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          IN THE

         AND THE


       A guide to
  curriculum content


The curriculum for the Foundation Stage applies to young children
in nursery and reception classes. The curriculum is organised into
six broad areas, one of which is creative development.

Music forms one strand within creative development, but is also
relevant to others, including imagination, responding to
experiences, and expressing and communicating ideas.

In each area, there is a goal which defines what children should
achieve by the end of the foundation stage. Leading up to this is a
series of “stepping stones” which show what children need to learn
during the foundation stage in order to achieve the goal. The
stepping stones are not age related, but are listed in sequence.

The outline of musical development is as follows:

                       Stepping Stones
                   join in favourite songs
  show an interest in the way musical instruments sound
          respond to sound with body movement
       enjoy joining in with dancing and ring games
             sing a few simple, familiar songs
      sing to themselves and make up simple songs
   tap out simple repeated rhythms and make some up
      explore and learn how sounds can be changed
    imitate and create movement in response to music
            begin to build a repertoire of songs
        explore the different sounds of instruments
                begin to move rhythmically
              Early Learning Goals for Music
    recognise and explore how sounds can be changed
             sing simple songs from memory
      recognise repeated sounds and sound patterns
               match movements to music
                    NATIONAL CURRICULUM: MUSIC
                       PROGRAMME OF STUDY

      1   Controlling sounds through singing and playing (Performing)
      2   Creating and developing musical ideas (Composing)
      3   Responding and reviewing (Appraising)
      4   Listening and applying knowledge and understanding
      5   Breadth of study

Performing – just means making music – not necessarily in public or in front
of an audience.
Composing – means making up your own music, from “doodling” and
“playing around” to planned and structured pieces of music or songs.
Appraising – includes reflecting, responding through other activities, making

Listening and applying knowledge and understanding should underpin the
other three areas. Teachers should ensure that this area (4) is developed
through the interrelated skills of performing, composing and appraising.

Breadth of study (5) is not a separate area of learning but indicates the
range of contexts children should experience while learning.

                         What each area includes:

     1 Performing               2 Composing                 3 Appraising

           1a                        2a                         3a
          voice                  improvising          expressing ideas about
           1b                          2b
      instruments            reflective composing               3b
                                                        improving own work
      with others

                           4 Listening and applying

        4a                  4b                  4c                   4d
  aural memory       musical elements   resources/ symbols         context

Breadth of study
    activities which integrate performing, composing and appraising
    range of musical and non-musical starting points
    individual, group and whole class work
    access to ICT
    range of live and recorded music from different times and cultures
           1 PERFORMING                              2 COMPOSING                               3 APPRAISING
               1a voice                              2a improvising                         3a expressing ideas
 chanting (rhythmic speech)               exploring sounds and ideas              analysing or comparing sounds
 singing in unison (all on the tune)      creating patterns (rhythmic and         talking or writing about music
 harmony singing (different parts          melodic)                                movement and dance
  together) (KS2)                          in response to different stimuli        other mediums, e.g. drawing,
            1b instruments
 playing untuned instruments (e.g.              2b reflective composing                3b improving own work
  shakers, scrapers, most kinds of         choosing and organising sounds and    achieving a more accurate or
  drum)                                     musical ideas                          expressive performance
 playing tuned instruments                working within musical structures     refining or “redrafting” compositions
  (instruments with pitched notes, e.g.    in response to different stimuli      making improvements in relation to
  xylophone, recorder)                                                             intended effect

             1c together
 rehearse together
 perform to others

                                              4 LISTENING AND APPLYING
      4a aural memory              4b musical elements        4c resources/ symbols                  4d context
 listening with                 understanding pitch,       listening to and making        listening to and making
  concentration                   duration, dynamics,         sounds in different ways,       music intended for
 internalising and recalling     tempo, timbre, texture,     with different types of         different purposes
  sounds                          silence and structure       instrument                     performing and listening to
                                 using the elements         describing sounds using         music from different times
                                  expressively to             signs, symbols, notations       and in different places
                                  communicate different
                                  moods and effects
                       ORGANISING THE CURRICULUM
The QCA scheme of work consists of a series of units of work which are designed
to provide integrated activities to develop young people’s musical skills. The units of
work are organised in five strands:

                                    ongoing skills
                                    descriptive skills
                                    rhythmic skills
                                    melodic skills
                                    ensemble skills
Within each strand, children have opportunities to perform, compose, appraise, listen
and apply their knowledge and understandings.

Even if your school is not using the QCA scheme of work, you may find this a
convenient or useful way to organise your music curriculum.

                           What each strand involves:
Ongoing        singing
skills         circle games, rhythm games
               activities involving improvisation
               listening and responding, e.g. through movement, dance
Descriptive    understanding the relationship between sounds and what they describe
skills         responding to/ being aware of the effects created by sounds and music
               singing and playing expressively
               using sounds expressively to create intended effects
               organising sounds into structures which enhance the intended effect
               using descriptive notations (e.g. graphic notations)
Rhythmic       chanting/ playing rhythms or rhythmic patterns in unison (i.e. all together)
skills         remembering given rhythms or patterns
               creating rhythms and patterns
               finding the beat or pulse
               adjusting the speed or tempo (e.g. getting faster or slower)
               playing rhythms/ patterns against a beat
               combining rhythms or patterns
               describing rhythms through signs, symbols, notations
Melodic        singing in tune
skills         remembering tunes
               playing by ear, working out familiar tunes on an instrument
               inventing tunes/ melodies
               playing and singing in parts
               understanding chords/ harmony (i.e. different notes played or sung together)
               writing down melodies using symbols or notations
Ensemble       awareness of how sounds can be combined
skills         understanding how the individual fits into the whole
               watching, listening and responding to other performers
               collaborating with others in performance and composition
               following musical scores, notations
                  CURRICULUM (DRAFT)

            Performing       Composing Appraising Listening
Ongoing     songs            improvisation working out/ listening
            warm-up          activities    talking      games,
            games, circle                  about how    sound
            games,                         to take part identification
            rhythm                         more         games
            games                          effectively
Descriptive performing       exploring     responding listening to
            using            sounds using through       live or
            expressive       different     dance/       recorded
            elements –       stimuli       movement, music that
            dynamics,                      drawing/     describes
            timbre,                        painting;    moods,
            texture;                       recording    atmospheres,
            interpretation                 ideas using emotions
Rhythmic     playing         creating      dancing/     listening to
             percussion      rhythmic      moving to    live or
             instruments;    patterns      the rhythm recorded
             playing by      combining     recording    rhythmic
             ear, copying,   patterns in   ideas using music – eg
             echoing         groups        rhythmic     percussion
                                           notation     ensembles
Melodic      singing         composing     responding listening to
             playing by      tunes,        to the rise  songs,
             ear             melodic       and fall of  distinctive
                             patterns or   melodies or tunes played
                             riffs         pitches      on different
Ensemble     playing         group         evaluating   listening to
             together        composition how well       other
                                           the group    performers in
                                           played       the group

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