A Sustainable Energy Future FACS

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					A Sustainable Energy Future
           FACS
              May 17, 2006




     William M. Leahy, Director
  Institute for Sustainable Energy
 At Eastern Connecticut State University
A Sustainable Energy Future
 Energy Efficiency and Conservation
 • Efficiency Technology
 • Building Standards – Green Buildings
 • Conservation Behavior – Life Cycle Analysis
 Load Management
 • Load Shaping
 • Demand Response
 Potential contribution from Renewable Energy
 • On-Site – Solar PV, Biofuels, Wind, Fuel Cells
 • From the Grid - ATSO Customer Choice
 • Renewable Portfolio Standards - Class I, II,
 • Renewable Energy Credits
 • Class III – CHP and Distributed Resources
 Conclusion
 • Decouple Economic Growth from Demand for Energy
 • No Silver Bullet
 • A Sustainable Energy Future
         Environmental Footprints
• US Oil Addiction
  – Solutions and Prescriptions
• US Energy Market Signals
  – Political Response
  – Consumer Response
• US vs. Europe vs. China
  – Per Capita Energy Consumption
 “The Perpetual enlargement of the human estate cannot be
 sustained because it will eventually overwhelm the capacity
 of the natural systems and cycles.”        David Orr, The Last Refuge
 Efficiency Technology

Energy Efficiency and Conservation
 Lighting and Controls
 Appliances
 HVAC and Controls
 Motors, Pumps and Controls
 Building Envelope
 Process Equipment
 Metering and Monitoring
 Operations and Maintenance
 Motor Vehicles
High Performance Building Standards
Exceed Energy Codes
• Integrated Design
• 20% to 40% Less Energy
• Uses Natural Systems
• Incorporate Renewables
• Use Environmentally Friendly
  Materials
• Uses Life-Cycle analysis
• 0% to 2% higher Cost
• LEED, Energy Star, Green
  Globes, CHPS
Life Cycle Comparison
Standard Bulb:                  Energy Efficient Bulb:
• Short life: 1,000 hours       • Longer life: 10,000 hours
• Uses more electricity: 75 W   • Uses less electricity: 18 W
• Costs $1 for one bulb         • Costs $5 for one bulb




       At 12 cents per Kilowatt-hour…
                                   Life-
                                   Life-Cycle Cost of Two Light Bulbs
                             $80



                             $70
Total Cost (Bulb + Energy)




                             $60



                             $50



                             $40
                                                                                                      In e f f ic ie n t
                                                                                                      E f f ic ie n t

                             $30



                             $20



                             $10



                              $0
                                   0   1000   2000   3000   4000   5000   6000   7000   8000   9000          10000

                                                     Hours of Use
         Transmission Problem
                                                                        NB




                                                                 BHE

Impact of Deficiency              HQ


                                                            ME
Locational Pricing
Weakened Reliability                                                   Deficient
                                  VT               SME
Poor Air Quality                                                       Marginal

GHG                                           NH                       Adequate
                                                                       Locked In
                       NY
                                  WMA
                                         CMA/      BOST                Generation
                                         NEMA

                                                          SEMA
                                                   RI
                                         CT
                                  SWCT
                            NOR
                                                            Map Source: CL&P
Load Duration



                10%
Price Impact
Slow Growth in Energy Demand
               Comparison of Peak Load Growth

      Pe k L a % o First Yr   108%

                              106%

                              104%
                  f




                              102%
        a od




                              100%

                              98%

                              96%

                              94%
                                      1    2   3   4   5    6   7   8   9     10
                                     Forecasted Grow th - No EE
                                     Forecasted Grow th - EE and Decoupling

  Leadership Group of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency
                 Facilitated by US DOE and EPA
                               Demand Response
                          includes embedded efficiency
                                      Combined Commercial Cooling and Lighting Loadshape
                                   Baseline and Load Management Compared to Energy Efficiency
                        4.50

                        4.00

                        3.50
Watts per Square Foot




                        3.00

                        2.50                                                                               Load Management
                                                                                                           Baseline
                        2.00                                                                               Efficient

                        1.50

                        1.00

                        0.50

                        0.00
                               1   2   3   4   5   6   7 8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
                                                                    Hour
Demand Response
Demand Response
                         Efficiency Resources Grow
                             over time (California)
     10,000

      9,000              Public Agency Managed
                         Load Mgmt Non Dispatchable
                         Fuel Substitution
      8,000
                         Energy Efficiency
                         Building Stds.
      7,000              Appliance Stds.

      6,000
MW




      5,000

      4,000

      3,000

      2,000

      1,000

              -
                  1975           1980                 1985   1990   1995   2000
             Renewable Energy
On Site Renewables
• Solar PV
• Wind Energy
• Hydro
• Geothermal
• Biofuels

Grid Options
• ATSO - Purchase Green
   Power
• Renewable Energy Credits
   (RECs)
• Carbon Sequestering
               Target Marketing
       Public Support for Green Energy
                                                                                                 VT – 4.7
                                                                                                                  2.6         NH – 6.0
                           25.9
                                            4.3             3.0                                                                 MA – 33.7
                                                                         27.0
                       19.7                                                       11.9                     27.0                RI – 32.5
                                    6.2                      3.9                         16.0                                 CT– 35.5
                                             6.3                                                       19.0
                                                                           4.5                                        NJ – 34.0
                                                             16.6                             22.7
                             32.9                                                  22.3 9.0                         DE – 24.7
                                     24.2                                                            3.8 21.3
                    30.4                          34.2            18.7                        12.7
                                                                                14.3                               MD – 29.2
                                                                                                  5.5
                                                                                        8.5
                                    30.6      10.5                 7.5          0.6             5.6
                                                                                    3.0 7.6 14.7
                                                             19.1
                                                                                 7.9                              FL – 21.6
Source:
Financial Times Energy, March 2001

                                                     Legend - % of Households Likely to Buy Green Energy
                                                         2 States with % of Households Over 35% (includes Hawaii)
                                                     11 States with % of Households Between 25-35%
                                                     12 States with % of Households Between 15-25% (includes Alaska)
                                                     16 States with % of Households Between 5-15%
                                                      9 States with % of Households Below 5%
Renewable Portfolio Standards




                           Legend

             18 States with Portfolio Standards (Including Hawaii)

              7 States Considering Portfolio Standards
REC Market Prices By Source Type
                                            Price Range per Tag

       Solar                             $20 – 175 MWh

       Wind                               $2 – 40 MWh

       Small, low-impact hydro            $2 – 4 MWh

       Geothermal                          $.50 – 4 MWh

       Biofuel                             $.80 – 5 MWh

    Price Depends on Customer’s Need, Age of Plant and Region
Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
Combined Heat and Power
How CHP Saves Energy
How CHP Technologies
     Compares?
        Potential for CHP in Northeast
                  Comm.    Indust. (MW)   Total (MW)
                   (MW)
Connecticut        1,303           676        1,979
Massachusetts      2,608         1,105        3,713
Maine               411            232          643
New Hampshire       388            164          552
New York           7,643         1,982        9,625
Rhode Island        414            128          542
Vermont             238             82          320
   Total Region   13,005         4,369       17,374
                        Fuel Cells
                                   Features & Benefits
                                   • Currently Five Technologies
                                   • Hydrogen Based Fueled
                                   • Minimal Emissions
                                   • Conditioned Power
                                   • Uninterrupted Power
                                   • CHP Application
                                   • Adaptable to Off-Grid use



1.   Phosphoric Acid - UTC Fuel Cells
2.   Molten Carbonate - Fuel Cell Energy
3.   Proton Exchange Membrane
4.   Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
5.   Alkaline Fuel Cells
    Decouple Economic Growth from
         Demand for Energy

• National, state and local goals promote Economic Growth
• Change paradigm from “Energy Growth Happens!”
• Pursue Economic Growth while improving efficiency
• “The less you waste, the more you make.”
• Emerging renewable energy industry creates jobs
• Emerging technology creates investment opportunities
• Postponed Climate Change lower insurance risks and
  negative impact from weather and rising water
• Native energy sources improves national security and
  reduces international security issues
• Promote Sustainable Development
No Silver Bullet
• Promote efficiency and conservation
• Manage existing resources from both
  the supply and demand side
• Encourage clean, highly efficient new
  sources and supplies
• Promote renewable energy sources
• Strive for a diversified fuel supply
• Promote sustainable development
• Maximize use of existing infrastructure
“The challenge of sustainability is to avoid crossing irreversible
thresholds that damage the life systems of earth while creating long-
term economic, political and moral arrangements that secure the well-
being for present and future generations.”
                                  David W. Orr, The Last Refuge
Institute for Sustainable Energy
         at Eastern Connecticut State University
                        Willimantic, CT 06226
                                (860) 465 - 0251


                           Established in 2001
                            ….to identify, develop
                          and become an objective
                  energy and educational resource
                regarding the means for achieving
                       a sustainable energy future

                   www.sustainenergy.org
A Sustainable Energy Future
        Renew USA

				
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