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Central America Mexico Caribbean


									Central America

Central America, Mexico, Caribbean
 Data exchange
 Intra-regional scientific cooperation
 Science: Moving beyond routine monitoring
 Increasing the number of geophysicists in the region

Solutions and Proposals
Framing New Proposals (Hazard, E&O, Science)
Funding Partners & Contacts
Identifying Regional Institutions
           Lessons from AfricaArray
Economic drivers
 Mining and oil industries (provide funding and employment)
 Only Mexico, Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago have significant oil industries in
   this region

Other drivers
Much greater seismic risk than Africa
 Disaster mitigation/earthquake monitoring are bigger concerns

Might provide similar appeal to Latino US students as AfricaArray provides to African
   American students
 Could frame proposals as minority E&O to attract US Latino students

Capacity-building efforts conducted in-country, rather than in US
Differences—many small, diverse, far-flung countries, no South Africa BUT probably
    have greater expertise in the region than in much of Africa
                   Data Exchange
   Appears to be a problem with concept of open data exchange.
   Regional Data Centers vs. IRIS DMC
   Frame IRIS DMC as an opportunity to back up data securely,
    organize metadata, distribute data and metadata
   Propose a multi-tier data release policy, e.g., data for events
    above a certain threshold would be released immediately, other
    data would be released after 2-3 years
   Perhaps tie other efforts (research collaborations,
    communications upgrades, etc.) to commitment to contribute
    data under this policy
Challenges for increased cooperation & data
   Political issues –national autonomy, local operators
    need to “justify” their efforts
   Geography – many far-flung countries/islands
   Languages – Spanish, English, French
   Responsibility – need to avoid conflicting reports &
    event solutions
   Diverse, inconsistent “help”—training programs
    provided by various groups in various software—leads
    to inconsistency of formats and results.
               Possible Solutions
   Ensure broad participation – need to be inclusive of all
   Promote role of local institutions—local networks,
    local geoscience programs, gov’t agencies
   Could IRIS support technical consultants to help with
    software/hardware needs (configuration, programming,
    design of acquisition system, conversion
    scripts/software, etc.)?
           Increasing the number of
          geophysicists in the region

   Very few universities in the region offer geophysics degrees.
   Lesson from AfricaArray: Education and training are tied to
    development of BB network and are performed in country
   Start with internships and/or field camps (e.g., SAGE)
    Potential funding sources: OAS? Fulbright? Private foundations?
    Oil companies? Can we get companies to contribute to a fund
    that will support geophysical education without specific quid pro
    quo considerations?
   Can we emulate the IRIS internship program within Latin
    America and the Caribbean?
   Who would teach at field camps? Where would internships take
    Monitoring & Hazard Assessment
   Local faulting—large magnitude earthquakes can
    be produced by local faults—not just major
    subduction zones
   Need high resolution bathymetry for tsunami
   Monitoring faults—need to know rate of
    movement—continuous GPS studies
   Seismic gaps/risk (NSF probably would not
    consider this a basic science question)
             Moving beyond routine monitoring
   Central America is already a MARGINS focus site.
   "models of upper plate deformation"
   How does subducting plate interact with over-riding plate?
   Models of upper plate deformation and how it couples to variations in subducting slab (age,
    subducting seamounts, etc.)
   Caribbean puzzles
   Need to understand morphology of downgoing plate
   What is the origin of the Caribbean plate and what is nature of lower crust?
   Is Cocos ridge beginning of subduction?
   Link between subduction earthquake and subsequent (several months later) local event which
    causes most of the damage—need stress modeling. Highlights importance of local earthquakes.
   Flat slab subduction

Assets needed/available
   Ocean bottom seismographs
   Long-term GPS monitoring
                               instruments—
    Need a pool of temporary instruments—seismic and GPS (partnership with UNAVCO?)
   Chikyu riser drilling ship will need another target after it finishes drilling offshore Japan
             Funding partners & contacts
National & Regional Funding
 Mexico and Venezuela seem to be the only ones with a significant "NSF"
  equivalent—but are unlikely to support regional efforts (outside their home
 Mexico funds projects up to $500K— "National Council for Science and
  Technology" – the problem is, once you get money for equipment, that's
  it—no more funding for operations, data analysis, etc.
 funding availability varies from country to country but more is needed

Aid agencies (e.g., USAID, World Bank)
 Requests need to come from countries in region, rather than from US
   research community
 We could help coordinate proposals and provide technical “consulting” for
 A project/proposal coordinated between a majority of countries in the region
   would probably be viewed favorably
           Funding partners & contacts (2)
Electric companies?
 ICE funds earthquake monitoring in Costa Rica
Are there any new nuclear power plants planned for the region?
Insurance companies?
 Potential for catastrophic losses is great

US-based funding
 Limitations of research funding (US citizens, short-term, won’t pay for permanent
   equipment, not interested in monitoring)

How can we facilitate?
 Perhaps as a matchmaking service—to connect potential US and Central American
   and Caribbean PIs.

   IRIS could conduct regional workshops to develop research proposals of mutual
 Intra-regional scientific cooperation
Need consortium to
 conduct regional science workshops
 provide robust, documented software
 coordinate data exchanges/archiving
 provide consultation for networks & equipment

UPRM/Puerto Rico Seismic Network
Central American Seismic Center (CASC)
 Collects data—including waveform and phase data—from all Central
   American nations
 Univ of Costa Rica supplies funding for the one person who works at CASC
UPRM - Puerto Rico Seismic Network
 Has stable funding, established network, technical staff, bilingual personnel,
   associated with degree-granting department
SRU – Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies
 Monitors seismic and volcanic activity in English-speaking Eastern Caribbean
 Has stable funding involving 8 states
 Began as a scientific/technical organization but has lost that focus
The MIDdle America Seismology Partnership
         The MIDdle America Seismology Partnership
Mexico              Centro de Investigación Científica y Educación
                    Superior de Ensenada (CICESE)
                    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Instituto de Geofísica
Costa Rica          Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI)
                    Central America Seismic Center (CASC)
Guatemala           Instituto Nacional de Sismología, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrología
Honduras            Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Departamento de Física
Nicaragua           Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales
Panamá              Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad de Panamá
Cuba                Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Sismológicas
Jamaica             University of the West Indies-Mona (UWI-Mona)
Dominican Republic U Autonoma de Santo Domingo, Instituto Sismologico Universitario (ISU)
Dominica            Dominica Public Seismological Network
Guadeloupe          Observatoire Volcanologique de la Soufriere (OVS)
Martinique          Observatoire Volcanologique de la Montagne Pelee
Montserrat          Monserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
Trinidad and Tobago U West Indies, Seismic Research Unit
Colombia            Red Sismológica Nacional de Colombia
                    Universidad del Valle, Observatorio Sismológico del Sur Occidente (OSSO)
Venezuela           Fundación Venezolana de Investigaciones Sismológicas (FUNVISIS)
                    La Red Sismológica de Los Andes Venezolanos (RedSAV)
United States       University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, PR
                    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), NEIC
                         Work Plan
   Conduct inventory of stations, networks, personnel
    (Include detailed characteristics of instruments (type, short-
    period, long-period, BB, three-comp't), resolution of digitizer,
    how data are delivered, sample rates, etc.)
   Identify stations/equipment that could be upgraded, repaired, or
    refurbished with a little money and then, perhaps, tie upgrade
    funds to commitment to contribute data.
   Hold a workshop this year to hash out science problems and
    write a proposal.
   Target is NSF's PIRE program, plus oil companies, and will
    facilitate proposals to USAID from the region's countries
Station inventory
    Need names & addresses
Please send email to Lindsay Wood if you would
like to be kept informed of progress of this
working group

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