this order of progression)


Growth point                 Date/s noted             Adult initials and comment re
                                                      next teaching step
Handwriting is usually
fluent, joined and legible


Vocabulary is becoming
more adventurous with
some words chosen for
meaning

Punctuation within the
sentence is used with
increasing accuracy


Evidence of some
grammatical complex
sentences extended
meaning

Spelling of some
polysyllabic words that
conform to regular
patterns is being
developed

Spelling of some
polysyllabic words that
conform to regular
patterns are generally
accurate

Ideas are usually
sustained but may not
be developed or
organised appropriately


Beginning to use some
grammatically complex
sentences with some
consistency




                                             26
Significant growth points in writing, working from level 4B towards level 4A (not necessarily
in this order of progression)


Growth point                 Date/s noted             Adult initials and comment re
                                                      next teaching step
Handwriting is
consistently fluent,
joined and legible


Vocabulary is
adventurous and words
are used for effect


Punctuation is used
correctly within the
sentence


Use grammatically
complex sentences,
extending, meaning


Spelling of polysyllabic
words that conform to
regular patterns is
accurate


Ideas are usually
sustained and
developed in a variety of
interesting ways and
organised appropriately


Consistently write in a
range of forms, writing is
consistent, lively and
thoughtful




                                             27
Significant growth points in writing, working from level 4A towards level 5C (not necessarily
in this order of progression)


Growth point               Date/s noted               Adult initials and comment re
                                                      next teaching step
Handwriting is usually
joined, clear and fluent


Writing shows some
evidence of variation
and interest, conveys
meaning in a range of
forms, is beginning to
recognise the needs for
more formal styles

Most vocabulary
choices are imaginative
and words are
beginning to be used
precisely


Some evidence if simple
and complex sentences
organised into
paragraphs



Words with some
complex regular
patterns are usually
spelt correctly



A range of punctuation
including commas,
apostrophes and
inverted commas is
usually used correctly




                                             28
Significant growth points in writing, working from level 5B towards level 5A (not necessarily
in this order of progression)

Growth point               Date/s noted               Adult initials and comment
                                                      re next teaching step
Handwriting is joined,
clear and fluent and is
adapted to a range of
tasks


Vocabulary choices are
imaginative with words
used precisely


Simple and complex
sentences are
consistently organised
into paragraphs


Words with complex
regular patterns are
usually spelt correctly


A range of punctuation
including commas,
apostrophes and
inverted commas is
mostly used accurately

Writing is varied and
interesting, conveys
meaning clearly in a
range of forms, uses a
formal style where
appropriate




                                             29
  TRACKING
PROGRESSION
      IN
   READING


 Schools Early Years Advisers




         Schools Advisory Service
   Oxford Road Maidstone Kent ME15
                   8AW
  Tel: 01622 203800 Fax: 01622 670509
        Email: kcsalea@rmplc.co.uk




                     30
                            EARLY EMERGENT READER

                  Significant growth points in reading - not necessarily in this order
                                                                 Date       Adult initials and comment
                                                                noted           re. next teaching step
     Attitude         Enjoys being read to
                      Responds to familiar songs and
                      stories

     Book             Has favourite books
   knowledge
                      Holds book right way up

                      Recognises that a book has a title

                      Locates pictures and text

  Oral reading        Uses book language when
                      reading (“once upon a time")

    Decoding          Recognises rhyme in stories read
                      orally by teacher

                      Questions environmental print

                      Provides own interpretation of
                      environmental print

   Reading            Expects stories to have meaning
comprehension
                      Responds to simple questions
                      related to text

                      Provides a retelling of stories read
                      by the teacher

                      -main events

                      -characters

Any other significant observations of factors, which impact on, progress e.g. health issues etc.




                                                   31
                 WORKING TOWARDS AND INTO LEVEL 1
                Significant growth points in reading – not necessarily in this order
                                                               Date       Adult initials and comment
                                                              Noted          re. next teaching step
   Attitude        Has the sense that “I can read”

    Book           Recognises that the print goes
  knowledge        with the picture to carry the story

                   Understands the directionality of
                   print

 Oral reading      Tries to read independently
                   (modelling)

                   Understands the concept of a
                   word

   Decoding        Reads stories from memory

                   Knowledge of some letter sounds

                   Recognises some familiar words
                   and environmental print

                   Comments on text features e.g.
                   -rhyme

                   -picture clue

                   -refrain patterns

                   -endings

                   -story patterns / predicts

                   Developing awareness of
                   punctuation

   Reading         Demonstrates a sense of
comprehension      meaning
                   -sequence

                   -plot

                   -character

                   In retelling of stories read by
                   teacher

Comments:




                                                 32
              WORKING FROM LEVEL 1 AND INTO LEVEL 2c

                Significant growth points in reading – not necessarily in this order
                                                               Date       Adult initials and comment
                                                              noted          re. next teaching step
   Attitude        Enjoys shared reading

                   Chooses books willingly

   Book            Recognises that words read orally
 knowledge         correspond to the printed words

                   Demonstrates book handling
                   knowledge

 Oral reading      Finger points while reading

                   Reading is halting word-by-word
                   as more attention is given to
                   graphics

  Decoding         Reads stories from memory but
                   self corrects on the basis of text
                   information (initial consonant)

                   Recognises some words in
                   isolation when familiar text is
                   available for support

                   Uses the following reading
                   strategies to help decode text:
                   -is less reliant on picture clues

                   -context

                   -knowledge of initial and final
                   sounds

                   -read-on, re-run

                   -awareness of punctuation

                   Recognises repetition of words in
                   text (can “read” these words)
   Reading         Self corrects on the basis of
comprehension      meaning (story line)
                   Asks questions about stories read

                   Responds to questions
                   -literal

                   -interpretative

                   Beginning to express opinions
                   about text


                                                 33
          WORKING FROM LEVEL 2c TOWARDS LEVEL 2b

                Significant growth points in reading – not necessarily in this order
                                                               Date       Adult initials and comment
                                                              Noted          re. next teaching step
   Attitude        Reads to teacher, peers and
                   others

                   Has a favourite author

    Book           Locates picture books in the
  knowledge        library by using the author’s name

 Oral Reading      The reading of simple texts is
                   generally accurate

                   Uses phonic strategies to decode
                   unfamiliar words

                   Prefers to read in one to one or
                   small group reading sessions

  Decoding         Uses the following strategies to
                   help decode text:-
                   -sentence structure

                   -context

                   -locating known words

                   Knowledge of familiar letter
                   clusters and blends

                   Reads environmental print in
                   other contexts

   Reading         Demonstrates a sense of :-
comprehension      -sequence

                   -plot

                   -character

                   -inference

                   -evaluation

                   in retelling of stories read
                   independently

                   Shows an emotional response to
                   reading (laughs/cries)




                                                  34
          WORKING FROM LEVEL 2b TOWARDS LEVEL 2a

                Significant growth points in reading - not necessarily in this order
                                                               Date       Adult initials and comment
                                                              Noted           re. next teaching step
   Attitude        Chooses reading as a free choice
                   activity
                   Responds to books/stories via
                   drama, art or writing

   Book            Increasing need to match text
 knowledge         with oral language

 Oral reading      Produces miscues similar to text
                   but which change meaning

                   Reads ahead and makes use of
                   intonation and expression to
                   enhance meaning

                   Oral reading becomes more fluent
                   and expressive

                   Prefers oral reading to silent
                   reading

  Decoding         Tackles unfamiliar words with
                   confidence

                   Uses a range of strategies
                   -phonic

                   -graphic (uses help for helping)

                   -syntactic (grammatically sensible
                   substitution e.g. his/her)

                   -contextual (sensible substitution
                   e.g. dusty for dirty)

                   -self corrects

   Reading         Provides retelling of story read
comprehension      silently and adds detail when
                   prompted with questions

                   Adjusts predictions to meet
                   sequence, plot, character from
                   previously read text

                   Expresses opinions about events
                   and actions within the texts

                   Expresses opinions about the
                   presentation of the text


                                                 35
                   WORKING FROM LEVEL 2a INTO LEVEL 3

                   Significant growth points in reading – not necessarily in this order
                                                                  Date       Adult initials and comment
                                                                 noted          re. next teaching step
   Attitude            Becomes absorbed in personal
                       reading

                       Reads a variety of material

    Book               Uses a table of contents/index to
  knowledge            locate a story in an anthology

                       Researches for information and
                       applies to another context

                       Locates words in a Primary
                       dictionary

 Oral reading          Produces miscues which do not
                       change story meaning

                       Uses punctuation to create
                       expression in oral reading

                       Reads range of texts fluently and
                       accurately

                       Participates in oral reading to
                       create story dramatisation

                       Prefers silent reading to oral
                       reading
   Decoding            Understands word meaning form
 Uses a range of       context
   strategies
                       Self corrects when necessary

                       Notices spelling of unfamiliar
                       words and relates to familiar
                       words
                       Reads increasingly difficult
                       material
   Reading             Uses range of strategies to
comprehension          facilitate comprehension:-
                       -brainstorming/classification
                       -story reconstruction
                       Uses skimming and scanning to
                       predict content

                       Able to express preferences
                       about texts read

                       Distinguishes between fiction and
                       non fiction


                                                    36
Early Learning Goals and the National Numeracy Strategy for Reception
Aged Children

The following section of this document shows that all the teaching objectives
from the reception year in the National Numeracy Strategy linked with the
Early Learning Goals from the section entitled Mathematical Development.

Key documents for reception teachers are:

•   Curriculum guidance for the foundation stage (QCA 2000)
•   Planning for learning in the Foundation Stage (ref: QCA/01/799)
•   The National Numeracy Strategy Framework for Teaching (DFEE 1999)
•   Mathematical Activities for the Foundation Stage – Introductory Pack
    (DfES 0223/2002)

Links with the Early Learning Goals / Aspects for:
   numbers for labels for counting
   calculating
   space, shape and measures

As with Communication, Language and Literacy, planning in the long term
should be based on the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage. In the
medium term teachers may draw on the National Numeracy Strategy
reception year objectives to support their planning. Short-term plans are
based on the long and medium plan but must be specific to the needs of the
children.

In the classes with reception aged children a wide range of activities, based
on the children’s interests and well planned opportunities for play, support the
teaching and learning of mathematics. These activities will include:


    Observation of number and               Two and three dimensional work
    pattern in the environment and          with a range of materials
    daily routines
    Board games                             Imaginative play
    Large and small construction            Cooking and shopping
    Stories, songs rhymes and               Outdoor play and games
    finger games
    Sand and water




                                       37
                       Numbers as labels and for counting



        Early Learning Goals                      National Numeracy Strategy
                                                     (counting and recognising numbers)
Say and use number names in order in         *Say and use the number names in order
familiar contexts                            in familiar contexts such as number rhymes,
                                             songs, stories, counting games and activities
                                             (first to 5, then 10, then 20 and beyond)
                                             (2)
                                             * Recite the number names in order,
                                             continuing the count forwards or backward
                                             from a given number          (2,3)



Count reliably up to 10 everyday             *Count reliably up to 10 everyday objects
                                             (first to 5, then 10, then beyond), giving just
objects
                                             one number name to each object. Recognise
                                             small numbers without counting.
                                             (4,5)
                                             *Begin to recognise ‘none’ and ‘zero’ in
                                             stories, rhymes and when counting. (5)
                                             *Count reliably in other contexts, such as
                                             clapping sounds or hopping
                                             movements                                 (6)
                                             *Count in tens.                           (7)
                                             *Count in twos.                           (7)
                                             *Estimate a number in the range that can be
                                             counted reliably, then check by counting.
                                             (8)

                                                        (reading and writing numbers)
                                             *Recognise numerals 1 to 9,then 0
Recognise numerals 1 to 9                    and 10, then beyond 10.                 (9)
                                             *Begin to record numbers, initially by making
                                             marks, progressing to simple tallying and
                                             writing numerals         (10)




  *National Numeracy Strategy Key
  Objectives highlighted in bold type
  *Page references in brackets are to
  the supplements of examples for
  Reception from Numeracy Framework


                                        38
                        Numbers as labels and for counting




        Early Learning Goals                      National Numeracy Strategy

Use developing mathematical ideas                      (Reasoning about numbers)
                                             *Solve simple problems or puzzles in a
and methods to solve practical
                                             practical context, and respond to ‘what could
problems                                     we try next?’                    (18)
                                             *Make simple estimates and predictions: for
                                             example, the number of cubes that will fit in a
                                             box or strides across
                                             the room.                             (19)
                                             *Sort and match objects, pictures or children
                                             themselves, justifying the decisions made.
                                             (19)

                                             (Problems involving ‘real life’ or money)
                                             *Use developing mathematical ideas and
                                             methods to solve practical problems
                                             involving counting and comparing in a real or
                                             role
                                             play context                           (20)
                                             *Begin to understand and use the vocabulary
                                             related to money. Sort coins, including £1
                                             and £2 coins, and use them in role play to
                                             pay and give change. (21)




  *National Numeracy Strategy Key
  Objectives highlighted in bold type
  *Page references in brackets are to
  the supplements of examples for
  Reception from Numeracy
  Framework



                                        39
                                      Calculating



        Early Learning Goals                        National Numeracy Strategy

                                                           (Adding and subtracting)
                                               *In practical activities and discussion
In practical activities and                    begin to use the
discussion begin to use the                    vocabulary involved in adding and
vocabulary involved in adding and              subtracting.                         (14)
subtracting.


                                                       (Comparing and ordering numbers)
Use language such as ‘more’ or                 *Use language such as more or less,
‘less’ to compare two numbers                  greater or smaller, to compare two
                                               numbers and say which is more or less, and
                                               say a number which lies between two given
                                               numbers.                      (11,12)
                                               *Order a given set of numbers, for example,
                                               the set of numbers 1 to 6 given in random
                                               order.                      (12)
                                               *Order a given set of selected numbers: for
                                               example, the set 2, 5, 1, 8, 4      (12)
                                               *Begin to understand and use the ordinal
                                               numbers in different contexts          (13)

Find one more or one less than a
                                               *Find one more or one less than a number
number from one to 10                          from one to 10           (14)




*National Numeracy Strategy Key
Objectives highlighted in bold type
*Page references in brackets are
to the supplements of examples for
Reception from Numeracy
Framework



                                          40
                                    Calculating



       Early Learning Goals
                                             National Numeracy Strategy
                                                    (Addition and Subtraction)
Begin to relate addition to             *Begin to relate addition to combining two
combining two groups of objects         groups of objects, counting all the objects;
and subtraction to ‘taking away’        extend to three groups of objects.     (14)
                                        *Begin to relate addition to counting on.
                                        (15)
                                        *Begin to relate the addition of doubles to
                                        counting on.                           (15)
                                        *Find a total by counting on when one group
                                        of objects is hidden.            (15)
                                        *Separate (partition) a given number of
                                        objects into two groups.               (16)
                                        *Select two groups of objects to make a given
                                        total.                           (16)



                                        *Begin to relate subtraction to ‘taking
                                        away’ and counting how many are left.
                                        (16)
                                        *Remove a smaller number from a larger and
                                        find out how many are left by counting back
                                        from the larger number.
                                        (16)
                                        *Begin to find out how many have been
                                        removed from a larger group of objects by
                                        counting up from a number.        (17)
                                        *Work out by counting how many more are
                                        needed to make a larger number.(17)




 *National Numeracy Strategy Key
 Objectives highlighted in bold
 type
 *Page references in brackets are
 to the supplements of examples
 for Reception from Numeracy
 Framework

                                        41
Shape, Space and Measure

Early Learning Goals                               National Numeracy Strategy
                                                (comparing and ordering measures)

Use language such as ‘greater’,                *Use language such as more or less,
‘smaller’, ‘heavier’ or ‘lighter’ to           longer or shorter, heavier or lighter
compare quantities                             … to compare two quantities, then
                                               more than two, by making direct
                                               comparisons of lengths or masses, and
                                               by filling and emptying containers. (22)

                                               *Begin to understand and use the
                                               vocabulary of time.
                                               Sequence familiar events.
                                               Begin to know the days of the week in
                                               order.
                                               Begin to read o’clock time.     (23)



                                               (exploring pattern, shape and space)

                                               Talk about, recognise and recreate
Talk about, recognise and recreate             simple patterns: for example, simple
simple patterns                                repeating or symmetrical patterns from
                                               different cultures and in the
                                               environment                   (18, 26)



                                               Use language such as ‘circle’ or
Use language such as ‘circle’ or               ‘bigger’ to describe the shape and
‘bigger’ to describe the shape and size        size of solids and flat shapes. Begin
of solids and flat shapes                      to name solids such as cube, cone,
                                               sphere … and flat shapes such as
  *National Numeracy Strategy Key              circle, triangle, square, rectangle …
  Objectives highlighted in bold type
  *Page references in brackets are to          Use a variety of shapes to make
  the supplements of examples for              models, pictures and patterns, and
  Reception from Numeracy Framework            describe them.              (24,25)

                                          42
*Put sets of objects in order of size (26)

   Shape, Space and Measure


         Early Learning Goals                           National Numeracy Strategy

Use everyday words to describe                    *Use everyday words to describe
position                                          position, direction and movement: for
                                                  example, follow and give instructions
                                                  about positions, directions and
                                                  movements in PE and
                                                   other activities               (27)


                                                  (Reasoning about numbers and
Use developing mathematical ideas                 shapes)
and methods to solve practical                    *Solve simple problems or puzzles in a
problems                                          practical context, and respond to ‘what
                                                  could we try next?’                  (18)
                                                  *Make simple estimates and
                                                  predictions: for example, the number of
                                                  cubes that will fit in a box or strides
                                                  across the room…                      (19)
                                                  *Sort and match objects, pictures or
                                                  children themselves, justifying the
                                                  decisions made …                      (19)




  *National Numeracy Strategy Key
  Objectives highlighted in bold type
  *Page references in brackets are to
  the supplements of examples for
  Reception from Numeracy Framework
                                             43
Assessing Learning

When assessing:
   ‘uses developing mathematical ideas and methods to solve practical
                              problems’

Key points to note:
     1. Children need to use and apply their mathematical knowledge, skills
     and understanding to solve practical problems in the aspects of
     Mathematical Development:
                      Numbers as labels and for counting
                      Calculating
                      Shape, space and measure
      assessments will need to reflect three areas

     2. Teachers will need to be secure with the problem solving skills
     they are looking for.
  Identifying and understanding a problem (locate and collect relevant information)

  Planning ways to solve a problem (sort, classify, sequence, compare and
  contrast, analyse relationships)

  Monitoring progress in tackling a problem (make decisions, give reasons,
  predict outcomes, test conclusions, improve ideas)

  Reviewing solutions to problems( organise and check work, judge value of
  their own work, have confidence in own judgements)

  Communicate in spoken, pictorial or written form (initially informally moving
  on to the use of mathematical language and symbols)

  Reasoning (because … )

      3. Specific mathematical skills to look out for are:
                      Matching
                      Sorting
                      Ordering
                      Counting
                      Measuring
                      Seeking patterns
                      Making connections
                      Recognising relationships

  4. Assessments of applying maths to problem solving situations can be
     made through questioning children:
          How many people have you drawn?
                                       44
             Have all the trucks got the same number of wheels?
             How shall we decide who goes first?
             Who used most bricks in their tower?
             Which bucket will hold the most sand?
             Tell me about the pattern on your T shirt
             Who can jump the furthest?
             How many more bikes do we need if you want one each?

   Examples of activities which allow children to demonstrate problem solving skills

Numbers as labels and for                  Calculating                 Shape, space and
       counting                                                            measure

2 children predict how many       How can we share these bricks      Build a bed to fit a small
beads each has used to make       equally between two of you?        teddy. How will you
a necklace.                       What if someone else wants to      change the bed if the big
Count beads successfully to       join in?                           teddy wants to lie down?
agree who has used more

Match socks in to pairs, counts   Finds ways to separate 10          Choose the right shapes
how many pairs.                   objects into two groups (eggs      to make a model house
                                  in 2 nests). Records in
                                  drawings.

Uses coins to pay simple          Decide what to do if there is an   Make a dice for a game
amounts and give change in        extra biscuit at snack time
role play

Guess how many beads in a         Work out how many wheels           How to cut up a cake so
jar – count to check estimate     would be needed to make 2          that there are enough
                                  cars with construction kits        slices

Makes price labels for items in   Sort a set of dominoes and         How many cups of drink
the shop in response to           explain their groupings (these     can I pour out of this
children asking the price         all have 1 dot, these have 6       bottle?
                                  dots altogether)

Use a bag of balls where there    How many slices of bread do        How much string will I
are not enough for one each.      we need to make sandwiches         need to tie around this
How should we share them          for our group?                     parcel?
out?

I need 8 children to play a       Two extra children have joined     My shopping is too heavy
game, some boys and some          us at snack time? What do we       – how can I carry it
girls – how shall I choose?       need to do?                        home?




                                             45
   Tracking Sheet for Progression in Number
   Significant growth points in number working towards and into level one

Growth Point                               Date/s noted           Adult initials and comment re.
                                                                        next teaching step

Use some number names
accurately in play



Rote counting to 5 then 10



Demonstrates an understanding
of one-to-one correspondence



Demonstrates an understanding
of more / fewer



Count reliably to 3 then 5



Select the correct numeral to
represent 1 to 5, then 1 to 9,
objects


Recognise 0 as zero understand
what it represents



Count reliably to 10 and
beyond



Write numbers correctly to 10



Order numbers to 10




                                              46
   Tracking Sheet for Progression in Calculation
   Significant growth points in calculation working towards and into level one

Growth Point                                 Date/s noted            Adult initials and comment re.
                                                                           next teaching step

Demonstrates an understanding
of one-to-one correspondence



Begin to recognise differences in
quantities



Respond appropriately to key
vocabulary and questions, for
example ‘How many?’

In practical situations ‘add one’
and ‘take one’ from a number of
objects


Find the total number of items in
two groups by counting them all



In practical activities and
discussion, begin to use the
vocabulary associated with
addition and subtraction (plus,
more than, fewer than,
altogether, sum, left)

Find one more / one less than a
number from 1 to 10




Begin to relate addition to
combining two groups pf objects,
and subtraction to ‘taking away’




                                                47
   Tracking Sheet for Progression in Shape, Space and Measure
   Significant growth points in shape, space and measure working towards and into level one

Growth Point                               Date/s noted           Adult initials and comment re.
                                                                        next teaching step
Measures
Show awareness of vocabulary
such as ‘more’ and ‘less’ in
practical situations

Compare the overall size of one
object with that of another

Use familiar words to compare
sizes and quantities
(long/short, tall, high, heavy/light,
full/empty)

Compare two objects using one
property to identify ‘the tall one’,
‘the heavy one’

Show awareness of time through
some familiarity with names of
the days of the week and
significant times in their day such
as meal times, bed times

Shape and Space
Show understanding of words
that describe position (on, over,
behind, in front)

Respond to ‘forwards’ and
‘backwards’

Start to pick out named shapes
from a collection

Begin to use mathematical
vocabulary such as ‘circle’,
‘straight’, ‘corner’

Talk about, recognise and
recreate simple patterns

Begin to name flat shapes; circle,
triangle, square, rectangle, star

Begin to name solids; cube,
pyramid, sphere, cone


                                              48
    Tracking Sheet for Progression in Problem Solving
    Significant growth points in problem solving working towards and into level one

Growth Point                                Date/s noted            Adult initials and comment re.
                                                                          next teaching step

Sort objects and materials
according to given criteria

Identify when an object is different
and does not belong to given
categories


Use 1p coins



Begin to use their developing
mathematical understanding of
counting and comparing to solve
simple problems encountered in
play, games or other work




Begin to make simple estimates
such as how many cubes will fit in
a box


Sort and match objects justifying
and describing the criteria chosen



Sort a range of coins including £1
and £2



Use coins in role play to pay and
give change




When solving practical problems
respond to ‘what could we try
next?’



                                                49
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