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The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

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					The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
        - Composition, strategic importance and influence
          on the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation




                                                Katrine Andersson
                             County Administration of Västerbotten
                                                        April 2005
        The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
                                    -    Composition, strategic importance and influence on the
                                         Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation

1. Introduction
     1.1 Purpose                                                                              4
     1.2 Questions                                                                            4
     1.3 Method and Material                                                                  4

2. Historical origin and development of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership                    5
    2.1 The Barcelona Declaration                                                             5
    2.2 EU Strategic Partnership with the Mediterranean and the Middle East                   6
    2.3 Common Strategy of the European Council of 19 June 2000 on the Mediterranean region   6
    2.4 Country Strategy Papers                                                               7

3. Structure                                                                                  8
    3.1 Multilateral dimension                                                                8
    3.2 Bilateral dimension                                                                   8

4. Organisational structure                                                                   10
    4.1 Multilateral level                                                                    10
                  4.1.1 EuropeAid Co-operation Office                                         10
                  4.1.2 Euro-Mediterranean Committee for the Barcelona Process                12
                  4.1.3 Euro-Mediterranean Conferences                                        12
                  4.1.4 The Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly                         12
                  4.1.5 The Euro-Mediterranean Civil Forum                                    13
                  4.1.6 Regional Programmes                                                   13
    4.2 Bilateral level                                                                       13
                  4.2.1 Association Council                                                   13
                  4.2.2 Association Committee                                                 13
                  4.2.3 Working Groups                                                        13

5. Financing                                                                                  14
    5.1 MEDA                                                                                  14
              5.1.1 Development from MEDA I to MEDA II                                        14
              5.1.2 Important articles in the MEDA regulation                                 15
    5.2 INTERREG financing                                                                    17

6. Priorities of the different levels                                                         17
    6.1 Multilateral level                                                                    17
    6.2 Bilateral level                                                                       18

7. The future in the Euro-Mediterranean region                                                18
    7.1 Instruments for External assistance in the future                                     18
    7.2 European Neighbourhood Instrument                                                     20
    7.3 Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area by 2010                                            21

8. Comparison with the Barents cooperation                                                    21
    8.1 Kirkenes Declaration                                                                  21
    8.2 Barents programme 2004-2006                                                           21

9. Structure                                                                                  22
    9.1 Organisation on the National level                                                    22
                9.1.1 The Barents Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC)                                  22
                9.1.2 The Committee of Senior Officials (CSO)                                 22
                9.1.3 BEAC Working Groups                                                     22
    9.2 Organisation on the Regional level                                                    22
                9.2.1 The Regional Council                                                    22
                9.2.2 The Regional Committee                                                  23
                9.2.3 Regional Working Groups                                                 23
                9.2.4 Joint administrative bodies                                             23




                                                                                                   2
10. EU-Russia relations                                                                         23
    10.1 Common Strategy Paper 2002-2006 Russian Federation                                     23
    10.2 The EU response strategy 2002-2006                                                     24
    10.3 Medium-term Strategy for Development of Relations between the Russian Federation and
         the European Union (2000-2010)                                                         24

11. Financing applicable to the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation                                 25
    11.1 INTERREG                                                                               25
    11.2 TACIS                                                                                  26

12. The future in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region                                                26
    12.1 European Neighbourhood Policy in relation to Russia                                    26
    12.2 The Barents 2010-project                                                               27

13. Analysis                                                                                    27
    13.1 Geographical location                                                                  27
    13.2 Involvement of EU in the cooperation regions                                           28
    13.3 Number of participants involved                                                        28
    13.4 Organisational structure                                                               29
    13.5 The Barcelona Declaration as a political instrument                                    29
    13.6 Eligibility for financing                                                              29


Sources                                                                                         31

Appendixes
Appendix 1      Barcelona Declaration Annex Work Programme
Appendix 2      Association Agreements
Appendix 3      Organigram EuropeAid
Appendix 4      Ministerial Conferences
Appendix 5      Regional Programmes




                                                                                                     3
               The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
                              – Composition, strategic importance and influence on
                                the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation




1. Introduction
The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership was formed in 1995, by the signing of the Barcelona declaration
at the Euro-Mediterranean Conference. This declaration sprung from the need to establish a
coordinated approach to societal and political developments on both sides of the Mediterranean. Three
dimensions form the building blocks of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. The political and
security partnership is the first dimension mentioned in the Barcelona declaration. Due to different
factors such as the stagnation of the Middle East peace process, the war in Iraq and other events, there
has not been as much progress in this area as it was hoped to be. It still remains the basis and one of
the underlined goals that the Euro-Mediterranean cooperation is built upon. The second dimension is
the economic and financial partnership. The aim is to create an area of shared prosperity. Promoting
a stabile economic development is seen as imperative in ensuring peace, stability and social cohesion
in the region. The third is the partnership in the social, cultural and human dimension. It is based
on the recognition of the fact that economic development in itself is not enough to create an overall
positive development. It is important to involve all aspects relating to societal and human development
if a secure and peaceful environment is to spread in the region.

Many of the priorities and goals that underline the Euro-Mediterranean partnership are the same, or
similar to those of the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation. Both cooperations encompass a regional and
a central level; there are however differences in structure and approach that may be important to study
because of the knowledge that can be obtained. Another factor that motivates a closer study into the
matter has to do with the future developments – from 2007, both regions will be included in the new
European Neighbourhood Policy. Whether the regions will compete for resources or complete each
other remains to be seen. This development however, makes a comparative study important and of
current interest.

1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and the structural
foundation that it rests upon. A comparison is then to be made with the Barents Euro-Arctic
Cooperation in order to distinguish differences and similarities in the different cooperations. The aim
is to distinguish differences that are important for the future developments in respective cooperation in
relation to EU. This will then be put in relation to the development in the European Neighbourhood
Policy that is to be introduced in 2007.

1.2 Questions
       How is the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership organised?
       What conclusions can be drawn by comparison with the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation?
       What future development may be expected?

1.3 Method and Material
This report has been conducted as a descriptive study based on qualitative methods where information
concerning the Euro-Mediterranean partnership has been analysed. The comparative analysis is based
on efforts to discern what differences and similarities can be seen between the both cooperations. This
study contains a smaller description of the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperations structure and its
preconditions, and therefore a certain amount of pre-knowledge about the Barents Euro-Arctic
Cooperation is assumed. Links are provided for the reader to be able to easily acquire further
information about the cooperation.


                                                                                                        4
The Euro-Med Association Agreements Implementation Guide, which compares the different
Association Agreements, does not contain information on the agreement concluded with Syria. When
it comes to the agreement with Syria, negations are concluded and the Council is to decide upon
signature. The information concerning the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is to a large extent taken
from the official web sites of the external relations division in the European Commission, relating to
the Euro-Mediterranean partnership. The negative effects of primarily using internet-based
information should be counteracted by the fact that the information is taken from the official sources
of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. When it comes to the comparative study, information on
Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation is to the largest extent taken from official sources of BEAC.1

Use of terms: as to the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, I have used the terms bilateral and
multilateral cooperation (instead of regional) in order to avoid misunderstandings in the comparison
with Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation. The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership uses the term regional
about multilateral cooperation. The term regional in connection to the Barents cooperation is used to
describe the cooperation between different regions within the countries involved. Consequently,
regional is used in this respect to describe cooperation between different regions.

2. Historical origin and development of the Euro-Mediterranean
Partnership
Both the Euro-Mediterranean partnership and the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation arose in the
1990’s, following the climate of change in world politics at the time. When it came to the Euro-
Mediterranean partnership, the rising interest can be described as a re-awakening. The bilateral
agreements that followed the Hague meeting replaced agreements that were signed in the 1970’s. The
strengthening of south-south relations through cooperating on areas such as trade, social issues and
infrastructural connections is seen as strategically important for the EU. Europe as a whole will benefit
from a stabile, prosperous and peaceful development in the Mediterranean area and Middle East.

2.1 The Barcelona Declaration
The Barcelona declaration was signed at the Euro-Mediterranean conference held in Hague on the 27-28
November 1995. The signing parties were foreign ministers and other representatives for EU member states, the
Council of the European Union and the Mediterranean partners. By signing the Barcelona declaration, the
parties took upon themselves to establish a partnership leading to peace, stability and prosperity in the region.
This is to be achieved through a strengthened political dialogue on a regular basis, development of economic
and financial cooperation and greater emphasis on the social, cultural and human dimension.

The political aspirations that are included in the declaration text are ambitious. The signing parties
have committed to the development of rule of law and democracy, respect for human rights, respect
for international law, and respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty. Adherence to the UN Charter
and Declaration of Human rights is included in the text, as well as a section about the promotion of
good-neighbourly relations to support the development of sub-regional cooperation.

When it comes to the economic and financial partnership to create an area of shared prosperity,
three objectives have been set up:
                    -    Acceleration of the pace of sustainable socio-economic growth
                    -    Improvement of the living conditions of their populations, increase in the employment level
                         and reduction in the development gap in the Euro-Mediterranean region
                    -    Encouragement of regional cooperation and integration

These are the long-term objectives. In order to achieve them, more concrete measures on a shorter
term will be based on;
                    -    The progressive establishment of a free-trade area
                    -    The implementation of appropriate economic cooperation and concerted action in the
                         relevant areas, and;

1
    For further information, see “Sources”


                                                                                                                   5
                    -    A substantial increase in the European Union’s financial assistance to its partners

The social, cultural and human dimension is important as it is stated that social development must
go hand in hand with economical development. Basic social rights are to be obtained and upheld
through measures such as development of human resources, cultural exchanges, fight against crime
and corruption, and the use of educational and cultural programmes.2 Annex Work Programme
addresses in greater detail exactly on what areas and how these three dimensions will be
implemented.3

2.2 EU Strategic Partnership with the Mediterranean and the Middle East
The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is defined as one of the important frameworks that EU works within. A
final report on this Strategic Partnership was presented in 2004.

This policy document provides an overall picture of just how the EU is to relate to and form its
relationships with the different Mediterranean partners. Partnership and dialogue are to govern the
principles for action. A single approach cannot be used, as considerations and adaptations have to be
made in each single case. So, a pragmatic approach has to be applied. Consultation is one of the
principal measures to be used to ensure active involvement on both sides. The primary objective is to
promote the development of a common zone of peace, prosperity and progress in the Mediterranean
and Middle East. Existing instruments such as the Barcelona process (Euro-Mediterranean
Partnership), European Neighbourhood Policy, and other mechanisms will be used to achieve the
objectives. Key priorities are:
                    -    Promote joint interests
                    -    Importance of a partnership approach
                    -    Need for differentiation
                    -    Recognition of that reforms need to be generated from within
                    -    Need for a consistent basis for EU policies
                    -    Define a concrete policy agenda4

The policy document includes sections concerning political dialogue, non-proliferation, security
dialogue, counter-terrorism, inter-cultural dialogue and economic reforms. When it comes to economic
reforms, one of the goals is to promote WTO-membership for countries in the Mediterranean and the
Middle East. Another goal is the establishment of a free-trade area.5

2.3 Common Strategy of the European Council of 19 June 2000 on the
Mediterranean region
So what does the Common strategy of the European Council on the Mediterranean region state more
precisely? A number of objectives are defined in the common strategy.
              - To make significant and measurable progress towards achieving the objectives of
                  the Barcelona Declaration and its subsequent acquis:
                             o    Establish a common area of peace and stability through a political and security
                                  partnership
                             o    To create an area of shared prosperity through an economic and financial
                                  partnership
                             o    To establish a partnership in social, cultural and human affairs: developing human
                                  resources, promoting understanding between cultures and exchanges between civil
                                  societies
                    -    To promote the core values embraced by the EU and its Member States, including
                         human rights, democracy, good governance transparency and the rule of law



2
    Barcelona Declaration, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/bd.htm
3
    See Appendix Barcelona Declaration Annex Work Programme for a short overview.
4
  Euromed Report: ”EU Strategic Partnership with the Mediterranean and the Middle East”, Issue No 78, 23 June 2004, pp
1-6 Available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication/2004/euromed_report_78_en.pdf
5
  Ibid, pp 8-14


                                                                                                                         6
                -    To encourage and assist Mediterranean partners with the process of achieving free
                     trade with the EU and among themselves in the terms of the Barcelona Declaration,
                     economic transition and attracting increased investment to the region
                -    To strengthen cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs, as outlined by the
                     Tampere European Council
                -    To pursue the dialogue between cultures and civilisations in order to fight
                     intolerance, racism and xenophobia.6

In the Common Strategy, certain areas of action are defined:
                               1.   Political and security aspects
                               2.   Democracy, Human Rights and the Rule of Law
                               3.   Peace in the Middle East
                               4.   Economic and Financial Aspects
                               5.   Environment
                               6.   Social and cultural aspects
                               7.   Justice and Home Affairs

Specific initiatives are also included in the text. Most is written in the Common Strategy on the area of
Economic and Financial Aspects.7 One can speculate if this means that it is the economic area that is
the most interesting aspect from the EU perspective. Or whether this area just offers less difficulty in
defining actions and provisions to be made, and less controversy. Or, perhaps, the other areas are dealt
with through economic provisions.

2.4 Country Strategy Papers
The common strategy recognises that the different states in the region share a history and many common traits.
This is not the same as stating that the region is homogenous, the situation is quite the opposite. There are
cultural and structural differences, as well as other things to consider when it comes to determine the proper line
of action.

Country Strategy Papers have been produced to adapt the EU position on the relationship to each
partner and respective development situation.8 There is an understanding that reform processes need to
start from the country involved, and that reform is something that cannot be enforced from the outside.
The Association Agreements can be viewed as another result of this diversified approach.

The position that EU take on the matter can perhaps be defined as “a unified approach based on
diversification”: In order to ensure an equivalent assessment of respective partner, some minimal
requirements of what the country strategy papers have to address have been formulated. The Common
Framework for Country Strategy Papers outlines a standard format for EC programming documents,
not only in regard to the Mediterranean partners.

The minimal requirements that must be met are:
                          1.   A description of the EU/EC co-operation objectives
                          2.   The policy agenda of the beneficiary country
                          3.   An analysis of the political situation, the economic and social situation, including
                               the sustainability of current policies and medium term challenges
                          4.   An overview of past and ongoing EC co-operations (lessons and experience):
                               Information on programmes of EU member states and other donors
                          5.   The EC response strategy, coherence with EU policies, complementarity within the
                               EU and with other donors




6
  European Council: ”Common Strategy of the European Council of 19 June 2000 on the Mediterranean region”,
(2000/458/CFSP)
7
  Ibid
8
 Country Strategy Papers exist for a number of different actors – this is not exclusive for the Euro-
Mediterranean Partnership


                                                                                                                 7
The above elements lead into either a Work Programme or a DQC2 National Indicative Programme. 9

3. Structure
The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is organised on a multilateral and a bilateral level. It has a bilateral
dimension in that bilateral agreements are signed between the European Community and each of the respective
Mediterranean partners.10 The multilateral dimension (the regional cooperation) aspires to complement and
strengthen the bilateral agreements that have been reached, and strengthen the development in the region as a
whole. The two dimensions complement and support each other.

3.1 Multilateral dimension
The multilateral cooperation of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is built upon the three dimensions
formulated in the Barcelona Declaration. There are different programs and initiatives within each
dimension to implement the different provisions in the Barcelona Declaration:

                 1.   Political and Security Partnership
                          a. EuroMeSCo foreign policy institute network; includes about 37 institutes located
                               in the EU or in the Mediterranean partners
                          b. Malta training and information seminars for Euro-Mediterranean Diplomats
                          c. Disaster prevention and management system (cooperation among civil protection
                               authorities on natural and man-made disasters
                          d. Register of bilateral agreements
                          e. Exchange of information on signature/ratification of international conventions in a
                               number of fields
                          f. Senior officials conduct a political and security dialogue at regular quarterly
                               meetings. They are working on elaborating the Euro-Mediterranean Charter on
                               Peace and Stability, and they also approve partnership-building measures
                          g. Bilateral and regional projects for promoting human rights and democracy in the
                               Mediterranean region

                 2.   Economic and Financial Partnership
                      Cooperation is to be conducted in a number of areas in order to facilitate progress and
                      ensure a coordinated and unified regional development.
                          a. Trade
                          b. Industry
                          c. Environment
                          d. Water
                          e. Information society
                          f. Energy
                          g. Agriculture
                          h. Infrastructure, Investment and Energy Supply Security

                 3.   Social, Cultural and Human Partnership
                          a. Culture
                          b. Health11

3.2 Bilateral dimension
The bilateral and multilateral dimensions are joined in the different Association Agreements signed
between EU and respective Mediterranean partner. The Barcelona declaration is incorporated in these
agreements, and these Association Agreements can be seen as a concrete expression for the bilateral
cooperation.12 Each of these agreements take into account the different aspects and regional

9
  Commission Staff Working Paper: ”Community Co-operation: Framework for Country Strategy Papers”, available as a
PDF-file via External Relations http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/reform/intro/prog_en.htm
10
   Note: 9 Association Agreements are signed so far: in October 2004, negotiations were concluded with Syria, which
represents the last Mediterranean partner to regulate its relationship within the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership in this
respect.
11
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/multilateral_relations.htm See more
under the section on Barcelona declaration
12
   See Appendix Association Agreements


                                                                                                                           8
differences that may motivate a differentiated approach to the country in question. By doing so, a
partnership approach is incorporated that will facilitate reforms. However, there are some clauses that
are given such importance that they are expressed in all agreements: Respect for democratic principles
and fundamental human rights; political dialogue; the free movement of goods, services and capital;
economic cooperation; social and cultural cooperation; financial cooperation and institutional
arrangements.13

Because of the judicial difficulties involved in incorporating different legislative traditions, the
Association Agreements have to undergo a sometimes lengthy ratification process in the national
parliaments of the EU member states, after the signing.14 So far, there are agreements signed with
Algeria (in process of ratification), Egypt (in force since 01.06.04), Israel (in force since 01.06.04),
Jordan (in force since 01.05.02), Lebanon (in process of ratification), Morocco (in force since
01.03.00), Syria (in process of ratification) and Tunisia (in force since 01.03.98). An agreement has
been signed with Turkey establishing the definitive phase of a customs union (in force since 31.12.95).
Furthermore, there are interim agreements with Lebanon (in force since 01.03.03) and with the
Palestinian Authority (in force since 01.07.97).15

Two instances have been created for the implementation of the various Association Agreements: the
Association Council (Ministerial) and the Association Committee (Senior Official level).16 The
responsibilities and distribution of power in these instances are regulated in the different Association
Agreements. The common picture is that the Association Council consists of members of the Council
of the European Union and members of the Commission of the European Communities on the one
hand, and of members of respective government on the other. The Association Council defines its own
rules of procedures. It has the mandate to set up any working groups or bodies that it finds appropriate.
The Association Council is chaired by a member of the Council of the European Union and a member
of the respective government. The Association Council may delegate to the Association Committee, in
full or in part, any of its powers.17

The Association Agreements for the different partners are structured in a similar way. The text is
divided as follows:
                 Aim of the Agreement
                 A. Political Provisions
                    Each Association Agreement establishes a political and security dialogue between the EU
                    and respective partner, the only exception being the agreement made with the PLO,
                    regulating the relation with Palestine. The agreement with Palestine authority does not
                    include a political chapter. Further, it is an interim Association Agreement. An Association
                    agreement is to be established further down the line. 18
                 B. Establishment of a Free Trade Zone
                    Contains detailed description on how to obtain a free trade zone.
                 C. Cooperation
                    This section deals with Economic Cooperation (defining concrete goals) and other fields of
                    cooperation (for example tourism, statistics, standardisation and conformity assessment –
                    without defining precise goals). Justice and Home Affairs fall under this heading also.
                 D. Social and Cultural Cooperation
                    Covers three fields – Workers, Social dialogue and Cooperation, and Cultural Cooperation.
                 E. Financial Cooperation


13
   European Commission: “Europe and the Mediterranean: towards a closer partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm , p 9
14
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/news/memo04_275.htm 2005-03-01
15
   Ibid
16
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/med_ass_agreemnts.htm
17
   See for example EU-Algeria Association Agreement signed on 22/4 2002: articles 93-98, EU-Egypt Association
Agreement signed on 25/6 2001, articles 74-80, EU-Israel Association Agreement signed on 20/11 1995, articles 67-73. All
Association Agreements may be found at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/med_ass_agreemnts.htm,
with the exception of the agreement with Syria, which soon will be published on the net.
18
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/med_ass_agreemnts.htm


                                                                                                                           9
                    Contains provisions relating to cooperation in the field of reforms, upgrading of the
                    economic infrastructure, promoting direct investment, repercussions of the introduction of a
                    free trade area, and accompanying social sector policies.
                 F. Institutional, General and Final Provisions
                    Covers the institutional framework, such as how to settle disputes, technicalities of the
                    different agreements and institutions instated for implementation of the agreements. 19

4. Organisational structure
The organisational structure of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is quite complicated. The multitude of
actors involved makes the internal relationships difficult to clearly distinguish. The primary actors and
institutions involved in the implementation of the multi-and bilateral cooperation are described below.

4.1 Multilateral level
4.1.1 EuropeAid Co-operation Office
The EuropeAid Co-operation Office was created in 2001, in conformance with a decision made by the
Commission on 29 November 2000. This was motivated by an ever-increasing need to clarify responsibilities
and streamline procedures. As the cooperation had grown, so had the need to make the organisational aspects
more manageable.

Prior to this, the project cycle had been divided: the Directorate General for External Relations and the
Directorate General for Development handled the stages of programming, identification, appraisal and
the financing decision. The Common Service for External Relations (SCR) handled the
implementation and evaluation. As the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership evolved, this division was
found to be too complicating and a reform process was initiated.

From 2001, the whole project cycle lies within EuropeAid Co-operation Office, with some
exceptions.20 The Directorate General for External Relations and the Directorate General for
Development are still responsible for the programming of external assistance. This includes the
responsibility to establish Multi-Annual Programming and the National Indicative Programmes. The
EuropeAid Cooperation Office is an important institution when it comes to the implementation
process – the system applies to over 80 % of the annual external assistance budget.21

The Chairman is responsible for overseeing the strategic direction of the EuropeAid Board, and the
chief executive is responsible for seeing to that the policy guidelines are properly implemented.22 The
evaluation unit is placed under the Board of EuropeAid. Evaluation is given a higher profile, and the
emphasis will be shifted from evaluating specific projects, to rather evaluating countries and different
sectors. The Management Committee is responsible for approving the annual work programme, the
annual report of the activities of EuropeAid, annual budgetary programming and the annual evaluation
programme. As a result of these reports, the Management Board is responsible for making
recommendations.23




19
   Deka, Joanna & de Prada Leal, Iñigo (2004): Euro-Med Association Agreements Implementation Guide, Brussels, Relex F,
pp 10, 21, 96, 144, 158, 162.
20
   There are some exceptions: Management of pre-accession instruments is entirely the responsibility of the Directorate-
General for Enlargement; management of humanitarian activities continues to be the responsibility of the Humanitarian Aid
Office (ECHO); management of macro-financial assistance is handled by the Directorate General for Economic and
Financial Affairs; management of other specific activities, such as joint actions under the Common Foreign and
Security Policy (CFSP) and the Rapid-Reaction Mechanism is the responsibility of the Directorate General for External
Relations.
21
   External Relations: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/reform/intro/project_en.htm; also MEDA Team
Information: Euromed Special feature 2001, Issue No 20, 10 April 2001, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/news_interviews.htm#Euromed%20Special%20Feature.
22
   External Relations: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/reform/intro/europeaid_en.htm
23
   External Relations http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/reform/intro/prog_en.htm


                                                                                                                     10
Structure of the Europe-Aid Cooperation Office
The Europe-Aid Cooperation Office consists of eight directorates:

                 Directorate A    Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia
                 Directorate B    Southern Mediterranean, Middle East
                 Directorate C    Africa, Caribbean, Pacific
                 Directorate D    Asia
                 Directorate E    Latin America
                 Directorate F    Horizontal operations and RRD
                 Directorate G    Operational Support
                 Directorate H    General Affairs24

As can be seen, five of these are geographically bound. Directorate F deals with horizontal operations
and RRD, and it is also the directorate responsible for designing means of interventions on new issues
and providing technical support to the geographically based directorates. The two remaining
directorates are responsible for backing up the others – Operational support and General affairs.
These geographically based directorates are responsible for what happens in their regions. They are
responsible for effective management of the project cycle (from identification to evaluation), and for
ensuring methodological and thematic consistency. They are also supposed to prepare and implement
the devolution of management to the Delegations of the European Commission and supervise it.25
After the reform in 2001, each directorate is in charge of all activities within the geographical area.26

Directorate B Southern Mediterranean, Middle East

                                                 Directorate B




B1 A. Gonzalo          B2 C. Montesi         B3 J. Duynhouwer        B4 E. Feret         B5 M. Mazzochi        B6
Castellanos



                 B1               Coordination for the Mediterranean region
                 B2               Centralised operations for the Mediterranean
                 B3               Thematic support – Economic and trade cooperation: Including Private sector,
                                  Structural adjustment
                 B4               Thematic support – Social and human development: Including support for
                                  macroeconomic policies specifically linked to poverty reduction strategies
                 B5               Multisector thematic support: In particular: Infrastructure, Transport, Energy,
                                  Sustainable rural development, Environment, Institutional support (including Rule of
                                  law, Good governance)
                 B6               Financing, Contracts and Audits (-): Including team handling ex ante transaction
                                  controls27

B1 has a rather big role to play, being entrusted with the responsibility for coordination of the
Mediterranean region. It acts like an interface with the Delegations and people outside of the
Commission.28


24
   See Appendix Organigram EuropeAid
25
   EuropeAid Co-operation Office: http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/general/struct_en.htm; EuropeAid Co-operation
Office: http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/general/org_en.htm 2005-03-01
26
   MEDA Team Information: Euromed Special feature 2001, Issue No 20, 10 April 2001, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/news_interviews.htm#Euromed%20Special%20Feature
27
   EuropeAid Co-operation Office: http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/general/org_graph_en.pdf
28
   MEDA Team Information: Euromed Special feature 2001, Issue No 20, 10 April 2001, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/news_interviews.htm#Euromed%20Special%20Feature


                                                                                                                         11
Furthermore, there are a number of delegations in the Mediterranean area:
                 -    Algeria
                 -    Lebanon
                 -    Tunisia
                 -    Egypt
                 -    Morocco
                 -    West Bank and Gaza strip
                 -    Jordan
                 -    Syria
                 -    Yemen29

The delegations will take on an even bigger role in the development of the Euro-Mediterranean
Partnership in the future. In terms of managing programmes such as MEDA, but also as distributors of
information and promoters of the partnership.30

4.1.2 Euro-Mediterranean Committee for the Barcelona Process
Euro-Mediterranean Committee is the multilateral Steering Committee for the implementation of the
Barcelona Declaration, and meets 4 times/year at Senior Official level. The EU Presidency chairs it.
The other members represent EU member states, Mediterranean partners and EC representatives. The
Euro-Mediterranean Committee for the Barcelona Process initiates activities that are to be financed in
accordance with the MEDA Regional Indicative Programme. It prepares for meetings, ad hoc
conferences of ministers and senior officials, experts and representatives of civil society.31 In the
Barcelona declaration, it is stated that the Euro-Mediterranean Committee should consist of the
European Union Troika32 and one representative for each Mediterranean partner. It also says that
regular meetings are to be held to prepare for the meeting of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs, take
stock of and evaluate the follow-up to the Barcelona process and update the Work programme.33 The
day before the meeting of the Euro-Med Committee is usually a meeting day for Senior Officials, in
order to coordinate the political and security aspects of the Barcelona process.34

4.1.3 Euro-Mediterranean Conferences
A number of different ministerial conferences have been held over the years. The first one marked the
initiation and foundation of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. They are held regularly in order to
provide updates on achievements and progress in the cooperation, and offer a chance to discuss what
needs to be done in the future.35

4.1.4 The Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly
(Prior named Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Forum.) The Forum was created in 1998, to be a
platform where parliamentarians could meet and discuss different questions. The meetings were to be
held once a year. In December 2003, it was decided that the Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Forum
should be transformed into a Parliamentary Assembly with own rules of procedure. The Assembly
should meet at least once a year to discuss developments in the Barcelona process.

Three Committees are responsible for preparing for the plenary discussions. Each Committee’s area of
responsibility is in accordance with the three dimensions in the Barcelona Declaration: (1) Politics and
security, (2) Economic and financial affairs, and (3) Culture. The plenary has a presidency, consisting
of four persons, and the Chairmanship rotates every year. There is also an Assembly Secretariat that

29
   EuropeAid: http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/med/link_deleg_en.htm. Here you can also find links web pages
of the different delegations.
30
   European Commission: “Europe and the Mediterranean: towards a closer partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm, p 38
31
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/multilateral_relations.htm 2005-03-02
32
   The European Troika – the country currently holding the rotating EU presidency, the country that holds the presidency in
the next six months, the European Commission and the High representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy.
33
   Barcelona declaration, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/bd.htm 2005-03-01
34
   European Commission: “Europe and the Mediterranean: towards a closer partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm, p 6
35
   See Appendix Ministerial Conferences


                                                                                                                        12
operates on an ad-hoc basis.36 This Parliamentary Forum represents a possibility to evolve the political
and security dimension of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.

4.1.5 The Euro-Mediterranean Civil Forum
This forum brings together representatives from different NGO:s around the region to promote the
development of civil society within the partnership.37

4.1.6 Regional Programmes
Different regional programmes have been instated to implement the Barcelona declaration, the
Association Agreements and decisions taken. Regional programmes exist on a number of different
fields, ranging from programmes aimed at facilitating the development of information society,
research in the field of economy, transport, statistical convergence etc.38

4.2 Bilateral level
Association Councils, Association Committees and Working Groups exist for each of the agreements signed with
the Mediterranean Partners. They are to supervise and implement the Association Agreements.

4.2.1 Association Council
The Association Council consists of:
                 -    Members of the Council of the European Union
                 -    Members of the Commission of the European Communities
                 -    Members of the partner government

The Association Council has the mandate to set up any working group or body that it finds
appropriate. The Association Council is chaired by a member of the Council of the European Union
and a member of the government. The Association Council may delegate to the Association
Committee, in full or in part, any of its powers.39

4.2.2 Association Committee
The Association Committee meets at the level of officials, and it consists of:
                 -    Representatives of members of the Council of the EU
                 -    Representatives of members of the Commission of the EC
                 -    Representatives of the partner government

The Association Committee is chaired by a representative of the Presidency of the Council of EU and
by a representative of the partner government. It has the mandate to make decisions in the areas, which
have been delegated to it.40

4.2.3 Working Groups
The Association Council may delegate to Association Committee and to Working Groups as it finds
appropriate.41




36
   Bundesrat (Federal republic of Germany): “Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (Euro-med)”:
http://www1.bundesrat.de/Site/Inhalt/EN/5_20Europa-
Internationales/5.4_20Parlamentarische_20Beziehungen/5.4.1_20Gremien_20und_20Konferenzen/HI/Euro-
Mediterrane_20Partnerschaft,templateId=renderUnterseiteKomplett.html
37
   European Commission: “Europe and the Mediterranean: towards a closer partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm, p 35-36
38
   See Appendix Regional Programmes for more detailed information
39
   See for example EU-Algeria Association Agreement signed on 22/4 2002: articles 93-98, EU-Egypt Association
Agreement signed on 25/6 2001, articles 74-80, EU-Israel Association Agreement signed on 20/11 1995, articles 67-73. All
Association Agreements may be found at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/med_ass_agreemnts.htm,
with the exception of the agreement with Syria, which soon will be published on the net.
40
   Deka, Joanna & de Prada Leal, Iñigo (2004): Euro-Med Association Agreements Implementation Guide, Brussels, Relex
F, pp 157-160
41
   Ibid


                                                                                                                      13
5. Financing
The financing of the activities conducted within the framework of Euro-Mediterranean Partnership come to a
large extent from the European Investment Bank and the MEDA programme. Just to get a better understanding
of the size of the support: according to numbers stated in 2005, the MEDA programme disburses over € 700
million yearly to the Mediterranean partners. European Investment Bank supports the Mediterranean partners
with a total of nearly € 3 billion in grants and loans.42

5.1 MEDA
MEDA is the financial instrument designed to implement the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership in
practice. The legal basis for this instrument is Council Regulation no EC/1488/96, which has later
been amended (see below). A MED Committee was instated to allow EU member states to advise the
European Commission in how to implement the MEDA programme. Three-year national indicative
programmes (NIPs) and a regional indicative programme (RIP) are drawn up on the basis of strategy
papers established at national and regional level: these are in liaison with the European Investment
Bank. EIB also handles the MEDA-funded interest-rate subsidies on loans for environmental projects
and risk capital actions. Annually adopted financing plans are derived from the national and regional
programmes.43 The MEDA programme annually disburses over € 700 million every year.44

In every Partner, there is a nationally appointed Co-ordinator that is in charge of asserting priorities
among the different ministries. This is usually the Finance Ministry, or the Ministry for Planning. This
is the person that the Commission talks to, in regards of input to actions to be financed. Actions have
to be proposed by the Partner country – this applies to bilateral projects. When it comes to regional
projects, project ideas are presented at Euro-Mediterranean meetings. Each member puts forward
subjects to be discussed.45 Approximately 86 % of the funding was allocated bilaterally in the period
1996-1999, 12 % to regional activities; about 2 % were used for technical assistance offices.46

5.1.1 Development from MEDA I to MEDA II47
One important development in the MEDA framework is the attempt to introduce a much more
strategic and programme-oriented programme in MEDA II. A more efficient management is to be
achieved by introducing annual financing plans for each country receiving bilateral aid, and an annual
financing plan for the regional aid (on the multilateral level). A clearer focus will be put on economic
transition and socio-economic accompanying measures, underlying the introduction of a free-trade
area. Growth is to be accelerated, but at the same time the social aspects of transition will be taken into
account. Ideas in MEDA II are based on experiences made in the PHARE and TACIS countries. The
idea is to create methods by which the partner countries will implement part of the operations.48 By
doing so, the active participation of the benefiting country will be increased and this in turn will lead
to much better results.

One important result of the reform is that the implementation of decisions made has increased to a
very high extent. The funds that are available for each year are now fully contracted within the same
year, and the level of payments has increased accordingly.49 Whether this should be viewed as

42
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/conf/hague/index.htm
43
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/meda.htm
44
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/conf/hague/index.htm
45
   MEDA Team Information: Euromed Special feature 2001, Issue No 20, 10 April 2001, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/news_interviews.htm#Euromed%20Special%20Feature
46
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/conf/hague/index.htm
47
   Regulations that govern the MEDA instrument:
MEDA I: Council regulation (EC) No 1488/96 of 23 July 1996 on financial and technical measures to accompany (MEDA) the reform of
economic and social structures in the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership
MEDA II: Council regulation (EC) No 2698/00 of 27 November 2000 amending Regulation (EC) No 1488/96 on financial and technical
measures to accompany (MEDA) the reform of economic and social structures in the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership
48
   MEDA Team Information: “From MEDA I to MEDA II: What´s new?”: Euromed Special Feature, Issue No 21, 3 May
2001, pp 1-2, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm
49
   European Commission:
http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/04/103&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiL
anguage=en


                                                                                                                                   14
evidence of effectiveness is up to the reader, it does however represent a new approach to handling
matters. MEDA II represents a much more result-oriented approach.

5.1.2 Important articles in the MEDA regulation
Article 1.2 – concerns the beneficiaries of support measures
It states that the beneficiaries of support measures may include apart from states and regions, also local
authorities, regional organisations, public agencies, local or traditional communities, organisations
supporting business, private operators, cooperatives, mutual societies, associations, foundations and
non-governmental organisations. In other words, the MEDA programme applies to a number of
different actors.50 However, as it is stated above, there is a coordinator that states the priorities among
the different ministries. When it comes to regional projects they are presented at Euro-Mediterranean
meetings where the members present the subjects to be discussed; this means in practice that it is state-
supported projects and initiatives that have a chance to receive funding and/or grants.

Article 2.1 – concerns the relation MEDA-Barcelona Declaration
It binds the use of MEDA funding to the founding Barcelona Declaration, as it says that
                “The purpose of this regulation is to contribute through the measures provided for in paragraph
                2, to initiatives of joint interest in the three sectors of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership: the
                reinforcement of political stability and of democracy, the creation of a Euro-Mediterranean free-
                trade area, and the development of economic and social cooperation, taking due account of the
                human and cultural dimension.” 51

Eligibility criteria for Article 2 is mentioned in the annex to the Council regulation (EC) No 2698/00:
                -    The country concerned must undertake a reform programme approved by the Bretton
                     Woods institutions or implement programmes recognised as analogous, in coordination with
                     those institutions, but not necessarily financially supported by them, in accordance with the
                     scope and effectiveness of the reforms,
                -    Account must be taken of the economic situation of the country, at the macroeconomic
                     level, (indebtedness, cost of debt-servicing, the balance of payments, the budget situation,
                     the monetary situation, the level of per capita income and the unemployment level) and at
                     the level of sectoral reforms, with a view to creating a free trade area with the European
                     Community.

Different areas of activity that shall be included in particular in the support for sustainable economic
and social development, are also listed in the annex. For example the participation of civil society and
population in the planning and implementation of development measures, integrated development of
human resources to complement Member States’ programmes etc. In the annex, under section IV, it
says:
                “Good governance shall be promoted by supporting key institutions and key protagonists in civil
                society such as local authorities, rural and village groups, mutual-aid associations, trade unions,
                the media and organisations supporting business, and by assisting in the improvement of the
                capacity of the public administration to develop policies and manage their implementation.” 52

Article 3 – violation of regulation
                                 “This regulation is based on respect for democratic principles and the rule of
                                 law, and also for human rights and fundamental freedoms, which constitute an
                                 essential element thereof, the violation of which element will justify the
                                 adoption of appropriate measures”




50
   Official Journal of the European Communities: “Council Regulation (EC) No 2698/2000 of 27 November 2000 amending
Regulation (EC) No 1488/96 on financial and technical measures to accompany (MEDA) the reform of economic and social
structures in the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/cr2698_00_en.pdf
51
   Ibid
52
   Ibid


                                                                                                                  15
Just what kind of appropriate measures that are implied here is not clear, neither if this article has ever
been referred to.53

Article 4.1 – coordination with financial institutions and member states
Implementation of MEDA is to be achieved through effective coordination with different financial
institutions and the member states, especially with regard to strategy papers, the national indicative
programmes (NIP), annual financing plans, and the preparation of projects and monitoring of their
implementation. 54

Article 5.1 – Criteria for which measures are to be financed
Measures shall be selected by taking account of the beneficiaries’ priorities, evolving needs,
absorption capacity and progress towards structural reform. The effectiveness of the measures in
achieving the objectives of the support is to be in line with the provisions of Association or
Cooperation agreements.
Article 5.2 Strategy papers shall be established at national and regional level, in liaison with the EIB. In
these strategy papers, the long-term objectives of the cooperation and the priority areas of intervention
shall be defined.
Article 5.3 National and regional indicative programmes that cover three year-periods based on
corresponding strategy papers shall also be produced. These programmes shall define the main
objectives, guidelines and priority sectors of Community support, include indicative amounts and
evaluate progress made. The programmes shall be updated annually, and may be amended if
necessary.
Article 5.4: Financing plans shall be based on the indicative programmes, and adopted annually.

Article 6.1 – Community financing
Community financing shall be in the form of grants or risk capital; however, when it comes to
cooperation measures in the field of the environment, the financing can also be in the form of interest
rate subsidies for loans granted by the EIB from its own resources.

Article 6.2: How much is granted for activities, projects or programmes, depends on those grants
ability to yield a financial return. The financing made available shall be on commercial terms in
general, in order to avoid distortion of local financial markets as far as possible.

Article 11 speaks about the management committee and its responsibilities:
Article 11.1: “A management committee shall be established (hereinafter referred to as “the MED
               Committee”). A representative of the Bank shall take part in the proceedings without a right to
               vote.”

Article 11.4    “The Committee may examine any other question relating to the implementation of this
                Regulation which is put to it by its Chairman, possibly at the request of the representative of a
                Member State, and in particular any question relating to general implementation, the
                administration of the programme or the co-financing and coordination referred to in Articles 4
                and 5.”

Through the developments in MEDA II, the responsibilities and work assignments of the MED
Committee have been altered. From having to work on 60-70 projects a year, the MED Committee
now examines a limited number of programming papers. As a result, the MED Committee now has
better possibilities to determine the different strategic aspects of the actions.55



53
    Official Journal of the European Communities: “Council Regulation (EC) No 2698/2000 of 27 November 2000 amending
Regulation (EC) No 1488/96 on financial and technical measures to accompany (MEDA) the reform of economic and social
structures in the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/cr2698_00_en.pdf
54
   Ibid
55
    MEDA Team Information: “From MEDA I to MEDA II: What´s new?” : Euromed Special Feature, Issue No 21, 3 May
2001, pp 1-2, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm


                                                                                                                    16
The Article 14 Committee
Article 14.1 states that a committee consisting of the representatives of the Member states shall be set
up at the Bank (referred to as the Article 14 Committee): the Committee shall be chaired by the
representative of the Member state currently holding the Chair of the Board of Governors at the Bank.
It should also have a secretariat, which is provided by the Bank. A representative of the Commission
shall take part in its proceedings.
Article 14.3:   “The Committee shall act by a qualified majority in accordance with Article 205 (2) of the
                Treaty.”
Article 14.4:   “Within the Article 14 Committee, the votes of the representatives of the Member states shall be
                weighted in accordance with Article 205 (2) of the Treaty”. 56

Article 205 (2) of the Rome Treaty states that the Member states’ votes shall be weighted as follows;
Belgium 5, Denmark 3, Germany 10, Greece 5, Spain 8, France 10, Ireland 3, Italy 10, Luxembourg 2,
Netherlands 5, Austria 4, Portugal 5, Finland 3, Sweden 4, and United Kingdom 10. Decisions shall be
made with at least 62 votes when the decision according to this treaty will be made upon suggestion by
the Commission or with at least 62 votes from at least 10 Member states in other cases.57

5.2 INTERREG financing
Some of the Euro-Mediterranean countries are also eligible for INTERREG financing, through the
INTERREG III B ARCHI-MED programme. Countries that are eligible include Italy, Greece,
Cyprus, Malta, Lebanon, Syria, Gaza, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Libya and Turkey. This programme
is aimed at sustainable development and at enhancing the competitiveness of the participating
countries. Effectiveness of transport networks and communication systems is to be improved, and the
development of natural and cultural resources.58

6. Priorities of the different levels
The priorities at the bilateral and multilateral level complement each other. Quite naturally perhaps, the
priorities at the multilateral level are more general to their character and more encompassing, whereas the
priorities at the bilateral level are narrower.

6.1 Multilateral level
                -    Political and security dimension
                -    Economic and financial dimension
                -    Social, cultural and human dimension

As can be seen, the MEDA financed regional (multilateral) projects correspond to the three
dimensions of the Barcelona declaration. Regional activities are open to all the partners, including
Israel and Turkey. Examples: Euromed Heritage programme, the Euromed Youth Programme, Femise
network of economic research institutes etc.

The institutions involved in the regional cooperation include:
                -    Euro-Mediterranean conferences (at the level of Foreign Ministers)
                -    Euro-Mediterranean Committee for the Barcelona process (the multilateral steering
                     committee for the Barcelona process

Who can benefit from these support measures?
                -    The Mediterranean partners

56
   Official Journal of the European Communities: “Council Regulation (EC) No 2698/2000 of 27 November 2000 amending
Regulation (EC) No 1488/96 on financial and technical measures to accompany (MEDA) the reform of economic and social
structures in the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/cr2698_00_en.pdf
57
 (1999) “Europafördrag – Maastricht- och Romfördragen i deras lydelse enligt Amsterdamfördraget”,
Norstedts Juridik AB
58
  European Commission, Regional Policy:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/regional_policy/country/prordn/details.cfm?gv_PAY=IT&gv_reg=ALL&gv_PGM=2001RG160P
C015&LAN=5


                                                                                                                  17
                  -   Local authorities
                  -   Regional organisations
                  -   Public agencies
                  -   Local or traditional communities
                  -   Organisations supporting business
                  -   Private operators
                  -   Cooperatives
                  -   Mutual societies
                  -   Associations
                  -   Foundations
                  -   Non-governmental organisations59

MEDA interventions are to be coordinated with the interventions of other actors in the area, for
example European Investment Bank, other bilateral programmes and the World Bank.60

6.2 Bilateral level
                  -   Support to economic transition: to prepare for the implementation of free trade
                  -   Strengthening the socio-economic balance: in the field of social policy

Examples of initiatives within this field are structural adjustment programmes in Morocco and Jordan,
rural development in Morocco etc. 61

Eight Mediterranean partners are eligible for MEDA funding: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon,
Morocco, Palestinian authority, Syria and Tunisia.62 Not included here are Israel, Turkey, Malta and
Cyprus. Israel has a relatively high GNP, which does not motivate funding through MEDA. The others
receive grants from EU through other programs.

7. The future in the Euro-Mediterranean region
At the Euromed meeting of Foreign Ministers in Hague, 29-30 November 2004, it was decided to name 2005 the
“Year of the Mediterranean”.63 The aim is to draw attention to the region and the potential it holds. Important
developments can also be seen in the relationship between the EU and third countries.

7.1 Instruments for External assistance in the future
Because the current instruments that are used for external assistance are so complicated, a reform of
these instruments has long been called for. To give an example when it comes to MEDA, there have
been eleven different regulations to go through to manage cooperation. Similar conditions can be
found when it comes to the TACIS region.64 The reform that has been discussed involves bringing
together a number of different financial instruments, and reduces the number to six different
instruments for joint judgement and application. Three of these instruments are for the three
overarching external relations policies. The remaining three are specific instruments designed to
address specific needs – for example crises and other extraordinary situations.

Two of these future instruments already exist, while four of them are brand new. The new ones are;
                  -   Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance: This instrument has been designed in order to
                      facilitate the adjustment of candidate countries and/or potential candidate countries to adapt
                      to the conditions for accession.
                  -   European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument: This instrument covers
                      countries of the South and Eastern Mediterranean (MEDA countries), the Western NIS

59
  External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/conf/hague/index.htm
60
  European Commission: “Europe and the Mediterranean: towards a closer partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm , p 11
61
     External Relations, Euromed, MEDA: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/meda.htm#3
62
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/bilateral_relations.htm
63
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/barcelona_10/index.htm
64
   Commission of the European Communities (2004): “Communication from the Commission to the Council and the
European Parliament – On the Instruments for External Assistance under the Future Financial Perspective 2007-2013”, p 6,
available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/reform/intro/doc.htm#626


                                                                                                                     18
                     (Newly Independent States), Southern Caucasus and Russia. Two main objectives exist for
                     this instrument:
                          o Promote progressive economic integration and deeper political cooperation
                               between the EU and partner countries
                          o Address the specific opportunities and challenges related to the geographical
                               proximity that is common to the EU and its neighbours. The existing bilateral
                               agreements between the Community and neighbouring countries will serve as a
                               framework. The focus will be in particular on implementing the ENP Action Plans.
                 -   Development Cooperation and Economic Cooperation policy with other countries:
                     This covers all countries territories and regions that are not eligible for assistance under the
                     previous mentioned instruments. The overall aim is to help developing countries achieve the
                     Millennium Development Goals, and thereby reduce poverty. The Development
                     Cooperation and Economic Cooperation Instrument (DCECI) will be the main vehicle for
                     developing countries to achieve these goals.
                 -   Instrument for Stability: This is one of the instruments that are specifically designed for
                     specific situations. It will complement the above-mentioned instruments.

The two already-existing instruments are:
                 -   Humanitarian Aid Instrument: This instrument will remain relatively unchanged – the
                     only difference is that all Food Aid of a humanitarian nature will be included hereunder.
                 -   Macro Financial Assistance65

These instruments will be policy-driven. They will be employed according to certain principles, to
achieve better results and use available resources the best way possible. What is hoped to be achieved
are:
               - Ensuring overall policy coherence
               - Simplifying structure and procedures
               - Output-oriented resources allocation – according to expected and measured
                   performances
               - Better dialogue and coordination with other donors and institutions
               - Better dialogue with third countries66

From 2004, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is included in the European Neighbourhood Policy
(ENP). The aim of ENP is to avoid new dividing lines separating the EU from the neighbouring world.
The southern Mediterranean countries are encouraged to promote infrastructure interconnections and
networks (in particular energy), and develop new forms of cooperations with their neighbours.67

The focus on energy is not only motivated by the need to find energy suppliers, in reference to the
Middle East and North Africa – countries such as Morocco and Tunisia serve as transit countries.
Examples are the creation of a Euro-Maghreb electricity market that could be complemented with a
gas market, and the Euro-Mediterranean energy networks.68 Infrastructure interconnection projects are
especially mentioned in ENP Strategy Paper:
                 “Assistance could be given in the planning of networks in order to facilitate trade and access to
                 the EU market. Possibilities include new gas networks and connection projects between North
                 Africa and Europe, as well as electricity interconnections and cooperation between Morocco,
                 Algeria and Tunisia; a gas pipeline from Egypt through Jordan, Lebanon, Syria to Turkey and
                 the EU; electricity interconnections between Israel and Palestinian territories; development of a
                 blueprint for sub-regional intermodal transport networks in the Maghreb and in the Near East,
                 including rail and road infrastructure interconnections and maritime transport; improvements at


65
   Commission of the European Communities (2004): “Communication from the Commission to the Council and the
European Parliament – On the Instruments for External Assistance under the Future Financial Perspective 2007-2013”, pp
7-10, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/reform/intro/doc.htm#626
66
   Ibid, pp 6-7
67
   Commission of the European Communities (2004): “Communication from the Commission – European Neighbourhood
Policy Strategy Paper”, Brussels, p 3-4. Available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/world/enp/pdf/strategy/Strategy_Paper_EN.pdf
68
   Ibid, pp 17-18.


                                                                                                                    19
                border crossings and ports-hinterland connections. Furthermore, assistance for promoting
                security projects could be provided.”69

ENP will be implemented in order to achieve the objectives of the Strategic Partnership for the
Mediterranean and the Middle East. This will be done more concretely through the possibilities that
the Barcelona process has to offer, and the different Association Agreements signed with the Partner
countries.70

In the ENP Strategy paper, it is written that the strategic priorities of regional cooperation in this
region should be
                -   South-south integration
                -   Sub-regional cooperation
                -   Harmonisation of the regulatory and legislative environment

The Strategy Paper also mention further possible areas that may include:
                -   Reform of the judiciary
                -   Independence of the media and freedom of expression
                -   Promotion of equal opportunities for women71

Cooperation could include the areas of:
                -   Infrastructure interconnection projects
                -   Environment
                -   Justice and home affairs
                -   Trade, regulatory convergence and socio-economic development
                -   People-to-people projects72

7.2 European Neighbourhood Instrument
To provide this European Neighbourhood Policy with some impetus and strength, a new financial
instrument will be introduced to support ENP – the European Neighbourhood Instrument. All partners
in the ENP will be eligible for support under this programme. The European Neighbourhood
Instrument will be introduced in 2007. This financial instrument will address in particular cross-border
cooperation, but also other specific areas of cooperation.73

Libya is another important factor in the EU policy towards the southern Mediterranean and Middle
East. As EU currently has no contractual relation with Libya, this is seen as something important to
remedy. Libya is currently holding an observatory status in the Euro-Mediterranean partnership, which
it acquired in 1999 after the UN embargo was partially lifted. Libya has since then, only recently,
announced a desire to move towards full membership in the Barcelona process. Certain conditions
have to be fulfilled before this will be actualised, like for instance adherence to the human rights
declaration and democracy provisions. The possibility of Libya acquiring membership is a factor that
may prove to be important in the future.74

EU support for regional cooperation and projects that are to be implemented in the different regions
will come from existing EU programmes such as TACIS, MEDA, PHARE, their successors and
neighbourhood programmes.75




69
   Commission of the European Communities (2004): “Communication from the Commission – European Neighbourhood
Policy Strategy Paper”, Brussels, p 22. Available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/world/enp/pdf/strategy/Strategy_Paper_EN.pdf
70
   Ibid, p 6
71
   Ibid, p 22
72
   Ibid, pp 22-23
73
   Ibid, p 9
74
   Ibid, p 12
75
   Ibid, p 20


                                                                                                                20
7.3 Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area by 2010
One of the goals of the economic dimension of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is the
establishment of a free-trade area by 2010. This is incorporated in the Association Agreements, which
regulates the progressive establishment of a free-trade area over a limited period of time. Another step
taken to fulfil the goal of a free-trade area, is the Agadir agreement signed on 25 February 2004. The
Agadir Agreement is aimed at developing south-south relations with Morocco, Jordan, Egypt and
Tunisia being parties in the agreement. More than 100 million people are to be integrated in a common
market through this agreement. The European Commission supports the Agadir Agreement with a € 4
million programme funded under MEDA. The financial support programme will provide technical
assistance to these four countries and to the secretariat that is to be created.76

8. Comparison with the Barents cooperation77
8.1 Kirkenes Declaration
The Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation was formed on 11 January 1993 with the signing of a
declaration of cooperation in Kirkenes. This cooperation is rather unique. It is organised on two
different levels working simultaneously, both with a significant role to play. The intergovernmental
organisation consists of Russia, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and the European
Commission, along with a number of observer states. The regional cooperation consists of thirteen
regions: Troms, Nordland and Finnmark (Norway); Norrbotten and Västerbotten (Sweden); Lapland,
Oulu and Kainuu (Finland); Murmansk, Archangelsk, Nenets, Karelia and Komi (Russia).

There had long been a tradition of cooperating in the Arctic region – the northernmost parts of the
countries have a history of cooperation and trade dating back thousands of years. The trade between
people in the northern parts of Norway and Russia was at one time so vigorous that a pidgin-language
was developed in the Pomor region. Cooperation between the Nordic countries has a history dating
back to the 1960’s (Nordic Council of Ministers etc). Innovators came together in the wake of the
political changes that took place in the 1990’s. A new regional cooperation was formed – the Barents
Euro-Arctic Cooperation. The similar conditions and challenges that the region faced and still faces,
provided the foundation for the goals stated in the Kirkenes declaration:
              -    To secure a peaceful and stable development in the Region
              -    To strengthen and develop the cultural ties between the peoples of the Region
              -    To encourage the establishment of new and the expansion of existing bilateral and multilateral relations
                   in the Region
              -    To lay the foundation for a strong economic and social development in the Region with emphasis on an
                   active and sustainable management of the nature and resources
              -    To contribute to a development which takes into account the interests of the Indigenous Peoples and
                   arrange for their active participation.78

8.2 Barents programme 2004-2006
The Barents Programme for the period of 2004-2006 states the long-term perspective of the Barents
cooperation in achieving the established goals. It contains regulations on how the work is to be
conducted during the period. It is stated that “a peaceful and stabile development of the region is to be
ensured, by developing cultural ties between the peoples of the region, establishing and expanding
bilateral and multilateral relations in the region, providing a sustainable environment, economic and
social development in the region, as well as contributing to a development that takes into consideration
the interests of the Indigenous Peoples.”

Coordination is to be made with different levels of the cooperation, as well as with other regional,
national, and international actors that are active in the region. The prioritised areas under the period
2004-2006 are:

76
   External Relations, Euromed: http://europa.eu.inte/comm/external_relations/euromed/news/memo04_275.htm
77
   For more in-depth information about the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation, see for example the official website of the
cooperation http://www.beac.st, Barentsinfo http://www.barentsinfo.org, The Barents Secretariat http://www.barents.no,
there are also further links and information sources provided in these pages.
78
   Protocol Agreement from the Statutory Meeting of the Regional Council of the Barents Region, 11 January 1993


                                                                                                                          21
                     Economic and commercial cooperation
                     Sustainable living environment
                     Human resources
                     Indigenous peoples (The Indigenous Peoples Year in Barents Cooperation – year 2005).

The work will be governed and balanced by holding a number of perspectives in mind: environmental
concerns, democratic development, equality perspective, youth perspective and employment
perspective.79

9. Structure
The Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation is organised on two different levels: on the national and the regional level.
The difference is perhaps that the two levels are working parallel to each other and cooperating in the Barents
cooperation, whereas the role in the Euro-Mediterranean partnership is a little different. The bilateral
agreements are given the biggest impetus in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, and the role that the regional
(in this aspect meaning multilateral) cooperation plays, is rather that of creating a framework and good
conditions for the bilateral cooperation to work within. Whereas the roles played at the national and regional
level in the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation is more equal in its character.

9.1 On the national level
9.1.1 The Barents Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC)
BEAC has seven members – Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the European
Commission. In addition to this, nine other countries enjoy observatory status – Canada, France,
Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, United Kingdom and USA. The chair of the Council
rotates between Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia on a period is two years. The Council meets at
Foreign Minister-level in the Chairman country at the end of each term.80

9.1.2 The Committee of Senior Officials (CSO)
The Committee consists of civil servants representing the governments of the six member countries, as
well as a representative of the European Commission. Representatives of the observer states are also
given the possibility to participate. The CSO meets on a regular basis, 4-5 times a year.81

9.1.3 BEAC Working Groups
Working Groups and Task Forces have been established to further deepen the cooperation and
coordination of different projects and activities involving the members.82

9.2 Organisation on the Regional level
9.2.1 The Regional Council
The Chairman of the Regional Council is elected for a two-year period, and the Chairmanship rotates
between the member countries. Decisions are made by consensus. The Regional Council determines
the frequency of meetings, annual plans, as well as budget for the regional cooperation. The Regional
Council meets 2 times a year.83 The Regional Council states which main strategic directions should be
followed. Furthermore, it declares the priorities and conditions for how the cooperation shall be
formed through adopting the Barents Programme. The Regional Council takes an active part in the
development of annual working plans and has a coordination role with actors such as other
cooperations, and programmes outside the Barents cooperation.84




79
   The Barents Programme 2004-2006, available at http://www.beac.st/_upl/doc/132_doc_BP%202004%20-
%202006%20Short-Eng-V1.pdf
80
   BEAC: Barents Euro-Arctic Council, http://www.beac.st
81
   BEAC: Committee of Senior Officials, http://www.beac.st
82
   BEAC: Barents Working Groups and activities, http://www.beac.st
83
   Protocol Agreement from the Statutory Meeting of the Regional Council of the Barents Region, Kirkenes, 11 January,
1993
84
   The Barents Programme 2004-2006


                                                                                                                        22
9.2.2 The Regional Committee
The Regional Committee consists of appointed advisors for the permanent members of the Regional
Council. Meetings are held frequently. It will lead and coordinate the ongoing regional cooperation
within the framework established by the Regional Council. The Regional Committee determines the
activity plan and budget proposals for the Regional Council. Resolutions are taken by consensus. The
Committee also has a responsibility to follow up on the different project groups.85 The Regional
Committee has the responsibility for programme development and implementation, as well as the
responsibility to coordinate the collective administrative resources. The regional secretariat has as its
responsibility alongside the secretariat of the BEAC or county secretariats, to oversee that the
programme is executed.86 The Regional Committee consists of representatives for the thirteen member
regions and a representative for the Indigenous Peoples. Meets regularly, 4-5 times a year.87

9.2.3 Regional Working Groups
There are a number of regional Working Groups responsible for certain cooperation areas. Annual
progress reports shall be presented to the Regional Council.88 The Regional Council has the mandate
to appoint these groups, provide them with proper competence and also disperse Working Groups as
their task is completed.89 The Working Group on Indigenous Peoples has a special position in the
cooperation structure. Besides being a Working Group with all the responsibilities and tasks, it also
has an advisory role towards both councils, BEAC and BEARC. 90

9.2.4 Joint administrative bodies
Joint administrative bodies have been created to facilitate a result-oriented development and a more
strategic approach to areas of interest. These joint administrative bodies work at both levels
simultaneously and have report responsibility to both levels. Barents Euro-Arctic Council and Barents
Euro-Arctic Regional Council share three joint Working Groups and one joint Task Force:
              (1)   Working Group on Health and Related Social Issues (Former Ad-hoc group)
              (2)   Working Group on Education and Research
              (3)   Task Force on Information and Data Cooperation
              (4)   Energy Working Group 91

10. EU-Russia relations
As is stated in the Country Strategy Paper for the Russian Federation 2002-2006, EU has quite a large trade
deficit with Russia because of the dependency on Russian Energy supplies. This, along with the possibility of
getting access to a future export market, is one of the factors that speak for an ever-increasing importance of
EU-Russian relations. Another factor is the EU enlargement, which will further diminish the distance between
EU and Russia.

10.1 Common Strategy Paper 2002-2006 Russian Federation
The EU objectives with its relations with Russia are primarily based on the Partnership and
Cooperation Agreement (PCA), the Northern Dimension approach and the EU Common Strategy. The
overall objective is to promote respect of democratic principles and human rights, and the transition
towards market economy. As a producer of energy, Russia is crucial for the EU member countries and
will probably have an even greater role to play in the future.

EU enlargement: due to the close proximity, common issues and problems have to be tackled together.
In order to do this there has to be a solid yet dynamic dialogue between the parties. Cross-border
regional cooperation is highlighted in the Country Strategy Paper as having an important role to play.

85
   Protocol Agreement from the Statutory Meeting of the Regional Council of the Barents Region, Kirkenes, 11 January,
1993
86
   The Barents Programme 2004-2006
87
   BEAC: Regional Committee, http://www.beac.st
88
   BEAC: Regional Working Groups, http://www.beac.st
89
   RC: ”Annual Report 2002 and 2003” Available at http://www.beac.st under Documents
90
   BEAC: Regional Working Groups, http://www.beac.st
91
   This joint Working Group was former a BEAC Working Group, which received a redefined mandate in 2004. The former
BEAC Working Group met 1 time during 2003.


                                                                                                                   23
Development in the legal framework, enhancement of the investment climate and increasing the
economic cooperation are efforts meant to promote the development of economic relation between
Russia and EU. Prioritised cooperations are in areas such as energy, transport, science and technology,
environment etc. WTO membership is also high on the agenda. The Northern Dimension deals with
socio-economic and structural issues, such as the fight against international crime, cooperation on
nuclear safety and health issues. 92 Support has also been given to science and technology
cooperation.93

The Country Strategy Paper recognises the great potential that Russia has to offer EU member
countries. This is dependant upon Russia maintaining stability and continuing down the path of
reforms towards a market economy. The reform process brings with it transitional problems that have
to be controlled if societal security and prosperity is to be ensured. In recognition of this, EU focuses
upon aiding the juridical, administrative and economic reform in Russia. Development of civil society
is also seen as very important in assuring rule of law, social safety and the consolidation of
democracy. Cooperation on security challenges is also important.94

10.2 The EU response strategy 2002-2006
The EU response strategy aims towards promotion of a stabile investment environment in Russia,
through developing liberalised trade and investment relations and in providing European technical
assistance and know-how to Russia. EU is to support the implementation of the Government’s socio-
economic reform programme (administrative, legal and judicial reforms). Hopefully the concept of a
Common European Economic Space building on Russia and EU will be created. The direct aid going
to the Russian economic climate is expected to decrease as the Russian economy takes off.95

10.3 Medium-term Strategy for Development of Relations between the Russian
Federation and the European Union (2000-2010)
As a response to the Common Strategy Papers produced by the European Commission, Russia has in
its turn produced a medium-term strategy paper on its relations with EU. In it, Russia states its
independency towards EU. It reads that the relation between them is not to be regarded as membership
and that no obligation in such respect exists. In reciprocity of Russia getting access to EU as an export
market, Russia could contribute to the strengthening of Europe by:
              -   Facilitation of economic growth and employment in Europe
              -   Long-term and stable supplying of the EU on a contractual basis with energy resources and
                  raw materials
              -   Profound integration of scientific potentials of the parties and commercialisation on the EU
                  market of achievements by Russian fundamental and defence researchers
              -   Networking of infrastructure (transport, pipelines and electricity transmission lines) and
                  information systems
              -   Facilitation of outer space research and exploration, including the establishment of global
                  navigation, communications and environmental monitoring systems
              -   Participation in the modernisation and safeguarding of European nuclear energy installations
              -   Facilitation of the strengthening of the euro as an international currency through officially
                  including it to the foreign currency reserves of the Bank of Russia
              -   Military and technical cooperation with due account for the prospects of establishing a
                  European “defense identity”
              -   Joint prevention and eradication of local conflicts and combating organised crime in Europe.




92
   European Commission (2001): “Country Strategy Paper 2002-2006 Russian Federation”, pp 2-3. Available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/russia/csp/04-06_en.pdf
93
   Ibid
94
   Ibid, p13
95
   Ibid


                                                                                                              24
A statement follows, that the development of partnership with the EU should contribute to
consolidating Russia’s role as a leading power, through a new system of interstate political and
economic relations in the CIS area. The objectives on Russia’s part lies under a number of headings:
              -    The strategic character of Russia-EU partnership
              -    Enlarging the format and improving the efficiency of the political dialogue
              -    Development of mutual trade and investments
              -    Cooperation in the financial field
              -    Securing the Russian interests in an expanded European Union
              -    Development of the pan-European cooperation infrastructure
              -    Cooperation in the field of science and technologies, protection of the intellectual property
                   rights
              -    Transboundary cooperation
              -    Development of the legal basis for cooperation. Approximation of the economic legislation
                   and technical standards
              -    Cooperation in the law enforcement sphere
              -    The role of business circles in cooperation development
              -    Ensuring the implementation of the strategy inside Russia 96

As can be seen, there is agreement upon the importance of transport issues and the creation of a pan-
European transportation network. Cooperation in the law enforcement sphere includes initiatives
aimed at Transnational organised crime, terrorism, trafficking etc. The Russian response paper talks
about the development of transport corridors and the linking of pipelines, for example. The importance
of encouraging and promoting the conditions for economic investments and business life is a
reoccurring theme in both strategy papers. Approximation of legislation is another common factor
mentioned, albeit with different reference points – the EU Common Strategy Paper talks about
adaptation to European norms, while Russia’s response to Common Strategy of the European Union
formulates it differently:
                  “While preserving the independence of the Russian legislation and legal system, to pursue a line
                  to its approximation and harmonisation with the EU legislation in the areas of the most active
                  EU-Russia cooperation, in particular, through the Parliamentary Cooperation Committee” 97

It is interesting perhaps to know, that the Barcelona process is mentioned in the Medium-term
Strategy:
                  “Pursuing the Mediterranean direction of interregional cooperation (the Barcelona process), to
                  follow the course towards the Russia’s selective involvement in its activities and securing
                  Russian interests in the establishment of the Euro-Mediterranean free trade area”98

No further explanation is given, however, the competitive situation in regards to energy production is
probably one motive for the given attention in the strategy response.

11. Financing applicable to the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation
The financing that is applicable to the Barents Euro-Arctic region consists primarily of two different
programmes – INTERREG and TACIS. TACIS applies to the Russian part, and the INTERREG programme is
directed towards the northern EU member countries and in some cases also the neighbouring Russian regions.

11.1 INTERREG
The INTERREG III programme is the latest phase of INTERREG programmes, and it is one of the
financing programmes applicable to the Barents Euro-Arctic region (parts of it). It consists of three
strands:
                  A Cross-border
                  B Transnational

96
   An unofficial translation of “Medium-term Strategy for Development of Relations between the Russian Federation and the
European Union (2000-2010)” is available at http://europa.eu.int/external_relations/russia/russian_medium_term_strategy/
97
   Ibid
98
   Ibid


                                                                                                                     25
                 C Interregional cooperation

The strand B focuses on a limited number of strategic issues, as it involves a greater number of
participating regions. Strand A allows for a wider field of cooperation areas. When it comes to strand
C, any region applicable to the INTERREG programme can cooperate with any other region within the
area – the participants are not bound to the prerequisite of shared borders.99

11.2 TACIS
The TACIS programme consists of both multi-national and national programmes. The TACIS CBC-
projects (cross-border cooperation) are examples of multi-national initiatives. The programme applies
to the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova. There are a number of goals that are defined
for the cross-border cooperation, namely that it should:
                 -     Assist border regions in overcoming their specific developmental problems
                 -     Encourage the linking of networks on both sides of the border, such as border-crossing
                       facilities
                 -     Accelerate the transformation process in the partner states through their cooperation with
                       border regions in the EU or Central and Eastern Europe
                 -     Reduce transboundary environmental risks and pollution. 100

In 2000-2001, programmes under TACIS focused on (1) support to the administrative and judicial
reforms, (2) strengthening the financial sector and (3) restructuring the health care system. 101 In
conformity with these priorities, the Indicative Programme for 2004-2006 covers three areas of
cooperation;
                 -     Support for institutional, legal and administrative reform
                 -     Support to the private sector and assistance for economic development
                 -     Support for addressing the social consequences of transition. 102

12. The future in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region
The future in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region in relation to EU has to be viewed in reference to the
Transnational and Transregional cooperation that exists with Russia, and the possibilities that the cooperation
has to offer. The Barents Euro-Arctic Region consists of four countries, 13 regions and a number of areas that is
not limited to EU-Russian interests. But - the major competitive factor that Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation
holds in relation to EU is the geopolitical importance of not only being a border region to Russia, but also equal
membership of Russia in the cooperation in many of the fields that are of interest to EU.

This being said, there are some factors of importance when it comes to achieving insight into the
future development of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region:

12.1 European Neighbourhood Policy in relation to Russia
The Commission recommends that Russia be offered support in addition to the already existing forms
of support, for implementing relevant parts or the strategic partnership from the European
Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). EU and Russia have decided to continue and develop their strategic
partnership further through the creation of four common spaces, as it was defined at the 2003 St
Petersburg summit.103

The four common spaces are:
             -       Common economic space (including specific reference to energy and the environment)
             -       Common space of freedom, security and justice

99
   European Communities (2001): ”A Guide to Bringing INTERREG and TACIS Funding Together”, Luxembourg, pp 7-8.
Available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/north_dim/conf/formin2/intreg_tac_en.pdf
100
    Ibid, p 9
101
    Ibid, p 12
102
    European Commission (2003): “National Indicative Programme Russian Federation 2004-2006”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/russia/csp/index04_06.htm
103
    Commission of the European Communities (2004): “Communication from the Commission – European Neighbourhood
Policy Strategy Paper”, Brussels, pp 6-7. Available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/world/enp/pdf/strategy/Strategy_Paper_EN.pdf


                                                                                                                    26
              -    A space of cooperation in the field of external security
              -    A space of research and education, including cultural aspects 104

In light of the previous objectives in the National Indicative Programmes, a continuance in the EU
strategy towards Russia can be seen. The EU dependency on energy supplies from Russia is apparent,
as is the ambition to achieve improvements in the security aspects – internal (in terms of social and
human rights safeguarding economic development and a good investment climate) as well as external
(fight against international crime, trafficking, environmental hazards and so on).

12.2 The Barents 2010 project
Barents 2010 is a project launched in 2003 with a kick-off seminar held in Umeå. The aim of the
project is to develop a strategy and action plan for future cooperation within the Barents region.
Because the cooperation consists of as many as thirteen regions that have different frameworks to
work within, there was a need to develop long-term strategies for the cooperation to form its work
around, as well as to relate to other actors in the region and finance programmes. The project is
organised in five work packages:
                  WP 1. Development of a strategy and action plan
                  WP 2. Industrial development
                  WP 3. Higher education and research
                  WP 4. Environment
                  WP 5. Transport and infrastructure105

The findings provided by the progress made in this project will steer the development and future in the
Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation, and it will most probably lead to a more coordinated approach on
the various issues handled within the cooperation.

13. Analysis
The analysis has its starting- and closing point in the relations between EU and respective cooperation region.
The link between EU and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is obvious and need no motivation. One could
argue that the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation is neither governed nor dominated by EU. However, it still
remains an undisputable fact that because the major financing stem from EU programmes and funds, their
destinies are irreparably intertwined. This makes the relationship political in its nature and its consequences.
This is the basis for this report and analysis, as it aims to examine the structures and differences in operation
between the two cooperations, in relation to EU.

13.1 The geographical location
The geographical location offers both possibilities and challenges. The Euro-Mediterranean Partners
are spread over a wide geographical area and the infrastructure linking the partners together is
insufficient in many cases, even if attempts are made to rectify the situation. When it comes to the
Barents Euro-Arctic Region, the geographical focus is the northern parts of Europe, which to an extent
seems a little peripheral in comparison with the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. The infrastructure
needs to be amended here also. Both regions are border regions to EU and are treated as such. This
offers possibilities.

The impetus given the Euro-Mediterranean and Middle East by EU is not entirely altruistic – other
motives are involved besides contributing to a peaceful development in the area. This can be seen in
the priorities given in the ENP strategy papers where the importance of the energy sector is explicitly
mentioned. But this is however not an exclusive factor for the Euro-Mediterranean area: the areas
comprising Russia and Kaukasus also holds significant energy resources, something that the EU
member states are increasingly dependant upon.



104
    European Commission, External Relations, Russia:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/russia/summit_11_04/index.htm
105
    Barents 2010: http://www.barents2010.net


                                                                                                                27
The infrastructure development in both regions represents a challenge, and it is given priority in EU
policy through the promotion of TEN (Trans-European Network) among other things. The question of
TEN – Trans European Networks, in adjacency to the Mediterranean region, and the importance of
linking together the infrastructural connections are recognised in the strategy papers. This will be an
important factor in the creation of a free-trade area encompassing the Euro-Mediterranean region. This
is to be established by 2010. It will facilitate south-south trade relations, but it will also link the
Mediterranean region to the rest of Europe in other aspects. This is probably of even greater
importance to the EU. The infrastructure and transport issues are something that probably will receive
ever-increasing attention within EU, because of the energy dependency and need to link the areas
together more closely. This is an area where the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation has a possibility of
increasing its importance as a regional cooperative framework. The energy issue will most likely be
one of the most important issues in the future, alongside with social, economic cooperation, judicial
cooperation and security provisions.

Even if the Russian regions involved in the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation only represent a part of
Russia, they still represent a significant part of the border shared between EU and Russia. This is
something that could be promoted even further in the relations between EU and BEAC. If the
Petersburg area was incorporated in the cooperation in some aspect, this factor would probably be
even greater, as the EU-Russia relations is managed primarily via Moscow and Petersburg.

13.2 Involvement of EU in the cooperation regions
As both cooperation regions will fall under the same roof in the future through the European
Neighbourhood Policy, they have to be compared in this respect. The attention and funding that can be
provided through EU is limited, which makes the regions future competitors. An alternative is some
form of cooperation between them, but given the geographical, historical and cultural distance
between the regions, it is not that likely. Two of the members in Barents Euro-Arctic Region are
members in the EU – Finland and Sweden. This can be seen as an opportunity for EU to extend its
interest in the region, and it also represents a communicative channel for the Barents Euro-Arctic
Cooperation to make its interests known and heard in the EU. The problem or challenge perhaps, is
how to get the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation higher on the national agenda of the two member
countries, to make it one of the most important questions to promote within EU. As well as land it
higher on the European agenda.

When it comes to Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, none of the partner countries are members of EU
as of yet. But it should be noted that Turkey is a candidate country; Cyprus and Malta are prospective
candidates that may be considered in the future. The expansion process is a factor that might increase
the importance given the Euro-Mediterranean region within the European Neighbourhood Policy in
the near future. And it might prove to be a comparative factor to be used by the Euro-Mediterranean
Partnership in the struggle for interest and funding through the EU system. The Euro-Mediterranean
Partnership has also another kind of approval as a regional cooperation, as it has been given its own
financing programme (MEDA), and specific strategy documents are drawn up on how to manage EU –
Euro-Mediterranean relations. This kind of recognition does not exist as of yet for the Barents Euro-
Arctic Cooperation.

13.3 Number of participants involved
The number of participants in the cooperation does have an effect on the results produced. As the
number of participants increase, so does the area of interests to be safeguarded. Nation-wise, the Euro-
Mediterranean Partnership is exceedingly larger with its ten partners. Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation
consisting of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia (on the operational level) does not have as many
national interests to take into consideration. On the other hand, the number of nations represented at
the national level does not necessarily determine the number of national interests competing on the
national level; it might just create a different set of dynamic forces. However, because the Barents
Euro-Arctic Cooperation operates on a regional level as well, the number of participants radically
increases. The thirteen regions that constitute the regional Barents cooperation all have their



                                                                                                     28
objectives. These objectives coincide some of the time, but not always. On top of it all, these regions
have to manage their relations with respective national level as well. This makes the operative nature
of the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation somewhat tricky. It increases the comparability with Euro-
Mediterranean Partnership in a way, and limits it in others as they have such different conditions to
work under.

13.4 Organisational structure
The organisation is differently structured in the two cooperations. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is a
more direct cooperation initiated by EU. The institutions that are at work have a direct involvement of
EU institutions, or can be said to be EU institutions. See for example how the Association Councils,
Euro-Mediterranean Committee for the Barcelona Process and so on are structured. The organisational
structure in the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation is different. Although the organisational structure of
the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation is complex, it is well-structured. Areas of responsibility are
rather clearly defined through policy documents and mandates, and the number of actors has not been
expanded beyond manageability yet. When it comes to the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership the
organisational structure seems more diffuse, more fluid and harder to manage with the overlapping
structures and multitude of actors involved. The focus is on bilateral cooperation, which has its
benefits but the downside is the difficulty of getting an overall picture and coordinated strategic
approach for the cooperation region.

In the Barents cooperation there is representation of the European Commission on the national level,
but other than that, the organisation consists of the member countries and regions therein. The
organisation is more clear-cut, as it is primarily based on multilateral cooperation even if projects may
be conducted at a bilateral level. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership on the other hand is organised
according to implement the Barcelona Declaration through the Association Agreements primarily,
even if regional programmes aim to bring together the partners in multilateral efforts. The multilateral
aspect exists more to provide a strengthening framework for the bilateral cooperations.

13.5 The Barcelona declaration as a political instrument
EU has through the Barcelona declaration formulated a regional approach to the Euro-Mediterranean
region, and how the relationship is to be managed. Whereas there is no such counterpart when it
comes to the EU relations to the Barents Euro-Arctic region. There are strategy documents formulated
that addresses the EU-Russia relationship and more concrete measures to be taken in this respect. But
there is no strategic document on how to deal specifically with the Barents region as a whole. In order
for BEAC to receive the proper acknowledgement within the EU structure, this is probably a good
place to start. The developments on the way in the funding system could perhaps be treated as a
window of opportunity to increase BEAC’s role in EU politics towards Russia.

13.6 Eligibility for financing
All member countries in the Euro-Mediterranean partnership are eligible for funding through the
MEDA programme with some exceptions. All partners are eligible for financing through regional
programmes, but on the bilateral level there have been restrictions made. As Israel has a high GNP
income, there are not enough reasons to justify allocation of funding through MEDA. Although
Turkey, Malta and Cyprus are partner countries, they fall out of consideration as other programmes in
the system apply to them (Turkey being a candidate country for instance). When it comes to
determining the projects and programmes etc that are to be financed, the procedure differs between
bilateral projects and regional programmes.

In Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation, the matter is somewhat different. The organisation does not have
a budget of its own, it relies on EU funding and whatever funding is distributed from the national level
and other sources. TACIS is the EU funding programme that applies to Russia. INTERREG is also
available to use for the EU member countries (Sweden and Finland), and the neighbouring regions in
Russia. This means that although Komi, Nenets and Archangelsk are full members of the regional
cooperation, they are not applicable for INTERREG-financing. TACIS-financing has proven to



                                                                                                       29
contain structural difficulties, which makes it difficult to use. There have been efforts to bring these
two financing instruments together, and make the use easier.

Because the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation to such a high degree is dependant upon EU funding, it
also raises the dependency and vulnerability of maintaining a stabile relationship with EU and the
constant promotion of Barents interests. There seems to be little room for alternative financing – the
national allocation of funding varies to a high degree between the member countries, and is not always
a realistic alternative to the funding provided through EU programmes. The alternatives that this
leaves are two-fold, but they boil down to the same suggestion: either to find alternative funding for
the initiatives to take place, or find ways to secure the funding from EU on a more stabile basis.
Increasing the regions political and economic importance can do this.

The strength of the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation lies first and foremost in the strong sub-regional
cooperation. Over the years of existence, it has grown more solid and it has expanded to a number of
different areas of cooperation. The relation between state-level and regional level should however be
further strengthened if the political and economical role held by the cooperation is to increase. Another
way could be to use the alternative of parliamentary forum, which has earlier been suggested but not
fully realised. There is however also a danger of getting lost in politics, with the effect of slowing
down progress and the dynamic development in the cooperation. Another alternative is to further
strengthen and integrate the sub-regional cooperation in order to increase the comparative factor that it
represents. The importance of networking should not be underestimated. Another way is to work for
increased importance and acknowledgement at the national level. The dialogue between regions and
the national level within each country has to be dynamic and strong if the Barents Euro-Arctic
Cooperation is to reach its full potential.

The differentiated approach of bilateral cooperation used by the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
makes targeting of priority areas and focus of activities more manageable. It should provide for good
results at the level it is intended for: through analysing and identifying problem areas, the actions can
be targeted and effective. This is something that Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation might benefit from
a closer study upon the matter. There is however a risk by focusing on bilateral solutions to problems,
as there can be problems with synergy and of all parties not being treated equally.




                                                                                                           30
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                                                                                                                   31
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001RG160PC015&LAN=5/cr2698_00_en.pdf

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                                                                                                                       32
Appendix 1. Barcelona Declaration Annex Work Programme
The Annex Work Programme lists five principal chapters that are to implement the undertakings of the
Barcelona Declaration.106

I. Introduction

II. Political and Security Partnership: Establishing a common area of peace and stability
     - A political dialogue to establish the most appropriate means and methods of implementing the
         Barcelona Declaration
     - Submit practical proposals
     - Foreign policy institutes in the Euro-Mediterranean region will be encouraged to establish a
         network for more intensive cooperation

III. Economic and Financial Partnership: Building a zone of shared prosperity
     - Establishment of a Free-trade area
     - Investment
     - Industry
     - Agriculture
     - Transport
     - Energy
     - Telecommunications and information technology
     - Regional planning
     - Tourism
     - Environment
     - Science and technology
     - Water
     - Fisheries

IV. Partnership in Social, Cultural and Human Affairs: Developing human resources,
promoting understanding between cultures and exchanges between civil societies
    - Development of human resources
    - Municipalities and regions
    - Dialogue between cultures and civilizations
    - Media
    - Youth
    - Exchanges between civil societies
    - Social development
    - Health
    - Migration

V. Institutional Contacts
    - EuroMediterranean Parliamentary Dialogue
    - Other institutional contacts




106
      Barcelona Declaration, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/bd.htm


                                                                                                        33
Appendix 2. Association Agreements



Algeria           Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement                     Signed 22 April 2002
                               (In the process of ratification)

Egypt             Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement                     Signed 25 June 2001
                               (In force since 1 June 2004)

Israel            Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement                     Signed 20 November 1995
                               (In force since 1 June 2000)

Jordan            Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement                     Signed 24 November 1997
                               (In force since 1 May 2002)

Lebanon           Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement                 Signed 17 June 2002
                               (In the process of ratification)
                  Interim Agreement for early implementation of trade measures
                               (In force since 1 March 2003)

Morocco           Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement                     Signed 26 February 1996
                               (In force since 1 March 2000)

Palestinian       Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement                     Signed 24 February 1997
Authority                      (In force since 7 July 1997)

Syria             Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement                     Signed 19 October 2004
                               (In the process of ratification)

Tunisia           Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement                     Signed 17 July 1995
                               (In force since 1 March 1998)

Turkey            Agreement establishing the definite phase of the customs union
                               (In force since 31 December 1995107)




The texts of the different Association Agreements can be found at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/med_ass_agreemnts.htm.




107
      External Relations: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/news/memo04_275.htm


                                                                                                         34
Appendix 3. Organigram EuropeAid108

EuropeAid – Cooperation Office
                                  Director-General: Koos Richelle
                                  Deputy Director-General: Hugh Richardson
                                  Principal Advisor
                                  Assistant to the Director-General: Emma Toledano Laredo
                                  Assistant to the Director-General: Hans Christian Stausboll
                  Reporting directly to the Director-General:
                                  1. Coordination and Devolution: Filiberto Ceriani Sebregondi (head of unit)
                                  2. Internal auditing: Rony Sabah
                                  3. Innovation, Thematic networks, O-QSG, Financing Committees

Directorate A                    Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia
                                 Director Gary Quince
                                 Advisor Guy Coucet
                                 1. Coordination for Europe: Barbara Luecke
                                 2. Centralised operations for Europe: Basile Papadopoulos
                                 3. Thematic support – private sector and economic reform: Helene Bourgade
                                 4. Multisector thematic support
                                 5. Nuclear safety: Jean-Paul Joulia
                                 6. Financing, Contracts and Audits

Directorate B                     Southern Mediterranean, Middle East
                                 Director: Richard Weber
                                 1. Coordination for the Mediterranean region: Ana Gonzalo Castellanos
                                 2. Centralised operations for the Mediterranean: Carla Montesi
                                 3. Thematic support – Economic and trade cooperation: Johannes
                                     Duynhouwer
                                 4. Thematic support – social and human development: Elisabeth Feret
                                 5. Multisector thematic support: Marco Mazzocchi Alemanni
                                 6. Financing, Contracts and Audits: Jean-Louis Ville

Directorate C                    Africa, Caribbean, Pacific
                                 Director
                                 1. Coordination for the ACP countries: Mikael Barfod
                                 2. Coordination for the ACP countries: Androulla Kaminara
                                 3. Economic and trade cooperation: Jean-Louis Lacube
                                 4. Regional integration, Institutional support: Dominique Dellicour
                                 5. Social and human development: Jose Luis Trimino Perez
                                 6. Sustainable rural development, environment
                                 7. Transport, infrastructure: Maurice Haik
                                 8. Financing, contracts and audits: Carlo Eich

Directorate D                    Asia
                                 Director: Erich Muller
                                 1. Coordination for Asia: Thomas McGovern
                                 2. Centralised operations for Asia:
                                 3. Thematic support – Economic and trade cooperation: Alessandro Mariani
                                 4. Multisector thematic support: Marianne Wenning
                                 5. Financing, Contracts and Audits: Carla Osorio

Directorate E                    Latin America
                                 Director: Fernando Cardesa Garcia
                                 Advisor: Francois Nizery
                                 1. Coordination for Latin America: Denis Salord


108
      http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/general/org_en.htm 2005-03-01


                                                                                                            35
                2.   Centralised operations for Latin America: Riccardo Gambini
                3.   Thematic support – economic and trade cooperation – multisector: Jan Ten
                     Loemendal
                4.   Financing, contracts and audits: Michel De Coninck

Directorate F   Horizontal operations and RRD
                Director: Francesco De Angelis
                1. Coordination: Philippe Loop
                2. NGO cofinancing: Aristotelis Bouratsis
                3. Democracy, human rights and thematic support: Miguel Amado
                4. Social and human development, environment and thematic support: Javier
                    Puyol Pinuela
                5. Food security and thematic support: Chantal Hebberecht
                6. Contract and financial management: Fermin J Melendro Arnaiz

Directorate G   Operational Support
                Director: Constantin Stathopoulos
                1. Budgetary matters: Jose Izarra Aguado
                2. Financial and contractual matters: Raul Mateus Paula
                3. Legal affairs, litigation: Ole Scott-Larsen
                4. Auditing of external operations: Michael Kagel
                5. Relations with donors: Franco Nicora
                6. Relations with the other institutions: Martyn Pennington
                7. Programming, internal controls and ex-post controls:Jaime Reis Conde

Directorate H   General Affairs
                Director:
                1. Human resources: Martine Leveque
                2. Individual experts: Catherine Theodorou-Kalogirou
                3. Computer systems, office technology
                4. Training: Gerard Van Bilzen
                5. Information, communication: Sabato Della Monica
                6. Evaluation: Jean-Louis Chomel




                                                                                           36
Appendix 4. Ministerial Conferences

Ministerial conferences
             -   1st Euromed Foreign Ministers Conference – Barcelona, 28/11 1995
             -   2nd Euromed Foreign Ministers Conference – Malta, 16/4 1997
             -   Euromed ad hoc Ministerial Meeting – Palermo, 4-5/6 1998
             -   3rd Euromed Foreign Ministers Conference – Stuttgart, 15-16/4 1999
             -   4th Euromed Foreign Ministers Conference – Marseille, 15-16/11 2000
             -   Euromed Foreign Ministers Conference – Brussels, 5-6/11 2001
             -   5th Euromed Foreign Ministers Conference – Valencia, 22-23/4 2002
             -   Euro-Mediterranean Mid-term Meeting of Foreign Ministers – Crete, 26-27/5 2003
             -   6th Euromed Foreign Ministers conference – Naples, 2-3/12 2003
             -   Euro-Mediterranean Mid-term Foreign Ministers Conference – Dublin, 5-6/5 2004
             -   Euro-Mediterranean Foreign Ministers meet to prepare 10th Anniversary of their partnership
                 – Hague, 29-30/11 2004

Economic and Financial Partnership
             Trade:                                         Brussels, Toledo, Palermo and Istanbul
             Industry:                                      Brussels, Klagenfurt, Limassol, Malaga and
                                                            Caserta.
             Environment:                                   Helsinki and Athens
             Water:                                         Marseilles and Turin
             Information society:                           Rome
             Energy:                                        Trieste, Brussels and Athens
             Agriculture:                                   Venice
             Infrastructure, Investment and
             Energy Supply Security:                        Rome

Social, Cultural and Human Partnership
             Culture:                                       Bologna and Rhodes
             Health:                                        Montpellier




                                                                                                         37
Appendix 5. Regional Programmes
A number of regional programmes has been instated, below are some examples. As regional initiatives and
programmes are added continuously, this list does not state to be exhaustive.

FEMIP (The Facility for Euro-Mediterranean Investment and Partnership)
The assignment of FEMIP is to promote the economic development of the Mediterranean partners. Through
creating a forum for dialogue (namely the policy dialogue and coordination committee), there will be a close
involvement of the Mediterranean partners. Some focal points will be development of the private sector, but also
environmental protection and communications infrastructure, to mention some areas. This facility goes under
EIB.

The Euro-Mediterranean Transport Forum
This is the organisational body in charge of coordination policies concerning transport. There are aspirations for
a Mediterranean transport infrastructure network to be created.

The Medstat programme
This programme aims to develop and strengthen the statistical systems in the Mediterranean partners, through
seminars, conferences, technical assistance and so on. It has a steering committee, governing the work
conducted. In 2002, the Medstat II programme started. 109 EuropeAid Cooperation Office governs Medstat. 110

The Femise network (The Euro-Mediterranean Forum of Economic Institutes)
It was created in 1997 to produce independent analysis of economic issues. The research is not restricted to
strictly economic issues, socio-economic issues are addressed also, such as the implications of a free trade area
and the impact of the EU enlargement on the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.

The Eumedis Information Society Programme
The programme was established in 1999. The programme covers a wide area, from E-commerce to heritage and
tourism, education and healthcare. The aim is to reduce the information and technological gap between the EU
and the Mediterranean.

The Euro-Mediterranean Regional Programme for Local Water Management
The aim of this regional programme is among other things to improve the access to water information in the
region, to elaborate cooperation programmes and to develop the sharing of water between the partners.
Sustainable management and public water supply are examples of issues that are addressed within this
programme. Different seminars are held within the programme, projects are initiated and conducted and so on.

The Euro-Mediterranean Programme for Environment
This programme was established in 1997. It has five different priority areas:
              1. Integrated water management
              2. Integrated waste management
              3. Environmental hotspots
              4. Integrated management of coastal zones
              5. Fight against desertification

The Euromed audiovisual programme
The aim is to contribute to mutual understanding between people. By focusing on the common values and the
richness given by the regions audiovisual and cultural diversity.

Euromed Heritage Programme
The programme focuses on the cultural heritage of the region, and aspires to combine the appreciation of
common interests and cultural capital into a social and economic asset. One of the projects involved in this
programme is “Museum with no frontiers”.



109
    European Commission: “Europe and the Mediterranean: towards a closer partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm, pp 29-31
110
    Euromed Special Feature: “The Medstat Regional Programme”, Issue No 30, 27 May 2002, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm.


                                                                                                                38
The Euromed Youth Programme
This programme aims to promote communication, mutual tolerance and respect among the young people in the
region, and integrate youth in the social and professional sphere. Activities within this programme include youth
exchanges, voluntary service, and training and information. 111

European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights
The EIDHR is a European Union programme that aims to promote and support human rights and democracy in
third countries. It has a management committee – the Human Rights and Democracy Committee. It consists of
representatives of the member states, and is chaired by a representative of Directorate of General External
Relations.112

Malta Information and Training Seminars for Euro-Mediterranean Diplomats
These information and training seminars are constructed in order to create a dialogue and better cooperation and
understanding between the different cultures: the primary aim is for diplomats to familiarise with the Euro-
Mediterranean Partnership and the Barcelona process.113




111
    European Commission: “Europe and the Mediterranean: towards a closer partnership”, available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/euromed/publication.htm, pp 30-35
112
    European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/eidhr/committee_en.htm
113
    Euromed: http://www.euromed-seminars.org.mt/


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