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Microsoft PowerPoint - Bilal 17-04-08 Dynamics of EPA negotiations

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Microsoft PowerPoint - Bilal 17-04-08 Dynamics of EPA negotiations Powered By Docstoc
					                          Aprodev – ECDPM - ODI
EPAs: What has been agreed so far? What is on the table for development?
                       Implications and way forward
                                 17 April 2008
               Aprodev, Boulevard Charlemagne 28, Brussels
 Meeting room in adjoining office: c/o Centre Ocumenique, 174, rue Joseph II




 The dynamics of
 EPA negotiations
 and possible way forwards

                                                      Dr San Bilal
2007: turbulent    ti ti
2007 A t b l t negotiation process

• Asymmetry in capacity
• Tensions
• Different interpretations of key concepts (e.g.
  development, SAT,…)
• Difficult issues (market access) left to late stages in
  the process
• Progress slower than planned
  Interim approach
               EPA Negotiations
• 35 ACP countries have initialled agreements by end
  2007:
   – Full EPA:         15 Caribbean countries
   – Interim EPAs:     18 African countries + 2 Pacific

• 2008 (2009): completion of EPA negotiations?
  Negotiation process so f
• N   ti ti              far:
   – not easy, not friendly
   – Outcome reflects negotiations capacity and EU interests,
     rather than level of development
           Way f   di
           W forward in 2008
Next steps on initialled agreements:
• Signature, Ratification (?)
          tifi ti
• WTO notification

In parallel:
Ongoing negotiations towards comprehensive
   agreements
     full, regional EPAs to supersede interim
   agreements (?)
      Challenges for negotiations
      Ch ll      f       ti ti

•   Regional coherence
•   Status of interim EPAs
•   Contentious issues
•   S       f EPA      d   l d issues
    Scope of EPA: trade-related i
•   Development dimension & chapter
•   Negotiations process: mend bruised feelings
    Implications for regionalism
    I  li ti     f      i   li

• Little coherence between the interim EPAs
  co c uded and the eg o a teg at o
  concluded a d t e regional integration
  processes in Africa:
  – Countries having initialled interim EPAs
  – Liberalisation commitments
  –…
            Contentious issues

•   Definition of SAT (note: no S&D for LDCs)
•   Transitional periods
•   Export taxes
•   Free circulation of goods
•   Bilateral f
    Bil t l safeguardsd
•   Non-execution clause
•   MFN clause
•   …
       Interim EPA l  l t t
       I t i EPAs legal status

• IEPAs: initialled only
• to be signed and ratified: why ratified incomplete
  text (?)
• Initialled FTAs can be notified to WTO
  IEPAs t t tifi d t
• IEPA not yet notified to WTO
   → not complying with GATT Art XXIV obligations
                      re negotiated,
• EC: IEPAs not to be re-negotiated but replaced by
  full/final EPAs
• IEPAs provisions: cast in stone?
                         Areas subject to the ‘rendezvous’ clause
                         EAC         ESA         SADC            CEMAC            Ghana      Cote         PACP
                                                                                            d’Ivoire
                                                                                            d Ivoire
Customs and
trade facilitation
Outstanding
market access
issues
Agriculture
TBT/SPS
Services
Investment
Competition
Current payments
Public
procurement
Intellectual
Property
Environment/
E i           t/
sustainable
development
Social issues
Dispute
settlement
Institutions
Personal data
protection
Good governance
in tax areas
Development
cooperation
Integration of
other countries
Any other areas
Deadline             Not         Not         31/12/08 and     01/01/09 and     31/12/08   31/12/08     31/12/08
                     mentioned   mentioned   31/12/11 for     no deadline
                                             service          for
                                             liberalisation   negotiating
                                                              service
                                                              liberalisation
                 Options for the way forward:
              regional coverage of an agreement
                         Regional   Sub-regional   Country
EPAs
- Full EPA
         (       )
- Narrow (interim) EPA
Alternative regimes
- Standard GSP
- GSP +
- EBA
       Possible Scenarios for the African Negotiating Regions

                     IEPAs             Challenges - scenarios
                               -   lib. schedules - regional
                               -   LDCs vs non LDCS
West Africa      RCI+Ghana     -   UEMOA vs non UEMOA
                               -   5th band CET
                               -   d     l
                                   development  t
                               -   Negotiating capacity ; leadership
                               -   Scope & Development
Central Africa   Cameroon
                               -         full          t (issue;
                                   EPA f ll or à l carte (i
                                                  la
                                   country)
                               -   Lib schedules – regional – CET?
                               -   Scope & Development
                               -   Full umbrella EPA text with
                 EAC +
ESA                                varying commitments?
                 5 ESA
                               -   ESA; EAC –
                                   Ethiopia&Sudan&Djibouti&Eritrea
                                   – other ESA; SADC&ESA
                               -   RSA (Namibia?)
                 BLNS +        -   IEPA status?
SADC
                 Mozambique    -   Scope
                               -   Future SACU – SADC ?
             Some key recommendations

•                    p g
    Ensure ownership: agreements should reflect interests of all pparties,
    including ACP national and regional interests
•   Strengthen coherence between EPAs and ACP regional integration
    processes
    p
•   On timing: clear negotiating calendar, avoid leaving contentious issues to
    the end
•   Increase transparency of negotiations and outcomes       more participatory
    approach, increased ownership
•   On negotiation asymmetries: adapt pace of negotiations; capacity building
    under AfT
•   On EPA-related development support: ensure appropriate levels of
    support under the EU AfT strategy and improve delivery mechanisms
   For detailed analysis, see:

        ODI - ECDPM (2008)
          The new EPAs:
   comparative analysis of their
content and the challenges for 2008

      www.ecdpm.org/pmr14
      www ecdpm org/pmr14
        www.odi.org.uk
For    i f    ti     l       f t
F more information, please refer to:

       www.acp-eu-trade.org
         www.ecdpm.org
         www ecdpm org
ECDPM                     San Bilal
O.L. Vrouweplein, 21      sb@ecdpm.org
NL – 6211 HE Maastricht   T l +31-43-350 29 23
                          Tel. 31 43 350
The Netherlands           Fax +31-43-350 29 02

				
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