These Notes for Guidance are intended to provide teachers and

Document Sample
These Notes for Guidance are intended to provide teachers and Powered By Docstoc
					These Notes for Guidance are intended to provide teachers and candidates with a clear
outline of what is expected in the WD4 unit.

   Candidates may seek approval for their Individual Report titles from the Principal
      Moderator before beginning work on the study. The aim is to reassure teachers and
      students that their proposed topic is a suitable one. Approval is not an essential
   When the Individual Report is submitted candidates must complete form WD2 which
      confirms that the work is their own, and states the precise word count of the study.
      This must be attached to the front of the investigation.
   The Individual Report is worth 15% of total marks and must be less than 3000 words
      in length. This includes text but excludes maps, diagrams and tables. Text in tables
      should be in note form or bulleted. Extensive text in a table is not appropriate.
      Students must state the word count on Form WD2.
   Appendices should be limited. Material in Appendices is viewed as being peripheral.
   Individual reports should be submitted in lightweight folders into which work is firmly
      fastened. The use of plastic wallets must be kept to an absolute minimum. Ring
      folders should not be used.

Mark Scheme:
    Criteria                                                                     Marks
    Statement of aims and terms of reference of the report                        10
    Collection of evidence                                                         5
    Presentation, analysis and interpretation of evidence                         20
    Conclusion and recommendations                                                20
    General presentation                                                           5
    TOTAL                                                                         60

Writing reports: How is a report different from an essay?
    Report writing and essay writing have a different purpose.
    Reports assist in a decision making process. Written for a particular purpose, they
       usually outline a problem, provide the relevant facts and ideas relating to the situation
       and then recommend a course of action.
    Reports are highly structured so that information they contain can be easily
    Headings within the report allow the reader to select the parts they wish to read. The
       structure of a report is enhanced through the use of subheadings, diagrams, tables,
       graphs, illustrations, etc.

A 10-step plan of how to write a report (Sanders 2000, p. 200)
   1. Consider the aim of the report and who will read it.
   2. Plan your report.
   3. Gather evidence.
   4. Organise the evidence you have gathered.
   5. Analyse the material.
   6. Decide your conclusions.
   7. Decide your recommendations.
   8. Plan your writing.
   9. Write your draft.
   10. Edit and prepare the final copy.

Since presentation of your report is very important, you should:
    Check the accuracy of the support data and facts.
    Explain terms which the reader may not know, or for clarity.
    Use a clear and concise style of writing.
    Lay out the report in a clear and uncluttered format.
    Be meticulous with your use of references.
    Check that your argument is logical and that the conclusion and recommendations
       flow logically from the information you have presented.

Basic report format:
Each section is numbered as shown below. The paragraphs are all numbered e.g. in
Section 2 you will refer to 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, etc. There may be sub-paragraphs which represent
sub-sections and are also numbered 2.3.1 and then 2.3.2, etc. Each paragraph stands
alone and discusses a different aspect of your research. What follows is an example;-

1.0 Introduction
This tells your reader what the report is about. It describes the topic or issue discussed and
reasons for it. Your introduction gives the background to the report, its purpose and limits.

2.0 Collection of evidence
This is where you briefly describe the plan of your report, the source of evidence you have
used, methods, and discuss any issues in your research programme.
2.1 Subheading
2.2 Subheading
2.3 Subheading

3.0 Heading (and so on…….)
This is where you begin the discussion, outlining relevant facts and events. This is the main
body of the report, and is divided into sections (headings) and subheadings.
3.1 Subheading
3.2 Subheading
3.3 Subheading etc.

X.0 Conclusion
This is where you give an overview of the material presented in the discussion.

X+1.0 Recommendations
The recommendations are drawn from your conclusions. Your recommendations outline the
specific actions that are required. When detailing your recommendations you may also
consider who will action them and the time-frame for the recommendations. You may place
each recommendation in an order of priority for action.

A listing of all resources referred to in the report, assembled in author alphabetical order.
These are not included in the word count.

The appendices include related materials, if appropriate. These are not included in the word
count. These are optional for the reader, that is, the reader can choose whether they refer to
them or not.

A note on plagiarism
Awarding bodies take the issue of plagiarism very seriously.

A note on boxed text
  Plagiarism: where a student incorporates another person’s work (including another
  student's as well as published sources) by unacknowledged the following guidelines
Whilst students may choose to present their material in boxes, quotation, paraphrase,
should be noted: device, in a way which suggests that it is the student’s original work.
  imitation or other
    1. in this context is to be argument or intellectual output being box.
  Work Any comment which is taken as any analysis must not be in aassessed for academic
    2. Boxed text may be used for primary or secondary evidence (e.g. performance.
  credit, and may include text, images, data, oral presentation, sound or quotations or
    3. Boxed text is not included in the word count.
  Examples of plagiarism are:
       The for your individual report
A framework verbatim copying of another’s work without acknowledgement.
       The close paraphrasing of another’s work by simply changing a few words or
          altering the order of the presentation, without acknowledgment.
       Unacknowledged quotation of phrases from another’s work.
       The deliberate presentation of another’s idea as one’s own.
       Copying or close paraphrasing with occasional acknowledgement of source may
          also be deemed to be plagiarism if the absence of quotation marks implies that the
          phraseology is the student’s own.
       Copying of data.

                            Source: Academic Malpractice Procedures, Senate of the University of Chester

Introduction – Statement of aims and terms of reference of the report – 10 marks
Put your title at the top.
Explain your terms of reference and how it relates to the Key Idea.
What questions does it raise?
Don't forget to give any locational details.

Collection of evidence – 5 marks
These marks are for your research programme: what you actually did to collect the evidence.
Always say where the evidence came from.
What methods did you use?
Why did you choose these methods?
Make sure you have plenty of varied sources of evidence.

Presentation, analysis and interpretation of evidence – 20 marks
There are a lot of marks available for this – a third of them, in fact.
This is where you discuss your evidence and relate it to your title.
Make sure that your report is analytical and not just a description of a topic.
Refer to the Key Idea in the specification.
Use a range of representation techniques, e.g. bar charts, annotated pictures, pictograms,
tables, flow diagrams, pie charts, annotated printouts or articles.
Be as imaginative as you can.
Make sure all diagrams etc have a title and a Fig. no.
Put written analysis between the diagrams.
Point out any links between pieces of evidence.
Point out any evidence that appears contradictory.

Conclusions and recommendations – 20 marks
Again, there are a lot of marks here, so make sure you spend enough time on this section.
What actions do you recommend as a result of your research?
Make sure you refer to your evidence.
Is there any potential bias in your findings?
Does the bias mean that your findings need to be looked at in a different way?
What are the limits of your report?

General Presentation – 5 marks
Make sure that you have written in sentences and paragraphs, and that your spelling,
punctuation and grammar are as good as they can be.
Use the spellchecker, but then proof read it as well.
Try to use as much technical language as you can.
Reference properly. For websites, include author, date of publication, title and full URL (n.b. is insufficient!).
Number all pages.
Number all figures.

   1. Top mark sheet, signed and filled in with your name and word count.
   2. Title page
   3. Terms of reference
   4. Abstract
   5. Contents page
   6. List of figures
   7. Introduction
   8. Collection of evidence/methods
   9. Representation, analysis and interpretation of evidence.
   10. Conclusions
   11. Recommendations.
   12. Bibliography or list of references.
   13. Appendix (if needed).

Titles / Topics for the Individual Report
Centres are reminded that titles must be based explicitly on key ideas in the specification. It
is essential that candidates take a research-based approach based on a variety of evidence

Sources of evidence include:
   - data collected personally by a student
   - data which is published in tabular form, which has not been subject to further
      analysis e.g. census data; crime and disorder audits; economic surveys; international
      statistics from World Bank, IMF, US Government, Eurostat, ONS.
   - interviews, photographs, maps, newspapers
   - any material which is analysed or published in a form other than its original
   - data which has not been collected by the candidate e.g. data from other students
   - qualitative material and summaries from the Internet

       Topics must be of a manageable size, and enable the candidate to focus on a limited
        study in some depth.

       General titles such as ‘Sustainable development in the rain forest’ are not
        appropriate. Such titles are unlikely to achieve full marks in the Aims section where
        the purpose of an in-depth individual report is not fulfilled. Similarly in Analysis,
        Interpretation and Discussion where a full analysis and discussion is unlikely within
        the word limit if the subject is too broad.


Shared By:
Description: These Notes for Guidance are intended to provide teachers and