Parks_ People and Outdoor Activities - DOC

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					Parks, People and Outdoor Activities

Victoria's parks offer opportunities for a wide range of outdoor activities. These
pursuits include cross country skiing, canoeing, rock climbing, bushwalking,
snorkelling and other endeavours such as birdwatching and photography.

The experiences students gain through outdoor recreational activities in Victoria’s
parks encourages the development of a sound understanding of the relationship
between people and the parks in their care.
Parks, People and Outdoor Activities ........................................................................ 1
Unit Background ........................................................................................................... 4
  CSF II Learning Outcomes ......................................................................................... 4
    Level 5 SOSE .......................................................................................................... 4
      Geography ........................................................................................................... 4
    Level 6 SOSE .......................................................................................................... 4
      Geography ........................................................................................................... 4
  Key Understandings .................................................................................................... 4
  Aims ............................................................................................................................. 4
  Safety........................................................................................................................... 5
  Teacher Background ................................................................................................... 5
    Bushwalking Code................................................................................................... 5
      A Code of Conduct for Minimal Impact Bushwalking ......................................... 5
      Planning Your Trip ............................................................................................... 6
      Washing ............................................................................................................... 7
      Huts ...................................................................................................................... 9
      'No-trace' Camping .............................................................................................. 9
    Mountain Bike Code .............................................................................................. 10
      Rock Climbing Code .......................................................................................... 12
      Climbing ............................................................................................................. 12
      Camping ............................................................................................................. 14
      Climber's Code .................................................................................................. 14
    Recreation Management ....................................................................................... 15
      An Extract from Dandenong Ranges Management Plan (Sec 7.2) ................. 15
Glossary ....................................................................................................................... 21
Tuning In ...................................................................................................................... 22
  Preparing to Find Out................................................................................................ 23
    Travelling with Minimal Impact Activity ................................................................. 23
  Finding Out ................................................................................................................ 25
    Sorting Out ............................................................................................................ 25
  Making Connections ................................................................................................. 28
Going Further .............................................................................................................. 29
Future Action............................................................................................................... 30
References and Resources ....................................................................................... 32
    Reference Books ................................................................................................... 32
    Reports .................................................................................................................. 32
    Magazines ............................................................................................................. 32
    Management Plans ............................................................................................... 32
    Environmental Action ............................................................................................ 32
    Outdoor Education ................................................................................................ 32
    Guides ................................................................................................................... 33
    Environmental Education Activities ...................................................................... 33
    Codes..................................................................................................................... 33
    Web Addresses ..................................................................................................... 33
    Videos .................................................................................................................... 33
    Associations .......................................................................................................... 34
Unit Background
CSF II Learning Outcomes


Level 5 SOSE
Geography

   Explain how natural processes and human activities change environments.

   Explain how people’s use of natural and human environments changes over time.

   Develop a plan to address impacts of change.
Level 6 SOSE
Geography

   Explain the processes and interactions between people and major natural
    systems.

   Predict the effects of resource development and use on a selected natural and
    human environment.

   Develop a comprehensive strategy to resolve an issue related to the use and
    management of a natural or human environment.




Key Understandings
       Human behaviour and endeavour impact on the environment and have
        consequences for the health of individuals and populations.

       Environments consist of both abiotic and biotic components.

       Human events and interactions mediate the processes that shape
        environments.

       Actions of people have direct effects on natural systems.

Aims
       Students to develop an appreciation of their impact on the environment when
        undertaking outdoor activities.

       Students will understand the need for, and will practice, minimal impact
        behaviour when undertaking outdoor activities in parks.

       Students will appreciate the need for laws, rules and codes to govern human
        interaction with parks and the environment.
Safety
Teachers should refer to the DEET publications, Safety in Outdoor Adventure
Activities (1992), and the Schools of the Future Reference Guide (1996).



Teacher Background
This background unit has been provided to assist teachers in the preparation of the
unit of study.
Bushwalking Code

A Code of Conduct for Minimal Impact Bushwalking



Increasing numbers of bushwalkers visiting national parks, wilderness areas and
other reserves are causing serious damage to the natural environment. Escapes
from bushwalkers' campfires, expansion of campsites, trampling and cutting of
vegetation, outbreaks of gastroenteritis and the rapid deterioration of walking tracks
have all become more commonplace.

Fortunately many walkers have adopted a new bushwalking ethic, Minimal Impact
Bushwalking. Without it we run the very real danger of 'loving our natural areas to
death'. By learning to 'walk softly', we can minimise the damage to the natural
environment and reduce the need for track closures and restrictions on walker
numbers.

On the Right Track
In some areas, walking tracks are being upgraded to minimise the impact of
increasing foot traffic. Boardwalks are necessary in some places with large numbers
of visitors. You can help minimise damage in the following ways:

        Stay on the track even if it's rough and muddy. Walking on the track edges
         and cutting corners on steep 'zigzag' track increases damage, erosion and
         visual scarring, as well as causing confusion about which is the right track.

        Spread out in open country where there are no tracks. Spreading out
         (rather than following in each other's footsteps) disperses impact. A plant
         stepped on only once has more chance of survival than if trampled by the
         whole party.

        Avoid sensitive vegetation. Sphagnum bogs, cushion plants and other
         sensitive vegetation are easily destroyed by trampling. Stay on rocks and hard
         ground wherever possible.

        Keep the wilderness wild. Cutting new tracks is illegal, and marking tracks
         with cairns, tape or other materials is unsightly and can confuse other walkers.
      Walk softly. Choose appropriate footwear for the terrain. Solid but lightweight
       walking boots are best. Sandshoes can be used on most tracks on the
       mainland in summer. Wear sandshoes around campsites.

      Choose a different route each time you visit a trackless area, and camp at
       different sites whenever possible.

                   This section explains minimal impact
                   bushwalking techniques. Some (in particular
                   those to do with fire) carry the weight of law. All
                   must be used if we want to continue to enjoy the
                   great Australian outdoors.

Planning Your Trip

      Let someone know before you go bushwalking. Tell them about your party,
       your route, when you plan to return and the equipment the party is carrying.
       Remember to contact them when you get back.

      Keep your party small (4 - 8 people). Large parties have more environmental
       impact, affect the experience of others and are socially unwieldy.

      Go off peak. If possible avoid the peak times of the year (December to
       February) and the more popular areas. You will miss the crowds and spread
       the impact, giving the environment a chance to recover.

      Plan your route so that you can camp at recognised campsites. If possible do
       not create a new site.

      Minimise your impact by taking the following items:

             fuel stove and fuel for cooking meals.

             good quality tent (with sewn-in floor and poles).

             hand trowel for burying toilet wastes.

Bushfires, Campfires and Billies
Bushfires starting from walkers' campfires cause extensive damage. Trees such as
snow gums are killed by very hot fires, and replacement of mature trees may take
hundreds of years. In Tasmania, native pines over 1000 years old have been killed
by escapes from campfires and will never return.

In many areas, firewood is often in short supply. Many small native animals live
among fallen branches. In alpine areas where the growing season is short, such
habitats are only replaced slowly.

      Please don't light a fire if you are in any doubt about the safety of lighting it.
       Fire restrictions apply in all national parks, forests and other reserves, and
       open fires and fuel stoves may not be used on days of Total Fire Ban. Do not
       light open fires during hot windy weather.
      Observe the fire lighting regulations. Regulations governing the lighting and
       use of fires vary from State to State. You should check local variations if you're
       planning to walk and use open fires.

      Keep the fire small (under one metre square). Don't put rocks around it -
       these just create another visual scar. Use a safe existing fireplace rather than
       making a new one.

      Use only dead fallen wood. Dead standing trees are a home for wildlife and
       are a part of the scenery. Leave axes and machetes at home.

      Be absolutely sure the fire is out. Before you leave, feel the ground
       underneath the coals. If it is still warm, the fire is not out. Put it out with water,




       not soil.



Washing

      Don't wash in streams and lakes. Detergents, tooth paste and soap (even
       biodegradable types) harm fish and waterlife.

Wash 50 metres away from streams and lakes and scatter the washwater here so
that it filters through the soil before returning to the stream. Use gritty sand and a
scourer instead of soap to clean dishes. Don't throw food scraps into streams or
lakes.




How to Avoid 'Gastro'
We think the increasing cases of gastroenteritis (diarrhoea and vomiting) in some
high-use areas are caused by exposed human faecal waste. Giardia, a human
bacterial parasite, is also of concern.
Giardia lives in mountain streams contaminated by faecal waste, and causes chronic
diarrhoea and an array of other nasties. It has been found in the USA and New
Zealand, and is possibly in some alpine areas of Australia. Avoid 'gastro' and help
ensure that Giardia does not spread to new areas by observing these guidelines:

      Where there is a toilet, please use it.

      In areas without toilets, bury your faecal waste. Choose a spot at least
       100 metres away from campsites and watercourses. Dig a hole 15 cm (6
       inches) deep (take a hand trowel for this purpose). Bury all faecal waste and
       paper, mixing it with soil to help decomposition and discourage animals. Carry
       out sanitary pads, tampons and condoms.

      In snow, dig down into the soil. Burying human waste is only temporary until
       the snow melts!

      In high-use areas, river valleys without toilets and snow areas, you
       should consider carrying out human wastes to a suitable sewage system.

      Flies and small animals love faecal waste and food. Cover all food. Avoid
       putting it on hut tables, furniture and other places used by flies and animals.

      Boil water for at least five and preferably ten minutes before drinking in
       high-use areas or areas with low water flow.

Pack It In, Pack It Out

      Pack to minimise rubbish. Don't take potential rubbish such as bottles, cans
       and excess wrapping.

      Don't burn or bury rubbish. Rubbish is likely to be dug up and scattered by
       possums and other animals and may injure them. Digging disturbs the soil and
       encourages weeds and erosion.

   

        If you've carried it in, you can carry it out. Carry out all your rubbish,
        including those easy-to-forget items like silver paper, plastic wrappers and
       orange peel which won't easily decompose.

      Other people's rubbish. If you have the misfortune to come across other
       people's rubbish, do the bush a favour and pick that up too.
      Don't feed animals, especially around huts and campsites. Feeding
       causes unnaturally high and unbalanced animal populations dependent on
       walkers' food. Some animals become a nuisance and can develop diseases
       such as 'lumpy jaw' from eating refined foods.

Fuel Stove Only Areas


A number of places are designated as fuel stove only areas (no campfires
allowed) to lessen the environmental damage associated with fires. In alpine areas
these are:

      VIC - Mt Bogong, Mt Feathertop and its approaches (including the Razorback),
       and within one kilometre of Lake Tali Karng in the Alpine National Park.

      NSW - above 1700 metres in Kosciusko National Park.

      TAS - many areas, particularly in the World Heritage Area.

Other places at lower elevations and some coastal parks in various States are also
fuel stove only areas. Fines are imposed on people who light fires. Before your visit,
check with local land managers as to whether campfires are allowed.

In many parts of the Tasmanian alpine area. the ground contains peat (decaying
plant material) which if set alight can smoulder underground for months. Because
such underground fires are extremely difficult to put out, it is illegal to light fires on
peat in Tasmania.

Huts

      Don't rely on finding a hut. They are usually only for emergency or refuge
       use. Always carry a tent.

      Huts are for everyone. Respect the rights of people who are there first, but
       be prepared to make space for late-comers.

      Don't leave food scraps or store food in huts. It only clutters up the hut and
       encourages rats.

      Clean the hut, check that the fire is out, replace firewood and close the door
       securely when you leave.

'No-trace' Camping

      Look for low impact campsites. Sandy or hard surfaces are better than
       boggy or grassed areas. Camp at an existing campsite rather than a new one,
       and keep at least 30 metres away from watercourses and the track. Spend
       only one or two nights at each campsite.

      Use modern camping equipment. Use waterproof tents (with floors and tent
       poles) and foam sleeping mats to minimise damage to camping areas. Digging
       trenches around tents is damaging and unnecessary if the tents are sited
       properly.

      Leave campsites better than you found them by removing rubbish and
       dismantling unnecessary or unsafe fireplaces.

      Always carry a fuel stove when camping. If you carry warm clothing and a
       fuel stove, fires will not be needed for warmth or cooking. Compared with
       campfires, fuel stoves are faster, cleaner, a lot easier to use in wet weather
       and they don't scar the landscape.

The Minimal Impact Bushwalking Code, originally developed for the alpine areas of
Tasmania's World Heritage Area and extended with the help of the Australian Alps




Liaison Committee, is applicable to all bushwalking areas in South Eastern Australia.




Mountain Bike Code

A Code of Conduct for Mountain Bike Riding in Parks, Forests and Reserves




      Ride in control at all times
       Out of control riders are a danger to themselves and others. They can also
       discredit mountain bike riding by scaring people and damaging the trails.

      Respect the rights of others
       Other users have the same rights as you, so let them go about their activities
       without interference.

      If you meet walkers
       If you come across walkers, announce your presence, give them right of way
       and slow down as you pass.
      If you come across horse riders
       Always give horses right of way. Some horses are easily frightened by
       bicycles. A spooked horse can be very dangerous to you and its rider.
       Announce your presence by voice, dismount and talk as the horse and rider
       pass to reassure the animal. If necessary, move off the track to give the horse
       plenty of room. Be alert for signs of horses (hoof prints or droppings), and
       watch for them on bends and crests.

      Avoid skidding
       Skidding damages the tracks by removing the harder surface layer. This can
       then lead to erosion.

      Don't cut corners, stay on the track
       Cutting corners causes erosion. The track surface has been 'hardened' and
       your tyres will do very little damage, but the edges of the road are sensitive.
       Cutting corners breaks up the surface so that the next time it rains, the soil
       washes away.

      Stay away from wet, muddy areas
       Muddy areas are very prone to damage. The tracks you leave behind channel
       the water when it rains and this leads to erosion.

      Stay on roads and obey signs
       Bicycles are allowed on most roads and tracks made for four wheeled
       vehicles, including ’Management Vehicles Only’ roads, except in wilderness
       areas and the Grampians National Park or unless they are specifically closed
       to bicycles. Some tracks are subject to seasonal closure to prevent damage,
       so please obey closure signs. It is a good idea to check with the local land
       managers (e.g. Parks Victoria) to find out about any closures or limitations
       before you ride.

      Abide by any other regulations
       In summer, check for fire regulations if you are camping. In many areas,




       camping is limited to specific sites.



If you would like further information about joining a cycling club, contact Bicycle
Victoria (03) 9328 3000, for a current list of the clubs in Victoria.
Rock Climbing Code


A Code of Conduct for Rock Climbing and Abseiling in Parks, Forests and
Reserves

Most climbing and abseiling in Victoria is in National and State Parks and other
areas of public land controlled by Parks Victoria.

Some places, such as Aboriginal sites, peregrine nesting areas, wilderness areas,
tourist sites and conservation zones might have more stringent conditions on
climbing than generally apply. Check with local Parks Victoria work centres for details
of these before you climb.

Climbing and abseiling will continue to be allowed and accepted as valid recreation
activities in most of Victoria's parks and reserves if climbers are responsible, observe
the principles of conservation and respect local rock climbing values, ethics and
traditions.

Climbing

      Chipping of rock is both illegal and unethical.

      Avoid indiscriminate or excessive use of chalk. Using coloured chalk to match
       the rock is less intrusive.

      Do not change the nature of an established climb, for example, by retro-bolting
       or by adding or removing other fixed equipment, without approval of the first
       ascent team or Parks Victoria.

      Do not leave litter such as old slings, lolly wrappers etc. Take all your rubbish
       home.

      Vegetation, even on cliff faces, is protected. Wire brushing to remove mosses
       and 'gardening' in cracks and gullies is not permitted. Use slings to protect
       trees while belaying or abseiling if belay anchors are not provided.

      Before establishing a new climbing area, the approval of the land manager
       must be obtained. In existing (i.e. documented) climbing areas, be conscious
       of minimising the visual and environmental impact of new climbs:

              do not mark the start of climbs. Good descriptions in guide books
               should suffice.

              minimise the use of bolts (only for safety purposes) and avoid using
               galvanised bolts.

      Make yourself aware of and respect any access arrangements and climbing
       restrictions. On private property, do not disturb livestock or damage crops.
      Access to cliffs is only permitted on existing tracks. Contact Parks Victoria if
       you believe a new track is required, or if a route to a cliff needs marking.

      Do not disturb vegetation, nesting birds or other wildlife. All native plants and
       animals are protected.

      Respect sites of geological, cultural or scientific interest.

      Respect established climbing traditions in ethical matters such as the use of
       chalk, bolts etc. Avoid indiscriminate or excessive use of fixed equipment.

                                Your life is precious.
                            Think ahead and use a helmet!

                      Helmets are required for all participants
                       on commercial instruction programs.



Large groups can create problems of crowding and excessive damage around cliffs.
If you plan to take a group of 10 or more people climbing, you are required to register
with Parks Victoria staff to ensure there is space, especially for the following areas:

Brisbane Ranges NP
Cathedral Range SP
Grampians NP
Kooyoora SP                 Contact: Parks Victoria
Mt Arapiles-Tooan SP        Information
Mt Beckworth SR
Mt Buffalo NP               13 1963
Mt Macedon RP (Camels Hump)
Werribee Gorge SP (Falcons)
You Yangs RP



      Vehicles must stay on roads open to the public; offroad driving is illegal.
       Mountain bikes may be used on management roads except in the Grampians
       National Park and Wilsons Promontory National Park.

      Avoid disturbing soil at the top and base of cliff areas and hence prevent
       erosion. Abseil and climb over rock ledges where possible.

      Do not use popular lookout sites as belay points or abseiling venues, as it
       causes danger to passive onlookers as well as unwarranted tampering with
       climber's equipment.

      Observe cliff and track closures where applicable.

      Climbers should adhere to Parks Victoria’s Park, Fire and other Regulations.
      Abide by the ’clean climbing’ ethic (see Climber's Code).

Camping

      Camp in defined camping areas in parks. Do not leave any rubbish. Keep
       campsites clean.

      Only dead fallen wood may be collected for firewood, but remember that such
       wood is also habitat for many animal species.

      Prevent wildfires. Observe fire restrictions and fire bans. Light fires only in
       existing fireplaces in National and State Parks. Use stoves where possible.

             the fire must not be more than 1 square metre, and the minimum
              required for cooking or warmth.

             the fire must not be left unattended.

              Make sure the fire is put out before you leave.

      Do not pollute water supplies. Dispose of soap, detergent etc. at least 50
       metres from any river, stream or lake.

      Use nearby toilets or bury toilet waste to a depth of 15 cm and at least 100
       metres from any river, stream or lake.

For further information on minimal impact camping, see the Bush Camping Code
(available from Parks Victoria).

Climber's Code

      Find out about and observe access restrictions and agreements. Ensure
       access by not disturbing livestock or damaging crops.

      Use existing access tracks to minimise erosion and the need to mark new
       routes.

      Do not disturb nesting birds or other wildlife.

      Help protect all native plants; respect sites of geological, cultural or scientific
       interest.

      Do not leave any rubbish. Keep campsites clean.

      Avoid all risk of fire.

      Dispose of human waste in a sanitary manner. Do not pollute water s upplies.

      Respect established climbing traditions in ethical matters such as the use of
       chalk, pitons, bolts, etc.

      Avoid indiscriminate or excessive use of fixed equipment.
                               In essence, climb clean.

  Responsible climbing will protect cliffs and ensure continued rockclimbing.




Recreation Management

An Extract from Dandenong Ranges Management Plan (Sec 7.2)

The Park attracts about one million visitors a year, almost half the number visiting
public land in the Dandenong Ranges. Planning for recreational use of the Park
cannot be considered in isolation from other attractions in the Dandenongs, such as
the many gardens, public reserves, picnic areas and lookouts.

There is considerable imbalance in use between the various parts of the Park and
other public land with 70 per cent of visitors to public land going to Ferntree Gully and
Sherbrooke Units and Mt Dandenong. Scope exists for better distribution of visitor
use and redesign of facilities and rationalisation of the network of tracks and entry
points to the Park. This would improve visitor circulation and enjoyment of the Park,
and would reduce over-use and degradation of popular areas.

The main attractions of the Park are bushland, tall forest, wildlife, and scenery.
Nature appreciation, picnicking and walking are the main activities. There is also
limited horse riding, jogging and running. Hang-gliding is provided from one site near
Mt Dandenong. Most users of the Park are residents of the north-eastern and eastern
suburbs of Melbourne.

Transport to the Park is mainly by car. There is scope to develop an improved public
transport system, by linking the rail terminals at Upper Ferntree Gully, Belgrave and
Lilydale with the main destination areas in the Park by bus. There is also an excellent
opportunity to provide a network of long distance walking tracks traversing the Park
and extending to other areas in the Dandenongs.

It is important that a range of recreation opportunities are maintained within the Park
while minimising the conflicts between conservation, recreation and other land use.
The recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) concept provides a long-term strategy for
maintaining a range of relatively distinct recreation settings and opportunities. Within
the Park, areas will be retained to provide recreation opportunities in a predominantly
unmodified environment where there are opportunities for feeling isolated and
remote. These areas are designated as 'Quiet Areas' (figure 5 - 232Kb). Nature
observation and walking will be the major recreation opportunities in ‘Quiet Areas'.
Active recreational activities such as running, horse riding and orienteering are
permitted as outlined in detail in this Plan.

There is an urgent need to provide comprehensive information about the full range of
attractions, access and transport routes to give visitors a better understanding of the
natural values of the Park and increase their enjoyment. It is proposed to establish
visitor information centres and display shelters at the major recreation facilities to
provide a focus for visitor orientation and information, as well as providing education
displays and programs for schools (Section 8.2).

Note: The numbers 206-239 in the table below refer to Management Plan Actions.

Two-day Walk

206 Complete the sign posting and construction of the two-day
    walking track. This walking track system is designed to be
    accessed by public transport and presently links Belgrave
    and Upper Ferntree Gully railway stations (DCE 1991 and
    figure 5).

207 In conjunction with other authorities extend the two-day
    walking track system to link with the public transport system
    at Lilydale. Establish a campsite in Olinda State Forest (which
    is proposed for addition to the Park) for the sole use of
    walkers.

208 Produce a pamphlet containing information about the track,
    the Park, gardens, public transport, the booking system for
    the camp site and other alternative accommodation.

Camping

209 Camping will be permitted only in conjunction with the two-
    day walk (see action 207).

Horse Riding

210 Investigate the possibility of opening up of the Nicholas Tan
    Track to provide an alternative route along the northern
    boundary of Sherbrooke Unit for horse riders and walkers.

211 Limit horse riding to tracks designated in Management Zone
    II (figure 5). Allow horse riding on a trial basis for two years,
    to enable impacts on the Park environment and other users to
    be assessed. Horse riding will only be continued after the end
    of the two-year trial period with the approval of the Director.
    Impacts of horse riding are to be monitored, and a report on
    impacts is to be provided to the Director at the end of the two-
    year period. The Park is not to be a major horse riding
    destination and will serve only as a link in a broader regional
     horse trail network. Facilities for floats and the watering and
     tethering of horses will not be provided in the Park.

212 In conjunction with the Shire of Lilydale provide alternative
    tracks from Edgars Track through the Shire's Doongalla
    Reserve to Sheffield Road (figure 5).

213 Develop, in conjunction with adult riding clubs, pony clubs
    and municipalities, a code of ethics for horse use in the Park.

214 Provide pamphlets and display signs to inform horse riders of
    available tracks and regulations relating to use (see actions
    291 and 325).

215 Where appropriate authorise commercial trail riding
    establishments by issue of a permit to operate in the Park.
    This permit will specify horse riding conditions and will be
    issued according to actions 211 and 239.

216 Investigate a permit system for all horse riders within the
    Park.

217 Designated tracks may be closed as necessary to protect
    significant habitat, landscape and environmental values and
    track surfaces (see action 188).

Running and Jogging

218 Holding of competitive running and time trials is to be subject
    to a permit.

219 In Sherbrooke Unit, allow running and jogging only on
    designated tracks within Management Zones II, and Ill,
    subject to actions 223 and 224 (figure 5).

220 Elsewhere in the Park, permit running and jogging only on
    designated vehicular tracks, subject to action 223 (figure 5).

Visitor Use

221 Prepare, in conjunction with user groups, maps showing
    designated tracks, guidelines for running in the Park and
    information on alternative running venues.

     Provide this information to runners through as wide a range of
     outlets as possible, including local meeting places, shops,
     publications and the Victorian Runners Association, to
     encourage responsible use.
222 In conjunction with user groups, develop alternative areas for
    groups, for organised running, competitive use, and time trials
    including the Hamer Arboretum and Lysterfield Lake Park.

223 In conjunction with user groups, monitor existing use on an
    ongoing basis and review guidelines within two years of
    implementation.

224 Designated tracks may be closed as necessary to protect
    significant habitat, landscape and environmental values, track
    surfaces and for visitor safety.

Cycling

225 In Sherbrooke Unit, allow cycling only on designated tracks in
    Management Zones II and III (figure 5).

226 Elsewhere in the Park, permit cycling only on vehicular tracks
    subject to actions 224 and 229 (figure 5).

227 In conjunction with user groups, prepare maps showing
    designated tracks, guidelines for cycling in the Park, and
    information on alternative venues. Provide this information to
    cyclists through as wide a range of outlets as possible, to
    encourage responsible use.

228 Competitive cycling or time trials are not permitted in the
    Park.

229 In conjunction with user groups, monitor existing use on an
    ongoing basis and review guidelines within two years of
    implementation.

Orienteering

230 Permit orienteering only in that part of Doongalla Unit
    designated in figure 5, on the following basis:

             a maximum of two events each year

             a maximum of 200 participants in each event

     Courses are to be set to discourage cross-country running
     and to minimise long-term environmental damage, to the
     satisfaction of the Department.

231 In conjunction with user groups, review the use of the Park for
    orienteering within two years.
232 In conjunction with user groups, develop alternative areas as
    for orienteering activities, including the Hamer Arboretum and
    Lysterfield Lake Park.

Dispersed Picnicking

233 Encourage the use of the following areas in Management
    Zone II for dispersed picnicking:

           Neumanns Paddock

           Outlook Drive

           Jack the Miners.

     Formal picnic facilities will not be provided in these areas
     (figure 5).

Intensive Picnicking

234 Allow intensive picnicking to occur only in Management
    Zones II and II at the major and minor recreation sites as
    outlined in actions 243 and 249 (figure 5).

Hang Gliding

235 Maintain the hang gliding launch site located on Kyeema
    Track, adjacent to Mt Dandenong (figure 5) and monitor its
    use. Continue to liaise with the Civil Aviation Authority and
    the Victorian Hang Gliding Association regarding continuation
    of use of the site.

236 The hang gliding launch site is subject to the following
    conditions:

           regulations and orders of the Civil Aviation Authority
            must be complied with, in particular pilots must not
            enter controlled airspace;

           pilots must be current members of the Hang Gliding
            Federation of Australia and have an advanced pilots
            rating;

           all pilots flying this site must carry altimeters;

           no flying is allowed within 100 m of any TV towers;

           adherence to the rules and regulations of Hang Gliding
            Federation of Australia.
237 Development or improvement to this site by the Victorian
    Hang Gliding Association is to be carried out only with the
    prior approval of the Department.

Special Events

238 Permits will be issued and conditions set for recreation
    activities in areas where that use is presently restricted, at the
    discretion of the Regional Manager. Approval will only be
    given after possible conflicts with other park users and values
    have been evaluated and resolved.

Commercial Activities

239 Permits may be issued for the conduct of commercial
    recreation activities in the Park after consideration of possible
    impacts on visitors and Park values.

To see the Park Activities listing, please select Parks Info from the navigation bar
above.
Glossary
Cryptospiridium - Cryptospiridium parvum is a protozoan belonging to the Coccidia
subclass. In humans it causes cryptosporidiosis, an intestinal infection. It also infects
many animal species, causing symptomatic illnesses mainly in young animals. Older
animals may be carriers.
Giardia - Human giardiasis usually results from drinking water contaminated with the
protozoan Giardia lamblia. Infections are frequently seen in day care centres and
among campers. In acute cases, symptoms may include nausea, upper intestinal
pain and explosive diarrhoea. Fever and chills may be present, and in fact,
symptoms may mimic a peptic ulcer or gall bladder disease.
Minimal Impact Behaviour - Behaviours that, when undertaken during outdoor
activities in parks, will minimise damage to the natural environment.
Tuning In
Activities to initiate a topic and find out what the students already know.

Predict then Survey
Students predict what are the most popular outdoor activities within the class. A
survey could then be conducted within the class to determine which outdoor activities
are most popular and where they are undertaken.

Outdoor Activities and Accidents


Research the media for outdoor activity related accidents that have occurred during
the last two years. Discuss what could have been done to prevent the accidents.

Guest Speakers
Have a speaker from a club that undertakes outdoor activities address the students.
For instance, from bushwalking, field naturalist or cycling clubs. Have the speaker
include the following details in their talk - membership requirements, codes of
behaviour, places visited, preparation needed and equipment requirements .
Preparing to Find Out
Ideas to establish what the students already know and focus on what they will try to
find out.
Travelling with Minimal Impact Activity
This exercise looks at the impact of foot traffic. The results can be used to predict the
best way to travel over land where specially constructed tracks or boardwalks do not
exist.


Go to the Minimal Impact Activity cd2.htmcd2.htm



The Footy
Observe a football ground (eg. the MCG) and surrounds before and after a match.
What impact did the spectators have? How could this impact be reduced? (Other
outdoor sports and stadiums could also be observed such as hockey and basketball.)

Outdoor Activities and Their Impacts


Get the class to list all the outdoor activities they know and where they are carried
out, e.g. in the sea, in the snow or the bush. (You will find a list of activities in Parks
Info or by clicking here). List all the potential impacts of the activity on the park and in
what ways the impacts could be minimised. Get each student to research and
compare three of the activities in the list. Determine what equipment is required for
each activity, the impact on the environment of each activity, and ways to minimise
the impact for each activity.

Minimal Impact Video
View a minimal impact video such as ‘Walk Softly’ (VCE Outdoor Education Kit
available from VOEA has a worksheet for this video).

No Rules
Look at the rules and laws governing an activity in a park. Predict what the effects
would be of removing the rules one at a time until no rules are left.

Plan an Outdoors Excursion
Students can be involved in the planning of an outdoor excursion to a park by:

      establishing the parameters of the park site you will visit, e.g. transport
       availability, habitats present, etc. This may be a local or national park.

      researching the outdoor activity to be undertaken and determining the best
       time to visit a park for that activity.

      researching the activity requirements. Which park would suit the activity and
       class needs?

      developing equipment lists.
      estimating travel times.

      calculating costs.

      gaining permission from the school council and parents.

      drafting letters to park staff to obtain required camping permits etc.

      enlisting the help of a qualified experienced leader.

      investigating minimal impact behaviours required for the activities to be
       undertaken.

Information regarding Parks Victoria excursion sites can be obtained by contacting
the Information Centre on 13 1963.

Minimum Impact
Get students to review the minimal impact codes for Victoria’s parks. Contrast and
compare codes for different activities. Are there similarities and differenc es between
codes? Why?

(Some codes are available in the Unit Background section of this unit. For the full set
of codes, contact the DNRE Outdoors Information Shop, 8 Nicholson Street, East
Melbourne, 3002).

A Journal
This provides an open format for students to ‘collect’ their thoughts, feelings,
reflections and knowledge obtained during the course of the unit. It can include
samples of stories, poems, maps, drawings, photographs and reproduced sheets. It
need not be written; it may include video with voice over, or it may be an audio tape.
Finding Out
A chance to find out new information through direct experience. A variety of locations
can be used, including local urban parks and national parks.

The Activity


Undertake the planned outdoor activity. (Be sure to implement minimal impact
behaviours and record any impact your class/group has on the outdoor
environment/park)

Your Impact
Have your students record the effects that their activity has on the park. For example,
if bushwalking and camping, they could photograph the camping site and its
condition prior to setting up camp, and its condition prior to departure.

Mapping
Obtain maps of the park you are visiting and mark in sites of environmental
degradation that you see. Why do you think this degradation has occurred? Is it due
to human impact? Would minimal impact behaviours have avoided/reduced this
degradation? When would degradation due to visitors be most likely to occur in this
park - in summer or winter? Why?
Sorting Out
A chance for students to process the information they have gathered and begin to
draw some conclusions.

Photo Records
One of the best ways to record impact on a site in a park is through the use of
photographs. The photographic data could then be examined back at school. After
analysis of the data, the results could be tabulated in the following way.

Prior to activity Prior to leaving Noticeable       Ways of
commencing at site                 impacts          reducing
site                                                impacts




When analysing the photographs, students could consider:

   How would the impacts of the activity affect the flora and fauna associated with
    park?

   Are the effects likely to have short and/or long term consequences? For instance,
    compaction of ground can favour colonisation by weed species and/or lead to
    erosion. Rubbish such as six-pack binders can injure and lead to the death of
    both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Rocks and logs should be left the way they
    are found. Why?
What is Giardia and Cryptospiridium?
Get students to research Sydney's water contamination of August 1998. What
relationship might these organisms have to minimal impact behaviour in the
outdoors?

Recreation Management
Read the extract from the Dandenong Ranges Management Plan (page 5 of Unit
Background). Get students to critically analyse the planned management actions.
Compare the actions to be undertaken for each activity. Are there any major
differences in the proposed actions? What are they? Why do these differences exist?




Concept Mapping
This technique is an effective way to assess the student’s understanding about
outdoor activities in parks and minimal impact behaviour.




Brainstorm a list of more than ten words or phrases associated with the outdoor
activity organised by the students. Arrange the words and phrases (in boxes) into a
concept map that links them. The phrase ‘minimal impact behaviour’ must be
included.

For example, if the activity was bushwalking, a student may have come up with the
following words - erosion, tracks, bushwalker, toilet, giardia, weeds, rubbish, fauna,
habitat, blackberries, flora and water. A possible concept map resulting from these
words is shown above.

Design a Minimal Impact Game
Design a computer or board game that shows the ecological effects of
environmentally sensitive vs. insensitive behaviour. For example, a snorkeller who
shows good buoyancy control and does not kick the sponges on the seafloor would
get a point. If a boat transporting the snorkellers drops their anchor on a delicate reef
they lose 5 points. A bushwalker who keeps to constructed tracks and carries out
their rubbish would gain points. A bushwalker who goes to the toilet too close to a
watercourse would lose points. A birdwatcher who keeps still and quiet while
observing birds would gain points. A birdwatcher that disturbs nesting birds or
removes obstructing foliage to take photographs would lose points. The winner gets
to return to the park and enjoy the activity again in an undegraded environment.

Create a Character
Draw a characterisation of a low impact vs. high impact bushwalker, cross-country
skier or cyclist etc.




Outdoor Adventurer’s Comic
Produce an outdoor adventurer’s comic. This comic could present important issues
related to outdoor activities in a fun way. The ‘Mad’ style of comic could be a good
model to follow for Level 5-6 students.

Submit an Article
Produce an article on your outdoor activity experience. Submit for possible
publication to an outdoor recreation magazine such as ‘Wild’.
Making Connections
An opportunity for students to draw conclusions about what they have learnt.

Role-playing
Create a scenario where conflicts involving the impacts of activities are likely to occur
between park managers and people undertaking an outdoor activity in the park.
Suggest ways of minimising this impact and reducing conflict. For example, you may
have a commercial boat operator wanting to take people snorkelling on a seagrass
bed to observe the diverse fauna. However, the operator’s boat propeller will stir up
sediment from the seabed and remove some of the seagrass. Prompt students with
questions such as: What will happen to the seagrass if the commercial operator is
allowed to operate without restriction? What impact would this have on the quality of
the water above the seagrass? What would the snorkellers taking part in the
commercial tour notice immediately and one year later? Designate students in the
class to be a park ranger, a park planner, a commercial tour operator, a snorkeller,
and a seahorse that lives amongst the seagrass. Based on their role, have each
student describe the impact of the commercial snorkelling tours, and discuss how the
impacts could best be resolved. Is it possible to minimise the impacts and keep
everyone contented?

Activities in Parks? Yes or No?
Present your students with two opposing statements related to outdoor activities in
parks.

For example:

Should recreational activities be allowed in parks?

Or–

Should recreational activities be banned in parks as they are just for the animals and
plants?

Represent the continuum between the two opposing statements with a chalk line or
rope. Get the students to position themselves on the continuum and to provide
reasons for the stance they have taken.

Developments and Their Effects
Scan the newspapers for a proposed development in a park. Research potential
impacts on the park and it’s associated communities. Predict the effects of the
proposed development.
Going Further
An opportunity for students to extend their knowledge.

Sustainable Development
What is sustainable development? Is it related to outdoor activities in any way?

Surf the Web
Search related web pages and email other states and countries to ascertain their
rules and codes for outdoor activities in parks. Investigate and compare these rules
and codes, and analyse the similarities and differences between them.

Undertake a Collaborative Internet Project
Conduct or take part in a collaborative research project on outdoor activities in parks
using the internet. The ‘Global Classroom’ has a list of collaborative projects, and can
be found at: http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/gc/projects.htm

Illustrated Talk
Using slides, demonstrate low impact techniques as used on your outdoor excursion.
Have your students prepare a talk and deliver it to students who will be undertaking a
similar excursion next year.


toptopcc4.htmcc4.htmcc6.htmcc6.htm
Future Action
A chance for students to act upon what they have learnt.

Join a Club
Consider joining an outdoor activities club such as bushwalking, skiing, scuba diving
or orienteering clubs and/or one of the many ‘Friends of Parks’ groups.

School Policy Appraisal
Assess school policy in relation to outdoor activity trips. For example, students could
examine whether the policy addresses minimal impact considerations, such as only
using food that has a minimum of packaging.

Travelling Display
Students could design a low impact outdoor activity display for use at school open
days and at local shopping centres.

Minimise Wastage
Reducing, reusing and recycling waste will aid the outdoor environment both on a
local and global basis.

Revegetation Projects
Contact local parks or join a campus conservation corps and offer to help in
revegetation works.

Design a Brochure
Design a brochure to publicise a minimum impact code for the school environment.

School Environmental Award
An environmental award could be given to members of the school community
nominated by students for positive contributions to the outdoor environment.
Sponsorship for a prize could come from a local bushwalking/wilderness equipment
shop etc.

Plan a Track
Plan an exercise track around the perimeter of the school and plant it with indigenous
species. Design rules for the use of the track. Follow up the usage of the track at one
week and at one month intervals. Are there problems with administering the rules?
Could the rules be improved so that they work more effectively?

Design a Park
Ask students to design a multi-use park. It may be a terrestrial, marine, wetland,
urban or remote wilderness park. Consider all management issues, such as signage,
roads, flora and fauna, possible conflicts between visitors, risk/safety management
etc. How could you ensure that visitors undertaking outdoor activities use minimal
impact behaviour?

Students may produce a map of their theoretical park and provide text with
management actions. (Management plans for a variety of Victorian parks are
available from the NRE Outdoors Information Centre).
Success?
How successful was the outdoor activity excursion in terms of minimal impact on the
environment? Was the integrity of the environment maintained?

Usage Limits
If five other groups were to follow you to the same location, for the same activity one
after the other, and had the same impact as your group, what would be the condition
of that site? Should usage limits be set for the activity in the park?

Pass on Your Knowledge
Is there anything that could be done better on the excursion? How would you get the
next group to plan their excursion in order to overcome any problems you had?

First Aid Training
Run a first aid course for students with emphasis on accidents that could occur
during outdoor activities.

   
References and Resources

Reference Books
Moritz, G. and Kikkawa, J. (1994) Conservation and Biology in Australia and
Oceania. Surrey, Beatty & Sons, NSW.
Reports
Commonwealth Coastal Action Program (1997) Coastal Tourism: A Manual for
Sustainable Development. Environment Australia.

Commonwealth Department of Tourism (1995) Best Practice in Ecotourism: A Guide
to Energy and Waste Minimisation. Commonwealth of Australia.

Fairweather, P. & Napier, G. (1998) Environmental Indicators: For National State of
the Environment Reporting : Inland Waters. Environment Australia.

Hamblin, A. (1998) Environmental Indicators: For National State of the Environment
Reporting : The Land. Environment Australia.

Victorian Coastal Council (1997) Victorian Coastal Strategy. VCC.
Magazines
Australian Conservation Foundation. Habitat Magazine. ACF.
Management Plans
Department of Conservation and Environment(1991) Dandenong Ranges National
Park Management Plan.
Environmental Action
Slattery, D. (1994) Tread Lightly Education Kit. Department of Conservation and
Natural Resources, Melbourne.

Thomas, R. et. al. (1995) We Can Do That! Education and Action for our
Environment: A Collection of Significant Projects. The Victorian Environmental
Education Council and Gould League of Victoria, Moorabbin.
Outdoor Education
Rohnke, K. (1984) Silver Bullets: A Guide to Initiative Problems, Adventure Games
and Trust Activities. Kendall/Hunt, Iowa.

Victorian Outdoor Education Association (1996) VCE Outdoor Education Kit Vol.1.
VOEA inc.
Guides
Stevens, J. (1993) Melbourne’s Great Outdoors. The Age.

Stevens, J. (1995) Victoria’s Great Outdoors. The Age.
Environmental Education Activities
Maefie, C. & Monaghan, B. (1989) In Touch : Environmental Awareness Activities for
Teachers, Leaders and Parents. Longman-Cheshire.

Murdoch, K. (1992) Integrating Naturally: Units of work for Environmental Education.
Dellasta, Vic.
Codes
Australian Alps National Parks Codes  - River Users Code
                                      - Car-based Camping Code
                                      - Snow Camping Code
                                      - Bushwalking Code
                                      - Huts Code for Visitors
                                      - Horse Riding Code
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (1993) Bush Camping Code.
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (1994) Rock Climbing Code.
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (1995) 4WD Touring Code.
Department of Natural Resources and Environment (1999) Recreational Fishing
Guide.
Department of Natural Resources and Environment (1998) Dolphin Watching in
Victoria.
Recfish Australia (1998) We Fish for the Future: National Code of Practice for
Recreational and Sport Fishing Fisheries Action Program.
Web Addresses
Department of Natural Resources and Environment , Victoria. Home Page
http://www.nre.vic.gov.au Links to NRE pages includes parks and reserves,
recreation and tourism, coast and marine, plants and animals, science and research,
land and water management, conservation and environment, community involvement
and educational resources.

Environment Australia. Home Page http://www.erin.gov.au Includes links to pages on
Australia’s biodiversity, marine issues, environmental protection, heritage issues, and
library and education links.

The Coast Kit : A Victorian Coastal Resource Information Kit. See
http://www.nre.vic.gov.au/coasts/coastkit Looks at coastal systems, human use of the
coast and coastal management.

SofWeb. An Education Victoria internet site. See http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au Up to
date information on what’s happening in schools.

Parks Victoria. Home Page http://www.parkweb.vic.gov.au Includes information on
parks, bays and rivers, heritage properties, events happening in parks, education in
parks and Parks Victoria’s role.
Videos
Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service (1987) Walk Softly: Minimal Impact
Bushwalking.
Associations
Bird Observers Club of Australia, 183 Springvale Road, Nunawading, 3131, Ph: 9877
5342.

Gould League of Victoria, Genoa Street, Moorabbin, 3189, Ph: 9532 0909.

Victorian Association of Environmental Educators, 217 Church Street, Richmond,
3121, Ph: 9428 9812.

Victorian Outdoor Education Association, 217 Church Street, Richmond, 3121, Ph:
9428 9920.

Victorian National Parks Association, 10 Parliament Place, East Melbourne, 3002,
Ph: 9650 8296.

				
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