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					The Antislavery
  Movement
  Dr. Stacey Robertson
   Bradley University
Religion and Revolution
   Religion
       Quakers
       B. Lay & J. Woolman
   Revolution
       Rhetoric of
        independence
       God‟s punishment
       Blacks
       Northern emancipation
       Southern changes
                                John Adams
Gradual Emancipation
   American
    Colonization
    Society, 1817
       Gradual,
        compensation,
        deportation
       Support in both
        regions
       Motivations?
Immediate Emancipation
   2nd Great Awakening
   William Lloyd Garrison
       Printing career (Baltimore)
            Genius of Universal
             Emancipation
            African Americans
       Move to Immediatism
            ACS, 1829
            Jail
            Tappan
       Liberator, 1831
       Moral suasion & racism
                                      William Lloyd Garrison
1830s Antislavery
   American Anti-Slavery
    Society, 1833
       State and local orgs.
       Male and female
   Tactics
       Lecturing: Theodore Weld
       Pamphlets & newspapers
            Banned in the South
       Boycott (Free Produce)
       Petitioning
            Topics?
            Gag Rule              Theodore Dwight Weld
1830s Antislavery
   Mob opposition
       Northern racism
            Black laws
       Fears
            Nat Turner, „32
       NY Money
       Foreigners
            G. Thompson
       Who participates?
       Cincinnati
            Interracial brothel
Black Abolitionists
   Separate organizing
   Practical focus
       Economic & Political power
       Vigilance Comms, UGRR
   Cooperation also
       James Forten, Liberator,
        AAS, West
   Paternalism
       Middle class values
       Frederick Douglass
       Garrison too impractical
                                     Frederick Douglass
1840 Divide
   Garrisonian
    “ultraism”
   Women‟s role
       Grimké sisters
       Importance of women
            Fund-raising
       Abby Kelley
                              Angelina Grimké
1840 Divide
   Political Third Party
       Garrisonians
            Corruption, Agitation
       Failure of moral suasion
       Pressure politics
   Cooperation?
       Garrisonian policy
       Cost to political
        abolitionists

                                     James G. Birney
Liberty Party
   1840 Election
       7,000 votes (out of 2.5 mill)
   One-issue party
   Policies:
       De-nationalization
            DC, military locations, high
             seas, territories
       Anti-discrimination
   Slow Growth
       Expansion & Alliance
            John P. Hale
       Whigs, Democrats
                                            John P. Hale
Free Soil Party
   1848 Martin Van Buren
    (ex Prez)
   Partial success
       10% of vote
       Helped elect Whig Taylor
   Differences
       Slave Power
       Racial equality gone
            Free Soil, Free Labor
   Republican Party                 Martin Van Buren
The Tumultuous 1850s
                 Abolitionist movement
                  becomes less radical
                  and more popular in
                  1850s
                     Key political
                      developments occur
                     Leads to rise of
                      Republicans
                     Raises the issue of
                      violence for abolitionists
The Tumultuous 1850s
                               Compromise of 1850
                                   Mexico Territory
                                   California
                                        Gold rush growth
                                        Free?
                                   Texas land dispute
                                   DC and slavery

Senate debate over Compromise
The Tumultuous 1850s
                 Series of bills: Clay &
                  Douglas
                     Texas gives up land,
                      gets $10 million
                     Southwestern territories
                      organized with no
                      mention of slavery
                     No slave trade in DC
                     California admitted
                     Fugitive Slave Act
The Tumultuous 1850s
                 Fugitive Slave Act
                     Most controversial
                     No jury trial for fugitive
                     Citizens required to assist
                      in recovery of slaves
                     Commissioners pay
                 Impact on Blacks
                     Flee to Canada
                     Kidnapping
                 Impact on abolition
The Tumultuous 1850s
                 Kansas-Nebraska Act
                  1854
                     Stephen Douglas
                      (pictured here)
                     Repeal of Missouri
                      Compromise (36 30 line)
                          Last hope gone
                          Slave Power fears
                          Growth of Republicans
The Tumultuous 1850s
                 Bloody Kansas
                     “Bleeding Kansas”
                     Popular sovereignty
                        Presumptions: NE

                         free, KS slave
                     Northern abols
                        “Beecher bibles”

                     Two governments
                     “Sacking of Lawrence,”
                      May 21, 1856 (pictured)
The Tumultuous 1850s
                 Caning of Sumner
                     May 22, 1856
                     “Crime Against
                      Kansas” speech
                          Targets Andrew
                           Butler
                     Butler‟s cousin
                      Preston Brooks
                     Regional reactions
The Tumultuous 1850s
                 Election of 1856
                     Republicans nominate
                      John C. Frémont
                      (pictured)
                          Wife Jessie
                     Democrats: James
                      Buchanan
                     Racism (Black
                      Republicans)
                     Pierce and peace in
                      Kansas
The Tumultuous 1850s
                 Dred Scott, 1857
                     Slave taken to free
                      territories (IL, WI)
                     Sues for freedom
                     First heard in 1846
                     Ruling:
                          Scott not free and blacks
                           have no rts that whites
                           have to respect
                     Republicans
The Tumultuous 1850s




     John Brown and Harpers Ferry

				
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