PART-I by liaoxiuli1


Doing Business on the

   The buying and selling of goods, especially on a
    large scale.
       Commerce is done between businesses, individuals,
        countries, and so on.
   What is E-Commerce?

       Doing business online, typically via the Web
       The use of the Internet and the web to transact business
       Digital enabled commercial transactions between and among organizations and
       It refers to business activities conducted using electronic data transmission via the
        Internet and the World Wide Web.
           Although consumer shopping on the Web was running about $50 billion per year in 2001 and $350
            billion by 2004,

   The First E-Commerce?

       In 1886, a telegraph operator was able to obtain a shipment of watches that was
        refused by the local jeweler. Using the telegraph, he sold all the watches to fellow
        operators and railroad employees. Within a few months, he made enough money
        to quit his job and start his own store. The young man's name was Richard Sears.
        His company later became Sears, Roebuck.
The Networked Organization
EC Definitions & Concepts

   Electronic Commerce (EC) is the process of buying,
    selling, or exchanging products, services, and
    information via computer networks
   EC defined from these perspectives
       Communications
       Business process
       Service
       Online
       Collaborations
       Community
How eCommerce works
               The consumer moves through the internet to
               the merchant's web site. From there, he
               decides that he wants to purchase something,
               so he is moved to the online transaction
               server, where all of the information he gives is
               encrypted. Once he has placed his order, the
               information moves through a private gateway
               to a Processing Network, where the issuing
               and acquiring banks complete or deny the
               transaction. This generally takes place in no
               more than 5-7 seconds.

               There are many different payment systems
               available to accommodate the varied
               processing needs of merchants, from those
               who have a few orders a day to those who
               process thousands of transactions daily. With
               the addition of Secure Socket Layer
               technology, eCommerce is also a very safe
               way to complete transactions.
        Marketplaces vs. E-marketplaces
   A marketplace is a location where goods and services
    are exchanged. The traditional market square is a city
    square where traders set up stalls and buyers browse the
    merchandise. This kind of market is very old, and
    countless such markets are still in operation around the
    whole world.
   An e-marketplace is an electronic exchange where firms
    register as sellers or buyers to communicate and conduct
    business over the Internet.
       E-Marketplace include electronic transaction
       E-Marketplace components are customers, sellers, goods,
        infrastructure, a front end, a back end and support services
EC Definitions & Concepts (cont.)
   E-business is a broader definition of EC that includes not just the
    buying and selling of goods and services, but also
       Servicing customers
       Collaborating with business partners
       Conducting electronic transactions within an organization
       Pure vs. Partial EC: based on the degree of digitization of product,
        process, delivery agent
   E-Business is not just about eCommerce or exchanging information about
    goods and services between you and your customers and your and your
    suppliers. It is about using the Internet for the transfer of information between
    employees using your in-house systems, between branch offices, between
    remote users, and between business partners, customers, suppliers and the
    public .
   E-Business is also about automation. You can automate many of your in-house
    procedures using new sources of information. You are freed up so you can use
    information and technology to let you work AT your business rather that IN
    your business .
Why eCommerce is changing the Way
Businesses Operate?

   reduced costs
   lower product cycle times
   faster customer response
   improved service quality
Internet Technology and the Digital
   Round-the-clock service: Web sites available
    to consumers 24 hours a day

   Extended distribution channels:
    Outlets created for attracting customers who otherwise
    would not patronize

   Reduced transaction costs: Costs of
    searching for buyers, sellers, etc. reduced
New Business Models

Business Model:
   Defines an enterprise

   Describes how the enterprise delivers a
    product or service

   Shows how the enterprise creates wealth
The Changing Economics of
   Information asymmetry: One party in a
    transaction has more information than the

   Increases richness: Depth and detail of

   Increases reach: Number of people
The Changing Economics of Information

                New levels of richness and reach attainable

                                    Explosion of
                                    Dissemination of

    Internet Business Models
•    Virtual storefront: Sells goods, services on-line

•    Information broker: Provide info on products, pricing, etc.

•    Transaction broker: Buyers view rates, terms from various
•    Online Marketplace: Concentrates information from several
•    Content provider: Creates revenue through providing client for a
     fee, and advertising
•    On-line service provider: Provides service, support for hardware,
     software products
•    Virtual community: Chat room, on-line meeting place
•    Portal: Initial point of entry to Web, specialized content, services
•    Auction: Products, prices, change in response to demand. Used
     in online marketplaces
The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce
EC Definitions & Concepts (cont.)

    Traditional commerce: all dimensions are
        Brick-and-mortar organizations
            Old-economy organizations (corporations)
            Perform all business off-line
            Sell physical products by means of physical agents
EC Definitions & Concepts (cont.)

     Pure EC: all dimensions are digital
         Pure online (virtual) organizations
         New-economy organization
         Sell products or services only online
     Partial EC: a mix of digital and physical
         Click-and-mortar organizations
         Conduct EC activities
         Do their primary business in the physical world
Electronic Markets vs.
Interorganizational Systems

   E-markets                     Interorganizational
     Buyers and sellers meet
                                   Information Systems
     to exchange                   (IOS)
        Goods                       Between two or more
        Services                    organizations
        Money                          Routine transaction
        Information
                                        Information flow
The EC Framework and Field

   An EC Framework
       EC applications supported by infrastructure
        and 5 support areas
           People
           Public policy
           Technical standards and protocols
           Business partners
           Support services
A Framework for EC
7 Unique Key ideas in Ecommerce E-
   Ubiquity
       Internet/Web technology is available everywhere; at all time
   Global Reach
       The technology reaches across national boundaries, around the earth
       The total number of users or customers an eCommerce can obtain
   Universal standards
       There is one set of the technology standards, namely Internet standards
   Richness
       Video, audio, text message are possible
       The complexity and content of a message
   Interactivity
       The technology works through interaction with the user
       Two way communication between merchant and consumer
   Information density
       The technology reduces information costs and raises quality
       The total quality and amount of information available to all market participates
   Personalization/Customization
       The technology allows personalized messages to be delivered to individuals as well as group
Classification of EC by the
Nature of the Transaction
   Business-to-business (B2B) : EC model in which
    all of the participants are businesses or other
   Business-to-consumer (B2C): EC model in which
    businesses sell to individual shoppers
   Business-to-business-to-consumer (B2B2C): EC
    model in which a business provides some
    product or service to a client business; the client
    business maintains its own customers, to whom
    the product or service is provided
Classification of EC by the
Nature of the Transaction (cont.)
   Consumer-to-business(C2B): individuals who
    use the Internet to sell products or services to
    organizations and /or seek sellers to bid on
    products or services they need
   Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) : consumers
    sell directly to other consumers
Classification of EC by the
Nature of the Transaction (cont.)
    Mobile commerce (m-commerce)—EC
     transactions and activities conducted in a
     wireless environment
    Location-commerce—(l-commerce)
     m-commerce transactions targeted to
     individuals in specific locations, at specific
Classification of EC by the
Nature of the Transaction (cont.)

    Intrabusiness (organizational) EC: EC
     category that includes all internal
     organizational activities that involve the
     exchange of goods, services, or
     information among various units and
     individuals in an organization
Classification of EC by the
Nature of the Transaction (cont.)
   Business-to-employee (B2E): EC model in which
    an organization delivers services, information, or
    products to its individual employees
   Collaborative commerce (c-commerce): EC model
    in which individual or groups communicate or
    collaborate online
   E-government: Government-to-citizens (G2C):
    EC model in which a government entity buys or
    provides good, services, or information to
    businesses or individual citizens
Business to Government Internet
   This term refers to the use of the Internet by
    Government to reach its citizens for a variety of
    information dissemination purposes and
   What is Business-to-Government?
       Definition: Business-to-government, meaning that the
        primary focus is toward government agencies at the
        national, state or local level.

        Also Known As: Business-to-Government, B2G, B-to-G
Classification of EC by the
Nature of the Transaction (cont.)
    Exchange (electronic): a public e-market
     with many buyers and sellers
    Exchange-to-exchange (E2E): EC model
     in which electronic exchanges formally
     connect to one another for the purpose of
     exchanging information
M-commerce or mobile commerce
   M-commerce or mobile commerce stands for electronic commerce made
    through mobile devices.
       M-commerce is currently mainly used for the sale of mobile phone ring-tones and
        games, it is increasingly used to enable payment for location-based services such as
        maps, as well as video and audio content, including full length music tracks. Other
        services include the sending of information such as football scores via SMS.
       Currently the main payment methods used to enable m-commerce are:
           premium-rate calling numbers,
           charging to the mobile telephone user's bill or
           deducting from their calling credit, either directly or via reverse-charged SMS.
   'M-commerce' was coined in the late 1990s during the dot-com boom. The idea
    that highly profitable M-commerce applications would be possible though the
    broadband mobile telephony provided by 2.5G and 3G cellphone services was
    one of the main reasons for hundreds of billions of dollars in licensing fees paid
    by European telecommunications companies for UMTS and other 3G licenses in
    2000 and 2001.
   Other examples of M-commerce applications are
       information-on-demand systems like news services or stock tickers,
       banking and stock brokerage applications by SMS, WAP or iMode.
   Advantages of M-Commerce
       The benefits of M-Commerce include customer satisfaction, cost savings, and new
        business opportunities.
    The Benefits of EC
   Benefits to Organizations
       Expands the marketplace to national and international markets
       Decreases the cost of creating, processing, distributing, storing and
        retrieving paper-based information
       Allows reduced inventories and overhead by facilitating pull-type
        supply chain management
       The pull-type processing allows for customization of products and
        services which provides competitive advantage to its implementers
       Reduces the time between the outlay of capital and the receipt of
        products and services
       Supports business processes reengineering (BPR) efforts
       Lowers telecommunications cost - the Internet is much cheaper than
        value added networks (VANs)
Benefits of EC (cont.)
   Benefits to consumers
       Enables consumers to shop or do other transactions 24 hours a day, all
        year round from almost any location
       Provides consumers with more choices
       Provides consumers with less expensive products and services by
        allowing them to shop in many places and conduct quick comparisons
       Allows quick delivery of products and services (in some cases)
        especially with digitized products
       Consumers can receive relevant and detailed information in seconds,
        rather than in days or weeks
       Makes it possible to participate in virtual auctions
       Allows consumers to interact with other consumers in electronic
        communities and exchange ideas as well as compare experiences
       Facilitates competition, which results in substantial discounts
Advantages of E-Commerce: Summary
   Electronic commerce can increase sales and decrease costs.
       Web advertising reaches a large amount of potential customers throughout the world.
        The Web creates virtual communities for specific products or services.
   A business can reduce its costs by using electronic commerce in its sales support and order-
    taking processes.
       Electronic commerce increases sale opportunities for the seller.
        Electronic commerce increases purchasing opportunities for the buyer
   Lower transaction costs –
        if an e-commerce site is implemented well, the web can significantly lower both order-taking costs up
        front and customer service costs after the sale by automating processes.
   24/7 -online shops do not close
   Larger purchases per transaction –
       Amazon offers a feature that no normal store offers. When you read the description of a book, you also
        can see "what other people who ordered this book also purchased". That is, you can see the related books
        that people are actually buying. Because of features like these it is common for people to buy more
        books that they might buy at a normal bookstore.
   Integration into the business cycle –
       A Web site that is well-integrated into the business cycle can offer customers more information than
        previously available. For example, if Dell tracks each computer through the manufacturing and shipping
        process, customers can see exactly where their order is at any time. This is what FedEx did when they
        introduced on-line package tracking - FedEx made far more information available to the customer.
   People can shop in different ways.
       Traditional mail order companies introduced the concept of shopping from home in your pajamas, and e-
        commerce offers this same luxury. New features that web sites offer include:
The EC Framework and Field

   An EC Framework
       EC applications supported by infrastructure
        and 5 support areas
           People
           Public policy
           Technical standards and protocols
           Business partners
           Support services
Building an E-commerce Site
   The things you need to keep in mind when thinking about building an e-commerce
    site include:
       Suppliers - this is no different from the concern that any normal store or mail order
        company has. Without good suppliers you cannot offer products.
       Your price point - a big part of e-commerce is the fact that price comparisons are
        extremely easy for the consumer. Your price point is important in a transparent market.
       Customer relations - E-commerce offers a variety of different ways to relate to your
        customer. E-mail, FAQs, knowledge bases, forums, chat rooms... Integrating these
        features into your e-commerce offering helps you differentiate yourself from the
       The back end: fulfillment, returns, customer service - These processes make or break any
        retail establishment. They define, in a big way, your relationship with your customer.
        When you think about e-commerce, you may also want to consider these other desirable
           Gift-sending
           Affiliate programs
           Special Discounts
           Repeat buyer programs
           Seasonal or periodic sales
            The reason why you want to keep these things in mind is because they are all difficult unless your
            e-commerce software supports them. If the software does support them,
Implementing an E-commerce Site

There are three general ways to implement the site with all sorts of variations in between. The three
   general ways are:

       Enterprise computing
       Virtual hosting services
       Simplified e-commerce

   Enterprise computing means that you purchase hardware and software and hire a staff of developers to create your
    e-commerce web site. Amazon, Dell and all of the other big players participate in e-commerce at the enterprise
    level. To consider enterprise computing solutions an organisations will be aiming to satify the following:
   Virtual hosting services give you some of the flexibility of enterprise computing, but what you get depends on the
    vendor. In general the vendor maintains the equipment and software and sells them in standardised packages. Part of
    the package includes security, and almost always a merchant account is also an option. Database access is
    sometimes a part of the package. You provide the web designers and developers to create and maintain your site. An
    example of a virtual hosting service is the type of package available at Bargain Host.
   Simplified e-commerce is what most small businesses and individuals are using to get into e-commerce. In this
    option the vendor provides a simplified system for creating your store. The system usually involves a set of forms
    that you fill out online. The vendor's software then generates all of the web pages for the store for you. A good
    examples of this sort of offering is ebay.

                              These are in order of decreasing flexibility and increasing simplicity.
Disadvantages of Electronic
   Some business processes
    are difficult to be
    implemented through
    electronic commerce.

   Return-on-investment is
    difficult to apply to
    electronic commerce.

   Businesses face cultural
    and legal obstacles to
    conducting electronic
Major Business Pressures and the Role of

    The environment, pressure, and support model
How to start your own online small
   E-Commerce is a six step process and all online
    businesses will go through the first three steps:
       1. Create the online content. Content is King!
       2. Host the content on the Internet.
       3. Market the website and content.
           Businesses conducting online sales will need to continue
            through the final three steps:
       4. Collect and record customer orders.
       5. Process payments.
       6. Fulfill customer orders.
Creating The Online Content

   The one thing that controls the success or
    failure of a website above all else is content.
    Content is King. You customers must have a
    reason to visit the first time, two weeks later,
    and six months later. They need a reason to
    recommend a friend to your site. The best
    reason is content.
Value Added Content

   The most succesful sites learn what their customers want and then give it to
   What do customers want? Information!
   You know something that your customers would find extremely valuable. Put it
    on your website. This could be tips and tricks for using a product, how to select
    a service, 5 ways to do something better - faster - easier!
   Here are some ideas from successful sites:
   Whitepapers - Detailed technical information and suggestions on how to use a
    product. Here at the Arkansas SBDC, we offer over 300 small business fact
    sheets in our BizFacts section.
   News - Not the newspaper news, but industry news related to your product or
    service. The kind they can't get anywhere else. Did you notice the eNews
    articles on the ASBDC homepage?
   Samples - Hold a monthly drawing for one or more free samples. This is a great
    way to build a database of sales leads! Never offer sample hard goods with out
    limiting the offer. Can you afford to mail a million plus samples?
Pretty Pictures

   Your site needs to have a professional look. Hire someone to
    create your graphics. If you can't afford a professional, hire a
    college or high school student.
   Limit the number of pictures on your homepage. Your homepage
    needs to load quickly (7-10 seconds). Your customers want to be
    satisfied now. They are just one mouse click from leaving!
   Use the same color scheme and navigational elements on each
    page. First, this gives you a "corporate image." Second, a
    common peeve among web surfers is poor navigation on most
Hosting The Content
   After creating your content, the next step is to host the content on the Internet. One
    problem: most small businesses cannot afford the cost of purchasing a dedicated
    web server and renting high speed Internet access lines.
   The solution is simple. Rent space on a computer that's already connected to the
    Internet. Thanks to cheaper hard disk drives, storage space is widely available at
    very little cost. You should be able to locate a hosting service for as little as $10-20
    per month, depending on features and extras.
   Domain Names
   As part of your hosting solution, you will also want to register a unique domain
    name for your website. The domain name allows your customers to enter a shorter
    and easier to remember address to your website. Having your own domain name
    also will make any future changes of hosting services much less difficult.
   Domain names are licensed for $35 per year. While a domain name can be
    registered with any of the six authorities, it is best for novices to register a domain
    name through their chosen web hosting service. Registering through a hosting
    service ensures that required domain name servers (DNS) are quickly and properly
    configured - a technical nightmare for both techies and non-techies. Most reputable
    hosting services assist in the registering of domain names at no extra cost.
Marketing Your Website: methods for
marketing a website

   You need to market your website and market continuously. This page contains numerous
    methods for marketing a website. You need to discover the methods that work best for you.
       E-mail Techniques
            Although commonly overlooked and discounted by most individuals and businesses, e-mail is the most effective and cost
             efficient way to drive traffic to a website.
       E-mail Address –
            First and foremost, your e-mail address should include your product, industry, or company name. Personal names and intials
             are for personal e-mail from friends and family.
       Signature Files –
            Configure your e-mail software to use a signature file or tagline. Create a 4-5 line ad for your site which gets attention, gives a
             reason to visit and provides the web address.
       Mailing Lists –
            Locate and join 1-2 two large e-mail discussion lists that your target market also subscribes to. You can locate lists at PAML.
       Bulk E-mail –
            Use your customer database to email all your customers with email addresses monthly. Products like Campaign make the
             process easy. Check with your e-mail service first as they may have a policy or limitations against bulk e-mail.
       World Wide Web Techniques
            In addition to e-mail, there are several web marketing techniques that are highly effective. While time consuming, take the
             time to register with search engines and develop reciprocal links.
Brief History of EC

   EC applications first            Limited to:
    developed in the early               Large corporations
    1970s                                Financial institutions
      Electronic funds transfer          A few other daring
      (EFT)                               businesses
Brief History of EC (cont.)

   Electronic data               Enlarged pool of
    interchange (EDI)—             participants to include:
    electronic transfer of            Manufacturers
    documents:                        Retailers
       Purchase orders               Service providers
       Invoices
       E-payments between
        firms doing business
Brief History of EC (cont.)

    Interorganizational systems (IOS)
        Stock trading
        Travel reservation systems
    Internet became more commercialized in
     the early 1990s
        Almost all medium-and large-sized
         organization in the world now has a Web
        Most large corporations have
         comprehensive portals
Brief History of EC (cont.)

   EC Successes              EC Failures
       Pure online               E-tailors began to fail in
           eBay                   1999
           VeriSign
                                  This does not mean that
           AOL
                                   EC’s days are numbered
           Checkpoint
                                  Large EC companies like
       Click-and-mortar
           GE
                                   expanding but success or
           IBM
                                   failure is not certain
           Intel
           Schwab

To top