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					                                       .6 C
                          S AP R/3 4


                                                SAP R/2

    R3   3.1
SAP                                SAP ERP 2005




                                              SAP R/3 4.0 B


               Upgrading
                SAP for
               the Open
                                                                Read about
                                                                • What is new in ERP platform?
                                                                •   “Key” factors for the upgrade
                                                                •   “Typical” upgrade lifecycle
                                                                    Tool based approach for the upgrade.


                 World
                                                                •




                                                              About the Author
               - An approach pa                               Tara Balakrishnan is
                                per on                        a Senior Technical
                 SAP ERP Upgrad                               Consultant at Ayan
                                 e
                                                              Technologies with
                                                              extensive experience
                                                              in SAP NetWeaver technology
                                                              including Process Integration
                                                              (XI) and Web Application
                                                              Development (Web Dynpro,
                                                              BSP). She heads the SAP
                                                              Upgrade Competency Center at
                                                              Ayan Technologies, apart from
                                                              being the Lead for ABAP Best
                                                              Practice CoE.
SAP ERP Upgrade Project

The latest SAP ERP platform is a giant leap from its SAP R/3 predecessors.. The product has not only leaped ahead significantly in providing new
functionality, but has also .brought in sweeping changes to technology and architecture to position itself as the first open business process plat-
form.
The upgrade to SAP ERP 2005 (ECC 6.0) as a result is a much more complex exercise than SAP R/3 versions (3.x, 4.x). The entire basis compo-
nent has been revamped to “Netweaver” which has strong foundations for integrating - process, knowledge and people. Netweaver has ex-
tended the SAP development capability by providing a dual stack, - ABAP & Java; Netweaver design principle is intended to leverage on open
standards protocols. SAP ERP 2005 offers a much more stable platform with more functional-
ities like role based portals, self services that enables users desktops to the business processes,
enhanced financial reporting primary focus on adherence to regulations and governance with
robust technology platform, Netweaver technology platform allows connecting people, infor-
mation & process . The primary focus on this release is on an Enterprise Services Architecture
(ESA). ESA related changes in ERP 2005 benefits customers to adapt the business processes
across various application platforms. Another critical factor for upgrade is limited support to
older releases.
One of the major apprehensions the current SAP shops have on this upgrade is how to adapt to
new infrastructure provided by SAP and retool their teams in the new world of SAP ERP 2005.
This upgrade needs to deal with architectural changes and has collaborative application frame-
work. The entire basis component has been revamped to “Netweaver” which has strong foun-
dations for integrating process, knowledge and people. Netweaver has extended the develop-
ment capability by supporting dual stack, - ABAP & Java with leaning more towards open stan-
dards protocols.
Traditionally upgrade project involved upgrading the SAP stack to next version. In this upgrade
“Unicode” component is being introduced and there comes a need to prepare the operating
system (OS) and databases (DB) for the Unicode as well. So the actual process of SAP upgrade
ends up changes to those components. The major steps in preparation includes preparing oper-
ating system & databases, upgrading the application stack and converting the data in the data-
base to Unicode. Application upgrade effort doesn't limit just checking for obsolete functional-
ity, also involves migrating the existing ABAP code for Unicode compatibility. A typical upgrade
project involving just SAP application spans between 8-12 months. As you see we have too
many technical adoption steps involved, the best practices in the industry followed is a multi-
step approach for such upgrades.
1.   Preparing OS and DB for upgrades
2.   SAP Application upgrade including migrating development objects for Unicode compatibility.
3.   Database conversion to Unicode
4.   Functional upgrade
Typically, each of these activities are carried out as independent projects Drawback in this could be planning testing and downtime for the sys-
tems. Brighter side is eliminating risk of “Bing Bang” and long down time in one stroke.
Tool driven approach
 The upgrade toolset provides pre-upgrade system assessment and upgrade
 services . The toolset is intended to support planning, tracking of changes,
 identifying impact on custom objects and identification of version conflicts when
 changes are transported from one system to another. Most of the upgrade
 projects had preferred a tool based approach in getting a consolidated list and
 assessment tool providing a estimated effort in man days. The next step is
 testing the existing functionality. In the past, upgrades focused on changing the
 obsolete process like moving to Central address management system or mi-
 grating to ALV from classical reporting, from step loop to table control, from

 match codes to search help. In those cases SAP had programs or tools to migrate them to new framework. In the current upgrade, UNI-
 CODE adoption is a major change that forces to check every custom object for Unicode Compatibility. Check for obsolete statements and
 functions is another critical area. The daunting task of identifying these in each program, sometimes at customer places is carried out by de-
 ploying more consultants and validate program by program and it has taken many days. This approach resource intensive and doesn't give a
 better handle initially on estimating the scope of work and is prone to extended timelines. The tool based approach provides information
 upfront with a good visibility to estimate the efforts, plan the activities and sizing the team.. Upgrade Impact Analyzer can be used to conduct
 a comprehensive assessment covering technical impact on the system changes. The first step has the ability to explore the SAP installation to
 identify various custom objects in the landscape with an estimator to calculate a broader estimate in man days / hours that can take. Second
 step drills down the potentials on what account the compatibility is suspected. Upgrade Code Adjuster is intended to automatically adjust the
 code to make the code Unicode compatible. The Adjuster actually has intelligence to change the obsolete statements to equivalent statement
 (for e.g., LIKE to TYPE). The advantage in using this tool is to have uniformity in changing the code, rather than each developer has “own”
 approach. The adjuster apart from adjusting the code automatically ensures the compatibility. The Aduster actually covers 60% of the
 changes, In a typical upgrade project, customers end up having a support landscape to maintain the production. The Landscape Manager is
 intended to provide a gated service for changes migration in the production support landscape ensuring synchronization takes place in the
 upgrade landscape. All the above tasks are typically manual approach in most of the projects and hence delaying the upgrade project timeline.
 The toolsets actually aids in fixing technical upgrade issues, improves predictability.


The upgrade hand book provides

insights for the technical team. A
                                       Technical Upgrade “Hand book”
high level system landscape is         The idea behind the upgrade hand     fundamentals. A detailed language
presented in the document which        book is to assist the technical      translation from code page 1100
                                       team on technology infrastructure    to Unicode is illustrated in detail.
will help the customers to prepare
                                       that is changed with this upgrade    The major topic discussed is on
their environment for a smoother
                                       and a detailed preparation steps,    the Unicode level changes the
transition to SAP ERP 2005 (ECC
                                       hardware requirements that needs     ABAP code need to undergo and
6.0) environment. The document         to be considered and rough esti-     examples on “dos” and “donts” in
elaborates on technical pre-           mation on database growth after      Unicode world of ABAP program-
requisites for the upgrade. Apart      Unicode database conversion.         ming is illustrated as well. The
                                       The handbook is built on various     book also covers the obsolete           the new toolsets available as a
from pre-requisites the document
                                       upgrade project experiences de-      statements and function modules         part of standard SAP like
also explains the steps in detail on
                                       tails a typical production support   well by highlighting the alternatives   UCHECK,. It does touch on
the change that needs to be taken                                                                                   Code Inspector and Extended
                                       and upgrade support landscapes       to the respective ones. A section
for customer programming objects       that is maintained during the        depicts all the relevant OSS notes      check .
as SAP ECC 6.0 environment             course of the upgrade project.       that are related to the upgrade.
moves to Unicode environment.          The handbook covers Unicode          The hand book gives overview on
Upgrade Appraisal Dashboard & Analyst
The appraisal dashboard is aimed to assist the upgrade planning phase. In a typical upgrade
project the upgrade is carried out in a sandbox during the planning phase and is closely
evaluated by a team. The sandbox aids the upgrade evaluation team to closely analyze the
functionalities and allow the team to estimate the efforts involved during the upgrade.
The appraisal dashboard is deployed in the sandbox to provide the statistics on customiza-
tion that has taken place and provides detail figures on each of custom development that
is present. The dashboard also provides details on potential areas of risk in each of the
custom development that needs to be analyzed during the realization phase of the project. As highlighted before the impact on custom objects
                                   are due to Unicode, obsolete statements, function modules & obsolete transaction codes. The tool closely
                                   evaluates each object by carrying out Unicode compatibility and extended syntax checks. The figure on the
                                   left clearly depicts the big picture on number of custom objects by its type
                                   and potential impact by reason. An object compatibility on the never ver-
                                   sion is evaluated on the factors highlighted earlier like Unicode, dependency
                                   on obsolete standard functionality. The upgrade assessment tool provides
                                   a excel template download to aid the team to predict the number of man days involved to adapt the code to
                                   newer version. This tool has been typically used by the customers during the evaluation / initial stages of the
upgrade phase. The information can be used to provide the charter and forecast the budget for the upgrade project. The Analyst tool is aimed
to be used during the project preparation stage to analyze the individual objects by module and by type. The Analyst is very user friendly tool
                                 that lets team to filter by various criteria's. The output of the analyst drills down each custom object and reason
                                 for potential incompatibility. This tool is typically used to check after the changes
                                 had been made so that to ensure objects are changed. The code adjuster tool aids
                                 the programmer to automatically implement the changes. The main advantage
                                 here is standardization in coding required to make the object upgrade compatible.
                                 Also, this addresses the industry challenges today on standardization of upgrade
                                 changes across the teams during implementation. Together the three pieces are
upgrade hand-mans tool.


Landscape Adjuster
In a typical upgrade project, the landscape will be similar to the figure on right.
The regular transport landscape is from DE1 -> QAS -> PRD. DEV and TST are
the upgraded landscape. Due to version incompatibility transports from DE1 are
not imported into DEV / TST automatically. A manual migration is followed in
majority of installations. The main challenge in such landscape is how to keep the
changes that are being made to support production during the project in sync
with the upgrade systems and also the measures that needs to be taken place to
                                             enforce the team to keep the upgrade
                                             landscape with production. This needs to be done due to the fact that upgrade landscape to be kept
                                             in consistent with the production. The tool assists the team to constantly validate the consistency
                                             between environments and is aimed to integrate with solution manager to automate the process of
                                             synchronization in future releases. This tool is typically used in any situations where a dual landscape
                                             needs to be maintained apart from a upgrade project. In a typical upgrade project, the change man-
                                             agement board introduces a manual intervention to verify the changes are migrated to upgrade land-
                                             scape. The tool is used to validate the migration has actually taken place. The tool has capability to
                                             exactly pin-point to code level if there are any discrepancies in code across landscapes.
    “Key” reasons to upgrade
    •     Traditionally increased business needs triggers the for upgrade. Additional SAP ERP functionalities in Finan-
          cials, Human Capital Management, Self-Services, Supply Chain and Analytics (Factor: Business)

    •     Increased maintenance cost for staying in older releases (Factor: Business)

    •     Moving towards open web standards based SAP NetWeaver platform (Factor: Technology)

    •     Better positioning your IT landscape for ‘enterprise Service Oriented Architecture (eSOA)’ based Business
          Process Platform (BPP) (Factor: Strategic)




“Key Technical” changes
in SAP ERP “2005”
                                    Finding the “right” recipe for the upgrade “menu”
•       Basis to Netweaver          In the “SAP” upgrade world today       only 14% of the customers have        upgrade with relevant technical
•       From MDMP to Unicode        the debate is how to minimize the      completed their upgrades. 86%         skills covering J2EE & Unicode
•       From traditional exits to   risks during the upgrade involving     are looking in for the right recipe   areas, right set of tools that can
        Enhancement framework
                                    additional complexities and strong     for the upgrade. A strong techni-     assess the upgrade and identify the
•       Usage Types
                                    business case for a “technical”        cal understanding is required dur-    customizations done for its com-
•       Switch Framework
                                    upgrade. This debate obviously         ing this upgrade. The recipe          patibility during this upgrade and
•       From SAP Scripts /
        Smart forms to Adobe        delayed the upgrades in respective     should primarily cover a good         automation of testing so that it
        forms                       corporations and statistics indicate   team that can handle the complex      can be effectively used in the itera-

				
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