VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 55 POSTED ON: 3/6/2010
Today • Discuss films viewed • Asian cuisines (East Asia) – China, Japan, Korea, Philippines • Spices • Chinese food safety – News Hour clip – Film – China Rising- Food is Heaven • QUIZ 4 Asian Cuisine Asian Cultures Lumped together although have unique histories and traditions Colonization has affected cuisine Eastern Asian Cultures • Chinese • Japanese • Korea • Vietnamese • Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia • Indonesia, the Philippines CHINA - TERRAIN North = arid and colder millet South = wetter and warmer **rice fields Chinese agriculture Millet Rice WATER BUFFALO PIGS, CHICKENS, less beef WATER BUFFALO – for work Chinese culinary arts food vessel jue for millet wine Aspects of Chinese cuisine • Rice • Soybeans = poor individuals cow – soy sauce - cooked, fermented, and made into sauce – Soy milk - pureed beans, filtered and boiled – black beans - cooked, fermented soybeans preserved with ginger and salt • Bean curd or tofu - boiled soy milk -add gypsum, curdles, press out excess liquid Rice as a staple Rice originates in South China Oryza sativa 8000-9000 B.C Today 11% of arable land in world is planted in rice (many varieties) Unique sauces • soy sauce • Oyster sauce - oysters, soybeans, and brine • Hoisin - thick brownish red sweet and sour with fermented soybeans, flour, sugar, water, spices, garlic, chilies TEA (leaves of a camellia plant) >2700 B.C. (medicinal herb) Later brewed with onions, ginger, jujuke, orange peel and peppermint Later to Japan (more ritual) 17th c to Europe (and Americas) Food Consumption Balance and Harmony No food taboos Northern China = Mandarin • Peking duck • mu shu pork • far north border with Mongolia – > use of mutton Southern China= Szechwan- Hunan, Yunnan, Cantonese • mass-produced Chinese food in U.S. • can be very spicy • stir-fried, thick sauces Health and Food Therapeutic Uses of Food Yin/Yang classification of foods Yin = dark foods = cold dishes • raw, boiled, steamed • soothing colors - green and white • many fruits and veges - some legumes • regional variations - pork, duck and honey as cold foods Yang = light foods = hot dishes • high calories, cooked in oil • mouth irritants • red, yellow, orange colors • most meats, chilies, tomatoes, mushrooms, eggplant, persimmon, onion, garlic, ginger, alcohol Strong food taboos against mixing crab (super cold) and persimmon (super hot) Japan Small island territory very mountainous = most food is imported Japanese cuisine • > use of fish and seafood – borrowed some from China, but still distinct • Wheat noodles - Ramen • traditional diet is low in fat and cholesterol, but high in sodium – high rates of hypertension, stroke, stomach cancer Shinto religion Similar to Buddhism reject consumption of meat with previous taboos against meat (whales were categorized as fish) Calcium from small fish bones most are lactose intolerant Japanese proverb regarding fish: “Eat it raw first of all, then grill it, and boil it as last resort.” Sushi = a way of preserving fish sushi originally used to preserve fish in fermented rice • sashimi - raw fish – dipped in sauce • sushi = rice with vinegar • nigiri-sushi – raw fish on hand rolled sushi – 18th century- less fermentation time – became Japanese “fast food” Wasabi = Wasabia japonica Japanese horseradish Dining etiquette in Japan • it’s okay to slurp your soup • no dining tables until mid-19thc • tatami = mat on the floor It’s all in the presentation • Bento box • Noodle Shops and pubs, counters • formal banquets Food and Nature Value asymmetry Full plate of food = vulgar open, unequal space in presentation Sushi phenomena in U.S. Who are the chefs? Women as sushi chefs > 30,000 restaurants - most will not hire women think women have > body temp to make “delicate sushi” (actually have cooler hands) some men won’t eat sushi made by women KOREA Korea • also use rice • Kimchi - spicy fermented cabbage or vegetable dish – family preparation in autumn = sign of wealth • Grilled meat and seafood are common • seasonings - garlic, ginger root, scallions, toasted sesame • Chilies - 16th c intro by Portuguese Philippines Filipino cuisine • blends, Malaysian, Polynesian, Spanish, and Chinese foodstuffs • Original inhabitants = Aetas – 15th c immigrants from China and other areas • arrival of Islam, Muslim religion – 1521 Magellan claimed for Spain • administered control through Mexico • Spanish influence - including hot/cold theories Filipino diet • Never cook foods by themselves • fry with garlic in olive oil or lard • adobo = stew with chicken, pork, sometimes seafood - first fried with garlic then seasoned with soy and vinegar • food may be left in clay pot to absorb fat • some water buffalo milk – used to make one of few Asian cheeses • fish paste or sauce can be common Herbs and spices (condiments) Antimicrobial & Antioxidants Who uses the most spices?
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