Special Ed aligning to Pegasus _ Houghton Mifflin by malj

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									                               Reading Adaptations and Modifications
                               By Heather M. Downey and Katie Taylor
These adaptations and modifications were designed to assist special education teachers with
teaching using the general education curriculum or with collaborating with general education
teachers on including students with disabilities in general education classrooms. This can also be
useful for general education teachers who need ideas for including unassisted students (such as
students who are not diagnosed with a specific disability but might exhibit some behavior or
learning problems, or new students who are in the process of receiving an Individual Education
Plan). If you suspect you have a student in your class with a disability that is not diagnosed, you
should use the school district's process for identifying these students; these adaptations are not
intended to replace special education services, but to assist both general education and special
education teachers with teaching Reading to a variety of students at any level. These are merely
suggestions, and as each student is unique, teachers may want to review each of the different
disability sections for ideas.

Any of these adaptations can be used interchangeably with varying disabilities; they are not
limited to the disability under which they are listed.
Student Disabilities:
 ADD or ADHD
 Autism Spectrum Disorder
 Blindness and Visual Impairments
 Cognitive or Developmental Disabilities
 Communication Disabilities
 Deafness or Hearing Impairments
 Dysgraphia
 Emotional Behavioral Disabilities
 Learning Disabilities
 Limited Dexterity or Physical/Motor Disabilities

IMPORTANT NOTE: any adaptation used in instruction should be used in assessment!

Suggestions for writing IEP goals and objectives that incorporate assistive technology and
align with EARLs and GLEs.

   Free Websites for supplemental instruction:
    www.starfall.com
    http://www.headsprout.com
    http://www.intellitools.com/
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/
    http://www.enchantedlearning.com/Home.html
    http://www.abcteach.com/
    http://www.janbrett.com
    http://www.readwritethink.org/
    http://school.discovery.com/




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ADD and ADHD
 Provide a schedule of activities to follow and/or a checklist.
 Provide students with a copy of the book being read aloud by teacher or other students.
 Allow students to choose material for silent reading. Provide texts in multiple formats:
   audio books, books on CD Rom, talking books or books with sound buttons, comics,
   magazines, etc.
 Allow students an opportunity to complete a thought without interrupting, otherwise they
   may lose their train of thought and not be able to answer.
 Allow students to create their own dictionary, and if possible, decorate it.
 Provide multi-sensory representations of instruction and content.
 Modify activities to make them more physical and/or more functional – i.e., teach new
   vocabulary or sequencing through alternative lessons such as art, cooking, science, etc.
 Use graphic organizers (thinking maps, or use software such as Kidspiration and
   Inspiration to assist students with creating their own graphic organizers).
 Limit amount of material presented at one time.
 Use a specific sound to designate the end, and the beginning of activities.
 Reduce visual stimuli of instructional materials (such as by folding worksheets in half or
   by presenting one set of problems at a time –i.e., 10 of 30 problems).
 Reduce visual stimuli in the room.
 Use calming colors (blues, tans, greens) and no bright colors in the classroom or in the
   materials provided to students.
 Give breaks.
 Have students use headphones to block auditory stimuli.
 Provide study carrels to block visual stimuli.
 Change room lighting (use lamp light, natural light, or low light).
 Allow students to sit on therapy balls or balance stools.
 Provide written and/or picture versions of directions and class routines.
 Use sensory stimulation as a replacement behavior that is not disruptive to others or the
   learning environment. Some ideas for sensory stimulation:
       o Thera-putty
       o Thera-bands
       o Body socks
       o Koosh balls
       o Silk or satin fabric or ribbon to rub
       o Gum
       o Scented sprays with calming scents (such as Lavender, Chamomile, etc.),
           however, check with parents for allergy and asthma problems first
       o Snack breaks or snacks throughout (preferably something crunchy or chewy, but
           with low or no sugar)
       o Listening to music (headphones or whole class)
       o Water and frequent bathroom breaks
       o Weighted vests or lap weights
       o Breaks for ―heavy‖ work (includes lifting or carrying heavy objects, doing
           exercises such as toe touches, jumping jacks, pull ups, push ups, body lifts, quick
           basketball game, etc.).
Phonemic Awareness



                                                                                             2
  Use http://www.starfall.com/n/level-k/index/load.htm?f to teach and reinforce sound
   letter correspondence, the difference between vowels and consonants, and alphabetical
   order.
 Play word games such as Odd-Word-Out – finding the word in a set of words that does
   not belong; Word Sorting – separating words into categories based on letter sounds,
   starting with beginning letter sounds, and moving on from there; and Phoneme Counting
   – counting the sounds in a word.
Word Identification
 Cueing
        o Assist student with focusing on cues by modeling thinking process – directing
            students to look at the pictures for clues to the new word, referring students to
            previous text lines to determine if they have read the word before, etc.
        o Scaffold finding visual cues in text.
        o Play word sort games separating words into categories by the number of letters in
            the word or by word shape. A free internet word shape sort game can be played at
            http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/hfwords/starwords/game.shtml
 Decoding
        o Use computer pattern and decodable books such as Balanced Literacy, Living
            Books on CD Rom, and http://www.starfall.com/n/level-a/learn-to-
            read/load.htm?f as a fun and engaging method to teach and reinforce decoding.
        o Isolate words using highlighting or a book mark with a cut-out hole to place the
            word in.
        o Have students segment difficult words, do not use segmenting on known words
            and do not force feed segmenting if the student is already decoding. When using
            word segmentation, model segmentation using multiple resources (teacher’s
            voice, clapping, letter cards, phonemic toys, etc.).
 Sight Words
        o Use a sight word based program to enhance word identification.
        o Play games with sight words such as sight word Bingo or Memory, matching
            sight words either to itself or to a picture representing the word (this can be done
            with descriptive or positional sight words).
Vocabulary
 Label things in the room.
 Make a dictionary.
 Create a set of flash cards with the word on one side and a picture representing the word
   on the other side.
Reading Comprehension
 ―Grammar Rock‖ video or CD Rom is a nice method for teaching these students parts of
   speech and punctuation.
 Model the thinking process to help students learn how to develop metacognition skills
   during reading by interspersing thoughts into texts read aloud (i.e., ―I’m confused. I
   better read that again.‖).
Writing
 Use computers or AlphaSmart for students to write with
 Use picture symbols and sentence strips




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Autism Spectrum
 Students with Autism do not always learn in the same order as other students. They may
   need to read the whole book/story first or be taught the main idea first and then review
   temporal sequence or how to get the main idea.
 It is best to teach using patterns (such as phonograms).
 Limit use of distracting materials. These students often struggle with using
   manipulatives/materials in learning because they can get lost in them or distracted by
   them.
 Provide a picture schedule of activities to follow and/or a checklist.
 Provide students with a copy of the book being read aloud by teacher or other students.
 Allow students to choose material for silent reading. Provide texts in multiple formats:
   audio books, books on CD Rom, talking books or books with sound buttons, comics,
   magazines, etc.
 Allow to work alone or with a partner while the class is working as a whole or in small
   groups.
 Replicate the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) color coding in reading
   instruction (i.e., use blue for emotions, etc.).
 Allow students to communicate their responses using PECS if it is an established
   communication method for them.
 Allow students to create their own dictionary, and if possible, decorate it.
 Allow students to use picture symbols in association with words.
 Use sign language as a teaching tool and provide a sign language dictionary.
 Provide multi-sensory representations of instruction and content.
 Modify activities to make them more physical and/or more functional – i.e., teach new
   vocabulary or sequencing through alternative lessons such as art, cooking, science, etc.
 Use puppets to act out characters in story – people puppets draw students with Autism
   attention better then actual people, if the puppets hands are gloves, they can be used to
   sign along with a story, or to interact with students with Autism teaching them better
   communication skills.
 Use graphic organizers (thinking maps, or use software such as Kidspiration and
   Inspiration to assist students with creating their own graphic organizers).
 Limit amount of material presented at one time.
 Use a specific sound to designate the end, and the beginning of activities.
 Reduce visual stimuli of instructional materials (such as by folding worksheets in half or
   by presenting one set of problems at a time –i.e., 10 of 30 problems).
 Reduce visual stimuli in the room.
 Use calming colors (blues, tans, greens) and no bright colors in the classroom or in the
   materials provided to students.
 Use songs to teach routines and concepts.
 Give breaks.
 Have students use headphones to block auditory stimuli.
 Provide study carrels to block visual stimuli.
 Change room lighting (use lamp light, natural light, or low light).
 Allow students to sit on therapy balls or balance stools.
 Provide written and/or picture versions of directions and class routines.




                                                                                               4
  Allow self-stimulatory behaviors that are not disruptive to others or the learning
   environment. Some ideas for sensory stimulation:
        o Thera-putty
        o Thera-bands
        o Body socks
        o Koosh balls
        o Silk or satin fabric or ribbon to rub
        o Gum
        o Scented sprays with calming scents (such as Lavender, Chamomile, etc.),
            however, check with parents for allergy and asthma problems first
        o Snack breaks or snacks throughout (preferably something crunchy or chewy, but
            with low or no sugar)
        o Listening to music (headphones or whole class)
        o Water and frequent bathroom breaks
        o Weighted vests or lap weights
        o Breaks for ―heavy‖ work (includes lifting or carrying heavy objects, doing
            exercises such as toe touches, jumping jacks, pull ups, push ups, body lifts, quick
            basketball game, etc.).
Phonemic Awareness
 Memorize letter sounds.
 Use http://www.starfall.com/n/level-k/index/load.htm?f to teach and reinforce sound
   letter correspondence, the difference between vowels and consonants, and alphabetical
   order.
 Play word games such as Odd-Word-Out – finding the word in a set of words that does
   not belong; Word Sorting – separating words into categories based on letter sounds,
   starting with beginning letter sounds, and moving on from there; and Phoneme Counting
   – counting the sounds in a word.
Word Identification
 Cueing
        o Play matching games for upper and lower case alphabet association.
        o Visual cues may not be as apparent to students with autism. Explicitly teach
            students how to look for visual cues to help them figure out words they do not
            know. Use a step-by-step task analysis with picture symbols as a part of your
            instruction. An example of a task analysis for this:
                1. when I am reading,
                2. if there is a word I don’t know,
                3. I can look at the pictures in the book,
                4. or the other words around the word I don’t know,
                5. to figure out the word.
        o Play word sort games separating words into categories by the number of letters in
            the word or by word shape. A free internet word shape sort game can be played at
            http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/hfwords/starwords/game.shtml
        o Predicting the text in predictable texts may not come as easily for students with
            autism. Explicitly teach students how to use context to predict text. Translate a
            predictable book into a picture/symbol format – be sure to place the illustrations
            in the same line/paragraph format as the word in the text (this is important since



                                                                                              5
            most predictable books will use both words and the placement of words as an
            element in making the text predictable). This can be created using a
            picture/symbol library (such as BoardMaker) or with picture/symbol writing
            software (such as Writing with Symbols). NOTE: do not skim over or skip
            teaching this step even if it doesn’t seem essential early on, because it will help
            build pre-requisite skills for making predictions in reading comprehension later –
            a skill that can be very challenging for students with autism.
 Decoding
        o Students with autism learn best through memorizing sight words, they may never
            phonetically sound out words, but you should try teaching this.
        o Use a sight word based program to enhance word identification
        o Use computer pattern and decodable books such as Balanced Literacy, Living
            Books on CD Rom, and http://www.starfall.com/n/level-a/learn-to-
            read/load.htm?f as a fun and engaging method to teach and reinforce decoding.
 Sight Words
        o Typically, students with autism rapidly attain sight words. However, if they are
            struggling with sight words, play games with sight words such as sight word
            Bingo or Memory, matching sight words either to itself or to a picture
            representing the word (this can be done with descriptive or positional sight
            words).
        o Typically, students with autism rapidly attain sight words. However, if they are
            struggling with sight words, use a set of three-dimensional sight words as a part of
            daily instruction. The three-dimensional set of sight words can be made using
            glued block letters, Alphabits cereal, printed then glued words, etc. Consider
            tactile defensiveness when creating the 3-D sight words, some students may not
            respond well to the texture of something such as glue, sandpaper, cereal, etc.
            Make sure the students have access to the 3-D sight words during all reading
            activities.
Vocabulary
 Make a sign language or picture dictionary.
 Use picture symbols.
 Label vocabulary in the classroom.
Reading Comprehension
 Use storyboards (illustrated text blocks for events such as beginning, middle, and ending)
   to help students learn temporal sequence.
 Focus on more concrete aspects (yes, no questions and narrow choices in other questions)
   – i.e., non-fiction vs. fiction.
 Explicitly review with illustrations and concrete examples the concept of real versus
   nonsense, fiction versus non-fiction.
 Students with autism have difficulty understanding the concept of pronouns and finding
   the subjects of pronouns, use pictures and/or diagrams to show relationship between
   pronouns and their subjects.
 Explicitly pre-teach cause and effect concept using social stories with pictures in a task
   analysis format. Be sure to include ALL of the steps in the task analysis.
 Students with autism have difficulty making predictions and making inferences.




                                                                                              6
 Use ―Grammar Rock‖ video or CD Rom as a method for teaching parts of speech and
  punctuation.
 The concept of first person narratives must be explicitly taught prior to reading them. Try
  using a puppet to read/tell the story, or take at least one first person narrative story and
  work with the student one-on-one on replacing the first person voice initially with the
  student’s name, and then with the teacher’s name. NOTE: students with Autism often
  refer to themselves by name, and the concept of first person can be very difficult for them
  – replicate the first person concept through multiple lessons such as using ―I‖ or ―me‖
  and the student’s name on the same button on the student’s communication device or the
  student’s picture symbol representing themselves and having the student interchange their
  name with ―I" and ―me.‖
 Model the thinking process to help students learn how to develop metacognition skills
  during reading by interspersing thoughts into texts read aloud (i.e., ―I’m confused. I
  better read that again.‖). Use social stories in presenting modeled thinking.
Writing
 Allow students to use computers or AlphaSmart.
 Allow students to write with pictures, either hand drawn or on the computer using a
  software program such as Writing with Symbols by Meyer Johnson.
 Provide sentence starters such as sentence strips with or without picture symbols.
 If necessary, allow students to initially write first person narratives using their own name,
  and in the editing phase replace their name with the first person voice.

Blindness and Visual Impairments
 Provide large print copy of materials (with a minimum of 18 point font).
 Provide high-contrast paper.
 Use light tracers.
 Provide large magnifiers in learning centers.
 Use bold colors that are easy to differentiate.
 Provide audio version of materials (tape record printed material or have scanned into a
   computer so the computer can read it).
 Describe items/objects presented visually.
 Provide manipulatives that will not roll off the desk.
 Put manipulatives on a tray so that the student knows where all of the manipulatives are;
   Velcro the tray to the desk so it is not easily knocked off the desk.
 Save documents as ASCII or plain text on computer so they can be read by speech
   synthesizers or so it can be printed out in Braille.
 Tell a student with visual disabilities when you are walking away from/leaving them.
 Have students identify themselves by name before speaking.
 Trace lines, numbers and letters with glue to create a raised, tactile effect; add string or
   yarn for emphasis.
 Allow students to create their own dictionary.
 If a student has a guide dog, do not let other students play with the dog because the dog is
   working – explain that this is like petting a police dog or guard dog.
 Allow students to choose material for silent reading. Provide texts in multiple formats:
   audio books, books on CD Rom, talking books, books in Braille, etc.
Phonemic Awareness



                                                                                             7
  Use magnetic letters in teaching alphabets, sound letter correspondence, etc. Have student
   put letters in alphabetical order.
 Use alphabet toys with raised letter-shaped buttons that name the letter and/or letter
   sound when pushed.
Word Identification
 Cueing
       o Play three-dimensional versions of matching games for upper and lower case
           alphabet association (these can be created using glue and/or string to trace letters).
       o Verbally describe visual elements to ensure that students receive all of the visual
           cues – crucial in early literacy development.
       o Create a set of raised sight words that students can feel. Be sure to use the same
           format/font and spacing (i.e., print out sight words in a 30 point font and
           trace/glue string on the letters to create a raised effect) so the students can feel the
           difference in the words and compare words visually through touch.
 Decoding
       o Have students sound out words as they feel the letters.
       o Use programs that say the letter sounds and are repetitive like
           http://www.starfall.com/n/level-k/index/load.htm?f
       o Focus on word patterns based on sound similarities rather then visual similarities.
       o Use audio pattern and decodable books as a fun and engaging method to teach and
           reinforce decoding.
 Sight Words
       o Use the set of raised sight words (see above under ―cueing‖) as a part of daily
           instruction. The three-dimensional set of sight words can be made using glued
           block letters, Alphabits cereal, printed then glued words, etc. Consider tactile
           defensiveness when creating the 3-D sight words, some students may not respond
           well to the texture of something such as glue, sandpaper, cereal, etc. Make sure
           the students have access to the raised sight words during all reading activities, as a
           student with sight would by being able to look up at a sight word chart.
Vocabulary
 Incorporate an element of touch for teaching new vocabulary.
 Verbally describe the function of new words.
Reading Comprehension
 For early readers, incorporate smell and touch into read aloud books.
 Verbally describe pictures.
 Use predictable books to allow students opportunities to predict language without
   pictures.
 Supplement sounds, smells or three-dimensional objects for picture cues.
 Use books on audio tape.
 Download books on the computer and have the computer read the book to students.
 Pair students who are blind with other students for read aloud activities.
 Provide Braille books.
 Use magnifying devices.
 For students with visual impairments, use large print with a minimum 18 point font.
Writing




                                                                                                 8
   Have student use a computer to type responses or use voice activated word processing
    programs such as Dragon Naturally Speaking or ViaVoice, or allow them to audio tape
    responses.
   Avoid computers with Windows, or use scanner program or software program that
    provides access to Windows icons such as JAWS.
   Scribe notes and answers for student.

Cognitive or Developmental Disabilities
 Pre-teach. Relate book topics to students’ real life experiences.
 Provide social or academic alternatives to content that is beyond the student’s cognitive
   level:
        o folder work
        o manipulative boxes with work to complete independently
        o distributing papers
        o handwriting practice
        o small group work
        o file folder games such as those published by Carson-Dellosa
 Focus in on the main idea or the more concrete aspects of the unit and teach just that
   concept.
 Use hands on activities as much as possible rather than paperwork.
 Modify activities to make them more physical and/or more functional – i.e., teach new
   vocabulary or sequencing through alternative lessons such as art, cooking, science, etc.
 Provide multi-sensory representations of instruction and content.
 Provide a schedule of activities to follow and/or a checklist.
 Provide picture versions of directions and class routines.
 Provide a picture dictionary.
 Alternate quiet activities with active ones.
 Provide motivation and frequent praise.
 Use songs to teach routines and concepts.
 Link literature (such as picture books) to instructional content.
 Assess using alternative methods.
 Allow students to choose material for silent reading. Provide texts in multiple formats:
   audio books, books on CD Rom, talking books or books with sound buttons, comics,
   magazines, etc.
Phonemic Awareness
 Use http://www.starfall.com/n/level-k/index/play.htm?f to teach and reinforce sound
   letter correspondence, the difference between vowels and consonants, and alphabetical
   order.
 Act out letters and letter sounds.
 Use a phonics program that uses repetition and patterns to learn letter sounds, word
   families, and sight words.
 Provide access to toys with sounds to assist students with learning sound letter
   correspondence.
 Play word games such as Odd-Word-Out – finding the word in a set of words that does
   not belong; Word Sorting – separating words into categories based on letter sounds,




                                                                                              9
   starting with beginning letter sounds, and moving on from there; and Phoneme Counting
   – counting the sounds in a word.
Word Identification
 Cueing
       o Play matching games for upper and lower case alphabet association.
       o Reinforce visual cues by pointing to the pictures and expanding with a verbal
           description.
       o Play word sort games separating words into categories by the number of letters in
           the word or by word shape. A free internet word shape sort game can be played at
           http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/hfwords/starwords/game.shtml
       o Reinforce predictable text with pictures/symbols. This can be created in a class
           chart or printed translation of a predictable book Be sure to place the illustrations
           in the same line/paragraph format as the word in the text (this is important since
           most predictable books will use both words and the placement of words as an
           element in making the text predictable). The class chart can be created using a
           picture/symbol library such as BoardMaker, and the printed version for students
           can be created with picture/symbol writing software such as Writing with
           Symbols.
 Decoding
       o Use computer pattern and decodable books such as Balanced Literacy, Living
           Books on CD Rom, and http://www.starfall.com/n/level-a/learn-to-
           read/load.htm?f as a fun and engaging method to teach and reinforce decoding.
       o Model word segmentation using multiple resources (teacher’s voice, clapping,
           letter cards, phonemic toys, etc.).
 Sight Words
       o Use a sight word based educational program (such as Edmark) to enhance word
           identification.
       o Play games with sight words such as sight word Bingo or Memory, matching
           sight words either to itself or to a picture representing the word (this can be done
           with descriptive or positional sight words).
Vocabulary
 Use new words repetitively in multiple modalities (i.e., art projects, games – BINGO,
   Memory, Scrabble, etc. – songs, etc.).
 Label vocabulary in the classroom using pictures and words.
Reading Comprehension
 Use predictable books or simple books that have pictures to help figure out story; and
   provide opportunities for the student to contribute to the read aloud.
 Summarize books highlighting the main ideas.
 Use ―Grammar Rock‖ video or CD Rom as a method for teaching parts of speech and
   punctuation.
 Use storyboards (illustrated text blocks for events such as beginning, middle, and ending)
   to help students learn temporal sequence.
 Ask questions as you read.
 Allow students an opportunity to go back and review the book.
 Provide leveled readers with age-appropriate content.




                                                                                             10
  Model the thinking process to help students learn how to develop metacognition skills
   during reading by interspersing thoughts into texts read aloud (i.e., ―I’m confused. I
   better read that again.‖).
Writing
 Use programs like Handwriting Without Tears to enhance printing abilities.
 Have students write stories as a group or class.
 Have students create their own dictionary.
 Allow students to write with pictures.
 Use graphic organizers to help students build their writing; computer programs such as
   Kidspiration or Inspiration can be especially helpful because they use pictures in
   conjunction with graphic organizers.
 Provide sentence starters.

Communication Disabilities
 Allow extra time to process information.
 Provide multi-sensory representations of instruction and content.
 Give instructions one-step at a time.
 Allow the student extra time to prepare for class presentations.
 Reduce extraneous auditory stimuli in the classroom (i.e., fans, radio, close doors, etc.)
   and provide enclosed, quiet spaces for students to do one-on-one work with teacher or
   therapists.
 Provide students with a copy of the book being read aloud by teacher or other students as
   a method for reinforcing words.
 Provide vocabulary in advance of the lesson on student’s communication device, in sign
   language, or in picture format, and allow time for the student to learn the location of the
   vocabulary on their device.
 Provide a picture dictionary.
 Allow students to create their own dictionary, and if possible, illustrate it.
 To assist students with paired reading activities or with read alouds, use a ―scanning‖ or
   ―reading pen‖ to read aloud for them or have an instructional assistant or tutor read the
   word as the student points to it.
 Use text to speech computer programs to allow students opportunities to answer in class
   discussion questions (IntelliTalk, etc.), or ask students concrete questions that they can
   point to the answer in the text or on the board.
 Allow students an opportunity to complete a thought without interrupting to avoid having
   to repeat themselves.
Phonemic Awareness
 Phonemic Awareness is not easily learned by students with communication disabilities
   due to difficulty speaking, however, it still needs to be taught and encouraged. Try
   working with students one-on-one or in small groups. Model mouth movements and
   allow them to feel how the sound is produced on your throat. Allow students to
   participate by making letter sounds using phonemic toys. Know that computer programs
   and videos can not be the sole source for student learning.
 Teach students an inner voice. Because students do not speak or have limited speech,
   they need to be taught things such as reciting the alphabet song in their head.
 Some students who cannot speak can sing, so use songs in teaching.



                                                                                            11
  Model sounding out blends and diagraphs.
  Use American Sign Language as a teaching tool; couple it with three-dimensional and
   two-dimensional alphabet letters.
 Use http://www.starfall.com/n/level-k/index/load.htm?f to teach and reinforce sound
   letter correspondence, the difference between vowels and consonants, and alphabetical
   order.
 Allow significant time for students to sound out letters and words, even if they are
   sounding them out in their head.
 Students with communication disabilities require extensive phonics instruction. Use
   computer phonics programs (such as Lexia phonics) or websites (such as
   www.starfall.com) to supplement student’s learning or for homework.
 Allow students to spell phonemically or from memory, whichever they prefer.
 Play word games such as Odd-Word-Out – finding the word in a set of words that does
   not belong; Word Sorting – separating words into categories based on letter sounds,
   starting with beginning letter sounds, and moving on from there; and Phoneme Counting
   – counting the sounds in a word.
Word Identification
 Cueing
        o Play matching games for upper and lower case alphabet association.
        o Play word sort games separating words into categories by the number of letters in
            the word or by word shape. A free internet word shape sort game can be played at
            http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/hfwords/starwords/game.shtml
 Decoding
        o Model word segmentation using multiple resources (teacher’s voice, clapping,
            letter cards, phonemic toys, etc.).
        o Use computer pattern and decodable books with sounding out option (such as
            Balanced Literacy, Living Books on CD Rom, and to teach and reinforce
            decoding.
        o Allow significant time for students to sound out letters and words even if it’s in
            their head.
        o Model sounding out nonsense words to teach the concept of real versus nonsense.
 Sight Words
        o Allow students to use a computer with word prediction software.
        o Play games with sight words such as sight word Bingo or Memory, matching
            sight words either to itself or to a picture representing the word (this can be done
            with descriptive or positional sight words).
Vocabulary
 Include new vocabulary on students Augmentative or Alternative Communication Device
   or teach them signs for all new vocabulary so students have a method of using new
   vocabulary independently.
 Use color coding to differentiate word categories. Be consistent with the color code so
   that if it is used on a communication device it is also the same color code used on class
   charts, worksheets, texts, etc.
 Use talking dictionaries.
Reading Comprehension




                                                                                             12
 Allow students to answer questions using communication device, illustrations, picture
  symbols, sign language, by pointing to the text, or in any method that effectively
  communicates what the student is thinking.
 Call on students with communication disabilities as much as possible to help build their
  communication skills, this can be done easily by having them answer questions that are
  concrete and can be pointed to. However, keep in mind and be sensitive to students who
  have difficulty speaking because they may be frustrated or overwhelmed by being
  misunderstood or called on to speak either one-on-one or in front of the whole class.
 Provide low tech and/or high tech alternatives to answer multiple choice questions in
  class discussions (i.e., number or letter answer choices written on the board or on
  worksheets so that the student can give just the number or letter either spoken or in sign
  language as an answer instead of repeating the whole answer).
 First person narratives may not be easily understood if speech is limited enough to
  prevent the student from freely talking about themselves. If this is the case, you will need
  to teach the concept of first person to the student prior to reading a first person narrative.
  Try using a puppet to read/tell the story, or take at least one first person narrative story
  and work with the student one-on-one on replacing the first person voice initially with the
  student’s name, and then with the teacher’s name.
 Help students develop their inner voice for reading comprehension by modeling the
  thinking process. This will also help students learn how to develop metacognition skills
  during reading by interspersing thoughts into texts read aloud (i.e., ―I’m confused. I
  better read that again.‖).
Writing
 Allow students to use communication devices in writing. NOTE: some devices can be
  connected to a printer or a computer allowing for documentation.
 Allow students to write using a computer with word prediction software (such as
  CoWriter).
 Allow students to use computerized graphic organizers (such as Kidspiration or
  Inspiration).
 Allow student to make errors in their writing so that they can get out what they want to
  say; do not necessarily correct errors, unless that is required for the lesson.
 Provide opportunities for students to write about themselves (as most children get to
  express their likes, dislikes, wants, etc. in conversations with other children) on a daily
  basis such as in a journal. This will help them learn first person narrative.

Deafness and Hearing Disabilities
 Provide students with a copy of the book being read aloud by teacher or other students.
 Provide written and/or American Sign Language directions.
 Do not shout; hearing aids make sounds louder, not clearer.
 Visually describe objects/stories presented verbally.
 Seat the student so that they have an unobstructed view of the speaker, and be sure you
   have their attention before you speak.
 Allow the student extra time to prepare for class presentations.
 If a student has a guide dog, do not let other students play with the dog because the dog is
   working – explain that this is like petting a police dog or guard dog.




                                                                                             13
  If no interpreter is available, and the speaker/teacher does not use sign language, have a
   peer take notes using an Alphasmart, computer or paper with carbon copy (best to carbon
   copy so student can receive notes immediately at the end of class or during class).
 Provide a sign language dictionary.
Phonemic Awareness
 For deaf students or students with more severe hearing impairment, use a sight word
   program such as Edmark rather then teaching phonics.
 These students may need additional instruction in learning alphabetical order because
   they can not hear the alphabet song. Augment instruction by visually ordering the letters,
   providing letters in sign and written formats, and perhaps adding objects they can touch
   that are associated with each letter.
 Play word sort games separating words into categories based on initial consonants, then
   move on the ending consonants.
 Teach phonics rules and symbols for short and long vowels.
Word Identification
 Cueing
       o Alliteration and rhyme can be challenging for these students. Use visuals (pictures
           and phonograms, etc.) to better illustrate that similarities that are generally heard.
       o Play word sort games separating words into categories by the number of letters in
           the word or by word shape. A free internet word shape sort game can be played at
           http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/hfwords/starwords/game.shtml
 Decoding
       o For deaf students or students with more severe hearing impairment, use a sight
           word program such as Edmark rather then teaching phonics, and augment with
           lessons on word patterns using phonograms and word families.
       o Use the visual elements of computer pattern and decodable books such as
           Balanced Literacy, Living Books on CD Rom, and
           http://www.starfall.com/n/level-a/learn-to-read/load.htm?f to reinforce decoding.
       o For students who sign, teach them to fingerspell the word first, and then teach
           them the actual sign for the word.
 Sight Words
       o For deaf students or students with more severe hearing impairments, use a sight
           word program such as Edmark rather then teaching phonics.
       o Play games with sight words such as sight word Bingo (using the overhead to
           announce words) or Memory, matching sight words either to itself or to a picture
           representing the word (this can be done with descriptive or positional sight
           words).
Vocabulary
 Provide a sign language dictionary.
 Use flash cards with and without pictures to assist students with learning new words.
 Use Signed Exact English to differentiate verb tenses, prefixes and suffixes.
Reading Comprehension
 Students who are taught strictly using American Sign Language do not learn grammar
   rules or sentence structure and will have difficulty understanding written English. In
   order to effectively teach students who are deaf using sign language, it is recommended
   you use Signed Exact English in your reading instruction and require students use Signed



                                                                                              14
  Exact English in their responses in reading class. American Sign Language is a language,
  while Signed Exact English is a translation.
 Allow students to answer questions using sign language, by pointing to the text, or in any
  method that effectively communicates what the student is thinking.
Writing
 Students who are taught strictly using American Sign Language do not learn grammar
  rules or sentence structure. In order to effectively teach students who are deaf using sign
  language, it is recommended you use Signed Exact English in your reading instruction
  and require students use Signed Exact English in their responses in reading class.
  American Sign Language is a language, while Signed Exact English is a translation.

Dysgraphia
 Students with Dysgraphia struggle with writing letters and words and may fall behind as
   a result. Try to eliminate handwriting whenever handwriting is not the focus as an
   element for these students reading assignments.
 Modify worksheets so that students can match answers using stickers rather then write
   responses.
 Use graphic organizers (thinking maps, Kidspiration, Inspiration).
 Allow students to complete assignments on video or audiotape.
 Use a name and a date stamp to label assignments.
 Have a peer take notes using an Alphasmart, computer or paper with carbon copy (best to
   carbon copy so student can receive notes immediately at the end of class or during class).
 Provide scribes for all assessments excluding handwriting.
Phonemic Awareness
 Provide supplemental instruction to reduce deficits that result from not experiencing the
   kinesthetic learning that is essential to developing phonemic awareness. Use
   http://www.starfall.com/n/level-k/index/load.htm?f and computer phonics programs (such
   as Lexia Phonics) to reinforce sound letter correspondence, the difference between
   vowels and consonants, and alphabetical order.
Word Identification
 Cueing
       o Play matching games for upper and lower case alphabet association.
       o Play word sort games separating words into categories by the number of letters in
           the word or by word shape. A free internet word shape sort game can be played at
           http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/hfwords/starwords/game.shtml
 Decoding
       o Use computer pattern and decodable books such as Balanced Literacy, Living
           Books on CD Rom, and http://www.starfall.com/n/level-a/learn-to-
           read/load.htm?f as a fun and engaging method to teach and reinforce decoding.
 Sight Words
       o Play games with sight words such as sight word Bingo or Memory, matching
           sight words either to itself or to a picture representing the word (this can be done
           with descriptive or positional sight words).
Vocabulary
 Allow students to create their own dictionary on the computer.
 Use talking dictionaries.



                                                                                            15
Reading Comprehension
 Provide a copy of texts for students to highlight responses to questions.
Writing
 Modify handwriting assignments to a more developmentally appropriate level; be sure to
   use age-appropriate handwriting materials.
 Use a speech to text computer program such as (Dragon Naturally Speaking, ViaVoice,
   etc.).
 Allow students to use computerized graphic organizers (such as Kidspiration or
   Inspiration).
 Allow student to use a computer to type responses, allow them to audio tape responses to
   class assignments or homework, or provide a scribe.

Emotional Behavioral Disabilities
 Set appropriate expectations, provide a written copy of the expectations, and review those
   expectations with the students.
 Give breaks.
 Often EBD students are bored, try stepping up the curriculum or allowing them to
   assist/tutor other students.
 Allow students to create their own dictionary, and to decorate it with pictures.
 Provide choices in all activities (i.e., which materials to use, what work to do first, etc.).
 Pair students with others who they are comfortable with and who can help keep them stay
   on task.
 Give praise and encouragement for cooperation, appropriate expression, and good effort.
 Be consistent in responding to inappropriate behavior, remain calm and matter-of-fact.
 Provide a schedule of activities to follow and/or a checklist.
 Be consistent with schedule to establish a routine, deviate only if necessary.
 Provide multi-sensory representations of instruction and content.
 Keep lessons succinct.
 Make the activities engaging and exciting; end activities that are not working and move
   on to another activity.
 End all activities in a fun and rewarding way.
 Modify activities to make them more physical and/or more functional – i.e., teach new
   vocabulary or sequencing through alternative lessons such as art, cooking, science, etc.
 Provide opportunities for students to incorporate something personal into activities (i.e.,
   bring in relevant objects/items from home, share their methods for answering questions
   and understanding texts, share their writing, etc.).
 Allow students an opportunity to complete a thought without interrupting to avoid
   frustration and break-downs.
 Provide educational choice time as a reward for completing assignments early – computer
   programs and educational computer games can be an excellent reward.
 Allow students to choose material for silent reading. Provide texts in multiple formats:
   audio books, books on CD Rom, talking books or books with sound buttons, comics,
   magazines, etc.
Phonemic Awareness




                                                                                             16
  Use http://www.starfall.com/n/level-k/index/load.htm?f as a fun and engaging method to
   teach and reinforce sound letter correspondence, the difference between vowels and
   consonants, and alphabetical order.
 Play word games such as Odd-Word-Out – finding the word in a set of words that does
   not belong; Word Sorting – separating words into categories based on letter sounds,
   starting with beginning letter sounds, and moving on from there; and Phoneme Counting
   – counting the sounds in a word.
Word Identification
 Cueing
       o Assist student with focusing on cues by modeling thinking process – directing
           students to look at the pictures for clues to the new word, referring students to
           previous text lines to determine if they have read the word before, etc.
       o Play word sort games separating words into categories by the number of letters in
           the word or by word shape. A free internet word shape sort game can be played at
           http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/hfwords/starwords/game.shtml
 Decoding
       o Use computer pattern and decodable books such as Balanced Literacy, Living
           Books on CD Rom, and http://www.starfall.com/n/level-a/learn-to-
           read/load.htm?f as a fun and engaging method to teach and reinforce decoding.
 Sight Words
       o Play games with sight words such as sight word Bingo or Memory, matching
           sight words either to itself or to a picture representing the word (this can be done
           with descriptive or positional sight words).
Vocabulary
 Teach new words in art projects and games – BINGO, Memory, Scrabble, etc.
 Use ―Grammar Rock‖ video or CD Rom as a method for teaching parts of speech and
   punctuation.
Reading Comprehension
 Use Readers Theatre.
 Allow students to use different voices in reading characters voices aloud.
 Use puppets, props, music, and other interactive objects in reading.
 Allow students to illustrate stories using storyboards (illustrated text blocks for events
   such as beginning, middle, and ending), or write parodies of stories read in class.
 Assist student with focusing on the text by modeling a thinking process. This will also
   help students learn how to develop metacognition skills during reading by interspersing
   thoughts into texts read aloud (i.e., ―I’m confused. I better read that again.‖).
Writing
 Allow students to ―write‖ in alternative formats such as animation, film, poetry, plays,
   song, etc. Provide opportunities for students to showcase their ―creative‖ writing.

Learning Disabilities
 Provide students with a copy of the book being read aloud by teacher or other students.
 Set up a Reading group with a LAP specialist or teacher providing scaffolding.
 Allow students to create their own dictionary, and if possible, decorate it with pictures.
 Allow extra time to process information.




                                                                                               17
  Give directions in multiple representations: written, verbal, and, if possible, with visual
   representation.
 Modify activities to make them more physical and/or more functional – i.e., teach new
   vocabulary or sequencing through alternative lessons such as art, cooking, science, etc.
 Pre-teach concepts.
 Use a book mark with cut out box to assist students with isolating words on a page.
 Allow students an opportunity to complete a thought without interrupting, otherwise they
   may lose their train of thought and not be able to answer.
 Allow students to choose material for silent reading. Provide texts in multiple formats:
   audio books, books on CD Rom, talking books or books with sound buttons, comics,
   magazines, etc.
Phonemic Awareness
 Use http://www.starfall.com/n/level-k/index/load.htm?f to teach and reinforce sound
   letter correspondence, the difference between vowels and consonants, and alphabetical
   order.
 Focus on patterns such as phonograms and word families.
 Teach phonics rules using memory triggers such as ―when two vowels go walking the
   first one does the talking.‖
 Play word games such as Odd-Word-Out – finding the word in a set of words that does
   not belong; Word Sorting – separating words into categories based on letter sounds,
   starting with beginning letter sounds, and moving on from there; and Phoneme Counting
   – counting the sounds in a word.
Word Identification
 Cueing
        o Play matching games for upper and lower case alphabet association.
        o If students are struggling with reading cues, explicitly teach students how to look
            for context clues. Assist student with focusing on cues by modeling thinking
            process – directing students to look at the pictures for clues to the new word,
            referring students to previous text lines to determine if they have read the word
            before, etc.
        o Scaffold finding visual cues in text.
        o Play word sort games separating words into categories by the number of letters in
            the word or by word shape. A free internet word shape sort game can be played at
            http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/hfwords/starwords/game.shtml
 Decoding
        o Use computer pattern and decodable books such as Balanced Literacy, Living
            Books on CD Rom, and http://www.starfall.com/n/level-a/learn-to-
            read/load.htm?f to teach and reinforce decoding.
        o Have students segment difficult words, do not use segmenting on known words
            and do not force feed segmenting if the student is already decoding.
 Sight Words
        o Use sight (Dolch list, etc.) word cards both with and without pictures as an
            instructional tool.
        o Play games with sight words such as sight word Bingo or Memory, matching
            sight words either to itself or to a picture representing the word (this can be done
            with descriptive or positional sight words).



                                                                                              18
Vocabulary
 Use games (Bingo, Memory – matching words to pictures – Scrabble, etc.) as an
   instructional tool.
 Use flash cards.
 Have students write and illustrate their own books/comics using new vocabulary
Reading Comprehension
 Provide leveled readers with age-appropriate content.
 Try alternative or antiquated methods for teaching parts of speech such as diagramming
   sentences or watching ―Grammar Rock‖ video.
 Color code by parts of speech, subjects – if possible, allow students to develop their own
   color code system.
 Use storyboards (illustrated text blocks for events such as beginning, middle, and ending)
   to help students learn temporal sequence.
 Model the thinking process to help students learn how to develop metacognition skills
   during reading by interspersing thoughts into texts read aloud (i.e., ―I’m confused. I
   better read that again.‖).
 Provide a copy of the text for students to mark up. Suggest some of the following:
       o Circling new vocabulary to go back and look up in the dictionary.
       o Color coding content such as blue for inferences, green for facts or concrete ideas,
           red for main ideas, etc.
       o Drawing in the margins to illustrate major concepts.
       o Numbering events for temporal sequence.
       o Underlining elements to focus on to extend learning (i.e., the student is struggling
           with the concept of prepositions and prepositional phrases, have them work in a
           section of the text underlining all the prepositions and prepositional phrases they
           can find).
Writing
 Provide an example of sentence structure and sample sentences, or sentence starters.
 Allow students to write using a computer with word prediction software (such as
   CoWriter).
 Use graphic organizers (computerized versions include Kidspiration or Inspiration) to
   help students build and organize their writing.
 Allow students to write using a computer with speech to text hardware/software.

Limited Dexterity or Physical/Motor Disabilities
 Have a peer take notes using an Alphasmart, computer or paper with carbon copy (best to
   carbon copy so student can receive notes immediately at the end of class or during class).
 Provide choices in all activities (i.e., which manipulatives to use, etc.).
 Provide larger alphabet letters or other materials that are easier to grip.
 Use materials that will not roll away.
 Allow students to complete written work on the computer.
 Allow students to create their own dictionary on the computer, and if possible, decorate it
   with pictures.
 Velcro or tape down paper or materials to stabilize.
 Provide extra room in aisles and around the classroom to allow students space to
   maneuver without obstacles.



                                                                                           19
  Allow student to work lying down, standing up or sitting so that circulation problems do
   not develop and/or pain does not interfere with learning.
 Allow extra time for students to complete activities or work with materials.
 Use computer books for silent and independent reading because students will be able to
   independently turn the pages.
 Pair student with a student with good fine motor skills, allowing each student to
   showcase their skills (i.e., one student turns pages or works with the materials while the
   other student reads and/or types up the results).
 Create computerized versions of worksheets.
 Allow students to choose material for silent reading. Provide texts in multiple formats:
   audio books, books on CD Rom, talking books or books with sound buttons, comics,
   magazines, etc.
Phonemic Awareness
 Students who can not write by hand, should experience, if at all possible, drawing letters
   in: the air, pudding, sand/salt, paint, even with hand-over-hand assistance, because
   handwriting has a kinesthetic learning experience that is vital to learning letters and later
   corresponding letters to their sounds. If they’re hands can not draw, use their feet; if not
   their feet use their head with a head stick, or position body in the shape of the letters. If
   nothing else works, draw the letters on the student’s hand, or on their forehead.
Word Identification
 Cueing
        o Play matching games for upper and lower case alphabet association.
        o Play word sort games separating words into categories by the number of letters in
            the word or by word shape. A free internet word shape sort game can be played at
            http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/hfwords/starwords/game.shtml
 Decoding
        o Use computer pattern and decodable books such as Balanced Literacy, Living
            Books on CD Rom, and http://www.starfall.com/n/level-a/learn-to-
            read/load.htm?f to reinforce decoding without the difficulty of turning pages.
        o Use computer phonics programs such as Lexia phonics in place of flash cards and
            hand-held materials/manipulatives.
 Sight Words
        o Use computer based sight word programs such as Edmark.
        o Play games with sight words such as sight word Bingo or Memory, matching
            sight words either to itself or to a picture representing the word (this can be done
            with descriptive or positional sight words).
Vocabulary
 Matching new words with definitions, either in assessment or class work, print the words
   on labels and peel the corners of the labels upon the label paper so students can pull of
   labels and match to the appropriate location on their worksheet.
Reading Comprehension
 To turn pages: use head sticks, or a small piece of foam tape or tabs on each page as a
   finger stopper to assist with page turning, or pair with another student (perhaps a lower
   level learner so both students can showcase their strengths) who can turn pages for the
   student.
 Audio tape class discussions for students to use in place of note-taking.



                                                                                              20
   Writing
    If students have any ability to write, use handwriting instruction programs with three-
     dimensional elements that include putting pre-fabricated elements together to create
     letters (such as Handwriting Without Tears) to enhance printing abilities.
    Allow students to write using a computer with speech to text hardware/software and/or
     word prediction software to assist students with fluency in writing to accommodate for
     limited mobility.
    Have student use a computer to type responses, scribe or audio tape their responses.
    Allow students to use computerized graphic organizers (such as Kidspiration or
     Inspiration).

Suggestions for writing IEP goals and objectives:
          1. Include EARL/GLE notations in ―Goal level performance‖ section of IEP.
                   Focus on bringing student’s deficit skills up to general education grade
                      level expectations.
                   If students are below academic level, use OSPI information on Birth to 5
                      alignments for Reading, Writing and Communication
                      www.k12.wa.us/CurriculumInstruct/default.aspx.
          2. Include Assistive Technology, mode of communication, and other adaptations
              essential to student attaining the goal/objective in the IEP objective.
          3. Make it measurable.

Examples of IEP Objectives:
Writing Objectives Incorporating Assistive Technology
Kindergarten:
Behavior                       Baseline to Goal Level           Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Combine 2 to 3 word/symbols Baseline performance: single        In 4 out of 5 sentences as
on AAC device or computer      word utterances; no writing      demonstrated in student’s
program such as IntelliTalk to Goal performance:                writing portfolio containing
create a simple sentence.      Writing EARL 1, and 2            print out of sentences created.
                               Reading GLE
 st
1 grade:
Behavior                       Baseline to Goal Level           Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Demonstrate an understanding Baseline performance: end of       80% on general education
of and apply content           Kindergarten/beginning 1st       vocabulary tests (Curriculum
vocabulary from his reading in grade                            Based Assessments,
oral (either in American Sign  Goal performance:                Curriculum Based
Language or on his AAC         Writing EARL 1.2, and 1.3        Measurements) in Reading,
device) and in written         Reading GLE 1.2.2, 1.3.1, and    Math, Science, & Social
communication with.            1.3.2                            Studies.
2nd grade:
Behavior                       Baseline to Goal Level           Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Write a sentence containing 5- Baseline performance: writing    Independent completion of 3
8 words with correct           2 word sentences with limited    sentences with correct
punctuation and capitalization punctuation/capitalization       punctuation and capitalization
using a laptop with word       usage.                           demonstrated in student’s


                                                                                               21
prediction software to assist     Goal performance:                  writing portfolio.
with spelling unknown words.      Writing EARL 1.3
                                  Reading GLE 1.3.1, and 1.3.2
3rd grade:
Behavior                          Baseline to Goal Level             Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Write a report/story with a       Baseline performance: writing      Independent completion of at
clear beginning, middle, and      reports with content, but little   least 2 stories/reports
ending using word processing      organizational structure and       containing a clear beginning,
assistance (such as an            no clear transitions.              middle, and ending with a
Alphasmart or a laptop with       Goal performance:                  minimum of 4 transition
word processing and graphic       Writing EARL 1.1                   words demonstrated in
organizer software such as        Reading GLE                        student’s writing portfolio.
Kidspiration/Inspiration).

Reading Comprehension Objectives Incorporating Assistive Technology
Kindergarten:
Behavior                          Baseline to Goal Level            Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Identify a passage as true or     Baseline performance:             Correct identification of the
not true (fiction vs. non-fiction limited identification of fiction passage with at least 2 pieces
or reality vs. fantasy) by        and non-fiction                   of supporting evidence in 4
labeling the book with word       Goal performance:                 out of 5 trials using systematic
symbol cards for ―true‖ and       Reading EARL 2 and 3.4            observation.
―not true,‖ and placing 4-6       Reading GLE 2.3.1 and 3.4.2
picture cards of supporting
evidence in a T-chart format.
1st grade:
Behavior                          Baseline to Goal Level            Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Demonstrate knowledge and         Baseline performance:             At least one new sight word
use of sight words through use 40 known sight words                 per sentence spoken/written in
of at least one new sight word                                      3 out of 5 reading discussions
per sentence in discussions       Goal performance:                 using systematic observation
about texts read by developing 90-100 known sight words             for spoken communication or
and using daily a tactile sight   Reading EARL 1.2, 1.3, 1.4        portfolios of written
word dictionary with              Reading GLE 1.2.1, 1.3.1,         communication.
assistance gluing yarn/string     1.3.2, and 1.4.1
to letters in sight words.
2nd grade:
Behavior                          Baseline to Goal Level            Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Retell a story including the      Baseline performance:             ―No risk or low risk‖
main idea and the temporal        gives main idea                   (depending on student’s
sequence containing                                                 baseline) on a standardized
beginning, middle, and ending Goal performance:                     test such as DIBELS
using self-generated              Reading EARL 2                    http://dibels.uoregon.edu/
pictures/illustrations in a       Reading GLE 2.1.3                 and/or ―Instructional‖ at grade
computer software program                                           level on an inventory/survey
(such as IntelliStudio or                                           such as the Qualitative


                                                                                                 22
Kidspiration/Inspiration).                                         Reading Inventory—3.


3rd grade:
Behavior                         Baseline to Goal Level            Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Give predictions about and       Baseline performance:             Completing 80% of all
make inferences from the 3rd     emergent predicting and           prediction & inference
grade general education texts    inferencing                       assignments in general
in reading class using           Goal performance:                 education reading class, and/or
computerized graphic             Reading EARL 2                    achieving 80% on all general
organizers (such as in           Reading GLE 2.1.5 and 2.2.3       education assessments of
Kidspiration/Inspiration).                                         inferencing & predicting

Reading Objectives Incorporating Assistive Technology
Kindergarten:
Behavior                        Baseline to Goal Level             Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Complete the rhyme/pattern in Baseline performance:                Accurate completion of 4 out
predictable texts read aloud    participates in group reading      of 5 rhyme/patterns with
using picture cards, AAC                                           verbal or gesture prompt using
device, or in computer books. Goal performance:                    systematic observation.
                                Reading EARL 1
                                Reading GLE 1.1.2
  st
1 grade:
Behavior                        Baseline to Goal Level             Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Word sort by initial letter     Baseline performance:              Correctly identifying 21 out of
sound using picture cards       Identify initial sound for 4/21    21 consonants for initial letter
(such as Pegasus Word Study) consonants                            sound correspondence in 4 out
or on a computer in a T-chart   Goal performance:                  of 5 trials using systematic
format in word processing       Identify initial sound for 21/21   observation.
software or graphic organizing consonants
software with pictures (such as Reading EALR 1
Kidspiration).                  Reading GLE 1.1.2
  nd
2 grade:
Behavior                        Baseline to Goal Level             Criteria and Evaluation Tool
Segments unknown words in       Baseline performance:              9 out of 10 new words using
isolation and in context using  beginning 1st grade reading        teacher-developed test or ―No
a phonics toy with sound letter level; student who does not        risk or low risk‖ in Phoneme
correspondence or AAC           speak is struggling with           Segmentation Fluency
device with page formatted to decoding new words in                (depending on student’s
speak each letter sound         reading                            baseline) on a standardized
(including short and long       Goal performance:                  test such as DIBELS
vowels).                        Reading EARL 1                     http://dibels.uoregon.edu/.
                                Reading GLE 1.1.4
3rd grade:
Behavior                        Baseline to Goal Level             Criteria and Evaluation Tool




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Assembling picture cards or   Baseline performance: using   80% accuracy in grade level
AAC device buttons with       meaning cues to determine     curriculum based
word parts to create multi-   unknown words                 measurements.
syllablic words and use in    Goal performance: use word
isolation and in context.     structure cues to determine
                              unknown words
                              Reading EARL 1
                              Reading GLE 1.1.4




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