Civil Society in SSR

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					The role of civil society in Security
Sector Reform

Presented by
Simon Rynn

Adviser, Security and Justice Sector
Development, Saferworld

13 March 2007

Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
                             Contents
     Introduction
 •    Saferworld
 •    Civil society and SSR
         • History
         • Security providers AND security sector reformers
     Closer look at civil society
 •    Diversity
 •    Who’s who
     Dealing with civil society
 •    Benefits
 •    Risks
 •    Good practice



Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Saferworld
    Who we are
    Saferworld is an independent, non-governmental
      organisation that is working to prevent armed violence
      and create safer communities.

    What we do
    Works with those involved at every level: international
     bodies, governments and non-government organisations.

    Where we work
    Africa, Europe and South Asia.
Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
   Thematic areas of work:

Security and Justice Sector Development
Supporting security institutions to develop their professional capacity,
  accountability and win public trust and confidence.

Arms Control
Developing tools and approaches to tackle the spread of small arms and
  armed violence.

Conflict-sensitive Development
Ensuring that international aid and development programmes enhance
  prospects for peace.


Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
How we work

      Policy dialogue
      Research
      Capacity-building
      Advocacy
      Practical projects




Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Saferworld’s recent SSR work
(international)

      OECD-DAC ‘-IF’ Guidelines for SSR
      Support to EU Council and EC on joint
      ‘concept’ of SSR
      Member of the United Nations International
      Police Advisory Committee (IPAC)




Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Saferworld’s recent SSR work (national)
      UK (2006)
        •   Guidelines/Doctrine for UK police officers deployed on
            international peace keeping duties
      Kosovo and Georgia (2006)
        •   Promoting public debate on SSR
      Bosnia (2006 & 2007)
        •   Code of Conduct and Client Procurement Guidelines on
            Private Security.
        •   Supporting roll-out of national CBP policy through ‘pilot
            sites’
      Kenya (2003-7)
        •   CBP policy development, training, pilot sites.

Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Civil society and SSR - Context

      Historical exclusion or tension
      Changing due to:
        • Globalisation, privatisation
        • Political and conflict trends
        • New concepts of security and of governance
        • Changing nature of civil society




Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Civil society – a definition
  Within society:
  “…the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared
    interests, purposes and values…
  …its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state,
   family and market…”
  …populated by organisations such as registered charities,
   development non-governmental organisations,
   community groups, women's organisations, faith-based
   organisations, professional associations, trade unions,
   self-help groups, social movements, business
   associations, coalitions and advocacy groups.”
  LSE Centre for Global Governance.


Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Civil society – as security providers

  “Research in many fragile states suggests
  that non-state systems are the main
  providers of justice and security for up to
  80-90% of the population.”
  Enhancing the Delivery of Justice and Security in Fragile States, OECD/DAC
  Network on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation (CPDC).




Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Civil society (or non-state actors) – as
security providers

      Rebel groups
      Mercenaries
      Militias
      Vigilantee groups
      Neighbourhood watches
      Private military and security companies
      Bodyguards
      Private detectives and surveillance companies
      Warlords
      Traditional courts and mediation systems
      Oversight bodies (academics, media, think-tanks, campaign
      groups)


Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Civil society (or non-state actors) – in
Security Sector Reform

      Advocates, campaigners and lobbyists
      Trainers and capacity builders
      Researchers and policy-analysts
      Awareness raisers and debate generators
      Neutral facilitators

      Watch-dogs and critics
      Implementers and service-providers

      Pro- or anti-reform

      NB: Diversity!


Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
A civil society initiative – Sri Lanka




 “Ballot without Bullet!” campaign in Sri Lanka

 Saferworld
 Working for the prevention of armed violence
A civil society initiative - Kosovo




                                               ‘Community Safety
                                                 plans’ in Kosovo




Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
 Who’s who in SSR?

   •   Amnesty International
   •   DCAF – Democratic Control of Armed Forces
   •   International Alert
   •   International Centre for Transitional Justice
   •   ICRC – International Committee of the Red Cross
   •   International Crisis Group
   •   King’s College, London
   •   Norwegian Refugee Council
   •   Pax Christi
   •   Saferworld
   •   Search for Common Ground
   •   SIPRI




Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
  Who’s who in SSR?


  • Africa Peace Forum (APF - Kenya)
  • Africa Security Sector Network (Ghana)
  • Caucasian Institute for Peace and Development
    (Georgia)
  • Centre for Democracy and Development (CDD - Nigeria)
  • Centre for Security Studies (CSS - Bosnia)
  • Civilian NGO for Democracy and Human Rights (CIVIL –
    Macedonia Institute for Public Policy (IPP – Moldova)
  • Forum for Civic Initiatives (FIQ - Kosovo)
  • PACT – Sudan
  • PIR Centre (Russia)
  • Uganda Joint Christian Council (UJCC – Uganda)




Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Dealing with civil society - benefits

      In touch with public opinion?
      May reach out to, or represent, hard-to-reach groups
      Involving CSOs reduces secrecy and promotes
      accountability and transparency
      Considerable expertise
      Many are influential
      Alternative views to officialdom
      Key to generating informed debate
      Can act as neutral facilitators
      Good service providers (e.g. research, training)
      Essential informal oversight actors


Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Dealing with civil society - risks

      Preconditions for healthy civil society are rare
      Politicisation
      Financial dependency (‘brief-case’ NGOs)
      ‘Big-man’ syndrome
      Competitiveness
      Unknown linkages (GONGOs)
      Varying quality and capacity
      Varying motivations




Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Dealing with civil society – best practice

      Who’s out there?
        •   Security providers; oversight actors; potential SSR actors
      Check backgrounds and links
      Involve diverse types of actor (e.g. media, academic, NGO,
      CSO)
      Balance legitimacy, representivity and technical competence
      Assess and build capacity
      Use networks
      Robust financial management
      Open tendering, public evaluations
      Promote civil society involvement as a general principle
      Get outside the capital


Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Summing up

      Changing views
      Increasing importance
      Diversity of roles, backgrounds, competencies and
      perspectives
      Benefits and risks
      Good practice exists




Saferworld
Working for the prevention of armed violence
Thank you


The role of civil society in Security
Sector Reform

Presented by
Simon Rynn, Adviser, Saferworld
srynn@saferworld.org.uk


Phone +44 (0)20 7324 4646
Email general@saferworld.org.uk
Web www.saferworld.org.uk


 Saferworld
 Working for the prevention of armed violence

				
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