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					National Organization of Immigrant and Visible Minority Women of
Canada


Releasing the wellspring:
Addressing the economic reality of immigrant women
                                                              September 8, 2004

Introduction

Immigrants have traditionally been key to Canada’s economic prosperity, and
women have always been an integral part of the successive waves of immigrants
coming to Canada – contributing to the community economically, socially and in
many other ways. Yet immigrants, and particularly immigrant women, face
tremendous inequality – not just in the initial adjustment, but year after year
throughout their lives. Those inequalities have a tremendous cost for the women
themselves and their families, and they rob Canada of the full benefit of the
contributions those women could make.


Immigrants are no longer “catching up” to Canadian
incomes.

Immigrants tend to be poorer than other Canadians. Although most come to
Canada with skills, experience, a willingness to work, and often their life savings,
they find themselves trapped in the lower income echelons far more often than
their fellow citizens. In fact, low income rates among recent immigrants are 2.5
times higher than the poverty rate among Canadian-born.1

As the chart below shows, immigrants fare worse than other Canadians from
almost every angle – whether they have just arrived or have lived here for
decades.

Children are not spared: one child in five lives in poverty in Canada, and
although this is shocking enough, the rate is twice as high among children of
immigrants.2

In major cities, the situation is even worse – the poverty rate for immigrants
shoots up, especially for recent immigrants (as high as 73% in some cities).
Non-permanent residents, including refugees, fare the worst in cities.3

These are extraordinarily high poverty rates for a country as wealthy as Canada.



Catalyst Research and Communications
NOIVMWC Livelihoods Project                                Discussion Paper


Poverty Rates in Canada (2000)4
Canadian-born            14.3%
All immigrants           20.2%
Immigrants in Canada for 19% ??
20 years or more
Recent immigrants        35.8%
(5 years or less)

Poverty Rates in Major Cities (1995)5
Average                 21.6%
All immigrants          30%
Recent immigrants       52%
(5 years or less)
Refugees and other non- 62%
permanent residents

Immigrant women have been particularly hard hit

There is a yawning gap in earnings between Canadian-born women, who make
an average of $50,000, and immigrant women, who make an average of only
$34,700, a difference of 45%.6 Even more disturbing, this gap has been growing
– twenty years ago, the difference was about half as large.7

From 1980 to 2000, real earnings of Canadian-born women rose 19% while
those of recent female immigrants rose only 13%. This growing gap emerged
even though the educational level of the immigrant women increased faster than
that of their Canadian-born counterparts.8

Immigrant women tend to be concentrated in low-paying jobs, often clerical,
sales, and service jobs. They also perform more manual labour than Canadian
born women do.9 They end up in these lower-paying positions despite the fact
that they tend to be better educated than women born in Canada.

The gap is growing

The poverty rate among recent immigrants has been rising in the last 20 years.
Over the same time period, the general unemployment rate in Canada and the
poverty rate among Canadian-born citizens were both falling.10 So, not only
were the overall conditions of immigrants getting worse, this was happening at a
time when conditions for many Canadians were improving.

Poverty Rate in Canada11
                       1980                            2000
Canadian-born          17.2%                           14.3%


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All immigrants             17.0%                       20.2%
Recent immigrants          24.6%                       35.8%

Historically, immigrants earned less than Canadian-born residents when they first
arrived, but their incomes rose steadily the longer they were in Canada. After
many years, the incomes of immigrants reached or even surpassed the Canadian
average. This is partly why immigrants have made such an important
contribution to driving economic prosperity in Canada. But that no longer
happens. Immigrants are not “catching up”, even after many years in Canada,
and the gap is growing.

Poverty is rising among immigrants despite the fact that they are more
highly educated than other Canadians

Recent immigrants are almost twice as likely to have a university degree as the
rest of the Canadian population.12

Of all recent immigrant women employed on a full-year, full-time basis
in 1980, 15% had a university degree, while only 10% of Canadian-born
employed women did. By 2000, education levels had increased and 38% of
employed recent immigrant women had a university degree, still far ahead of
Canadian-born women, at 22%.13

University educated immigrants are more than twice as likely as other Canadians
to be working at a level far below their education. Even after 10 years in
Canada, one-fifth of university educated immigrants are still working in low-
education jobs. This is a particular concern because skills erode over time, so
their expertise may be lost forever.14

In fact, there are at least three factors which suggest immigrant income should
be higher than the Canadian average.
1. Immigrants are more highly educated than Canadian-born residents.
2. Fewer immigrant families are headed by single parents. Single parent
    households are more likely to be poor in Canada.15
3. More immigrants are in the paid labour force than the Canadian average. 16


The Situation is Compounded for Immigrant Women

Immigrant women face many difficulties – they are dealing with the challenges
they face as immigrants, as women and often, as members of visible minorities.
In each of these facets of their lives, immigrant women face substantial
inequality. Women in Canada tend to be poorer than men; immigrants tend to
be poorer than non-immigrants; and racialized Canadians tend to be poorer than


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NOIVMWC Livelihoods Project                                Discussion Paper


non-racialized Canadians. Immigrant women who are racialized face all three
hurdles.

Poverty Rate
Immigrants17           20.2%
Non-immigrants         14.3%

Women18                19.9%
Men

Racialized19           35.6%
Non-racialized         17.6%

These factors often compound one another. For example, immigrant women do
not fare as well as other women, or as well as immigrant men. As a result,
Canadians who are women, immigrants, and visible minorities often face triple
barriers of discrimination.

Poverty Rate
Non-racialized            19.9%
women20
Racialized women21        37%
Racialized immigrant      80%
women (Toronto)22

Unemployment Rate (1995)23
Non-racialized men   9.9%
Non-racialized women 9.4%
Racialized men       13.2%
Racialized women     15.3%

One of the reasons immigrant women are poor is that, even if they have a
university education, they are less likely to have paid employment than
immigrant men and non-immigrant women.24

Those who do obtain jobs often have to take low-paying positions, even if they
have excellent education and training. University educated immigrants are twice
as likely as other Canadians to be working at a level far below their education.
This is most true for immigrant women, for immigrants who are visible
minorities, and for those from South Asia. For example: 55% of women from
South Asia who have a university degree are working in a job that needs only
high school education or less.25




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Live-in domestic workers, who are almost exclusively women, have particularly
difficult economic situations. They are often obliged to live in the homes of their
employers, and this places them at greater risk of economic exploitation, or even
physical or sexual abuse. Moreover, domestic workers are often not familiar with
their rights under Canadian law or, even if they are, have great difficulty proving
violations.

Refugee women face even greater barriers. Because they are not permanent
residents of Canada, they are denied access to many services and means of
support. In addition, since September 11, 2001, heightened security measures
and misinformed, racist assumptions have been increasingly directed at
immigrants and refugees.26 Women who wear the hijab (head covering), and
women with Muslim or Arab-sounding names, whether or not they are
immigrants or refugees, are particularly visible targets.


How did this happen?

Lack of recognition of the education and credentials of immigrants.
Many immigrant women are highly educated – more highly than most Canadians
– and come to Canada as experienced workers in their trade or profession. Yet
institutional barriers prevent them from practicing in their field and contributing
their expertise to our society. Even in areas where Canada is experiencing
severe shortages, such as physicians, the accreditation process is long and
cumbersome, often taking years. Some of the occupations where Canada often
does not recognize credentials include: doctors, teachers, lawyers, social
workers, engineers, nurses, plumbers, accountants, mechanics. Among
engineers, for example, 44% of those who immigrated to Canada between 1991
and 96 were not employed as engineers in 1996. It is ironic that the very
qualities which lead us to select these people as immigrants – their skills and
education – are the same qualities that we do not let them exercise once they
are here.

Lack of access to language training. Language training is an essential part
of the transition for non-English or French speaking women, and yet many
immigrant women who need it do not have adequate access.

There is a federal language training program, but within immigrant families, men
often take priority for language training because their job search is seen as more
urgent or more important. Even if the man is already working, it may be a real
hardship for families to do without the woman’s wage so she can attend
language classes. There used to be training allowances for this program, but
these no longer exist.



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The federal language training program is free, child care is provided, and
transportation costs are covered but only immigrants who are not yet Canadian
citizens qualify. So women who have had to forego language training for several
years while supporting their family cannot access it, if they have become
Canadian citizens. As an indication of how many women are in this situation,
about 60% of foreign-born women 15-55 years of age who do not speak English
or French are Canadian citizens27.

Inadequate support services. The community services that have traditionally
facilitated the integration of immigrant women into Canadian society have seen
significant cutbacks over recent years, or, at best, minimal growth in the face of
burgeoning needs. Women immigrating to Canada often experience tremendous
isolation – far from family and friends, separated from familiar places and
traditions, struggling in a different language and culture. The stresses of
adjusting to a new culture, the crushing burden of poverty, and overcrowding in
inadequate housing all put enormous strains on immigrant women and their
families. Settlement services, orientation to the Canadian job market,
employment training, access to reasonable jobs, childcare, appropriate housing –
all these are in short demand for immigrant women. Workers in front line
agencies, particularly in large cities, report that services are strained to the
breaking point, and they know they are not adequately serving the population in
need.28

Women’s legal status as dependents. In the family class of immigrants,
also known as sponsored immigrants, the dependent spouse faces significant
barriers. Women are almost ten times more likely than men to enter Canada as
dependent spouses.29 The limitations of their legal status as sponsored
immigrants can make it difficult to access many basic services such as social
assistance, old age security, social housing and job training. This essentially
defines these women as second class citizens. Moreover, it often creates or
reinforces an economic dependence on men which can result in women and
children staying in abusive situations.

Women’s particular responsibilities for children and family. Because
women often carry particular family responsibilities in immigrant families (as is
often true in Canadian-born families), they are less able to participate in
integration and settlement activities, in employment training, in language
training, and in seeking work. Indeed, with the additional stresses on the family
caused by adjusting to a new country, some studies have shown that women’s
domestic responsibilities actually intensify after immigration30. All of these
factors, especially combined with the lack of adequate services, limit women’s
ability to find and retain appropriate employment appropriate to their education.
For example, lack of chlidcare may mean they are obliged to stay home while




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their spouse is at work during the day, and thus are only able to accept night-
shift jobs.

General entrenchment of economic disparities in Canadian society.
Over the last 10 to 15 years, the gulf between rich and poor in Canada has
grown and has become more entrenched, making it difficult for low-income
Canadians of all kinds, including immigrant women, to make progress to a better
standard of living. Over the period 1990-2000, the incomes of the richest 10%
of Canadians grew by 14.6% while the incomes of the poorest 10% grew by less
than 1%. Indeed, the incomes of many working families actually declined during
that period, although the 1990’s were a time of economic boom.31 For those left
behind, the depth of poverty is more severe than in the past – that is, they are
further and further below the poverty line.32

Is race a factor? About 80% of racialized income earners in Canada are
immigrants.33 The downward shift in immigrant income levels started at roughly
the same time that Canada’s immigration policy changed to enable immigrants
more representative of world’s population, and thus a much higher proportion of
people of colour.

In 1995, the poverty rate in cities was 37.6% for visible minorities and 20.9% for
non-visible minorities.34 Furthermore, in 14 of 37 major cities in Canada, the
visible minority poverty rate was more than double the poverty rate for non-
visible minority population.35 In the late 90’s, a period of economic growth, the
income gap between racialized and non-racialized people was still 24%. In
Toronto, the unemployment rate was three times higher for racialized people. 36

Unfortunately, this situation holds true for women as well. Racialized women are
more highly educated than other women in Canada, yet 15% of visible minority
women were unemployed vs. 9% non-visible minority.37

Given all this, it is difficult to consider that racism is not a factor in this growing
economic divide between immigrants and non-immigrants. This is particularly
apparent when one directly compares racialized immigrants with their non-
racialised counterparts. During the period 1991-95, employment income of
racialized immigrants was 27.7% lower than non-racialized immigrants.38



What’s at stake?

There is a high cost to Canada of not using the expertise of immigrants
already here. A recent study calculated the cost of under-utilizing immigrants’
skills and education, and under-paying them for those skills. The study
estimates the total loss to Canada’s economy to be $15 billion every year.39


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Our future prosperity may also be at risk. Immigrants have always been a
major engine driving the Canadian economy. Wave after wave of immigrants in
the past not only contributed their own skills and energy, but created many new
jobs for other Canadians. Canada needs a growing population to fill projected
labour shortages, and we rely on immigration to fill those needs. Yet we seem
unable to integrate and fully utilize the skills of the immigrants who come here.
If we fail to integrate that energy into our social and economic fabric, where will
we find the skills and knowledge for our future prosperity?

Social fabric of livable communities: With the shift in the ethno-racial
profile of immigrants coming to Canada, is coming a shift in the composition of
Canada’s population. Currently, about 12% of Canadians are people of colour.
In Toronto, it is closer to 47%, and other major cities are following. The
demographic shift to a truly multi-racial society is already happening, and it will
continue over the coming years. If we do not ensure the fair and full inclusion of
everyone, our communities will be divided and everyone will suffer. How do we
work together to make sure our communities are good for everyone?

Poverty has lasting impacts. Numerous studies indicate that poverty is
closely linked to poor health, and may actually be the single largest factor in
determining health – more important than genetics, more important than
lifestyle. Infant mortality is twice as high among the poorest group in society as
it is among the richest.40 Children living in poverty are more likely to need health
care services, academic remediation, and to drop out of school – all of these
reduce their life chances and income in later life.41

There is more involved than economics. Immigrants bring with them the
rich history and world view of their cultures, often very ancient cultures. By
failing to integrate them into Canadian society, we not only lose their economic
skills and expertise, we lose their valuable insights about how to solve pressing
social problems, political, environmental dilemmas. And in an increasingly
interconnected world, we lose their understanding about how other societies and
cultures functions, their values and beliefs. One study with immigrant youth
revealed that one of the main problems they faced when they came to Canada
(along with racism or exclusion, and the difficulties their parents faced in
securing employment) was the “rampant consumerism and superficiality” they
found in Canadian society.42 Perhaps there is something more we can learn from
immigrants than different cuisines.

Our major cities are the key testing ground. The vast majority of
immigrants go to major urban centres. While almost one in five Canadians were
born outside Canada, the number is closer to one in two in Toronto.43 The
concentration of immigrants in the largest cities is growing stronger. Between


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1991 and 2001, 73% of immigrants went to Toronto, Vancouver or Montreal.
Twenty years earlier, only about 58% went to those three cities.44

In Toronto and Vancouver, one-quarter of children 17 and under are immigrants
or children of immigrants and most live in households where neither English nor
French is spoken at home.45

There are signs that poverty is becoming entrenched in certain neighbourhoods
in large cities like Toronto. Before, most neighbourhoods had a mixture of
income levels – now there are segregated “poor” neighbhourhoods, and some of
these neighbourhoods have a high proportion of immigrants.46


How Do We Move Forward?

There are many possible strategies and avenues for action. Here are a few
ideas.

1. Focus on Canada’s major cities

The largest number of immigrants, greatest disparities between immigrants and
non-immigrants, are in our urban areas. A high priority should be improvements
there.

Fortunately, all three levels of government are starting to turn greater attention
to the situation of our cities, and there is an opportunity to integrate the needs
of immigrant women into the emerging urban agenda. Cities have been hit hard
by federal and provincial downloading of services and cuts in budgets, and they
are struggling to meet the needs of their residents. Adequate language training,
settlement services, childcare, housing, public transit, employment training
programs, and creation of high quality jobs – all these are essential for
immigrants, and key elements of an urban strategy for Canada.

2. Facilitate the recognition of foreign credentials

We must find practical ways to integrate and utilize the professional and
technical expertise that immigrants bring to Canada. And we must find ways to
do it more quickly and efficiently. Canada needs these people and they are
eager to apply their skills.

Many of the problems are longstanding, and governments and professional
licensing bodies have been aware of them for years, yet very little progress has
been made. There is pressure mounting on the federal government in this area,
and there may be a willingness among the professional bodies, provinces and


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others to move more quickly, as the urgency of the situation becomes more
clear.

3. Strengthen services for immigrant women, especially language
training

Language training programs are clearly insufficient for the need, and, in many
cases, inaccessible to women because of their particular economic situation and
family responsibilities. Expanding the programs available, and ensuring their
greater accessibility, are both key.

Other services related to the settlement and integration of immigrant women are
also essential, and many of these have been cut or severely constrained over
many years, despite the growing demand.

4. Integrate issues of immigrant women’s poverty into overall
strategies to eliminate poverty

Many Canadians are concerned about poverty, but do not realize that immigrants
are a significant number of the poor, and a growing number.

Some strategies are already underway or being proposed to reduce or eradicate
poverty in Canada. For example, the Canadian Council for Social Development is
initiating discussions about using the Canada Social Transfer to ensure basic
principles or standards are in place covering the use of federal funds provided to
provinces for social services. Campaign 2000 is dealing with child poverty, and
the National Anti-Poverty Organization (NAPO) and several other organizations
are working to raise the minimum wage. In Quebec, a law was recently passed
specifically designed to combat poverty and social exclusion. NAPO sees poverty
as a human rights issue and is taking a long term view to creating a society
where the economic, social, cultural and environmental needs of all are met.
Each of these mechanisms offer opportunities to include measures to eradicate
poverty among immigrants.

An initial step might be discussions at the community level to document the lived
experiences of immigrant women and poverty, and to build momentum for
inclusion of immigrant women in government anti-poverty strategies. One model
for this type of action is the “Breaking Isolation” project carried out in several
Toronto neighbourhoods with women of colour, many of whom were immigrant
women.47

5. Ensure the legal equality of immigrant women




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The legal definition of many immigrant women as dependents dramatically
reduces their chances for full integration into Canadian society, including full and
fair participation in employment, and economic participation.

Is there an opportunity for changes in this legal definition? Does the current
legal framework truly respect the Charter of Rights and Freedoms?

6. Address racism

It is becoming clear that one major element of the inequality of immigrant
women is due to the fact that a large proportion of immigrant women are
racialized. Canada has become aware of the challenge of racism, and we have
clearly stated our principles as a nation on this matter, but we have so far failed
to effectively address it.

It may be time for more concerted action at all levels, from the local community
to the national level. Perhaps we need a major initiative, with a variety of
elements to it, and with full participation by business, education institutions,
media and all levels of government, in partnership with non-profit organizations.

7. Participate in federal government priorities

Housing and childcare, both issues of considerable importance to immigrant
women, are relatively high on the list of issues of concern to the federal
government. Perhaps there is a strategic opening to ensure immigrant women’s
needs are considered in these policy areas.



This background paper was prepared by Lynne Tyler and Joan Riggs of
Catalyst Research and Communications, Ottawa, with research
assistance from Heather MacPhail.




Endnotes
1
        The Rise in Low Income Rates Among Immigrants in Canada,
    Statistics Canada, The Daily June 19, 2003 and Catalogue
    11F0019MIE2003198
2
        Poverty in Canada, National Anti-Poverty Organization, 2003
3
        Urban Poverty in Canada: A Statistical Profile, Kevin K. Lee,
    Canadian Council on Social Development, April 2000
4
        The Rise in Low Income Rates Among Immigrants in Canada,
    Statistics Canada, The Daily June 19, 2003 and Catalogue
    11F0019MIE2003198


Catalyst Research and Communications                                                   11
NOIVMWC Livelihoods Project                           Discussion Paper


5
        Urban Poverty in Canada: A Statistical Profile, Kevin K. Lee,
   Canadian Council on Social Development, April 2000
6
        Will they ever converge? Earnings of immigrant and Canadian-born
   workers over the last two decades (Catalogue 11F0019MIE2003215)
   Statistics Canada, October 2003
7
        Will they ever converge? Earnings of immigrant and Canadian-born
   workers over the last two decades (Catalogue 11F0019MIE2003215)
   Statistics Canada, October 2003
8
        Will they ever converge? Earnings of immigrant and Canadian-born
   workers over the last two decades (Catalogue 11F0019MIE2003215)
   Statistics Canada, October 2003
9
        Statistics Canada, Women in Canada 2000: A Gender-based
   Statistical Report. (Ottawa: Minister of Industry, 2000) pp. 201-202
10
        The Rise in Low Income Rates Among Immigrants in Canada,
   Statistics Canada, The Daily June 19, 2003 and Catalogue
   11F0019MIE2003198
11
        The Rise in Low Income Rates Among Immigrants in Canada,
   Statistics Canada, The Daily June 19, 2003 and Catalogue
   11F0019MIE2003198
12
        Canada’s Creeping Economic Apartheid: The economic segregation and
   social marginalisation of racilaised groups, Grace-Edward Galabuzi,
   CSJ Foundation for Research and Education, May 2001.
13
        Will they ever converge? Earnings of immigrant and Canadian-born
   workers over the last two decades (Catalogue 11F0019MIE2003215)
   Statistics Canada, October 2003
14
        Study: Immigrants Settling for Less? Statistics Canada, The Daily,
   June 23, 2004
15
        Urban Poverty in Canada: A Statistical Profile, Kevin K. Lee,
   Canadian Council on Social Development, April 2000
16
        Urban Poverty in Canada: A Statistical Profile, Kevin K. Lee,
   Canadian Council on Social Development, April 2000
17
        The Rise in Low Income Rates Among Immigrants in Canada,
   Statistics Canada, The Daily June 19, 2003 and Catalogue
   11F0019MIE2003198
18
        Poverty in Canada, National Anti-Poverty Organization, 2003
19
        Canada’s Creeping Economic Apartheid: The economic segregation and
   social marginalisation of racilaised groups, Grace-Edward Galabuzi,
   CSJ Foundation for Research and Education, May 2001
20
        Poverty in Canada, National Anti-Poverty Organization, 2003
21
        Poverty in Canada, National Anti-Poverty Organization, 2003
22
        If Low Income Women of Colour Counted in Toronto: Final Report of
   the Action-Research Project Breaking Isolation, Getting Involved,
   Punam Khosla, Community Social Planning Council of Toronto, 2003
23
        Canada’s Creeping Economic Apartheid: The economic segregation and
   social marginalisation of racilaised groups, Grace-Edward Galabuzi,
   CSJ Foundation for Research and Education, May 2001
24
        Statistics Canada, Women in Canada 2000: A Gender-based
   Statistical Report. (Ottawa: Minister of Industry, 2000) pp. 201-202.
25
        Study: Immigrants Settling for Less? Statistics Canada, The Daily,
   June 23, 2004
26
        Immigrant and Refugee Women, Factsheet, Canadian Research
   Institute for the Advancement of Women, 2003
27
     Immigration in Gateway Cities: Sydney and Vancouver in comparative
   perspective, D. Ley and P. Murphy, Progress in Planning 55 (2001),
   119-194



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NOIVMWC Livelihoods Project                           Discussion Paper


28
        A Community Growing Apart: Income Gaps and Changing Needs in the
   City of Toronto in the 1990s, Andrew Jackson, Sylvain Schetagne, Peter
   Smith, Canadian Council on Social Development for the United Way of
   Greater Toronto, October 2001
29
        Immigration in Gateway Cities: Sydney and Vancouver in comparative
   perspective, D. Ley and P. Murphy, Progress in Planning 55 (2001),
   119-194
30
        Immigration in Gateway Cities: Sydney and Vancouver in comparative
   perspective, D. Ley and P. Murphy, Progress in Planning 55 (2001),
   119-194
31
    Poverty in Canada, National Anti-Poverty Organization, 2003
32
    A Community Growing Apart: Income Gaps and Changing Needs in the City
   of Toronto in the 1990s, Andrew Jackson, Sylvain Schetagne, Peter
   Smith, Canadian Council on Social Development for the United Way of
   Greater Toronto, October 2001
33
    Canada’s Creeping Economic Apartheid: The economic segregation and
   social marginalisation of racilaised groups, Grace-Edward Galabuzi,
   CSJ Foundation for Research and Education, May 2001
34
    Urban Poverty in Canada: A Statistical Profile, Kevin K. Lee,
   Canadian Council on Social Development, April 2000
35
    Urban Poverty in Canada: A Statistical Profile, Kevin K. Lee,
   Canadian Council on Social Development, April 2000
36
    Canada’s Creeping Economic Apartheid: The economic segregation and
   social marginalisation of racilaised groups, Grace-Edward Galabuzi,
   CSJ Foundation for Research and Education, May 2001
37
        Women’s Experience of Racism, Factsheet, Canadian Research
   Institute for the Advancement of Women, 2002
38
        Canada’s Creeping Economic Apartheid: The economic segregation and
   social marginalisation of racilaised groups, Grace-Edward Galabuzi,
   CSJ Foundation for Research and Education, May 2001
39
        Immigrant Skill Utilization in the Canadian Labour Market:
   Implications of Human Capital Research, Jeffrey Reitz. Journal of
   International Migration, March 2004
40
        Women and Poverty, Facthseet, Canadian Research Institute for the
   Advancement of Women, 2002
41
        Poverty Barometer, Social Planning Council of Winnipeg, May 2004
42
        Immigrant Youth in Canada, Jean Kunz and Jean Hanvey, Canadian
   Council on Social Development, 2000
43
        A Community Growing Apart: Income Gaps and Changing Needs in the
   City of Toronto in the 1990s, Andrew Jackson, Sylvain Schetagne, Peter
   Smith, Canadian Council on Social Development for the United Way of
   Greater Toronto, October 2001
44
    Canada’s Biggest Cities See Influx of New Immigrants, Marina Jiménez
   and Kim Lunman,, Globe and Mail, august 19, 2004
45
    Canada’s Biggest Cities See Influx of New Immigrants, Marina Jiménez
   and Kim Lunman,, Globe and Mail, august 19, 2004
46
        A Community Growing Apart: Income Gaps and Changing Needs in the
   City of Toronto in the 1990s, Andrew Jackson, Sylvain Schetagne, Peter
   Smith, Canadian Council on Social Development for the United Way of
   Greater Toronto, October 2001
47
        If Low Income Women of Colour Counted in Toronto: Final Report of
   the Action-Research Project Breaking Isolation, Getting Involved,
   Punam Khosla, Community Social Planning Council of Toronto, 2003




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