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Alexander Brand

VIEWS: 186 PAGES: 29

									LIST OF ABSTRACTS (48)

Alexander Brand
Media Power between North and South- How to Conceptualize Media in
Global Political Contexts.
Media globalization – the globalization of mass media as well as processes of
internationalization and globalization through mass media – has become a focal point for
discussions in International Studies in recent years. The paper argues that from an
International Relations perspective the crucial feature of media in international political
contexts is their ability to generate discursive power. Discursive power – as a concept
derived from a „discursive constructivist‟ approach – hereby refers to power which rests in
the ability to shape the ideas of actors and to stabilize, albeit temporarily and only within
certain contexts, meaning.
In North-South relations thus, specific forms of discursive power, for instance, contribute
to the perpetuation and deepening of hierarchies by disseminating ideas and meanings
regionally as well as globally. On the other hand, media can also provide the crucial means
for counter-strategies: strategies which aim at toppling hierarchies and re-define meanings
and ideas.
Starting from this perspective, the paper analyzes the discussions between North and South
at the World Summit on the Information Society. It basically argues that these debates at
the beginning of the 21st century to some degree resemble the older NWICO-debates. This
continuity refers not only to the question of media infrastructures and who should pay for
them – on a deeper level it is again the contents and the meanings that form the core of the
matter. Having said that, the more or less fashionable talk on „global media governance‟ in
the end seems to boil down to a power struggle, although it should be conceptualized as a
struggle for discursive power.

Technische Universität Dresden
Institute for Political Science
01062 Dresden
Tel: 00 49 3 51 46 33 57 12

Alexander John Finnen
Post Conflict and Post "Colonial" Reconstruction, the new Imperialism?.
Do the post conflict reconstruction models used in the Balkans and other 'post United
Nations' (UN) conflicts represent a return to a new form of "colonial" model? If not, how
can the international community show that this is not the case? Both Bosnia and
Herzegovina (BiH) and Kosovo are widely referred to as 'protectorates'. Is there any
validity in that statement?
How can the international community ensure progress in reconstruction and conflict
resolution whilst not appearing as an 'ersatz' colonial power? What mechanisms can be
embedded in the 'reconstruction model' to ensure that international donor resources are
used wisely by domestic government partners? Having provided the resources, should the

international community then seek to retain any control over how they are managed1 if a
locally elected democratic structure is already in place?
Should a small group of self selected nation states2 be permitted to both fund and
implement post conflict reconstruction outside of the UN or other internationally
recognised bodies? If so, what effective oversight mechanisms exist, given that this group
may embody major donors to the UN and perhaps often, permanent council members?
How much influence can regional organizations exert and what is their relevance when it
comes to strategic decision making within these groups?
1. If not, then what should have been the role of the 'High Representative' following the
first round of democratic national elections in BiH?
2. Such as the 'Peace Implementation Council' (PIC) in the case of BiH.

Oxford Brookes University
Department of International Relations
Faculty of Law and Politics
United Kingdom

Alvaro Alconada Romero
Migration for those left behind. A Tsonga village in southern Mozambique.
Usually researchers look at migration from receptor´s countries view, explaining with their
investigations the acceptation and accomodation problems. But this view is blind to
individual experiences that migration protagonists suffer and the decisions that they take,
and these are the most important things to know how this phenomenon happens. The
ideas that crosses each person´s mind, the circumstances and hopes, are the main causes of
population movements.
My proposal is based on this simplified theory, so it translates the investigation field to the
original place of migrants. To look for the causes I gave more relevance to emigration than
inmigration, but always remembering that it is a both sides´ circumstance.
I planned my experience in a small village situated in the south of Mozambique because
most of its masculine population live far away for long periods.
I analyzed the causes, the route and instalation experience in migration and the
consecuencies that brought to the different persons in the original society. I focused on the
specific personal experiences leaving out global estatistics that could make confusion in
local conclusions
The results of the research show a way of analysing more than definitive conclusions. They
explain migration like personal decision or familiar strategy, always with a high social price.

Universidad Complutense of Madrid
Tel: +34 680582323

André Bank & Bas van Heur
Transnational conflicts and the politics of scalar networks: evidence from
northern Africa.
This article offers a conceptualisation of transnational conflicts between state- and non-
state actors. Theorists of globalisation and transnationalism have developed a number of
approaches in order to rethink the roles of these actors in conditions of globality. Their
reluctance, however, to develop middle-range concepts has left us with sweeping
arguments that are unable to deal with the complexity of transnational conflicts. In the
theoretical section we will develop a conceptual vocabulary that tries to do justice to these
complexities and to questions of hierarchy and internal differentiation of the conflicting
formations. We will in particular focus on the ways conflict is mediated through various
spaces, scales and networks. After this theoretical section, we draw on two cases – the
Ethiopian state versus Oromo ethno-nationalists and the Moroccan state versus Western
Sahara activists – in order to show how these concepts can contribute to a subtle as well as
theoretically guided understanding of the emergence and perpetuation of transnational

André Bank                                             Bas van Heur
Center for Conflict Studies                            Dept. of Media & Communications
Philips University Marburg                             Goldsmiths College
Germany                                                University of London                    

Annelies Degryse
The Erosion of the nation-state as founding premise.
The idea that globalization has caused the erosion of the nation-state has caused a debate
among political philosophers about the necessity of the nation-state. The plea of
cosmopolitans to rethink politics as a dynamic picture of multileveled interactions and
interferences has brought liberal nationalists to argue that liberal democracy is essentially
linked with the nation-state. Will Kymlicka claims that „the only forum in which genuine
democracy occurs is within national boundaries‟(Kymlicka 2001: 325). My claim is that
Kymlicka misreads the premise of the erosion of the nation-state because he falsely turns
the link between the nation-state and democracy around. He can not take the erosion
seriously as for him it means the impossibility of democracy.
To explain my claim, I start with a short recapitulation of what is meant with the erosion of
the nation-state and a short presentation of the discussion between David Held and Will
Kymlicka. This is followed by Kymlicka‟s reasons to claim the necessity of the nation-state
and his account of the nation-state. By reconceiving the nation-state as a balancing between
universal principles and particularities, I will try to show that the nation-state is the
outcome of a historical balancing. The erosion of the nation-state should be understood as
the instability of this historical achievement, which is forcing us to find a new global

Sociale Wetenschappen
Van Evenstraat 2B
B-3000 Leuven

Te: +32 16 32 32 55
Armin Krishnam
The complexity of military globalization.
Some scholars have observed a process of military globalization. This paper will focus on
the global arms dynamic and it will be argued that the development and proliferation of
sophisticated weaponry creates a much more complex security environment. The spread of
these new networked and global weapons, which are generally associated with the notion of
a Revolution in Military Affairs, has many interesting implications. The most significant
implication is the increasing privatisation of warfare through the growing involvement of
globally operating defence companies, which develop, maintain, and sometimes even
operate military systems. Not only loosens this globalization of the defence industries the
ability of nation states to control the proliferation of technology, but it also creates very
complex new vulnerabilities. These complexities caused by military globalization will add
more uncertainty to warfare and will continue to make war a very risky business, especially
for the technologically advanced states.

University of Salford
Matthias Court 102
Silk Street
M3 6JE Salford
Greater Manchester
United Kingdom

Barbara Brink
Conceptualization and methods of empirical research: measuring local impacts of
European networks.
This paper explores the effects of multi level governance and network governance within
the EU. It will be argued that ideas of multi level governance and network governance can
be used in combination with social constructivism to look at the effects of European
integration. By analysing documents that have been send within the EU policy networks as
reactions of one institution upon the other, a description can be given of this construction.
The discursive effect of the networks is made visible, by looking at the interaction of the
different institutional discourses. By discussing how the political reality of territorial-based
actors are affected by the networks in the EU, this paper explores the importance of textual
analysis as a research tool to describe and analyse the local impact of European networks.

Department of Government
University of Strathclyde
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)141 548 2230

Brian O’Boyle & Emlyn Nardone
Globalisation, critical realism and the SSA.
SSA theory has numerous precedents including Kondratieff and Schumpeterian long wave
theories. However any conception of cycles or even waves/swings of capitalism is an
attempt to close an open system partially and seems to seek to enable some form of
prediction. But SSA can be more fruitfully viewed as a culmination of stadial theory and as
such all pretensions to prediction are relinquished. Furthermore, this approach accepts that
the system is open, at least partially, due to the existence of path dependence, which also
renders the system dynamic. SSA theory is also underpinned by numerous well established
theories in heterodox economics, which mainly includes Marxism, but also old
institutionalism and post-Keynesianism. We propose to unite this disparate collection of
theories by focusing on their underlying methodology which we contend is critical realist.
SSA theory has been largely applied to individual states and often in contradiction with its
radical tradition has largely been a state centric theory. This is largely due to the fact that
SSA theory has emerged largely from the economics discipline, which in general has had a
limited understanding of matters which are considered superfluous to the economic system
such as political systems and structures at both the domestic and global levels. Therefore
we also propose to explore the possibilities for fusing neo-Gramscian and Amsterdam
school theories to a critical realist SSA framework.

National University of Ireland Galway              National University of Ireland Galway
Centre for Innovation &                            Centre for Innovation &
Structural Change (CISC)                           Structural Change (CISC)
Ireland                                            Ireland                   

Cassandra McCreadie
Globalisation and Federal States.
Most Globalisation theorists use, as their base, theories derived from international
relations and, consequently, their theories incorporate various assumptions about “the
state”. The advantage of this is that it allows these theorists to expose the dramatic
changes that the system of states has undergone as a result of globalisation. The
disadvantage, however, is the homogenous representation of these states as impervious,
legally unitary actors in the international sphere. This representation is an
oversimplification - more than half of states are federal, not unitary, in composition.
Traditionally, however, the theoretical adoption of the unitary state has posed little
problem for theories of international relations because distance acted to constrain sub-
states to local activity. With globalisation, however, specifically advances in information,
communication and transportation technology, these constraints are being released. Now
many federal states no longer speak with a single voice in the international sphere but have
multiple, legitimate governmental voices speaking and competing on behalf of different
sub-state constituencies. Whilst globalisation enables sub-states become increasingly
internationally active, national-states can be observed taking actions that seem counter to
globalisation. Specifically: limiting ceding power to international bodies (such as the UN)
by refusing to sign international agreements; and tightening border control policies. Here,
it is argued that this results from federal national-states reflexively tightening their control

over those areas in which they have unquestioned authority – border control and
international agreements – in response to their growing „irrelevance‟ in economic and
information exchanges, which can now be undertaken as easily by sub-states.

School of Political and International Studies
Flinders University
South Australia

David Christoffer Lier
Going Global/Going Social: theoretical and practical challenges for community
Community unionism has received increasing attention in the social sciences. This paper
examines two different, yet related, approaches to community-oriented union strategies.
Firstly, general analyses of labour and globalization highlight how changing conditions in
the world of work require workers and trade unions to develop new social and scalar
strategies in order to regain organizational strength and articulate effectively their political
agenda. Secondly, an emerging case study-based literature within human geography
exemplifies how community unionism represents diverse responses to place-specific
processes of economic restructuring. While the former approach calls for labour to join
forces with social movements across national borders, the latter focuses on particular cases
of workers and communities organizing jointly around the scales of the urban labour
market, the local state or the neighbourhood. By contrasting these two strands of literature,
this paper explores the possibilities to establish an analytical framework for understanding
worker-community interaction.

School of Environment & Development
University of Manchester
Mansfield Cooper Building
Oxford Road
Manchester M13 9PL
United Kingdom

Dominic Pasura
The Zimbabwean diaspora: a significant market niche for the tourism industry.
There is a consensus in both the public domain and academic circles that Zimbabwe, a
Southern African nation, is in a state of cataclysm. The political violence and economic
meltdown that beset Zimbabwe from the early 1990s compelled an estimated 4 million
people to embark on a major wave of migration (voluntary and involuntary). This has
created an incipient Zimbabwean diaspora and exile community in neighbouring countries
and beyond (Bloch, 2006, Ncube et al., 2004), a phenomenon still under-researched.
As a result of the political stalemate and the near economic collapse, Zimbabwe‟s tourism
industry has witnessed significant declines in regional and overseas tourist arrivals in recent
years. It is within this context that this paper seeks to answer the following question: To
what extent can the new Zimbabwean diaspora be targeted on tackling the collapsing

tourism industry? Informed by theories from the fields of migration, diaspora and feminist
studies, and drawing upon my multi-sited ethnographic research on the Zimbabwean
diaspora in the UK, this research argue that the embryonic Zimbabwean diaspora offers an
opportunity of revamping the tourism industry. Diaspora tourism is a significant market
niche within which the Zimbabwean government need to explore and design policies and
strategies that market tourism products to its scattered citizens around the globe.
Zimbabwean migrants who reside abroad may serve as the primary source of tourism. The
lack of such policy reflects not only government neglect but also a lost opportunity.

University of Warwick
Department of Sociology
United Kingdom

Eliza Gaffney
Globalization and Rawlsian Political Theory: the methodological problems
presented by globalization for state-based theories of justice.
Literature on globalization, and literature on theories of justice often have similar aims, but
they rarely draw from each other. The aim in both areas may frequently be the construction
of a fairer society, but both sets of literature work from different assumptions. While
transcendence of a state-centric perspective is a key objective for globalization scholars,
political theory takes little if any regard of the fundamental substantive changes occurring
within global society, even though such changes seem to be regarded as politically,
economically and socially important in most disciplines in the social sciences. This paper
will attempt to unpack the problems that globalization creates for liberal political theory by
focussing on two things: the elevated role of private governance within global society and
the decreased relevance of territory as an organising principle in contemporary global social
relations. From a Rawlsian perspective, the requirements of justice apply to public
institutions within a bounded territory. Anything that occurs outside that sphere is not
relevant to a theory of justice. In this sense, justice beyond the state is deemed to be justice
between states. Yet Rawls also argues that justice applies to institutions that have a deep and
profound effect upon peoples‟ lives. Contemporary intensified processes of globalization
result in global institutions and actors (such as global companies, global NGOs, global
regulatory bodies) having an important effect on peoples lives, yet such behaviour falls
outside of the purview of a liberal political theory of justice. For liberal theories of justice
to remain relevant to the emergent debate on global justice, it is argued that the
implications of globalizing processes ought to be taken into account.

Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation (CSGR)
University of Warwick
Coventry CV4 7AL
United Kingdom

Kelvin E.Y. Low
Beyond the red head scarves: reflections on the Samsui women in Singapore.
In (re)productions of social memories and (his)tories, the experiences of women in general
are either obliterated or scant, perhaps suffering from what is termed as „organised
amnesia‟. Here, an attempt is made to consciously insert the voices of women to show
how such consideration merits attention, as the ways in which memories and histories
become configured, requires a re-evaluation of what is deemed as important for the
collective, and for the state. By proposing that attention be given to a group of women
who are visibly absent in many (his)torical accounts of Singapore, namely the samsui women
– Chinese migrant female construction workers who toiled in the construction industry
during the early 1900s in Singapore, I thereby demonstrate (1) the importance of moving
beyond Eurocentric and Androcentric stances on the transmission of (his)tory; (2) a need
to recognise „commonfolks‟ in redressing the (short) (his)tory of Singapore; and (3) argue
for the importance of life stories as a powerful epistemological tool with which social science
ventures can benefit tremendously in locating, through individual and group lived
experiences, interconnections between the individual actor and larger society, as well as
how social events/forces impact upon individuals. I also locate the myriad ways in which
these women are represented in public discourse to demonstrate how their identities as
migrant workers have been appropriated into the local scene as embodying what I term as
„pioneer narratives‟. These narratives, I argue, form part of the identity formation process
of the nation-state of Singapore, for purposes of heritage management. The paper
concludes by reminding that instead of a need to produce women‟s (her)storia as a separate
discursive field, we should look towards including women‟s experiences within (his)tory in
general, thereby acknowledging their presence in the transmission and productions of
social, gender and class memories.

Faculty of Sociology
University of Bielefeld

Emma Briant
Anglo-American relations in contemporary wartime propaganda and
information operations.
Propaganda plays a significant role in both the relationship between Britain and America
and the increasingly intertwined nature of their foreign policy. This paper is based on
research which attempts to bridge the gap between the body of work on the Anglo-
American Relationship and existing propaganda literature such as Ellul (1973), analysing
the development of domestic and international propaganda strategies. It demonstrates
increasing integration between the British and American propaganda apparatus and seeks
to stimulate debate around the issues this raises. The paper discusses the evolution of
propaganda strategy across the Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) conflicts, establishing to
what extent this reflects a common trend in propaganda strategy development. It will draw
primarily on elite interviews conducted at 15th Army PSYOPS group, Britain‟s
psychological operations capability, several journalists and Ministry of Defence media
operations officials. From this research, the first stages of a useful propaganda model that
incorporates notions of international relations and foreign policy, acknowledging the

balance of power, has emerged. The model integrates propaganda theory with an analysis
of the Anglo-American relationship linking to recent work in this area (Dumbrell (2003)
and Sharp (2003) for example). It prompts discussion of how much co-operation and
cross-cultural information strategy accounts for British and American foreign policy
objectives. This model demonstrates that increasing co-operation in the wartime
propaganda used in theatre, domestically and in coalition-building form an important yet
neglected aspect of Anglo-American relations.

Department of Sociology, Anthropology & Applied Social Sciences
Adam Smith Building
University of Glasgow
Glasgow G12 8QQ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)141 339 8855 Ext. 0449

Fidelma Murphy
The social structures of accumulation in global terms – an investigation of the
new SSA through emergent capital/labour relations in Mexico‟s maquiladora
auto industry.
This paper considers the applicability of the Social Structures of Accumulation (SSA)
framework at a global level through an investigation of the new SSA and its connection
across boundaries as evidenced in evolving capital/labour relations. Relevant to our
concern with emerging globalization, the SSA framework has been applied at differing
spatial scales with the spatialization school placing special emphasis on the manner in
which SSAs produce differential results at more local levels in explainable ways. However,
the SSA framework has been unclear as to whether or not it can be applied at larger, more
global scales. Numerous authors now speak of the current SSA in global terms. The
contribution of this paper is to examine the role of capital/labour relations in connecting
this new SSA across borders. Through an exploration of Mexican maquiladoras the paper
addresses the particular character of capital/labour relations that acts as an essential link
tying the local social structures of the maquiladora auto industry to the global one.

Department of Economics
NUI – Galway

Gale T.C. Rigobert
The continuing relevance of structuralism in assessing prospects for Caribbean
development in the new techno-economic paradigm.
The paper addresses the problem of uneven development in the current techno-economic
paradigm. The use of World-Systems methodology underscores the need to adopt a global
perspective in understanding contemporary political and social change. Developing
countries striving to enhance their competitiveness in the global economy are faced with
fundamental dilemmas. They must participate fully in the global economy, though not as

equal partners. The theoretical perceptions outlined in this paper, provide fertile ground to
engage in what is inherently a multi dimensional study of the new techno economic
paradigm, with ICTs at its center. Hence the paper argues that the current dogmatic
postulations about the potentialities of ICTs are ill-founded, and are but echoes of a
groundless optimism tainted with universalistic neo-liberal notions of technological change
and development. The paper, therefore, examines how the structure of the capitalist world-
system affects the developmental choices of peripheral regions, such as the Caribbean.

Department of Behavioural Sciences,
The University of the West Indies,
St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
West Indies

George Holmes
The relevance of theories of everyday forms of resistance to understanding
resistance to protected areas.
This paper aims to construct a framework to understand how environmental regulation, in
particular protected areas and national parks, are resisted. It concentrates on Scott‟s notion
of everyday resistance, but it considers how protest against environmental regulation differs
from other forms of resistance commonly studied. Resistance to conservation is found to
be much more overt, favouring acts that involve the resource being protected, rather than
hidden transcript type acts. It is shaped not only by the socio-political circumstances in
which it occurs, but also by the material properties of the resources being protected. This
makes the evidence used to justify observations about resistance to conservation much
more reliable than other forms of resistance.

Institute for Development Policy and Management
Environment and Society Research Group
University of Manchester
United Kingdom

Helene Snee
The global gap year: youth travel, capital and self-improvement.
Academic interest in the „gap year‟ has lagged behind the growth in the numbers of young
people apparently engaged in the activity and the increased public and government profile
of gap year opportunities. Nevertheless, a gap year literature is emerging, which aims to
examine the phenomenon as a subject in its own right, with links to the study of tourism,
developmental geography and the sociology of education. The following review of recent
work in this area aims to offer a constructive critique in order to identify possibilities for
theoretical and empirical development of gap year research. The issues identified are then
used as a framework to examine the motivations, reflections and stories of two gap year
participants as recorded on their internet „blogs‟.

Department of Sociology
University of Manchester

Ian R. Cook
Internationalizing urban policies „that work‟: the policy transfer of US business
improvement districts to England and Wales.
From Baltimore‟s Harborplace redevelopment to Barcelona‟s management of the 1992
Olympic Games, selected urban policies are heralded by policymakers elsewhere as
„models‟ to emulate. Yet, surprisingly, the processes and mechanisms involved in selecting,
modelling and mobilizing urban policies have rarely been examined by academics. In light
of this, this paper examines the processes and mechanisms through which one
internationalizing urban policy, the Business Improvement District (BID), has spread into
England and Wales. It reveals the plethora of trans-Atlantic public and private actors and
institutions involved in the mobilization of „good practice‟ models and examples from
particular East Coast US BIDs. Particular attention is paid to the framing of BIDs as a
solution to domestic policy problems; the ad hoc evaluation and emulation methodologies
used; and how and why examples of „successful‟ US BIDs are used as discursive
legitimization tools by English and Welsh policymakers.

School of Environment & Development
University of Manchester
Mansfield Cooper Building
Oxford Road
Manchester M13 9PL
United Kingdom

Ines Jemric
Impact of globalisation on Croatian national identity. Analysis of attitudes of
Croatian student population.
This paper is based on the results of empiric research The Impact of Globalization on Cultural
and/or National Identity, conducted in May 2005, using polling on the sample of student
population (N=433) on different faculties of the University in Zagreb. On the basis of the
results of this research, the author analyses the issue of national identity and national pride
of student population in modern Croatian society. The aim of the research was to find out
attitudes of student population towards: Croatian nation; openness to the influence of
other cultures; constitutive elements of national identification; and sources of national
The basic hypothesis in this paper is that in the modern Croatian society the young incline
towards a modernist stream that is shown, above all, in the diminishment of national
identification and openness towards Europe.
The results have shown that the young within the student population are opening towards
the world and the impact of other cultures, but, at the same time, they feel strongly about
keeping their national values and sense of national affiliation. Analysis has also shown that
territorial affiliation is multidimensional. The part of the survey related to national pride has
shown that the young are proud of their Croatian nation and nationality, but that they do
not have illusions about it and take critical stand towards their own nation, which one can
expect from young people. The main constitutive elements of national pride are
achievements in arts, sports, national history and scientific and technological achievements.

College of Business & Management «Baltazar Adam Krčelić»

Irina Stanciugelu
Emergency communication and messages‟ challenge theoretical insights.
The purpose of this research is to construct a theoretical analysis matrix as tool for activity
of persuasive messages building, using new developments in the field of social psychology
and communication studies. The theoretical framework for this research is risk
communication and we take as started point the analysis of the Consolidated
Communication-Human Information Processing (C-HIP) Model (Wogalter 1999). During
the analysis‟ process, it become clear the importance of the attitude, believes and social
context for the effectiveness of the risk communication process. Two new theoretical
model bring insights over this issue: the Mucchielli‟s influence model (in the field of
communication studies) and the tensor product model (TPM) developed by Kashima and
Lewis in the field of social psychology (Mucchielli 2000, Kashima and Lewis, 2000). Using
findings of these models, we construct a theoretical matrix that use as message building‟s
tool the altercasting technique as influence tactic. (Pratkanis, 2000). The predictive power
of this matrix is verified in the field of emergency communication, using as factual
background the disaster mythology.

College of Communication and Public Relations
State University of Political and Administrative Sciences
Povernei 6-8 Street, Sector 1
Tel/fax: +40 21 318 08 81

Karla Combres
Canadian multiculturalism: a successful model?
Canada is one of the world‟s most ethnically and culturally diverse countries. Besides the
Aboriginal peoples and the original European settlers, Canada‟s diversity continues to be
enriched by newcomers from all over the globe. Canada‟s official multiculturalism policy
was designed to encourage full participation of all citizens in national life, while retaining
their ethnic identities. Advocates of multiculturalism insist that group-differentiated rights
help to establish social unity by ensuring that minorities enjoy equal access to Canada‟s
main institutions. Critics charge that multiculturalism weakens national unity and serves to
further marginalize groups through ethnic group designations. In this paper, I argue that
this policy represents the best model for managing diversity put forward to date by a
multinational, polyethnic country. And, although other countries may learn some lessons
from Canada‟s experience, this paper draws attention to the unique conditions in Canada
that have facilitated the relative success of its multiculturalism model.

Department of Sociology
Middle East Technical University


Kwesi Asabir
Migration of health professionals from Ghana and its Impact on the health
delivery Services (MTI).
The health workforce in Ghana is estimated at a total of about 43,000 and this is
considered quite inadequate to meet health service delivery for 20 million people living in
Ghana. This situation is continually being exacerbated by a massive migration of the health
workers. Efforts by the remaining health professionals, irrespective of the severe resource
constraints to achieve targets of public health and institutional development are probably
not making an impact. The Ghana Health Sector may therefore be experiencing a human
resource crisis and if the problems and current trends continue, Ghana may not be able to
achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to
critically examine the causes of the migration in Ghana and its impact on the health
delivery services.
Consequently, the paper identified „pull‟ and „push‟ factors that generally enhance migration
in Ghana. In view of the „pull‟ factors, relatively higher wages paid to health workers as well
as better conditions of services in the developed countries encourage the health staff to
migrate. Again, the „push‟ factors constitute poor conditions of services in Ghana together
with low wages paid to the health staff. The resultant impact of the migration is seen to be
on the vulnerable in the society, in addition to deprived and rural areas. However,
remittances from migrate to their country of origin; acquisition of knowledge on the use of
modern equipment and improvement of professional competencies from the developed
countries is generally seen as some of the positive impacts of migration. These are
especially beneficial when the emigrants return back to Ghana to put into practice the
knowledge and experience they acquired.

Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM)
University of Manchester
United Kingdom

Lígia Sofia Alves Passos Ferro
Transnationality and diversity in the practice of graffiti.
Here are some sociological results originated in a comparative ethnographic research on
the practice of graffiti in Barcelona (Spain) and in Porto (Portugal), carried out in 2003 and
2004. By focusing feminine participation in the social practice of graffiti and by considering
the contemporary cultural globalizing tendencies we came to find that there are emerging
trends pointing towards an structured (sub)field of the practice of graffiti, that in turn
results in an increase diversification of ways of doing , of social interaction patterns and,
generally, of social relations concerning the practice of graffiti. Thus, both homogenization
and heterogenization tendencies seem to coexist in social and cultural practices such as

Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa (ISCTE)
Avenida das Forças Armadas, Edifício ISCTE
1649 – 026 Lisboa


M. Aynul Islam
Governance and institutions in Bangladesh: impact of Globalization.
Political scientists and development thinkers in Bangladesh are increasingly turning their
attention to the problem of governance. The donors‟ community took the leading role in
popularizing this phenomenon albeit with poor conceptions and ontological limitations. In
this paper, I would attempt to explain governance and institutional context in Bangladesh
in two distinct historical phases in order to understand the linkage between governance and
institutions in the changed context of domestic and global politics. This is also an attempt
to distinguish the issues of changes and continuity in governance as well as institutional
context between the two crucial historical phases. The issue of governance remained a
neglected area in the 1970s and 1980s when the paramount focus was placed on planning,
control and the policy environment. It was widely held that the distorted policy
environment was the fundamental cause behind the economic backwardness of
Bangladesh. „Good‟ policies were deemed necessary to ensure effective functioning of
national organizations. This has not resulted in desired socio-economic development in the
country that led to the dysfunctional institutions and poor governance as the major
bottlenecks behind the continuing poor performance of national economy. The post-
1990s era has been marked by changes more in the context of national policies,
organizations and ideological orientation than the institutional settings and governance
mechanisms of the country. The changes in political institutional arrangements are
exceedingly slow. Whereas the new trends of governance exclusively denotes network
governance interactive and institutional perspectives with coordination, the governance
characteristics of Bangladesh in the political domain remain almost unchanged in the
present era although new institutions are created. Political centre of gravity towards making
government institutions more accountable and more effective is not viewed from the
operational perspective. Due to the absence of dynamic institutional arrangements based
on both formal and informal rules and norms in the society there has not been effective
harmonization and coordination of economic, political and social activities in the country.
The full-scale devolution with transfer of resources and power to democratically
represented institutions, empowered complaint and regulatory mechanism, functional and
coordinated programs can take into account of the comparative advantage and could led to
the better performance of governance in Bangladesh. Nevertheless, despite the conflicting
scenarios marked by the diverse elements of change and continuity, the overall trend is
towards further change.

Bangladesh Institute of International & Strategic Studies
1/46, Old Elephant Road

Marco Ambrosio
Brush and Paper, The Hammer and The Sickle; tools for a stroller in the Era
of Digital re-production.
The purpose of this project is to identify the urban popular culture of the two major
Chinese cities: Beijing and Shanghai. While Chinese culture has conventionally been
regarded as being in opposition to western culture, this research aims to present it as an
emerging „icon‟ at national and international level. The use of Shanghai and Beijing for
analysis and comparison illustrates their simultaneously growing, yet differing roles. On the
one hand local government and developers are pursuing goals that embrace “international”
ideals and reflect an ambition to situate China as a major cultural force in the world. On the
other, urban dwellers have less say in the changes to their everyday life. Nonetheless they
are the principal protagonists of city living and representative of the local Chinese culture.
In this respect the purpose of this paper is to assess the methodology for such a project. I
considered it appropriate to conduct an ethnographic study with repetitive stays in the two
cities. This will draw from the Benjamin‟s flaneur approach, as a descriptive account (
Featherstone 1998, Pieke 1996) and a continuous photo recollection, which will offer
snapshots of citizens‟ everyday actions (Dutton 1998, Broudehoux 2004). I will present an
account of previous fieldwork outcomes as ground for debate on the validity of use of both
photography and observations. These methods might then be argued in relation to notions
of order and disorder, which are fundamental in the theme of this research. While photos
might arguably represent the disorderly events of a city, observation and further methods
such as interviews and other secondary materials, might make an “orderly” sense of them.

Manchester Metropolitan University
Geoffrey Manton Building
Rosamond Street West
Manchester M15 6LL
United Kingdom

Marco Caselli
Integration, participation, identity: immigrant associations in the province of
The paper presents some results from a multi-year research project on immigrant
associations in the province of Milan, Italy. This subject of analysis was selected for
two different reasons: firstly the conviction that immigrant associations can play a
crucial role in the integration of immigrants into the host society; secondly the
realization that this phenomenon has to date been little studied, at least as far as Italy is
concerned.The analysis yields numerous issues for reflection and recurrent features of
particular significance. The first is the fact that, for all the associations surveyed, their
main goal and the essential reason for their existence was the desire to integrate their
community of membership into the host society. However, such integration did not
consist in a desire to be assimilated into Italian society, quite the opposite: the majority
of the associations studied were wholly committed to maintaining – and sometimes
rediscovering – the identity and culture of their reference community. Moreover, a very

large proportion of the immigrants belonging to the associations intended to return to
their homelands; and it was for the benefit of those homelands that many of the
associations directed their activities. The second main feature is that immigrant
associations are crucial nodes in a dense network of relations involving numerous actors
of very different kinds: the immigrants themselves, other immigrant associations, third-
sector organizations, and the local authorities. The third and final important issue
concerns the representativeness of immigrant associations: whether, that is, they can be
considered the legitimate representatives of the community of membership.

Dipartimento di Sociologia
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Largo Gemelli, 1
20123 – Milano
Tel: +39 02 7234 3972

Maria João Militão Ferreira
The Externalisation of European internal security: a study into the effects of the
security continuum discourse in the politisation of the immigration risk within
the European Union.
Historical sociology authors, when analysing state formation, observe an interrelation
between external boundary building and internal structuring (Rokkan, 1975). Through the
period of nation building ideological divisions gradually replaced the internal fractures
inside state borders (Caramani, 2004), in such a way that conflict became focused not on
territorial but on a functional, institutional and sectoral differences. A fully integrated
political system presents a low level of territorial specialisation (Egeberg, 2004). Here lies
the importance of studying the European cooperation in the home affairs domain mainly
the external dimension of the creation of the European area of Freedom, Security and
Justice.My general question is: may the security continuum discourse, upheld by police and
military state elites, conduct to the replacement of territorial cleavages by ideological ones
inside European Union borders?In order to tackle these issues, I have been focusing my
work upon European immigration politics.
My specific research questions are: 1) what are the major obstacles surrounding the
implementation of a comprehensive European immigration policy? 2) Is immigration being
securitised at EU level? In order to answer to these questions, I‟m studying how member-
states, European institutions (specifically the European Commission), economic
entrepreneurs and non-governmental organisations construct and reify the linkage between
immigration/asylum and terrorism, specifically in terms of risk politisation, and how that
translates into policy-making at European Union level. The prominence of these actors has
been demonstrated by preliminary policy tracing (Favell, 1998, Lodge, 2002, Guiraudon,
2003). My purpose is to combine a sociological approach to europeanisation with cultural
theories, specifically the grid-group cultural theory, in an attempt to understand the
interplay between cultural contexts and socialization mechanisms in Europe. I intend to
explore in what ways grid-group cultural theory can be used, as a heuristic device, to frame
policy outcomes in the external dimension of the European Space of Freedom, Security
and Justice.

Faculty of Social & Political Sciences
Technical University of Lisbon

Maria-Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez
Social responsibility networks (SRN) and glocalisation of social structures of
accumulation (SSA).
As a consequence of the demands for responsible business social and environmental
behaviour by civil society actors and organisations in consumer markets, the establishment
and development of matrix of norms and institutions for legitimisation and accountability
of firms‟ practices with both local and transnational representation has been stimulated.
Social and environmental market entry regulations enforce a systematic approach for
economic growth and employability of civil society across value chains and production
networks. The interconnectedness of the local and the global due to the evolution of
information and communication technologies has facilitated the development of
transnational networks; hence the processes of representation of economically and socially
marginalised groups on consumer markets. The replication of transnational dynamics in
local scenes; and the traceable impact on individuals of global changes, requires social
responsibility networks for the co-evolution and integration of diverse forms socio-
economic integration.
Productive wealth creation in society as a social, political and ideological process requires
for its understanding a mapping of its social structures of accumulation (SSA). This paper
uses concepts from SSA theory to describe the emerging social responsibility networks
(SNR), and illustrate this with a case study within the global banana industry.

Centre for Innovation & Structural Change
Cairnes School of Business & Public Policy
National University of Ireland, Galway

Mariam Maynert
Structuring of Modern, Postmodern Identity – Pedagogical and Research Issues.
This paper consists of two distinct parts. The former being an attempt to eclecticize the
discourses around identity and the structuring of identity under modern and postmodern
conditions. The latter consisting of reflections on the pedagogical implications in a
multicultural social situation. Several discourses intersect in defining the concept of identity.
Identity is an important aspect of the human quest for understanding the self. Identity
means or connotes the process of identification, but the structure of identification is
constructed through ambivalence – through splitting between that which is and that which
is the other (Hall, 1991). Modernist discourses emphasis the static, stable essentialized self
(inherent in the concept of the free and self-determining individual) and the coherence of
subjectivity and the notion of identity. Within modernist discourse, one of the functions of
culture is to give a sense of „identity‟ and form a world view (way of looking at life). Here

the attempt has been to distinguish „self ‟ from the „other ‟, and „we‟ from „they‟, between those
who understand and not understand the internal meanings of the system. One may belong
to several cultures as identities develop over a period of time.
In contrast postmodernist discourses challenge the fiction of the self-determining subject
of modern discourses and the inflated conception of human reason and will. The notion of
subjectivity as in the humanist notion of free, unified, stable and coherent is deconstructed
and the notion of subjectivity, that is multilayered and non-unitary is brought in. In the
post-structuralist theory of subjectivity, ideology is seen not as a false consciousness but as
an effort to make sense in a world of contradictory information, radical contingency and
indeterminancies (Spivak, 1987). Here the notion of the identity of a person or a group gets
produced simultaneously in many different locales of activities by different agents for many
different purposes. Identities are continually displaced and replaced. The subject is neither
unified nor fixed, occupying conflicting subject positions. As plural social agents get
involved in a variety of struggles and social movements, the issue of identity then becomes
a crucial focus of political struggle.
Johnson (1986-87) and Grossberg (1987) give a post-post-structuralist account of
subjectivity and reject postmodernism´s tendency to reify a fractured, fragmented, schizoid
subject and attempt to produce coherence and continuity in the notion of self, despite
being subjected to regimes of meaning – a discourse Lather (1991) calls „fictions of the subject‟
or „subjected subjects‟. According to her, regardless of where one positions oneself,
postmodernism raises compelling questions regarding emancipatory efforts. The politics of
liberation are questions as central categories in identity politics - as race, class, gender and
sexual orientation are seen as constantly being produced anew with different and
compelling discourses – more fluid and drifting than had previously been assumed by
reproduction theorists. In this paper, I shall try to trace the different discourses related to
the notion of identity and try to link the concepts of identity and ethnicity in order to
develop a rationale for pedagogical implications for a multicultural society.

Department of Pedagogy
Psychology and Didactics
University of Gävle
Gävle SE 80176

Mark Walker
Youth in international development institutions.
Young people are considered to be important stakeholders in development because it is a
long-term process and because they constitute the largest part of the population in
developing countries (Schnurr and Grant 1999). Research in Western societies reveals that
historical and contemporary legal and cultural conditions have produced particular
conceptualisations of young people that lead to sub-optimal political, social and economic
outcomes both for individual young people and for wider society (e.g. Bessant 2004; Brown
1998; Buckingham 1998; Giroux 1994, 1996; Lesko 2001; Marsh 2003; Mortimer et al.
1996). Problematic conceptualisations of young people are also evident in international
development discourse and this implies that through their policies influential development
organisations can thus be either reinforcing or creating problematic approaches towards
young people in developing countries.
This paper draws on both critical Western literature on representations of young people,
and on development narrative theory to provide a theoretical critique of dominant

conceptualisations of young people within two key Western led international development
organisations (the United Nations and the World Bank) and academic research, and then
extends this examination to the National Youth Policy of the Ugandan government. The
findings challenge received wisdom about the ways in which young people are currently
framed and approached in development and raise questions about the conduct of Western
led development and its impact in developing countries.

International & Rural Development Department
University of Reading
Earley Gate, Whiteknights Road
PO Box 237
Reading RG6 6AR
United Kingdom
Tel: ++44 (0)118 378 8225
Fax: ++44 (0)118 926 1244

Masoud Mohammadi Alamuti
The concept of globalization and the methodology of globalization studies.
Globalization Studies can be viewed as a new field of research in the social sciences, hence
its methodological foundation needs more attention. This paper tends to look at the
methodology of globalization studies from a new angle by searching for a connection
between the concept of globalization and the methodology of globalization studies. To
clarify its own approach towards the methodology of globalization studies, the paper shall
put forward a brief introduction on how the concept of globalization can influence the
methodology for researching globalization. It shall develop, then, its main argument by
focusing on three major evidence in globalization studies to support „the general linkage‟
between the globalization concept and the methodology of globalization studies. The
evidence include Ronald Robertson‟s approach to globalization as the intensification of the
consciousness of the world as a single place; Leslie Sklair‟s approach to globalization as the
expansion of transnational practices; practices that originate with non-state actors and cross
state borders, and Martin Shaw‟s approach to globalization as the development of global
social relations. At the end, the paper will be focused on potential outcomes of redefining
globalization as „the development of a global society‟ for the methodology of globalization studies,
a redefining of globalization which is the main target of my PhD Research.

School of Geography, Politics and Sociology
University of Newcastle upon Tyne
United Kingdom

Monica Guillen Royo
Are poor consumers getting what they need? An exploration of expenditures on
health autonomy in a Peruvian slum.
This paper investigates how poor households‟ expenditures aimed at satisfying basic needs
meet or fail to meet the goals towards which they are directed. Contrary to more
„satisfaction based‟ approaches this paper relates consumer‟s wellbeing to the fulfilment of

an objective list of basic needs derived from theoretical approaches to human need that
have been confronted using primary research in a shanty town of Lima.
Participants in the exploratory research in the Peruvian slum identified components of the
good life that were quite close to the list of universal intermediate needs of Doyal and
Gough‟s (1991) Theory of Human Needs. People would view the good life as leading to
physical health and autonomy so they could participate fully in their own society. Achieving
physical health and autonomy was also driving their priorities of expenditure which were
mainly food, utilities, clothes, health and education.
Slum dwellers expenditures on consultation fees, medicines and vitamin supplements did
not show to be making a significant difference to people‟s health. Lack of understanding of
the illness and treatments, together with the price of medicines would discourage people
from completing their cure. Moreover, the increasing popularity of private surgeries and
vitamin supplements were resulting in more money spent on health care but not necessarily
better health outcomes.
Having good family relations was seen as a basic need in the slum. People would feel
reassured and confident to participate in society if their families were united. The case of
Ruth showed how for poor households trying to maintain good family relationships
through consumption has great opportunity costs in terms of basic needs. Her
expenditures on electric appliances were reducing the money she could devote to food and
were undermining her already precarious health.
This exploratory work highlights the risks of taking increases of consumption as an
indicator of development. Analysing how basic needs satisfiers work and whether or not
they succeed in meeting the needs they aim at might be a better alternative to approaching
consumption in poor communities.

(WeD) ESRC Research Group
3E 2.1, University of Bath
Bath BA2 7AY
United Kingdom
Tel: 01225 384525

Nicholas Ozor
Barriers to effective privatization and commercialization of agricultural extension
service in Nigeria: the perception of extension professionals.
Increasing private sector participation in the delivery and funding of agricultural extension
service in Nigeria has not recorded any meaningful success since the public enterprise
decree of 1999 which established the privatization and commercialization (P&C) of public
enterprises commenced its operation in year 2000. This failure is not unconnected with
numerous barriers that block the participation of private sectors in service provision and
funding. This study ascertains the perception of extension professionals on why P&C of
extension service has not succeeded in Nigeria and further proffers the way forward. The
study was carried out in Enugu state of Nigeria. All the 62 field extension workers and 55
extension administrators in the state were selected for the study. Percentage scores, mean
scores and exploratory factor analysis were used in realizing the objectives. Results show
that the professionals have high knowledge of the concepts of P&C of extension service. It
further shows that the major barriers to P&C of extension service in Nigeria are: unstable
government policies and regulations; misconception of private agencies; and poor
economic environment. Defining clearly the scope of P&C adopted and ensuring

employees‟ job security among others were paramount in achieving successful P&C of
extension service. The study concludes that the extent to which P&C of extension service
can succeed largely depends on how the identified barriers are properly addressed by the
stakeholders. It recommends a situational analysis involving all the major stakeholders in
extension to fashion out best practices for a successful implementation of the reform

Nicholas Ozor
Roles and impacts of agricultural biotechnology on developing societies.
Agriculture is asked to satisfy two apparently contradictory needs – to become more
productive and at the same time more sustainable; that is, to supply the food needed
without depleting renewable resources. While agricultural biotechnology holds enormous
promise for significantly increasing food production and relieving already strained land and
water resources in most developing societies, it has become an emotional issue creating the
strongest sense of unease and resistance among some consumers, developing-country
farmers, environmental groups and some societies. As the science continues to be
developed it clearly presents opportunities, challenges and impacts to participants
throughout the food chain. This study reviews the food and fibre situations in developing
societies so as to understand the roles which agricultural biotechnology could play therein.
It further examined its challenges and impacts on developing societies with a view to
providing a critical assessment of situations by which any government can utilize for policy
decisions on the technology. Among the challenges elicited are: leadership problems, poor
funding of research and development (R&D), lack of research focus and infrastructure, and
inadequate human capacity. The impacts of agricultural biotechnology that were examined
include; safety problems, substitutability effect, widening income gap (inequality),
exploitation of rich indigenous resources, less attention to R&D of interest to developing
societies and other burning ethical issues. The paper concludes with the recommendation
that individual countries need to identify their specific national priorities and preferences in
food production, and harness the growing body of science and innovations in genetic
engineering to address specific issues.

International and Rural Development Department
School of Agriculture, Policy and Development
Faculty of Life Sciences
University of Reading
United Kingdom

Nicole Parris
Third World development and the misplaced metaphor.
An assessment of the „Third World‟ experience with the „development project‟ suggests
that its dismal record can be attributed to the externally defined, contextually inappropriate
and largely implicitly accepted epistemology on which the concept of development is
Notions of “underdevelopment” and “development” were the discursive products of the
post-World War II period, introduced in Point Four of President Truman‟s 1949 inaugural

address by which he extended technical assistance already granted to parts of Latin
America to „poorer‟ countries. Quoting Truman (in Gilbert, 2002),

“Fourth, we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific
advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of
underdeveloped areas … This should be a cooperative enterprise in which all nations work
together through the UN and its specialized agencies whenever practicable. It must be a
worldwide effort for the achievement of peace, plenty and freedom … what we envisage is
a program of development based on democratic fair dealing.”

Truman‟s use here of the word „underdeveloped‟ was indeed a terminological innovation(in
Gilbert, 2002), for not only did it provide an alternative term of reference for economically
backward countries but also, it simultaneously altered the meaning of development. While
prior to Point Four, the term development was used to connote an intransitive state, as in
Lenin‟s The Development of Capitalism in Russia, with the innovation of the word
„underdeveloped,‟ development acquired agency, and rather than things simply developing,
things could be developed, underdeveloped states were not trapped in their „backwardness‟
but could be brought into modernity(in Gilbert, 2002). Even as these innovations brought
about a change in the management of international relations, such change occurred on US‟s
terms, serving as an effective tool in discrediting colonialism, legitimizing intervention and
in a burgeoning bipolar context, spreading capitalism and democracy across the globe. The
institutionalization of development in the UN system ensured that it became a major
project across the globe securing aid and growth in the Third World

The University of the West Indies
St. Augustine Campus
The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
West Indies
Tel: 1-868-7097234

Noorman Abdullah
Decentring and re-opening the social sciences: a „north-south‟ interface on the
state of research and knowledge production in the global academic arena.
It is often recognised, though rarely admitted overtly, that the state of knowledge
production in the social sciences or what is framed as „relevant‟ knowledge within
academic cultures of learning, research and teaching is intimately tied to the global concept
of what is „marketable‟. Closely associated with this are opportunities for research funding,
graduate scholarship awards, the employment of research and university staff, and so forth.
These are largely contingent on the effectiveness of their terms of reference, which more
often than not, either needs to accommodate to the largely „global‟ corporate objectives of
ruling governments or to the models that are especially regarded pertinent in North
American or „Western‟ institutions. In spite of the fact that colonialism sporadically lingers
over the fate of many undeveloped and developed countries in the non-West, its effects
continue to be felt in many institutions, including academic and knowledge structures in
these countries. I argue that what is lacking in these contexts, following scholars such as
Alatas and Sinha who call for what are now broadly termed „alternative discourses‟, is an
autonomous social science tradition, which is created and expanded by local scholars, and
directed by the selection of problems and relevances from within. More crucially, the

concepts of imitation, relevance and emulation need to be called into question and linked
to the global power structures in academia. These procedures of normalisation become
ingrained and internalised as everyday practices, and are concomitantly disseminated
through learning, teaching and research structures in non-Western universities. This is not
a call to reject „Western‟ social science, but to generate and reflexively re-think the
knowledge interfaces between the local and global.

Faculty of Sociology
University of Bielefeld

Olga Alexeeva
The increasing flood of Chinese tourists in France: a new source of illegal
The number of Chinese tourists visiting France had greatly increased since the Beijing‟s
decision in February 2004 to add France to its authorized destination status (ADS) list. If
in 2004 France had attracted 400 000 Chinese travelers, in 2005 that number was nearly
doubled. However, French government is becoming increasingly worried that risks could
outweigh the benefits and that large groups of Chinese tourists could arrive in the country,
and then simply disappear. In the past, Chinese tourists had to apply for a special visa for
which a letter of invitation from France was required. Now an approved Chinese travel
agent can submit a list of tourists and quickly get an ADS visa for all of them. This means
that Chinese have no longer to go through a complicated process to go abroad, at the same
time this opens the way to abuse, with travelers staying on as illegal immigrants. The
transnational smuggling criminal organizations had seized this occasion by creating in
China the “fake” tour operators which main activity is to help Chinese seeking to emigrate
in getting passport and ADS visa. Even if the operator was discovered to be operating a
people-trafficking ring, there are no real effective sanctions against such companies. The
main aim of this paper is to describe this new channel of illegal Chinese migration, to
analyze its origins ant its development, as well as to see its social and political consequences
for the host country.

University of Paris VII-Denis Diderot
S.E.D.E.T. Laboratory, 103 - 105
Rue de Tolbiac, Dalle “Les Olympiades”
75013 Paris

Olukemi Ajibike Aluko
Democracy and socio-economic crisis in Africa: the Nigerian experience.
The democratic transition process, which almost all African States have inevitably swung
into since the early 1980s, has made their vulnerability to social and economic crises more
intense. The problems that are concomitants of these transitions, which have exacerbated
the extant socio-economic problems, have been dramatized by the increased level of
poverty, widening income gap, sustained low (negative in many cases) growth rate, etc. in
the African states. Democracy in Africa has thus deepened the contradictions in the

economy and between the weak and the powerful in both absolute and relative terms. This
paper is directed at unraveling these conflicting realities, particularly the implications of the
patterns for overall socio-economic development. A study of Nigeria‟s experiences at
„democratising‟ permits a clearer appreciation of the nature and trends of democracy in
Africa. This is done within the context of the political economy frame work. This paper
argues that, democratization in Africa is one which focuses mainly on economic
deregulation and liberalization while at the same time denying the need for political
decentralization that can give the weak and poor access to the gains of development, and
that, the prebendial nature of politics in Africa makes it an exclusive business for the rich
thus narrowing the possibility for empowerment of the poor people at the long run. It is
our conclusion therefore, that the above contradictions can only be resolved if the right
political context for economic democratization is created, because, in Africa, politics, more
then anything else constraints economic development.

Department of Liberal and Extra Mural Studies
Rufus Giwa Polytechnic
Owo, Ondo State
Tel: +234 803 393 9248

Omar El-Shafei
International Law & Imperialism: the Dialectics of the Legal Form and the
This paper examines the complex, changing and interactive relationship between
international law and imperialism. International law being usually defined in terms of the
legal norms regulating relations between states, the first level of analysis is that of the content
of international law, i.e. its legal norms. Initially forged and deeply influenced by the
colonial expansion of western powers, the norms of international law witnessed a more or
less radical, albeit not ever-lasting, transformation with the advent of decolonization. A
critical examination of legal concepts such as sovereignty and self-determination reveals the
deep ambivalence inherent in international law discourse. The paper tries to make sense of
this ambivalence – and of the concomitant problem of the „correct‟ interpretation of legal
norms – through the insights offered by Myres McDougal‟s understanding of international
law as a process and Martti Koskenniemi‟s theory of the indeterminacy of international law.
These two authors‟ rich insights suggest (but do not fulfill) the need for a second, and
more profound, level of analysis: that of the legal form of international law. Drawing on the
classic and pioneering jurisprudence of Evgeny Pashukanis, I argue that that form is that of
„the struggle of the capitalist states among themselves for domination over the rest of the
world‟. Examining the more recent analyses of Monique Chemillier-Gendreau, Justin
Rosenberg and China Miéville, I try to demonstrate, mainly through selective examples
from the Law of Armed Conflicts, that the violence of imperialism is intrinsically
constitutive of, and constituted by, international law. The paper concludes by briefly
assessing claims that international law is witnessing fundamental change because of a new
regime of „humanitarian‟ interventions.

Université Paris 7 – Denis Diderot
22 rue d‟Arcueil
75014 Paris

Tel: +331 53621658

Özge Aytulun & Gökçe Günel
Microcredit as an instrument of extending the reach of the market: reflections
from Turkey.
The application of microcredit as an instrument of poverty alleviation is a recent
phenomenon in Turkey. This paper argues that through microcredit the poverty alleviation
discourse is being used in order to open up a new market segment to financial institutions.
It is also a part of the neo-liberal governance structure, subjugating the poor to the market
forces. The poor are being reinvented as customers to this new financial product. Drawing
on elite interviews with policy makers and civil society members, and in depth consultation
with primary written sources, this study aims at contributing to the on-going debates by
looking through the Turkish lens.

Özge Aytulun                                   Gökçe Günel
Research and Teaching Assistant                Research and Teaching Assistant
College of Administrative Sciences &           College of Administrative Sciences
Economics                                      & Economics
Koc University                                 Koc University
Turkey                                         Turkey

Rachel S. Owens
The use of mobile phone technology for rural development in sub-Saharan
Three quarters of the world‟s poorest people live in rural areas and it is widely
acknowledged that in order to achieve sustainable social and economic growth in
developing countries, national and international development agencies need to focus their
efforts on these areas. It is recognised that development will not occur without the
empowerment of the poor, in order for them to develop and strengthen their own
institutions (IFAD, 2005). In September 2001, 191 countries signed up to all of the eight
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with the specific aim of reducing poverty by half
in developing countries by 2015. Development agencies around the world focus their
strategies on achieving these goals. However the first progress report published in 2005
showed that most of these goals were not hitting the projected targets in specific regions,
particularly sub-Saharan Africa (UN, 2005). In the same period the growth of mobile
phones in Africa has surpassed landline connectivity and the possibilities for social and
economic development through its use requires researching if the MDGs are to be
achieved by the target date.
This paper will review current literature on development in rural regions specifically
focussing on sub-Saharan Africa, and with particular interest in the use of Information
Communication Technologies (ICTs). Most notably the literature on the growth of and use
of mobile phone technology as an information sharing and communication tool will be
reviewed in relation to social and economic development. The paper is in preparation for
further research to be undertaken in the form of interviews with members of donor
governments, non-government organisations (NGOs), relief agencies and grassroots
organisations working in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the research is to assess the

feasibility and use of mobile phone technology in rural development strategies of these
organisations in Tanzania, Nigeria and South Africa with a view to developing a toolkit for
informing policymakers within these organisations.

Leeds Metropolitan University,
Praxis Centre, Faculty of Innovation North,
Room 205, Priestley Hall,
Headingley Campus,
United Kingdom

Rita D’Ávila Cachado
Poverty political discourse and its effects – Portuguese Hindus between slum and
the social housing estate.
For the last decades social housing policies have been a great focus of debate in many
European countries. Although they have different immigration backgrounds, some of
those countries had to deal with housing problems, as a consequence of high proportions
of immigration at different times. Portuguese politicians and social scientists were
particularly influenced by the French social housing policies experience. Without many
useful urban areas to construct social housing estates, big cities like Lisbon and Oporto
have their quote of multiethnic neighbourhoods with high buildings, lack of social workers,
lack of associations, and too much stereotypes upon them. In this article, I will not focus
on the resemblances and differences between two or more European countries regarding
social housing policies; the article describes a specific urban context: a Portuguese Hindu
community which until recently lived in a so-called slum, but from which a small part of
this community was rehoused in a social housing estate jut in front of the slum. The main
subject at stake in this article will be the poverty political discourses effects in that specific
neighbourhood, and that particular population, and intents to contribute to poverty culture
debates in social sciences.

Urban Anthropology
R. Camara Pestana 25 4-A
2710-546 Sintra
Tel: +351963326974

Sarah Richardson
Globalization and higher education – income or internationalization?
This paper positions the internationalization of higher education as central to the analysis
of globalization and argues that two of the giants of this phenomenon collide in the
approach of universities to international students. It argues that globalization‟s neo-liberal
imperative has cut public-sector funding, forcing universities to make up the shortfall
through recruiting ever-larger numbers of international students. Furthermore, this paper
demonstrates that the cultural forces of globalization have equally compelled universities to
adopt a more international outlook and to increase cultural diversity among their student

bodies. It goes on to argue that these two pressures – market forces and social forces –
create conflicting policies towards international students. It focuses on the situation in
Australia, which is the global test case for the rapid internationalization of higher education
and concludes by addressing the impact of this clash of the giants on the students
themselves and on the choices that universities have to make.

Department of Political Science
University of Melbourne
Tel: +61 3 9345 7240

Shunzo Majima
Civilian Protection in the Framework of Just War Theory: A Critical
In this paper, we will critically assess just war theory in relation to civilian protection. In order
to assess the scope and limitations of just war theory in civilian protection, specifically, we
will critically investigate how civilian protection is envisaged in the framework of just war
theory, which is currently a dominant framework for deliberating and contemplating ethical
issues concerning civilian protection in armed conflict.
This paper is divided into three sections. In the first section, in order to obtain an overall
idea about just war theory, we will consider the definition of just war theory and how the
protection of civilians is considered in the framework of just war theory. Second, in order
to explore how just war theory is not an adequate ethical framework for considering the
issue of civilian protection, we will examine the problem of flexibility and ambiguity of the
principles in the framework of just war theory arising from when these principles used for
the moral judgement on civilian protection are interpreted and applied. Third, in order to
further show the limitation of just war theory as an ethical framework of civilian
protection, we will consider the issue of reparation for the losses of civilian life, injury to
civilians and damages to civilian objects caused as a result of military operations. We will
consider these three issues in turn.

Centre for the Study of Global Ethics
University of Birmingham
Birmingham B15 2TT
United Kingdom

Sylvie Loriaux
Causal Responsibility for World Poverty.
This paper aims at clarifying the idea of “causal responsibility” for world poverty. To this
end, it will look at the present world poverty from the perspective of “rectificatory” justice:
it will highlight the moral character of the acts involved in its genealogy and, on this basis,
try to determine what kind of rectificatory claims, if any, the global poor may have against
the global rich. Of course, rectificatory justice is likely to cover a very broad range of issues,
especially if there are no limits on how far back one may go when deciding to rectify. Yet,

the scope of this paper will be limited to a specific question. So, I will not consider whether
people may be held responsible for actions done by others in the past and may be required,
for instance, to repay a debt contracted by a previous government or to return land to the
descendants of dispossessed communities. Nor will I consider whether claims to
compensation fade with the passage of time, in virtue of legitimate restrictions on
inheritance or in virtue of changing circumstances. Instead, my focus will be on the present
situation. I will scrutinise the thesis of a “causal link” between present world poverty and
the conduct of present citizens (and governments) of the affluent countries, and in
particular the form this thesis takes in Thomas Pogge‟s book World Poverty and Human Rights
(Pogge 2002). More specifically, I will investigate whether the global rich may be said to
have special social and economic obligations toward the global poor on the ground that they
have been harming them.

Centre for Economics and Ethics
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
69, Naamsestraat
3000 Leuven
Tel: 0032 1632 57 69

Victor Ojakorotu
The internationalisation of a resource-based domestic crisis: the role of the civil
society in the Niger delta of Nigeria.
This paper hopes to focus on the protracted tripartite conflict within and between local oil-
bearing communities of the Niger Delta on the one hand, and between them, the state and
foreign oil multinationals in the region, on the other hand. The focus also centers around
how this has attracted international attention and the impact of internationalization on the
conflict itself. The series of crises have been underpinned by tortuous issues on the ground
for over four decades. There was a new dimension to the struggle in the early 1990s, which
redefined the focus of the crises, when organized pressure groups protested against the
inhuman and environmental hazards in the region.
Therefore this paper will examines the interest(s) of the main actors involved in the crisis in
the period between 1993 and 2003 in order to establish the issues that accounted for the
involvement of the international civil societies.

Department of Political Studies
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Pietermaritzburg 3209
South Africa.
Tel: +27 33 260 5292
Fax: +27 33 260 5092

Weiqing Song
Regionalisation, inter-regional cooperation and global governance.
The contradiction between trans-boundary issues largely driven by globalisation and
conventional authority based on sovereign state leads to the problem of global governance.

Global cooperation alone is usually too difficult to perform effectively in dealing with a
plethora of trans-boundary issues as it involves numerous nation states worldwide.
Regionalism is thus a response by nation states within geographic proximity of the same
region to take collective measures in attempts at tackling emergent problems, which are
otherwise difficult or in some cases impossible to deal with by nation states single-
handedly. Though regionalisation, to some extant, alleviates nation states with the
governance problem, it is still narrowly confined to its geographic proximity. A new issue
in global governance thus arises as to the interaction among regions. Furthermore, the
more regionalized the world, the more necessary, enabled and willing for regions to
construct connections with each other. Inter-regionalism and trans-regionalism are
therefore a further step which regional blocks make efforts towards building one layer in
the hierarchy of global governance. Hence, inter-/trans-regional cooperation can be an
intermediary between the two and becomes an essential link in the governing chain of
global system.
The paper takes the Asia-Europe Meeting as the case to analyze the above thesis. It is
organized in three major sections. In the first section of coordination problem, it presents
the observation that the global system is characterized with regionalisation, then analyzes
the coordination problems facing regions interdependent with one another and then
formulates a modified framework for analysis of the Asia-Europe Meeting. In the second
section of rational design, it analyzes the process in which Europe and Asia rationally
establish the cooperation structure of ASEM as a means to tackle the coordination issues
between the two regions. In the third section of governing globalisation, it discusses the
effects and implications of ASEM‟s contribution towards global governance mainly in ways
of rationalizing international relations and strengthening regional identity in the era of

Comparative and European Politics
University of Siena


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