Aim: to know where on the rivers journey v-shaped valleys and interlocking spurs are found and how they are formed LANDFORMS OF THE UPPER STAGE V-shaped valleys and interlocking spurs V-SHAPED VALLEYS Are formed in the upper stage of the river. Here the river is eroding downwards into its bed and not sideways (laterally). This leads to a steep-sided valley. As this vertical erosion continues it weakens the valley sides and this plus weathering making the sides even steeper. INTERLOCKING SPURS The youthful river does not have a huge amount of energy in its upper stage. Therefore when it comes to obstacles such as large rocks, boulders and other areas of hard rock (i.e the valley sides) it twists around them. This creates interlocking spurs which look like the opposite sides of the valley fit together like a zip! Common exam questions may ask you to: Mark these features on a diagram that they give you Explain how, where and why they form (perhaps asking you to draw labelled diagrams Say what type of erosion may be happening to create such landforms.