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asian_cuisine

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 55

									                  Today
• Discuss films viewed
• Asian cuisines (East Asia)
  – China, Japan, Korea, Philippines
• Spices
• Chinese food safety
  – News Hour clip
  – Film – China Rising- Food is Heaven
• QUIZ 4
Asian Cuisine
      Asian Cultures

Lumped together although have
 unique histories and traditions

Colonization has affected cuisine
      Eastern Asian Cultures
• Chinese
• Japanese
• Korea
• Vietnamese
• Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia,
  Malaysia
• Indonesia, the Philippines
CHINA - TERRAIN

                  North = arid
                  and colder
                  millet
                  South =
                  wetter
                  and warmer
                  **rice fields
 Chinese agriculture




Millet            Rice
WATER BUFFALO
PIGS, CHICKENS, less beef
  WATER BUFFALO – for work
Chinese culinary arts




  food vessel    jue for millet wine
     Aspects of Chinese cuisine
• Rice
• Soybeans = poor individuals cow
  – soy sauce - cooked, fermented, and made into
    sauce
  – Soy milk - pureed beans, filtered and boiled
  – black beans - cooked, fermented soybeans
    preserved with ginger and salt
• Bean curd or tofu - boiled soy milk -add
  gypsum, curdles, press out excess liquid
    Rice as a staple

Rice originates in South China
        Oryza sativa
       8000-9000 B.C

Today 11% of arable land in
world is planted in rice (many
           varieties)
             Unique sauces
• soy sauce
• Oyster sauce - oysters, soybeans, and brine
• Hoisin - thick brownish red sweet and sour
  with fermented soybeans, flour, sugar,
  water, spices, garlic, chilies
                 TEA
     (leaves of a camellia plant)

>2700 B.C. (medicinal herb)
Later brewed with onions, ginger, jujuke,
  orange peel and peppermint
Later to Japan (more ritual)
17th c to Europe (and Americas)
Food Consumption

 Balance and Harmony
No food taboos
   Northern China = Mandarin
• Peking duck
• mu shu pork
• far north border with Mongolia
  – > use of mutton
   Southern China= Szechwan-
   Hunan, Yunnan, Cantonese

• mass-produced Chinese food in U.S.
• can be very spicy
• stir-fried, thick sauces
   Health and Food
  Therapeutic Uses of
        Food

Yin/Yang classification of foods
    Yin = dark foods = cold dishes
•   raw, boiled, steamed
•   soothing colors - green and white
•   many fruits and veges - some legumes
•   regional variations - pork, duck and honey
    as cold foods
    Yang = light foods = hot dishes
•   high calories, cooked in oil
•   mouth irritants
•   red, yellow, orange colors
•   most meats, chilies, tomatoes, mushrooms,
    eggplant, persimmon, onion, garlic, ginger,
    alcohol
Strong food taboos against
         mixing
       crab (super cold)
              and
    persimmon (super hot)
       Japan

Small island territory
 very mountainous =
most food is imported
           Japanese cuisine
• > use of fish and seafood
  – borrowed some from China, but still
    distinct
• Wheat noodles - Ramen
• traditional diet is low in fat and
  cholesterol, but high in sodium
  – high rates of hypertension, stroke, stomach
    cancer
    Shinto religion

       Similar to Buddhism
   reject consumption of meat
with previous taboos against meat
(whales were categorized as fish)
Calcium from small fish bones

     most are lactose intolerant
Japanese proverb regarding fish:

    “Eat it raw first of all, then grill it,
        and boil it as last resort.”
Sushi = a way of preserving fish
sushi originally used to preserve fish in
             fermented rice
 • sashimi - raw fish
    – dipped in sauce
 • sushi = rice with vinegar
 • nigiri-sushi
    – raw fish on hand rolled sushi
    – 18th century- less
      fermentation time
    – became Japanese “fast food”
Wasabi = Wasabia japonica
   Japanese horseradish
Dining etiquette in Japan

             • it’s okay to slurp
               your soup
             • no dining tables until
               mid-19thc
             • tatami = mat on the
               floor
     It’s all in the presentation
• Bento box
• Noodle Shops and pubs, counters
• formal banquets
Food and Nature
        Value asymmetry
    Full plate of food = vulgar

open, unequal space in presentation
Sushi phenomena in U.S.
Who are the chefs?
        Women as sushi chefs
> 30,000 restaurants - most will not hire women

think women have > body temp to make “delicate
       sushi” (actually have cooler hands)

   some men won’t eat sushi made by women
KOREA
                     Korea
• also use rice
• Kimchi - spicy fermented cabbage or
  vegetable dish
  – family preparation in autumn = sign of wealth
• Grilled meat and seafood are common
• seasonings - garlic, ginger root, scallions,
  toasted sesame
• Chilies - 16th c intro by Portuguese
Philippines
             Filipino cuisine
• blends, Malaysian, Polynesian, Spanish,
  and Chinese foodstuffs
• Original inhabitants = Aetas
  – 15th c immigrants from China and other areas
     • arrival of Islam, Muslim religion
  – 1521 Magellan claimed for Spain
     • administered control through Mexico
• Spanish influence - including hot/cold
  theories
          Filipino diet
• Never cook foods by themselves
• fry with garlic in olive oil or lard
• adobo = stew with chicken, pork, sometimes
  seafood - first fried with garlic then seasoned
  with soy and vinegar
• food may be left in clay pot to absorb fat
• some water buffalo milk
  – used to make one of few Asian cheeses
• fish paste or sauce can be common
Herbs and spices (condiments)
Antimicrobial
&
Antioxidants
Who uses the most spices?

								
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